Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 4.389
Filtrar
1.
Biomed Khim ; 65(5): 366-373, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666407

RESUMO

Neurogenesis is a complex process which governs embryonic brain development and is importants for brain plasticity throughout the whole life. Postnatal neurogenesis occurs in neurogenic niches that regulate the processes of proliferation and differentiation of stem and progenitor cells under the action of stimuli that trigger the mechanisms of neuroplasticity. Cells of glial and endothelial origin are the key regulators of neurogenesis. It is known that physiological neurogeneses is crucial for memory formation, whereas reparative neurogenesis provides partial repair of altered brain structure and compensation of neurological deficits caused by brain injury. Dysregulation of neurogenesis is a characteristics of various neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative diseases, particularly, Alzheimer's disease which is very important medical and social problem. In the in vitro model of the neurogenic niche using hippocampal neurospheres as a source of stem/progenitor cells and astrocytes, we studied effects of astrocyte activation on the expression of markers of different stages of cell proliferation and differentiation. We found that aberrant mechanisms of development of stem and progenitor cells, caused by the beta-amyloid (Aß1-42), can be partially restored by targeted activation of GFAP-expressing cells in the neurogenic niche.


Assuntos
Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/farmacologia , Astrócitos/citologia , Células-Tronco Neurais/citologia , Neurogênese , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/farmacologia , Diferenciação Celular , Células Cultivadas , Hipocampo/citologia , Humanos
2.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1175: 117-128, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31583586

RESUMO

Oligodendrocytes are the myelinating cells of the CNS, producing the insulating myelin sheath that facilitates rapid electrical conduction of axonal action potentials. Oligodendrocytes arise from oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) under the control of multiple factors, including neurotransmitters and other neuron-derived factors. A significant population of OPCs persists in the adult CNS, where they are often referred to as NG2-glia, because they are identified by their expression of the NG2 chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan (CSPG4). In the adult brain, the primary function of NG2-glia is the life-long generation of oligodendrocytes to replace myelin lost through natural 'wear and tear' and pathology, as well as to provide new oligodendrocytes to myelinate new connections formed in response to new life experiences. NG2-glia contact synapses and respond to neurotransmitters and potassium released during neuronal transmission; to this end, NG2-glia (OPCs) express multiple neurotransmitter receptors and ion channels, with prominent roles being identified for glutamatergic signalling and potassium channels in oligodendrocyte differentiation. Myelinating oligodendrocytes also express a wide range of neurotransmitter receptors and ion channels, together with transporters and gap junctions; together, these have critical functions in cellular ion and water homeostasis, as well as metabolism, which is essential for maintaining myelin and axon integrity. An overriding theme is that oligodendrocyte function and myelination is not only essential for rapid axonal conduction, but is essential for learning and the long-term integrity of axons and neurones. Hence, myelination underpins cognitive function and the massive computing power of the human brain and myelin loss has devastating effects on CNS function. This chapter focuses on normal oligodendrocyte physiology.


Assuntos
Bainha de Mielina , Oligodendroglia/fisiologia , Axônios , Humanos , Células-Tronco Neurais/citologia , Neurônios
3.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1169: 1-30, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487016

RESUMO

In this chapter, heterogeneity is explored in the context of the ventricular-subventricular zone, the largest stem cell niche in the mammalian brain. This niche generates up to 10,000 new neurons daily in adult mice and extends over a large spatial area with dorso-ventral and medio-lateral subdivisions. The stem cells of the ventricular-subventricular zone can be subdivided by their anatomical position and transcriptional profile, and the stem cell lineage can also be further subdivided into stages of pre- and post-natal quiescence and activation. Beyond the stem cells proper, additional differences exist in their interactions with other cellular constituents of the niche, including neurons, vasculature, and cerebrospinal fluid. These variations in stem cell potential and local interactions are discussed, as well as unanswered questions within this system.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Ventrículos Laterais , Células-Tronco Neurais , Nicho de Células-Tronco , Animais , Encéfalo/citologia , Linhagem da Célula , Ventrículos Laterais/citologia , Camundongos , Células-Tronco Neurais/citologia , Neurônios/citologia , Nicho de Células-Tronco/fisiologia
4.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1169: 31-53, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487017

