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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445482

RESUMO

Herein, the aim was to study the state of the bone tissue adjacent to dental implants after the use of extracellular vesicles derived from multipotent stromal cells (MSC EVs) of bone marrow origin in the experiment. In compliance with the rules of asepsis and antiseptics under general intravenous anesthesia with propofol, the screw dental implants were installed in the proximal condyles of the tibia of outbred rabbits without and with preliminary introduction of 19.2 µg MSC EVs into each bone tissue defect. In 3, 7, and 10 days after the operation, the density of bone tissue adjacent to different parts of the implant using an X-ray unit with densitometer was measured. In addition, the histological examinations of the bone site with the hole from the removed device and the soft tissues from the surface of the proximal tibial condyle in the area of intra-bone implants were made. It was found out that 3 days after implantation with the use of MSC EVs, the bone density was statistically significantly higher by 47.2% than after the same implantation, but without the injection of MSC EVs. It is possible that as a result of the immunomodulatory action of MSC EVs, the activity of inflammation decreases, and, respectively, the degree of vasodilation in bones and leukocyte infiltration of the soft tissues are lower, in comparison with the surgery performed in the control group. The bone fragments formed during implantation are mainly consolidated with each other and with the regenerating bone. Day 10 demonstrated that all animals with the use of MSC EVs had almost complete fusion of the screw device with the bone tissue, whereas after the operation without the application of MSC EVs, the heterogeneous histologic pattern was observed: From almost complete osseointegration of the implant to the absolute absence of contact between the foreign body and the new formed bone. Therefore, the use of MSC EVs during the introduction of dental implants into the proximal condyle of the tibia of rabbits contributes to an increase of the bone tissue density near the device after 3 days and to the achievement of consistently successful osseointegration of implants 10 days after the surgery.


Assuntos
Reabsorção Óssea/terapia , Implantes Dentários , Vesículas Extracelulares/transplante , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/métodos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Osseointegração , Células Estromais/citologia , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Coelhos , Ratos
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445582

RESUMO

Exosomes secreted by adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) enhance angiogenesis and wound healing. However, in clinical settings, wounds may be infected by various bacteria or pathogens. We investigated whether human ADSCs stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) secrete exosomes (ADSC-LPS-exo) that augment the angiogenesis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). ExoQuick-TC exosome precipitation solution was used to purify exosomes from human ADSC culture media in the presence or absence of 1 µg/mL LPS treatment for 24 h. The uptake of ADSC-LPS-exo significantly induced the activation of cAMP response element binding protein (CREB), activating protein 1 (AP-1), and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathways and increased the migration of and tube formation in HUVECs. RNA interference with CREB, AP-1, or NF-κB1 significantly reduced the migration of and tube formation in HUVECs treated with ADSC-LPS-exo. An experiment with an antibody array for 25 angiogenesis-related proteins revealed that only interleukin-8 expression was significantly upregulated in HUVECs treated with ADSC-LPS-exo. In addition, proteomic analysis revealed that eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E, amyloid beta A4 protein, integrin beta-1, and ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 may be potential candidates involved in ADSC-LPS-exo-mediated enhanced angiogenesis.


Assuntos
Movimento Celular , Exossomos/fisiologia , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/fisiologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/fisiologia , Neovascularização Fisiológica , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/citologia , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360925

