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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445150

RESUMO

Titanium is one of the most frequently used materials in bone regeneration due to its good biocompatibility, excellent mechanical properties, and great osteogenic performance. However, osseointegration with host tissue is often not definite, which may cause implant failure at times. The present study investigates the capacity of the mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-secretome, formulated as a ready-to-use and freeze-dried medicinal product (the Lyosecretome), to promote the osteoinductive and osteoconductive properties of titanium cages. In vitro tests were conducted using adipose tissue-derived MSCs seeded on titanium cages with or without Lyosecretome. After 14 days, in the presence of Lyosecretome, significant cell proliferation improvement was observed. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the cytocompatibility of titanium cages: the seeded MSCs showed a spread morphology and an initial formation of filopodia. After 7 days, in the presence of Lyosecretome, more frequent and complex cellular processes forming bridges across the porous surface of the scaffold were revealed. Also, after 14 and 28 days of culturing in osteogenic medium, the amount of mineralized matrix detected by alizarin red was significantly higher when Lyosecretome was used. Finally, improved osteogenesis with Lyosecretome was confirmed by confocal analysis after 28 and 56 days of treatment, and demonstrating the production by osteoblast-differentiated MSCs of osteocalcin, a specific bone matrix protein.


Assuntos
Regeneração Óssea , Substitutos Ósseos/química , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Titânio/química , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Liofilização , Humanos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Osteogênese , Tecidos Suporte/química
2.
Cells ; 10(8)2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34440728

RESUMO

Exosomes are a type of extracellular vesicles, produced within multivesicular bodies, that are then released into the extracellular space through a merging of the multivesicular body with the plasma membrane. These vesicles are secreted by almost all cell types to aid in a vast array of cellular functions, including intercellular communication, cell differentiation and proliferation, angiogenesis, stress response, and immune signaling. This ability to contribute to several distinct processes is due to the complexity of exosomes, as they carry a multitude of signaling moieties, including proteins, lipids, cell surface receptors, enzymes, cytokines, transcription factors, and nucleic acids. The favorable biological properties of exosomes including biocompatibility, stability, low toxicity, and proficient exchange of molecular cargos make exosomes prime candidates for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Exploring the functions and molecular payloads of exosomes can facilitate tissue regeneration therapies and provide mechanistic insight into paracrine modulation of cellular activities. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of exosome biogenesis, composition, and isolation methods. We also discuss emerging healing properties of exosomes and exosomal cargos, such as microRNAs, in brain injuries, cardiovascular disease, and COVID-19 amongst others. Overall, this review highlights the burgeoning roles and potential applications of exosomes in regenerative medicine.


Assuntos
Exossomos/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Medicina Regenerativa , Animais , Exossomos/fisiologia , Humanos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/fisiologia , Engenharia Tecidual
3.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 1340281, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34336999

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to develop an efficient vitrification system for cryopreservation of dog skin tissues as a source of stable autologous stem cells. In this study, we performed vitrification using four different cryoprotectants, namely, ethylene glycol (EG), dimethyl-sulfoxide (Me2SO), EG plus Me2SO, and EG plus Me2SO plus sucrose, and analyzed the behaviors of cells established from warmed tissues. Tissues vitrified with 15% EG, 15% Me2SO, and 0.5 M sucrose had a normal histological appearance and the highest cell viability after cell isolation, and thus, this cocktail of cryoprotectants was used in subsequent experiments. We evaluated proliferation and apoptosis of cells derived from fresh and vitrified tissues. These cells had a normal spindle-like morphology after homogenization through subculture. Dog dermal skin stem cells (dDSSCs) derived from fresh and vitrified tissues had similar proliferation capacities, and similar percentages of these cells were positive for mesenchymal stem cell markers at passage 3. The percentage of apoptotic cell did not differ between dDSSCs derived from fresh and vitrified tissues. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that dDSSCs at passage 3 derived from fresh and vitrified tissues had similar expression levels of pluripotency (OCT4, SOX2, and NANOG), proapoptotic (BAX), and antiapoptotic (BCL2 and BIRC5) genes. Both types of dDSSCs successfully differentiated into the mesenchymal lineage (adipocytes and osteocytes) under specific conditions, and their differentiation potentials did not significantly differ. Furthermore, the mitochondrial membrane potential of dDSSCs derived from vitrified tissues was comparable with that of dDSSCs derived from fresh tissues. We conclude that vitrification of dog skin tissues using cocktail solution in combination of 15% EG, 15% Me2SO, and 0.5 M sucrose allows efficient banking of these tissues for regenerative stem cell therapy and conservation of genetic resources.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Pele/citologia , Vitrificação , Adipócitos/citologia , Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Forma Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Crioprotetores/farmacologia , Derme/citologia , Cães , Feminino , Masculino , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Osteoblastos/citologia , Osteoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoblastos/metabolismo
4.
Eur J Med Res ; 26(1): 94, 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34407888