RESUMO

The discovery of neural stem cells in the adult mammalian hippocampus has attracted attention and controversy, which both continue to this day. Hippocampal neural stem cells and their immediate progeny, amplifying neuroprogenitor cells, give rise to neurons and astrocytes in the region. Envisioned as possible key for tissue regeneration, whether mobilized endogenously or transplanted exogenously, neural stem cells have been in the eye of both public and science over the course of the past 20 years. These cells are a heterogeneous population, and here, we review different aspects of their heterogeneity from morphology to metabolism and response to different stimuli.


Assuntos
Hipocampo , Células-Tronco Neurais , Animais , Astrócitos/citologia , Diferenciação Celular , Hipocampo/citologia , Humanos , Células-Tronco Neurais/citologia , Neurogênese , Neurônios/citologia
5.
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao ; 41(4): 524-528, 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484616

RESUMO

To compare the biological functions of astrocytes cultured in vitro by two methods. Methods The primary astrocytes were cultured from rodent neonatal brain,whereas the differentiated astrocytes were prepared by differentiating neural stem cells with fetal bovine serum.The morphologies of these two different types of astrocytes were observed under microscope and the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein(GFAP),an astrocyte-specific marker,was detected by immunofluorescence staining after treatment with 10 cytokines.Changes in GFAP,glutamate synthetase(GS),glutamate-aspartic acid transporter(xCT),neuregulin-1(NRG),N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor(NMDA),lipoprotein lipase(LPL)were detected and compared. Results The morphologies and GFAP expression differed between these two astrocyte types.Microarray showed that the expressions of GFAP,GS,xCT,NRG,NMDA,and LPL were significantly higher in primary astrocytes than in differentiated astrocytes.None of these 10 cytokines increased the expression of GFAP in primary astrocytes,whereas treatment with transforming growth factor-ß(TGF-ß)significantly increased the expression of GFAP in the differentiated astrocytes. Conclusion Compared with the differentiated astrocytes,the primary astrocytes are more similar to reactive astrocytes,and TGF-ß can promote the transition of differentiated cells to reactive cells.


Assuntos
Astrócitos/citologia , Diferenciação Celular , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Células Cultivadas , Proteína Glial Fibrilar Ácida/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neurais/citologia , Roedores , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/farmacologia
6.
Gene ; 717: 143998, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381951

RESUMO

Eid1 is a member of the EID protein family, which regulates differentiation, transcription and acetyltransferase activity. Accumulating evidence suggests that Eid1 is relevant to neurological disorder, but the main function of Eid1 is still unclear, especially in the brain. To better understand this issue, we generated Eid1-knockout (Eid1-KO) mice and profiled its gene expression changes in the brain by RNA sequencing. This study identified 2531 genes differentially expressed in Eid1-KO mice compared with the wild-type, then qRT-PCR verification demonstrated that the transcriptomic data are reliable. By protein-protein interaction cluster analysis, 'regulation of cell proliferation' were unexpectedly discovered as important Eid1 functions. We then isolated neural progenitor cells (NPCs) and showed that the number of neurospheres and the proliferation rate of Eid1-KO NPCs were obviously lower than that in the control group, furthermore, CCK-8 and immunofluorescence assay clearly demonstrated that the Eid1-KO NPCs showed significantly less cell proliferation than the control group. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive report of the Eid1-KO transcriptome of mice brain. Our analysis and experimental data provide a foundation for further studies on understanding function of Eid1 in the brain.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/citologia , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/embriologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Proliferação de Células/genética , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Células-Tronco Neurais/citologia , Células-Tronco Neurais/fisiologia , Gravidez , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Análise de Sequência de RNA
7.
Results Probl Cell Differ ; 67: 359-375, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31435803