RESUMO

Mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) therapy is making its way into clinical practice, accompanied by research into strategies improving their therapeutic potential. Preconditioning MSCs with hypoxia-inducible factors-α (HIFα) stabilizers is an alternative to hypoxic priming, but there remains insufficient data evaluating its transcriptomic effect. Herein, we determined the gene expression profile of 6 human bone marrow-derived MSCs preconditioned for 6 h in 2% O2 (hypoxia) or with 40 µM Vadadustat, compared to control cells and each other. RNA-Sequencing was performed using the Illumina platform, quality control with FastQC and adapter-trimming with BBDUK2. Transcripts were mapped to the Homo_sapiens. GRCh37 genome and converted to relative expression using Salmon. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were generated using DESeq2 while functional enrichment was performed in GSEA and g:Profiler. Comparison of hypoxia versus control resulted in 250 DEGs, Vadadustat versus control 1071, and Vadadustat versus hypoxia 1770. The terms enriched in both phenotypes referred mainly to metabolism, in Vadadustat additionally to vesicular transport, chromatin modifications and interaction with extracellular matrix. Compared with hypoxia, Vadadustat upregulated autophagic, phospholipid metabolism, and TLR cascade genes, downregulated those of cytoskeleton and GG-NER pathway and regulated 74 secretory factor genes. Our results provide valuable insight into the transcriptomic effects of these two methods of MSCs preconditioning.


Assuntos
Hipóxia Celular , Expressão Gênica , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Ácidos Picolínicos/farmacologia , Adulto , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Glicina/farmacologia , Humanos , Masculino , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transcriptoma
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361085

RESUMO

A novel aptamer-based competitive drug screening platform for osteoporosis was devised in which fluorescence-labeled, sclerostin-specific aptamers compete with compounds from selected chemical libraries for the binding of immobilized recombinant human sclerostin to achieve high-throughput screening for potential small-molecule sclerostin inhibitors and to facilitate drug repurposing and drug discovery. Of the 96 selected inhibitors and FDA-approved drugs, six were shown to result in a significant decrease in the fluorescence intensity of the aptamer, suggesting a higher affinity toward sclerostin compared with that of the aptamer. The targets of these potential sclerostin inhibitors were correlated to lipid or bone metabolism, and several of the compounds have already been shown to be potential osteogenic activators, indicating that the aptamer-based competitive drug screening assay offered a potentially reliable strategy for the discovery of target-specific new drugs. The six potential sclerostin inhibitors suppressed the level of both intracellular and/or extracellular sclerostin in mouse osteocyte IDG-SW3 and increased alkaline phosphatase activity in IDG-SW3 cells, human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and human fetal osteoblasts hFOB1.19. Potential small-molecule drug candidates obtained in this study are expected to provide new therapeutics for osteoporosis as well as insights into the structure-activity relationship of sclerostin inhibitors for rational drug design.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/antagonistas & inibidores , Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos/química , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Animais , Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos/isolamento & purificação , Células da Medula Óssea/citologia , Células da Medula Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Células da Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Camundongos , Osteoblastos/citologia , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Osteócitos/citologia , Osteócitos/metabolismo , Osteoporose/metabolismo , Osteoporose/patologia
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445320

RESUMO

Meniscus injuries can be highly debilitating and lead to knee osteoarthritis. Progenitor cells from the meniscus could be a superior cell type for meniscus repair and tissue-engineering. The purpose of this study is to characterize meniscus progenitor cells isolated by differential adhesion to fibronectin (FN-prog). Human osteoarthritic menisci were digested, and FN-prog were selected by differential adhesion to fibronectin. Multilineage differentiation, population doubling time, colony formation, and MSC surface markers were assessed in the FN-prog and the total meniscus population (Men). Colony formation was compared between outer and inner zone meniscus digest. Chondrogenic pellet cultures were performed for redifferentiation. FN-prog demonstrated multipotency. The outer zone FN-prog formed more colonies than the inner zone FN-prog. FN-prog displayed more colony formation and a higher proliferation rate than Men. FN-prog redifferentiated in pellet culture and mostly adhered to the MSC surface marker profile, except for HLA-DR receptor expression. This is the first study that demonstrates differential adhesion to fibronectin for the isolation of a progenitor-like population from the meniscus. The high proliferation rates and ability to form meniscus extracellular matrix upon redifferentiation, together with the broad availability of osteoarthritis meniscus tissue, make FN-prog a promising cell type for clinical translation in meniscus tissue-engineering.