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of present study was to explore the mechanism of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B(PKB/Akt) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways after intervention of advanced glycosylation end products (AGEs) on rat bone-marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). METHODS: Prepare and identify AGEs. BMSCs were isolated from 16 SD rats and cultured with different concentration of AGEs. Cell viability was detected by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8). BMSCs were cultured with AGEs (0.25 mg/ml) for 30 min, 12 h, 24 h, 72 h and 120 h. In addition, BMSCs were cultured with AGEs, AGEs + JNK inhibitor and AGEs + P38 inhibitor for 24 h and 48 h, respectively. Western blotting and RT-PCR were used to determine the protein and mRNA expression levels, respectively. RESULTS: Cell viability of BMSCs was significantly correlated with concentration and effect time of AGEs (P < 0.05), and the most appropriate concentration was 0.25 mg/ml. AGEs stimulation significantly increased the protein expression levels of NF-κB p65, JNK, p38 (P < 0.05), decreased IκB (P < 0.05), but had no effect on the protein expression of Akt in BMSCs (P > 0.05). At the mRNA level, JNK and p38 inhibitors significantly reduced the levels of NF-κB p65, p38 and JNK, increased IκB (P > 0.05), but had no effect on Akt in BMSCs (P > 0.05). At the protein level, JNK and p38 inhibitors notably decreased the expression of NF-κB p65, p38, p-JNK, P-IκB and JNK (P < 0.001), and increased IκB (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Advanced glycosylation end products can inhibit the proliferation of bone-marrow stromal cells through activating MAPK pathway.


Assuntos
Células da Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Animais , Células da Medula Óssea/fisiologia , Células Cultivadas , MAP Quinase Quinase 4/metabolismo , Masculino , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/fisiologia , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360725

RESUMO

The use of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering is well established, given their properties of self-renewal and differentiation. However, several studies have shown that these properties diminish with age, and understanding the pathways involved are important to provide regenerative therapies in an ageing population. In this PRISMA systematic review, we investigated the effects of chronological donor ageing on the senescence of MSCs. We identified 3023 studies after searching four databases including PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane, and Medline. Nine studies met the inclusion and exclusion criteria and were included in the final analyses. These studies showed an increase in the expression of p21, p53, p16, ROS, and NF-κB with chronological age. This implies an activated DNA damage response (DDR), as well as increased levels of stress and inflammation in the MSCs of older donors. Additionally, highlighting the effects of an activated DDR in cells from older donors, a decrease in the expression of proliferative markers including Ki67, MAPK pathway elements, and Wnt/ß-catenin pathway elements was observed. Furthermore, we found an increase in the levels of SA-ß-galactosidase, a specific marker of cellular senescence. Together, these findings support an association between chronological age and MSC senescence. The precise threshold for chronological age where the reported changes become significant is yet to be defined and should form the basis for further scientific investigations. The outcomes of this review should direct further investigations into reversing the biological effects of chronological age on the MSC senescence phenotype.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Senescência Celular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Via de Sinalização Wnt , Animais , Humanos
6.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 174: 182-194, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34364981