RESUMO

Neurons forming the central nervous system are generated by neural stem and progenitor cells, via a process called neurogenesis (Götz and Huttner, Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol, 6:777-788, 2005). In this book chapter, we focus on neurogenesis in the dorsolateral telencephalon, the rostral-most region of the neural tube, which contains the part of the central nervous system that is most expanded in mammals (Borrell and Reillo, Dev Neurobiol, 72:955-971, 2012; Wilsch-Bräuninger et al., Curr Opin Neurobiol 39:122-132, 2016). We will discuss recent advances in the dissection of the cell biological mechanisms of neurogenesis, with particular attention to the organization and function of the Golgi apparatus and its relationship to the centrosome.


Assuntos
Polaridade Celular , Complexo de Golgi/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neurais/citologia , Células Neuroepiteliais/citologia , Neurogênese , Neurônios/citologia , Animais , Centrossomo
8.
Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi ; 35(3): 256-261, 2019 May 28.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257809

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of optical genetic techniques on new neurons through the Wnt/ß-Catenin pathway. METHODS: Neural stem cells (ESCs)were extracted from the cerebral cortex of fetal rat and transfected by lentivirus carrying DCX-ChR2-EGFP gene and the expression of DCX of newborn neurons differentiated from neural stem cells were observed. All cells were divided into 3 groups(n=9): control group, NSCs+EGFP and NSCs+ChR2 groups. The control group was normal cultured NSCs (NSCs group); the neural stem cells in NSCs+EGFP group were transfected with lentivirus carrying EGFP gene. The neural stem cells in NSCs+ChR2 group were infected with lentivirus carrying DCX-ChR2-EGFP gene. After 48 hours of lentivirus infection, 470 nm blue laser irradiation was performed for 3 consecutive days. NeuN+ positive cell density(the maturation of neural stem cells)and the ratio of NeuN+/Hoechst in each group were observed. Western blot was used to detect the expression levels of MAP2, NeuN, Neurog2, NeuroD1 and GluR2. Western blot was used to detect the expressions of ß-catenin and TCF4 associated with Wnt/ß-catenin signaling channel. Verapamil (100 µmol/L, L-type calcium channel blockers) and Dkk1 (50 µg/ml, ß-catenin inhibitor) were used to treat stem cells of the NSCs+ChR2 group and then the expressions of MAP2, NeuN, Neurog2, NeuroD1 and GluR were detected by Western blot. RESULTS: After 3 days of 470 nm blue laser irradiation, NeuN+ positive cell density(the maturation of neural stem cells)and the ratio of NeuN+/Hoechst, the expression levels of the protein MAP2, NeuN, Neurog2, NeuroD1, GluR and the protein ß-catenin and TCF4 associated with Wnt/ß-catenin signaling channel detected by Western blot were significantly increased in the group of NSCs+ChR2, compared with NSCs and NSCs+EGFP groups. The expressions of MAP2, NeuN, Neurog2, NeuroD1 and GluR were remarkably decreased after treated by verapamil and Dkk1 in the group of NSCs+ChR2. It was proved that the opening of ChR2 channel producing cationic influx promoted the maturation of neural stem cells and induced by the Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway. CONCLUSION: Optical genetic promoted the maturation of newborn neurons through the Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Neurais/citologia , Neurônios/citologia , Optogenética , Via de Sinalização Wnt , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Ratos , Transfecção
9.
Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi ; 35(3): 262-267, 2019 May 28.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257810