Assuntos
Adesão Celular , Fibronectinas/metabolismo , Menisco/citologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Células Cultivadas , Condrócitos/citologia , Condrócitos/metabolismo , Condrócitos/fisiologia , Condrogênese , Humanos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tecidos Suporte/química
6.
Nat Biomed Eng ; 5(8): 926-940, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34373601

RESUMO

Current protocols for the differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) into chondrocytes do not allow for the expansion of intermediate progenitors so as to prospectively assess their chondrogenic potential. Here we report a protocol that leverages PRRX1-tdTomato reporter hPSCs for the selective induction of expandable and ontogenetically defined PRRX1+ limb-bud-like mesenchymal cells under defined xeno-free conditions, and the prospective assessment of the cells' chondrogenic potential via the cell-surface markers CD90, CD140B and CD82. The cells, which proliferated stably and exhibited the potential to undergo chondrogenic differentiation, formed hyaline cartilaginous-like tissue commensurate to their PRRX1-expression levels. Moreover, we show that limb-bud-like mesenchymal cells derived from patient-derived induced hPSCs can be used to identify therapeutic candidates for type II collagenopathy and we developed a method to generate uniformly sized hyaline cartilaginous-like particles by plating the cells on culture dishes coated with spots of a zwitterionic polymer. PRRX1+ limb-bud-like mesenchymal cells could facilitate the mass production of chondrocytes and cartilaginous tissues for applications in drug screening and tissue engineering.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/citologia , Animais , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Diferenciação Celular , Condrócitos/citologia , Condrócitos/metabolismo , Condrócitos/transplante , Condrogênese , Doenças do Colágeno/terapia , Meios de Cultura/química , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Humanos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/metabolismo , Polímeros/química , Receptor beta de Fator de Crescimento Derivado de Plaquetas/metabolismo , Antígenos Thy-1/metabolismo , Engenharia Tecidual
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210094

RESUMO

Cigarette smoking (CS) is one of the main factors related to avoidable diseases and death across the world. Cigarette smoke consists of numerous toxic compounds that contribute to the development of osteoporosis and fracture nonunion. Exposure to pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) was proven to be a safe and effective therapy to support bone fracture healing. The aims of this study were to investigate if extremely low frequency (ELF-) PEMFs may be beneficial to treat CS-related bone disease, and which effect the duration of the exposure has. In this study, immortalized human mesenchymal stem cells (SCP-1 cells) impaired by 5% cigarette smoke extract (CSE) were exposed to ELF-PEMFs (16 Hz) with daily exposure ranging from 7 min to 90 min. Cell viability, adhesion, and spreading were evaluated by Sulforhodamine B, Calcein-AM staining, and Phalloidin-TRITC/Hoechst 33342 staining. A migration assay kit was used to determine cell migration. Changes in TGF-ß signaling were evaluated with an adenoviral Smad2/3 reporter assay, RT-PCR, and Western blot. The structure and distribution of primary cilia were analyzed with immunofluorescent staining. Our data indicate that 30 min daily exposure to a specific ELF-PEMF most effectively promoted cell viability, enhanced cell adhesion and spreading, accelerated migration, and protected TGF-ß signaling from CSE-induced harm. In summary, the current results provide evidence that ELF-PEMF can be used to support early bone healing in patients who smoke.


Assuntos
Cílios/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cílios/efeitos dos fármacos , Cílios/imunologia , Campos Eletromagnéticos , Humanos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Osteogênese , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Tabaco
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281266

RESUMO

Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) are multipotent cells which can differentiate into chondrocytes, osteoblasts, and fat cells. Under pathological stress, reduced bone formation in favour of fat formation in the bone marrow has been observed through a switch in the differentiation of BMSCs. The bone/fat switch causes bone growth defects and disordered bone metabolism in bone marrow, for which the mechanisms remain unclear, and treatments are lacking. Studies suggest that small non-coding RNAs (microRNAs) could participate in regulating BMSC differentiation by disrupting the post-transcription of target genes, leading to bone/fat formation changes. This review presents an emerging concept of microRNA regulation in the bone/fat formation switch in bone marrow, the evidence for which is assembled mainly from in vivo and in vitro human or animal models. Characterization of changes to microRNAs reveals novel networks that mediate signalling and factors in regulating bone/fat switch and homeostasis. Recent advances in our understanding of microRNAs in their control in BMSC differentiation have provided valuable insights into underlying mechanisms and may have significant potential in development of new therapeutics.