RESUMO

Senescence limits the characteristics and functionality of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), thereby severely restricting their application in tissue engineering. Here, we investigated ways to prevent MSCs from entering a state of senescence. We found that Rg1, an extract of natural ginseng, can reduce the expression of senescence markers in cultured cells in vitro and in various tissues in vivo. Simultaneously, ginsenoside Rg1 improved the antioxidant capacity of cells, and the senescence-inhibiting and antioxidant effect of Rg1 were associated with the activation of the nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (NRF2) signaling pathway. Furthermore, Rg1 may activate the NRF2 pathway by increasing the interaction between P62 and KEAP1through P62 upregulation and AKT activation. Taken together, our findings indicate that Rg1 prevents cell senescence via NRF2 and AKT, and activation of AKT or NRF2 may thus represent therapeutic targets for preventing cell senescence.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2 , Senescência Celular , Ginsenosídeos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445320

RESUMO

Meniscus injuries can be highly debilitating and lead to knee osteoarthritis. Progenitor cells from the meniscus could be a superior cell type for meniscus repair and tissue-engineering. The purpose of this study is to characterize meniscus progenitor cells isolated by differential adhesion to fibronectin (FN-prog). Human osteoarthritic menisci were digested, and FN-prog were selected by differential adhesion to fibronectin. Multilineage differentiation, population doubling time, colony formation, and MSC surface markers were assessed in the FN-prog and the total meniscus population (Men). Colony formation was compared between outer and inner zone meniscus digest. Chondrogenic pellet cultures were performed for redifferentiation. FN-prog demonstrated multipotency. The outer zone FN-prog formed more colonies than the inner zone FN-prog. FN-prog displayed more colony formation and a higher proliferation rate than Men. FN-prog redifferentiated in pellet culture and mostly adhered to the MSC surface marker profile, except for HLA-DR receptor expression. This is the first study that demonstrates differential adhesion to fibronectin for the isolation of a progenitor-like population from the meniscus. The high proliferation rates and ability to form meniscus extracellular matrix upon redifferentiation, together with the broad availability of osteoarthritis meniscus tissue, make FN-prog a promising cell type for clinical translation in meniscus tissue-engineering.


Assuntos
Adesão Celular , Fibronectinas/metabolismo , Menisco/citologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Células Cultivadas , Condrócitos/citologia , Condrócitos/metabolismo , Condrócitos/fisiologia , Condrogênese , Humanos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tecidos Suporte/química
8.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 12(1): 450, 2021 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380544

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have a therapeutic effect on diabetic nephropathy (DN) but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. This study was conducted to investigate whether human umbilical cord-MSCs (hUCMSCs) can induce oxidative damage and apoptosis by activating Nrf2. METHODS: We used a type 2 diabetic rat model and a high-glucose and fat-stimulated human glomerular mesangial cell (hGMC) model. Western blotting, RT-qPCR, and TUNEL staining were performed on animal tissues and cultured cells. Nuclear expression of Nrf2 was detected in the renal tissue. Furthermore, Nrf2 siRNA was used to examine the effects of hUCMSCs on hGMCs. Finally, the effect of hUCMSCs on the Nrf2 upstream signalling pathway was investigated. RESULTS: After treatment with hUCMSCs, Nrf2 showed increased expression and nuclear translocation. After Nrf2-specific knockout in hGMCs, the protective effect of hUCMSCs on apoptosis induced by high-glucose and fat conditions was reduced. Activation of the PI3K signalling pathway may be helpful for ameliorating DN using hUCMSCs. CONCLUSIONS: hUCMSCs attenuated renal oxidative damage and apoptosis in type 2 diabetes mellitus and Nrf2 activation is one of the important mechanisms of this effect. hUCMSCs show potential as drug targets for DN.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Nefropatias Diabéticas , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Animais , Apoptose , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/genética , Nefropatias Diabéticas/metabolismo , Nefropatias Diabéticas/terapia , Humanos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Ratos , Cordão Umbilical/metabolismo
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360925