Assuntos
Adipogenia/genética , Adipogenia/fisiologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Osteogênese/genética , Osteogênese/fisiologia , Animais , Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas/genética , Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas/metabolismo , Sinalização do Cálcio/genética , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Marcadores Genéticos , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Proteínas Smad/genética , Proteínas Smad/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Via de Sinalização Wnt/genética
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209086

RESUMO

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) obtained from various sources, including bone marrow, have been proposed as a therapeutic strategy for the improvement of tissue repair/regeneration, including the repair of cartilage defects or lesions. Often the highly inflammatory environment after injury or during diseases, however, greatly diminishes the therapeutic and reparative effectiveness of MSCs. Therefore, the identification of novel factors that can protect MSCs against an inflammatory environment may enhance the effectiveness of these cells in repairing tissues, such as articular cartilage. In this study, we investigated whether a peptide (P15-1) that binds to hyaluronan (HA), a major component of the extracellular matrix of cartilage, protects bone-marrow-derived MSCs (BMSCs) in an inflammatory environment. The results showed that P15-1 reduced the mRNA levels of catabolic and inflammatory markers in interleukin-1beta (IL-1ß)-treated human BMSCs. In addition, P15-1 enhanced the attachment of BMSCs to HA-coated tissue culture dishes and stimulated the chondrogenic differentiation of the multipotential murine C3H/10T1/2 MSC line in a micromass culture. In conclusion, our findings suggest that P15-1 may increase the capacity of BMSCs to repair cartilage via the protection of these cells in an inflammatory environment and the stimulation of their attachment to an HA-containing matrix and chondrogenic differentiation.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/química , Receptores de Hialuronatos/química , Ácido Hialurônico/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/efeitos adversos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Condrogênese , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Interleucina-6/genética , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Metaloproteases/genética , Camundongos , Peptídeos/química
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299064

RESUMO

The effective cryopreservation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is indispensable to the operation of basic research and clinical transplantation. The prevalent protocols for MSC cryopreservation utilize dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), which is easily permeable and able to protect MSCs from cryo-injuries, as a primary cryoprotectant (CPA). However, its intrinsic toxicity and adverse effects on cell function remain the bottleneck of MSC cryopreservation. In this work, we cryopreserved human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UCMSCs) using zwitterionic betaine combined with electroporation without any addition of DMSO. Betaine was characterized by excellent compatibility and cryoprotective properties to depress the freezing point of pure water and balance the cellular osmotic stress. Electroporation was introduced to achieve intracellular delivery of betaine, intending to further provide comprehensive cryoprotection on UCMSCs. Compared with DMSO cryopreservation, UCMSCs recovered from the protocol we developed maintained the normal viability and functions and reduced the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are harmful to cell metabolism. Moreover, the in vivo distribution of thawed UCMSCs was consistent with that of fresh cells monitored by a bioluminescence imaging (BLI) system. This work opens a new window of opportunity for DMSO-free MSC cryopreservation using zwitterionic compounds like betaine combined with electroporation.


Assuntos
Betaína/química , Proliferação de Células , Criopreservação/métodos , Dimetil Sulfóxido/química , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Cordão Umbilical/citologia , Diferenciação Celular , Células Cultivadas , Crioprotetores/química , Eletroporação , Humanos , Lipotrópicos/química
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299066

RESUMO

Stem cell therapy is a promising alternative approach to heart diseases. The most prevalent source of multipotent stem cells, usually called somatic or adult stem cells (mesenchymal stromal/stem cells, MSCs) used in clinical trials is bone marrow (BM-MSCs), adipose tissue (AT-MSCs), umbilical cord (UC-MSCs) and placenta. Therapeutic use of MSCs in cardiovascular diseases is based on the benefits in reducing cardiac fibrosis and inflammation that compose the cardiac remodeling responsible for the maintenance of normal function, something which may end up causing progressive and irreversible dysfunction. Many factors lead to cardiac fibrosis and failure, and an effective therapy is lacking to reverse or attenuate this condition. Different approaches have been shown to be promising in surpassing the poor survival of transplanted cells in cardiac tissue to provide cardioprotection and prevent cardiac remodeling. This review includes the description of pre-clinical and clinical investigation of the therapeutic potential of MSCs in improving ventricular dysfunction consequent to diverse cardiac diseases.


Assuntos
Fibrose/terapia , Cardiopatias/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/métodos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Animais , Humanos
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299095

RESUMO

The influence of cultivation on the expression pattern of canine adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (cAD-MSCs) surface markers, contributing to, among others, the promotion of growth, proliferation, differentiation and immunomodulatory mechanisms of an excellent therapeutic, is still unknown. To fill the gap, we investigated CD90, CD44, CD73, CD29, CD271, CD105, CD45 and CD14 patterns of expression at the protein level with flow cytometry and mRNA level using a real-time polymerase chain reaction array. Gentle variations of expression occurred during cultivation, along with increased CD90, CD44 and CD29 expression, low and decreasing CD271 and CD73 expression and a decrease of initially high CD105. As expected, CD45 and CD14 were not expressed by cAD-MSCs. Interestingly, we discovered a significant decrease of CD73 expression, compared to early (P1-P3) to late (P4-P6) passages, although the CD73 gene expression was found to be stable. The percentage of positive cells was found to be higher for all positive markers up to P4. As CD73's one important feature is a modulation from a pro-inflammatory environment to an anti-inflammatory milieu, the expression of CD73 in our conditions indicate the need to consider the time cells spend in vitro before being transplanted into patients, since it could impact their favourable therapeutical properties.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Animais , Cães , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204414

RESUMO

Background: Applying mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), together with the distraction osteogenesis (DO) process, displayed enhanced bone quality and shorter treatment periods. The DO guides the differentiation of MSCs by providing mechanical clues. However, the underlying key genes and pathways are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to screen and identify hub genes involved in distraction-induced osteogenesis of MSCs and potential molecular mechanisms. Material and Methods: The datasets were downloaded from the ArrayExpress database. Three samples of negative control and two samples subjected to 5% cyclic sinusoidal distraction at 0.25 Hz for 6 h were selected for screening differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and then analysed via bioinformatics methods. The Gene Ontology (GO) terms and Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment were investigated. The protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was visualised through the Cytoscape software. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was conducted to verify the enrichment of a self-defined osteogenic gene sets collection and identify osteogenic hub genes. Results: Three hub genes (IL6, MMP2, and EP300) that were highly associated with distraction-induced osteogenesis of MSCs were identified via the Venn diagram. These hub genes could provide a new understanding of distraction-induced osteogenic differentiation of MSCs and serve as potential gene targets for optimising DO via targeted therapies.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Osteogênese/genética , Células-Tronco/citologia , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Biomarcadores , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Ontologia Genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Humanos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Mapeamento de Interação de Proteínas , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204587