RESUMO

Mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) therapy is making its way into clinical practice, accompanied by research into strategies improving their therapeutic potential. Preconditioning MSCs with hypoxia-inducible factors-α (HIFα) stabilizers is an alternative to hypoxic priming, but there remains insufficient data evaluating its transcriptomic effect. Herein, we determined the gene expression profile of 6 human bone marrow-derived MSCs preconditioned for 6 h in 2% O2 (hypoxia) or with 40 µM Vadadustat, compared to control cells and each other. RNA-Sequencing was performed using the Illumina platform, quality control with FastQC and adapter-trimming with BBDUK2. Transcripts were mapped to the Homo_sapiens. GRCh37 genome and converted to relative expression using Salmon. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were generated using DESeq2 while functional enrichment was performed in GSEA and g:Profiler. Comparison of hypoxia versus control resulted in 250 DEGs, Vadadustat versus control 1071, and Vadadustat versus hypoxia 1770. The terms enriched in both phenotypes referred mainly to metabolism, in Vadadustat additionally to vesicular transport, chromatin modifications and interaction with extracellular matrix. Compared with hypoxia, Vadadustat upregulated autophagic, phospholipid metabolism, and TLR cascade genes, downregulated those of cytoskeleton and GG-NER pathway and regulated 74 secretory factor genes. Our results provide valuable insight into the transcriptomic effects of these two methods of MSCs preconditioning.


Assuntos
Hipóxia Celular , Expressão Gênica , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Ácidos Picolínicos/farmacologia , Adulto , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Glicina/farmacologia , Humanos , Masculino , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transcriptoma
10.
Nat Biomed Eng ; 5(8): 926-940, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34373601

RESUMO

Current protocols for the differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) into chondrocytes do not allow for the expansion of intermediate progenitors so as to prospectively assess their chondrogenic potential. Here we report a protocol that leverages PRRX1-tdTomato reporter hPSCs for the selective induction of expandable and ontogenetically defined PRRX1+ limb-bud-like mesenchymal cells under defined xeno-free conditions, and the prospective assessment of the cells' chondrogenic potential via the cell-surface markers CD90, CD140B and CD82. The cells, which proliferated stably and exhibited the potential to undergo chondrogenic differentiation, formed hyaline cartilaginous-like tissue commensurate to their PRRX1-expression levels. Moreover, we show that limb-bud-like mesenchymal cells derived from patient-derived induced hPSCs can be used to identify therapeutic candidates for type II collagenopathy and we developed a method to generate uniformly sized hyaline cartilaginous-like particles by plating the cells on culture dishes coated with spots of a zwitterionic polymer. PRRX1+ limb-bud-like mesenchymal cells could facilitate the mass production of chondrocytes and cartilaginous tissues for applications in drug screening and tissue engineering.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/citologia , Animais , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Diferenciação Celular , Condrócitos/citologia , Condrócitos/metabolismo , Condrócitos/transplante , Condrogênese , Doenças do Colágeno/terapia , Meios de Cultura/química , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Humanos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/metabolismo , Polímeros/química , Receptor beta de Fator de Crescimento Derivado de Plaquetas/metabolismo , Antígenos Thy-1/metabolismo , Engenharia Tecidual
11.
Arch Oral Biol ; 130: 105243, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416564

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to explore: (ⅰ) the effect of the polypeptide OP 3-4 on bone regeneration in vivo; (ⅱ) the effect of OP 3-4 on osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in vitro; and (ⅲ) the potential mechanism of OP 3-4 in promoting osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. DESIGNS: 30 Wistar rats (8-week, male) were randomly divided into Control group (n = 5), Hydrogel group (n = 5), and Hydrogel loaded OP 3-4 group (n = 5). Hematoxylin and eosin staining was used to evaluate the level of bone regeneration in mandibular defect. Immunohistochemistry staining was used to evaluate the expression of alkaline phosphatase, runt-related transcription factor 2, and type Ⅰ collagen. Flow cytometry was applied to identify the phenotype of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Furthermore, LY294002, the inhibitor of protein kinase B, was applied to verify the role of OP 3-4 in promoting osteogenic differentiation via protein kinase B/glycogen synthase kinase 3ß/ß-catenin pathway through western blot. RESULTS: OP 3-4 promoted bone regeneration of rat mandibular defect. The expression of osteogenic differentiation related markers were increased after adding OP 3-4 to bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. OP 3-4 promoted osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells via protein kinase B/glycogen synthase kinase 3ß/ß-catenin pathway. CONCLUSION: OP 3-4 could promote bone regeneration of mandibular defect and improve osteogenic differentiation through protein kinase B/glycogen synthase kinase 3ß/ß-catenin pathway.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Osteogênese , Animais , Células da Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Regeneração Óssea , Cateninas , Diferenciação Celular , Células Cultivadas , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta , Masculino , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Via de Sinalização Wnt , beta Catenina/metabolismo
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361085