RESUMO

Structural disturbances of the subchondral bone are a hallmark of osteoarthritis (OA), including sclerotic changes, cystic lesions, and osteophyte formation. Osteocytes act as mechanosensory units for the micro-cracks in response to mechanical loading. Once stimulated, osteocytes initiate the reparative process by recruiting bone-resorbing cells and bone-forming cells to maintain bone homeostasis. Osteocyte-expressed sclerostin is known as a negative regulator of bone formation through Wnt signaling and the RANKL pathway. In this review, we will summarize current understandings of osteocytes at the crossroad of allometry and mechanobiology to exploit the relationship between osteocyte morphology and function in the context of joint aging and osteoarthritis. We also aimed to summarize the osteocyte dysfunction and its link with structural and functional disturbances of the osteoarthritic subchondral bone at the molecular level. Compared with normal bones, the osteoarthritic subchondral bone is characterized by a higher bone volume fraction, a larger trabecular bone number in the load-bearing region, and an increase in thickness of pre-existing trabeculae. This may relate to the aberrant expressions of sclerostin, periostin, dentin matrix protein 1, matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein, insulin-like growth factor 1, and transforming growth factor-beta, among others. The number of osteocyte lacunae embedded in OA bone is also significantly higher, yet the volume of individual lacuna is relatively smaller, which could suggest abnormal metabolism in association with allometry. The remarkably lower percentage of sclerostin-positive osteocytes, together with clustering of Runx-2 positive pre-osteoblasts, may suggest altered regulation of osteoblast differentiation and osteoblast-osteocyte transformation affected by both signaling molecules and the extracellular matrix. Aberrant osteocyte morphology and function, along with anomalies in molecular signaling mechanisms, might explain in part, if not all, the pre-osteoblast clustering and the uncoupled bone remodeling in OA subchondral bone.


Assuntos
Homeostase , Articulações/fisiologia , Osteoartrite/etiologia , Osteoartrite/metabolismo , Osteócitos/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores , Remodelação Óssea , Cartilagem Articular/metabolismo , Cartilagem Articular/patologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Humanos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Osteoartrite/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteoartrite/patologia , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo
15.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 185: 1022-1035, 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34197859

RESUMO

Biochemical modification can endow the surface of implants with superior biological activity. Herein, silk fibroin (SF) protein and its anionic derivative peptides (Cs) were covalently immobilized onto a titanium implant surface via a polydopamine layer. The successful conjugation of SF and Cs was revealed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and contact angle measurements. The addition of Cs prevented the conformational transition of silk fibroin to silk II. The deposition of apatite on its surface was significantly accelerated, and the bioactive composite coating was observed to enhance protein adsorption and cell proliferation. More importantly, it also promoted the osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) for the quantitative and qualitative detection of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and alizarin red (ARS). Overall, the stable performance and enhanced osteogenic property of the composite coating promote an extensive application for clinical titanium-based implants.


Assuntos
Fibroínas/farmacologia , Indóis/química , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Polímeros/química , Titânio/química , Adsorção , Animais , Apatitas/química , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Fibroínas/química , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Oxirredução , Peptídeos/química , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Espectroscopia Fotoeletrônica
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206740

RESUMO

N-Glycosylations are an important post-translational modification of proteins that can significantly impact cell function. Terminal sialic acid in hybrid or complex N-glycans has been shown to be relevant in various types of cancer, but its role in non-malignant cells remains poorly understood. We have previously shown that the motility of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) can be modified by altering N-glycoforms. The goal of this study was to determine the role of sialylated N-glycans in MSCs. Here, we show that IFN-gamma or exposure to culture media low in fetal bovine serum (FBS) increases sialylated N-glycans, while PDGF-BB reduces them. These stimuli alter mRNA levels of sialyltransferases such as ST3Gal1, ST6Gal1, or ST3Gal4, suggesting that sialylation of N-glycans is regulated by transcriptional control of sialyltransferases. We next show that 2,4,7,8,9-pentaacetyl-3Fax-Neu5Ac-CO2Me (3F-Neu5Ac) effectively inhibits sialylations in MSCs. Supplementation with 3F-Neu5Ac increases adhesion and migration of MSCs, as assessed by both videomicroscopy and wound/scratch assays. Interestingly, pre-treatment with 3F-Neu5Ac also increases the survival of MSCs in an in vitro ischemia model. We also show that pre-treatment or continuous treatment with 3F-Neu5Ac inhibits both osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of MSCs. Finally, secretion of key trophic factors by MSCs is variably affected upon exposure to 3F-Neu5Ac. Altogether, our experiments suggest that sialylation of N-glycans is tightly regulated in response to environmental cues and that glycoengineering MSCs to reduce sialylated N-glycans could be beneficial to increase both cell migration and survival, which may positively impact the therapeutic potential of the cells.