RESUMO

A novel aptamer-based competitive drug screening platform for osteoporosis was devised in which fluorescence-labeled, sclerostin-specific aptamers compete with compounds from selected chemical libraries for the binding of immobilized recombinant human sclerostin to achieve high-throughput screening for potential small-molecule sclerostin inhibitors and to facilitate drug repurposing and drug discovery. Of the 96 selected inhibitors and FDA-approved drugs, six were shown to result in a significant decrease in the fluorescence intensity of the aptamer, suggesting a higher affinity toward sclerostin compared with that of the aptamer. The targets of these potential sclerostin inhibitors were correlated to lipid or bone metabolism, and several of the compounds have already been shown to be potential osteogenic activators, indicating that the aptamer-based competitive drug screening assay offered a potentially reliable strategy for the discovery of target-specific new drugs. The six potential sclerostin inhibitors suppressed the level of both intracellular and/or extracellular sclerostin in mouse osteocyte IDG-SW3 and increased alkaline phosphatase activity in IDG-SW3 cells, human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and human fetal osteoblasts hFOB1.19. Potential small-molecule drug candidates obtained in this study are expected to provide new therapeutics for osteoporosis as well as insights into the structure-activity relationship of sclerostin inhibitors for rational drug design.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/antagonistas & inibidores , Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos/química , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Animais , Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos/isolamento & purificação , Células da Medula Óssea/citologia , Células da Medula Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Células da Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Camundongos , Osteoblastos/citologia , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Osteócitos/citologia , Osteócitos/metabolismo , Osteoporose/metabolismo , Osteoporose/patologia
13.
Theranostics ; 11(16): 7715-7734, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34335960

RESUMO

Rationale: Emerging evidence indicates that the growth of blood vessels and osteogenesis is tightly coordinated during bone development. However, the molecular regulators of intercellular communication in the bone microenvironment are not well studied. Therefore, we aim to investigate whether BMMSC-Exo promotes osteogenesis and angiogenesis via transporting lnc-H19 in the CBS- heterozygous mouse model. Methods: Using RT2 lncRNA PCR array screening, we identify a bone-specific, long noncoding RNA-H19 (lncRNA-H19/lnc-H19) in exosomes derived from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSC-Exo) during osteogenesis. Using bioinformatics analysis, we further discovered the seed sequence of miR-106a that could bind to lnc-H19. A luciferase reporter assay was performed to demonstrate the direct binding of miR-106a to the target gene angiopoietin 1 (Angpt1). We employed an immunocompromised Nude mouse model, to evaluate the effects of BMMSC-Exo on angiogenesis in vivo. Using a micro-CT scan, we monitored microstructural changes of bone in the experimental mice. Results: BMMSC-Exo possessed exosomal characteristics including exosome size, and typical markers including CD63, CD9, and TSD101. In vitro, BMMSC-Exo significantly promoted endothelial angiogenesis and osteogenesis. Mechanistic studies have shown that exosomal lnc-H19 acts as "sponges" to absorb miR-106 and regulate the expression of angiogenic factor, Angpt1 that activates lnc-H19/Tie2-NO signaling in mesenchymal and endothelial cells. Both of these effects on osteogenesis and angiogenesis are inhibited by antagonizing Tie2 signaling. Treatment of BMMSC-Exo also restored the bone formation and mechanical quality in vivo. Conclusion: These findings provide a novel insight into how the extracellular role of exosomal lnc-H19 affects osteogenesis and angiogenesis through competing endogenous RNA networks.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs/genética , Osteogênese/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Angiopoietina-1/genética , Angiopoietina-1/metabolismo , Angiopoietina-1/fisiologia , Animais , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Exossomos/genética , Genes Supressores de Tumor , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Camundongos , Neovascularização Patológica/genética , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Receptor TIE-2/metabolismo , Receptor TIE-2/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais/genética
14.
Hematology ; 26(1): 565-576, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384344