Assuntos
Movimento Celular , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Ácido N-Acetilneuramínico/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Sialiltransferases/metabolismo , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Sobrevivência Celular , Células Cultivadas , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Humanos , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/fisiologia , Osteoblastos/citologia , Sialiltransferases/antagonistas & inibidores
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203758

RESUMO

Synovial fluid contains cytokines, growth factors and resident mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The present study aimed to (1) determine the effects of autologous and allogeneic synovial fluid on viability, proliferation and chondrogenesis of equine bone marrow MSCs (BMMSCs) and (2) compare the immunomodulatory properties of equine synovial fluid MSCs (SFMSCs) and BMMSCs after stimulation with interferon gamma (INF-γ). To meet the first aim of the study, the proliferation and viability of MSCs were evaluated by MTS and calcein AM staining assays. To induce chondrogenesis, MSCs were cultured in a medium containing TGF-ß1 or different concentrations of synovial fluid. To meet the second aim, SFMSCs and BMMSCs were stimulated with IFN-γ. The concentration of indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and nitric oxide (NO) were examined. Our results show that MSCs cultured in autologous or allogeneic synovial fluid could maintain proliferation and viability activities. Synovial fluid affected chondrocyte differentiation significantly, as indicated by increased glycosaminoglycan contents, compared to the chondrogenic medium containing 5 ng/mL TGF-ß1. After culturing with IFN-γ, the conditioned media of both BMMSCs and SFMSCs showed increased concentrations of IDO, but not NO. Stimulating MSCs with synovial fluid or IFN-γ could enhance chondrogenesis and anti-inflammatory activity, respectively, suggesting that the joint environment is suitable for chondrogenesis.


Assuntos
Condrogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunomodulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Interferon gama/farmacologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/imunologia , Líquido Sinovial/metabolismo , Animais , Células da Medula Óssea/citologia , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Forma Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaio de Unidades Formadoras de Colônias , Cavalos , Indolamina-Pirrol 2,3,-Dioxigenase/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/enzimologia , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205905

RESUMO

Human oral mucosa stem cells (hOMSCs) arise from the neural crest, they can self-renew, proliferate, and differentiate to several cell lines and could represent a good source for application in tissue engineering. Because of their anatomical location, hOMSCs are easy to isolate, have multilineage differentiation capacity and express embryonic stem cells markers such as-Sox2, Oct3/4 and Nanog. We have used SHEM (supplemented hormonal epithelial medium) media and cultured hOMSCs over human amniotic membrane and determined the cell's capacity to differentiate to an epithelial-like phenotype and to express corneal specific epithelial markers-CK3, CK12, CK19, Pan-cadherin and E-cadherin. Our results showed that hOMSCs possess the capacity to attach to the amniotic membrane and express CK3, CK19, Pan-Cadherin and E-Cadherin without induction with SHEM media and expressed CK12 or changed the expression pattern of E-Cadherin to a punctual-like feature when treated with SHEM media. The results observed in this study show that hOMSCs possess the potential to differentiate toward epithelial cells. In conclusion, our results revealed that hOMSCs readily express markers for corneal determination and could provide the ophthalmology field with a therapeutic alternative for tissue engineering to achieve corneal replacement when compared with other techniques. Nevertheless, further studies are needed to develop a predictable therapeutic alternative for cornea replacement.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/genética , Epitélio Corneano/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Mucosa Bucal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Âmnio/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Células Cultivadas , Córnea/citologia , Córnea/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Córnea/metabolismo , Meios de Cultura/farmacologia , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/citologia , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Epitélio Corneano/citologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Humanos , Mucosa Bucal/citologia , Engenharia Tecidual/tendências
19.
Cell Prolif ; 54(8): e13085, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34232542

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In this study, we administered immunity-and-matrix regulatory cells (IMRCs) via tail vein (IV) and intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection to 3-month-old 5×FAD transgenic mice to assess the effects of IMRC transplantation on the behaviour and pathology of early-stage Alzheimer's disease (AD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Clinical-grade human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived IMRCs were produced under good manufacturing practice (GMP) conditions. Three-month-old 5×FAD mice were administered IMRCs via IV and ICV injection. After 3 months, the mice were subjected to behavioural tests and electrophysiological analysis to evaluate their cognitive function, memory ability and synaptic plasticity. The effect of IMRCs on amyloid-beta (Aß)-related pathology was detected by thioflavin-S staining and Western blot. Quantitative real-time PCR, ELISA and immunostaining were used to confirm that IMRCs inhibit neuroinflammation. RNA-seq analysis was performed to measure changes in gene expression and perform a pathway analysis in response to IMRC treatment. RESULTS: IMRC administration via tail vein injection significantly ameliorated cognitive deficits in early-stage AD (5×FAD) mice. However, no significant change was observed in the characteristic pathology of AD in the ICV group. Plaque analysis revealed that IMRCs did not influence either plaque deposition or BACE1 expression. In addition, IMRCs inhibited inflammatory responses and reduced microglial activation in vivo. CONCLUSIONS: We have shown that peripheral administration of IMRCs can ameliorate AD pathology and associated cognitive deficits.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Cognição , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/terapia , Secretases da Proteína Precursora do Amiloide/metabolismo , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Animais , Ácido Aspártico Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Comportamento Animal , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Humanas/citologia , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Humanas/metabolismo , Humanos , Infusões Intraventriculares , Injeções Intravenosas , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/imunologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
20.
Cell Prolif ; 54(8): e13095, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34254370

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Scavenger receptor class A, member 3 (Scara3) was involved in adipogenesis. However, the effect of Scara3 on the switch between osteogenesis and adipogenesis of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) remains elusive. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The correlations between SCARA3 with the osteogenic-related were analysed based on the GTEx database. The effects of Scara3 on osteogenic or adipogenic differentiation of BMSCs were evaluated by qPCR, Western blot (WB) and cell staining. The mechanisms of Scara3 regulating Foxo1 and autophagy were validated by co-expression analysis, WB and immunofluorescence. In vivo, Scara3 adeno-associated virus was injected into intra-bone marrow of the aged mice and ovariectomized (OVX) mice whose phenotypes were confirmed by micro-CT, calcein double labelling and immunochemistry (HE and OCN staining). RESULTS: SCARA3 was positively correlated with osteogenic-related genes. Scara3 expression gradually decreased during adipogenesis but increased during osteogenesis. Moreover, the deletion of Scara3 favoured adipogenesis over osteogenesis, whereas overexpression of Scara3 significantly enhanced the osteogenesis at the expense of adipogenesis. Mechanistically, Scara3 controlled the cell fate by promoting Foxo1 expression and autophagy flux. In vivo, Scara3 promoted bone formation and reduced bone marrow fat accumulation in OVX mice. In the aged mice, Scara3 overexpression alleviated bone loss as well. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggested that Scara3 regulated the switch between adipocyte and osteoblast differentiation, which represented a potential therapeutic target for bone loss and osteoporosis.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/citologia , Proteína Forkhead Box O1/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Osteoblastos/citologia , Receptores Depuradores Classe A/metabolismo , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Adipogenia , Envelhecimento , Animais , Autofagia , Diferenciação Celular , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Osteogênese , Interferência de RNA , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Receptores Depuradores Classe A/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores Depuradores Classe A/genética
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