RESUMO

Objectives: Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) play a pivotal role in the bone marrow (BM) niche. Stanniocalcin 1 (STC1) secreted by MSC has been demonstrated to promote the survival of neoplastic cells and was suggested a marker for minimal residual disease of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Therefore, we evaluated the expression of STC1 in MSC from AML patients (MSCAML) compared to MSC from healthy donors (MSCHD).Methods: Liquid culture assays of MSCAML and MSCHD were performed to compare expansion capacity. Gene expression profiles of MSCAML vs. MSCHD were established. Secretion of STC1 was tested by ELISA in MSCAML vs. MSCHD and expression of STC1 in AML- vs. HD-BM by immunohistochemistry. In addition, co-cultures of AML cells on MSC were initiated and ultrastructural intercellular communication patterns were investigated. Finally, the effect of blocking STC1 on AML cells was evaluated.Results: MSCAML showed significant decreased expansion capacity compared to MSCHD. Gene analysis revealed marked overexpression of STC1 in MSCAML. ELISA and immunohistochemical findings confirmed this observation. Electron microscopy analysis showed reciprocal stimulation between AML cells and MSC. Blockade of STC1 did not significantly affect AML cell proliferation and apoptosis.Discussion: Characteristics of MSC differ depending on whether they originate from AML patients or from HD. STC1 was mostly overexpressed in MSCAML compared to MSCHD. In vitro blockade of STC1, however, was not associated with AML cell proliferation and apoptosis.Conclusion: Differences in expression levels of glycoproteins from MSCAML compared to MSCHD not necessarily assume that these molecules are niche-relevant in leukemic disease.


Assuntos
Glicoproteínas/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/patologia , Regulação para Cima , Adulto , Idoso , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Glicoproteínas/análise , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Masculino , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204414

RESUMO

Background: Applying mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), together with the distraction osteogenesis (DO) process, displayed enhanced bone quality and shorter treatment periods. The DO guides the differentiation of MSCs by providing mechanical clues. However, the underlying key genes and pathways are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to screen and identify hub genes involved in distraction-induced osteogenesis of MSCs and potential molecular mechanisms. Material and Methods: The datasets were downloaded from the ArrayExpress database. Three samples of negative control and two samples subjected to 5% cyclic sinusoidal distraction at 0.25 Hz for 6 h were selected for screening differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and then analysed via bioinformatics methods. The Gene Ontology (GO) terms and Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment were investigated. The protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was visualised through the Cytoscape software. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was conducted to verify the enrichment of a self-defined osteogenic gene sets collection and identify osteogenic hub genes. Results: Three hub genes (IL6, MMP2, and EP300) that were highly associated with distraction-induced osteogenesis of MSCs were identified via the Venn diagram. These hub genes could provide a new understanding of distraction-induced osteogenic differentiation of MSCs and serve as potential gene targets for optimising DO via targeted therapies.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Osteogênese/genética , Células-Tronco/citologia , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Biomarcadores , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Ontologia Genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Humanos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Mapeamento de Interação de Proteínas , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204587

RESUMO

Structural disturbances of the subchondral bone are a hallmark of osteoarthritis (OA), including sclerotic changes, cystic lesions, and osteophyte formation. Osteocytes act as mechanosensory units for the micro-cracks in response to mechanical loading. Once stimulated, osteocytes initiate the reparative process by recruiting bone-resorbing cells and bone-forming cells to maintain bone homeostasis. Osteocyte-expressed sclerostin is known as a negative regulator of bone formation through Wnt signaling and the RANKL pathway. In this review, we will summarize current understandings of osteocytes at the crossroad of allometry and mechanobiology to exploit the relationship between osteocyte morphology and function in the context of joint aging and osteoarthritis. We also aimed to summarize the osteocyte dysfunction and its link with structural and functional disturbances of the osteoarthritic subchondral bone at the molecular level. Compared with normal bones, the osteoarthritic subchondral bone is characterized by a higher bone volume fraction, a larger trabecular bone number in the load-bearing region, and an increase in thickness of pre-existing trabeculae. This may relate to the aberrant expressions of sclerostin, periostin, dentin matrix protein 1, matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein, insulin-like growth factor 1, and transforming growth factor-beta, among others. The number of osteocyte lacunae embedded in OA bone is also significantly higher, yet the volume of individual lacuna is relatively smaller, which could suggest abnormal metabolism in association with allometry. The remarkably lower percentage of sclerostin-positive osteocytes, together with clustering of Runx-2 positive pre-osteoblasts, may suggest altered regulation of osteoblast differentiation and osteoblast-osteocyte transformation affected by both signaling molecules and the extracellular matrix. Aberrant osteocyte morphology and function, along with anomalies in molecular signaling mechanisms, might explain in part, if not all, the pre-osteoblast clustering and the uncoupled bone remodeling in OA subchondral bone.


Assuntos
Homeostase , Articulações/fisiologia , Osteoartrite/etiologia , Osteoartrite/metabolismo , Osteócitos/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores , Remodelação Óssea , Cartilagem Articular/metabolismo , Cartilagem Articular/patologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Humanos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Osteoartrite/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteoartrite/patologia , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207905

RESUMO

Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are major players in regenerative therapies for wound healing via their paracrine activity, mediated partially by exosomes. Our purpose was to test if MSC-derived exosomes could accelerate wound healing by enhancing the biological properties of the main cell types involved in the key phases of this process. Thus, the effects of exosomes on (i) macrophage activation, (ii) angiogenesis, (iii) keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts proliferation and migration, and (iv) the capacity of myofibroblasts to regulate the turnover of the extracellular matrix were evaluated. The results showed that, although exosomes did not exhibit anti-inflammatory properties, they stimulated angiogenesis. Exposure of keratinocytes and dermal (myo)fibroblasts to exosomes enhanced their proliferation and migratory capacity. Additionally, exosomes prevented the upregulation of gene expression for type I and III collagen, α-smooth muscle actin, and MMP2 and 14, and they increased MMP13 expression during the fibroblast-myofibroblast transition. The regenerative properties of exosomes were validated using a wound healing skin organotypic model, which exhibited full re-epithelialization upon exosomes exposure. In summary, these data indicate that exosomes enhance the biological properties of keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells, thus providing a reliable therapeutic tool for skin regeneration.


Assuntos
Exossomos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Neovascularização Fisiológica , Pele/metabolismo , Cicatrização , Humanos , Pele/lesões
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209365

RESUMO

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are potentially a good material for transplantation in many diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases. The main problem with using them is the low percentage of surviving cells after the transplant procedure and the naturally poor ability of MSC to spontaneously differentiate into certain types of cells, which results in their poor integration with the host cells. The aim and the novelty of this work consists in the synergistic overexpression of two genes, BCL2 and BDNF, using lentiviral vectors. According to our hypothesis, the overexpression of the BCL2 gene is aimed at increasing the resistance of cells to stressors and toxic factors. In turn, the overexpression of the BDNF gene is suspected to direct the MSC into the neural differentiation pathway. As a result, it was shown that the overexpression of both genes and the overproduction of proteins is permanent and persists for at least 60 days. The synergistically transduced MSC were significantly more resistant to the action of staurosporine; 12 days after transduction, the synergistically transduced MSC had a six-times greater survival rate. The overexpression of the Bcl-2 and BDNF proteins was sufficient to stimulate a significant overexpression of the CHAT gene, and under specific conditions, the TH, TPH1, and SYP genes were also overexpressed. Modified MSC are able to differentiate into cholinergic and dopaminergic neurons, and the release of acetylcholine and dopamine may indicate their functionality.


Assuntos
Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/biossíntese , Diferenciação Celular , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/biossíntese , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/genética , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/citologia , Humanos , Lentivirus , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Transdução Genética
19.
Life Sci ; 282: 119812, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34265362

RESUMO

AIMS: Among all the treatments for Multiple Sclerosis, stem cell transplantation, such as ADSCs, has attracted a great deal of scientific attention. On the other hand, Edaravone, as an antioxidant component, in combination with stem cells, could increase the survival and differentiation potential of stem cells. MAIN METHODS: 42 rats were divided into: Control, Cuprizone (CPZ), Sham, Edaravone (Ed), hADSCs, and Ed/hADSCs groups. Following induction of cuprizone, induced MS model, behavioral tests were designed to evaluate motor function during. Luxal fast blue staining was done to measure the level of demyelination and remyelination. Immunofluorescent staining was used to evaluate the amount of MBP, OLIG2, and MOG proteins. The mRNA levels of human MBP, MOG, and OLIG2 and rat Mbp, Mog, and Olig2 were determined via RT-PCR. KEY FINDINGS: Flow cytometry analysis exhibited that the extracted cells were positive for CD73 (93.8 ± 3%) and CD105 (91.6 ± 3%), yet negative for CD45 (2.06 ± 0.5%). Behavioral tests, unveiled a significant improvement in the Ed (P < 0.001), hADSCs (P < 0.001), and Ed/hADSCs (P < 0.001) groups compared to the others. In the Ed/hADSCs group, the myelin density was significantly higher than that in the Ed treated and hADSCs treated groups (P < 0.01). Edaravone and hADSCs increased the expression of Mbp, Mog, and Olig2 genes in the cuprizone rat models. Moreover, significant differences were seen between the Ed treated and hADSCs treated groups and the Ed/hADSCs group (P < 0.05 for Mbp and Olig2 and P < 0.01 for Mog). SIGNIFICANCE: Edaravone in combination with hADSCs reduced demyelination and increased oligodendrogenesis in the cuprizone rat models.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Edaravone/farmacologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Esclerose Múltipla , Oligodendroglia/metabolismo , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Esclerose Múltipla/metabolismo , Esclerose Múltipla/terapia , Ratos
20.
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol ; 321(3): C596-C606, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34319829

RESUMO

Ceiling culture-derived preadipocytes (ccdPAs) and adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) can be harvested from human subcutaneous fat tissue using the specific gravity method. Both cell types possess a similar spindle shape without lipid droplets. We previously reported that ccdPAs have a higher adipogenic potential than ASCs, even after a 7-wk culture. We performed a genome-wide epigenetic analysis to examine the mechanisms contributing to the adipogenic potential differences between ccdPAs and ASCs. Methylation analysis of cytosines followed by guanine (CpG) using a 450-K BeadChip was performed on human ccdPAs and ASCs isolated from three metabolically healthy females. Chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing was performed to evaluate trimethylation at lysine 4 of histone 3 (H3K4me3). Unsupervised machine learning using t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding to interpret 450,000-dimensional methylation assay data showed that the cells were divided into ASC and ccdPA groups. In Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis of 1,543 genes with differential promoter CpG methylation, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) and adipocytokine signaling pathways ranked in the top 10 pathways. In the PPARγ gene, H3K4me3 peak levels were higher in ccdPAs than in ASCs, whereas promoter CpG methylation levels were significantly lower in ccdPAs than in ASCs. Similar differences in promoter CpG methylation were also seen in the fatty acid-binding protein 4 and leptin genes. In conclusion, we analyzed the epigenetic status of adipogenesis-related genes as a potential mechanism underlying the differences in adipogenic differentiation capability between ASCs and ccdPAs.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/metabolismo , Adipogenia/genética , Adipocinas/genética , Epigênese Genética , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , PPAR gama/genética , Adipócitos/classificação , Adipócitos/citologia , Adipocinas/metabolismo , Ilhas de CpG , Metilação de DNA , Proteínas de Ligação a Ácido Graxo/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a Ácido Graxo/metabolismo , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Histonas/genética , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Leptina/genética , Leptina/metabolismo , Mamoplastia/métodos , Glândulas Mamárias Humanas/citologia , Glândulas Mamárias Humanas/metabolismo , Glândulas Mamárias Humanas/cirurgia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/classificação , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Especificidade de Órgãos , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Cultura Primária de Células , Gordura Subcutânea/citologia , Gordura Subcutânea/metabolismo , Aprendizado de Máquina não Supervisionado
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