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of exendin-4(Ex-4) on the differentiation of neural stem cells(NSCs) in adult mouse subventricular zone(SVZ)and its mechanism . METHODS: NSCs in the SVZ were derived from 5-week C57BL/6J mice and the expression of nestin was detected by immunofluorescence. The cell morphology was observed after the cells treatmed with 100 nmol/L Ex-4 for 14 days.The expressions of nestin and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) were detected by immunofluorescence. GLP-1R was knocked down by using shRNA and the study was divided into four groups: control group, Ex-4 group, GLP-1R knockdown group, GLP-1R knockdown + Ex-4 group. After treatment with 100 nmol/L Ex-4 for 14 d, ß-tublin III and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) were labeled by immunofluorescence and then the proportion of ß-tublin III positive cells were counted. Western blot was used to detect the activation of cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB) in NSCs. In order to further study the effects of Ex-4 on mitogen-activated protein kinase(MAPK) and phosphatidylinositol 3-hydroxy kinase (PI3K) pathways, the cells were pretreated with MAPK inhibitor U0126 at a concentration of 0.07 µmol/L for 30 min or PI3K inhibitor LY294002 at 50 µmol for 2 h, respectively. The study was divided into six groups: control group, Ex-4 group, U0126 group, U0126 + Ex-4 group, LY294002 group, LY294002 + Ex-4 group. The activation of CREB in each group was detected by Western blot. The experiment was repeated three times independently. RESULTS: NSCs were successfully extracted from SVZ of C57BL/6J mice. Immunofluorescence showed that nestin and GLP-1R were positive in NSCs. Compared with the control group, the proportion of neurons differentiated from Ex-4 group was higher. The percentage of neurons in GLP-1R knockdown + Ex-4 group was basically the same as that in control group (P<0.01). The positive cells of beta-tublin III showed positive activation of GLP-1R and CREB. Western blot showed that CREB was significantly activated in the Ex-4 group, and knockdown of GLP-1R abolished its activation (P<0.01). U0126 did not affect Ex-4-mediated CERB activation, and LY294002 significantly reduced Ex-4-mediated CREB activation (P<0.01). CONCLUSION: Ex-4 promotes the differentiation of NSCs into neurons in SVZ of adult mice through GLP-1R receptor, which may be achieved through PI3K/CREB pathway.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular , Exenatida/farmacologia , Ventrículos Laterais/citologia , Células-Tronco Neurais/citologia , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/genética , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases
10.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 8(1): 1003-1016, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282298

RESUMO

Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne Flavivirus that causes Zika disease with particular neurological complications, including Guillain-Barré Syndrome and congenital microcephaly. Although ZIKV has been shown to directly infect human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs), thereby decreasing their viability and growth, it is as yet unknown which of the cellular pathways involved in the disruption of neurogenesis are affected following ZIKV infection. By comparing the effect of two ZIKV strains in vitro on hNPCs, the differentiation process of the latter cells was found to lead to a decreased susceptibility to infection and cell death induced by each of the ZIKV strains, which was associated with an earlier and stronger antiviral innate immune response in infected, differentiated hNPCs, as compared to undifferentiated cells. Moreover, ZIKV modulated, both in hNPCs and in vivo in fetal brain in an experimental mouse model, the expression of the Notch pathway which is involved in cellular proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation during neurogenesis. These results show that the differentiation state of hNPCs is a significant factor contributing to the outcome of ZIKV infection and furthermore suggest that ZIKV infection might initiate early activation of the Notch pathway resulting in an abnormal differentiation process, implicated in ZIKV-induced brain injury.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Neurais/virologia , Neurogênese , Receptor Notch1/metabolismo , Infecção por Zika virus/virologia , Zika virus/fisiologia , Animais , Apoptose , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Células-Tronco Neurais/citologia , Células-Tronco Neurais/metabolismo , Receptor Notch1/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Zika virus/genética , Infecção por Zika virus/genética , Infecção por Zika virus/metabolismo , Infecção por Zika virus/fisiopatologia
11.
Nature ; 571(7764): 205-210, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270459

RESUMO

The mammalian brain contains neurogenic niches that comprise neural stem cells and other cell types. Neurogenic niches become less functional with age, but how they change during ageing remains unclear. Here we perform single-cell RNA sequencing of young and old neurogenic niches in mice. The analysis of 14,685 single-cell transcriptomes reveals a decrease in activated neural stem cells, changes in endothelial cells and microglia, and an infiltration of T cells in old neurogenic niches. T cells in old brains are clonally expanded and are generally distinct from those in old blood, which suggests that they may experience specific antigens. T cells in old brains also express interferon-γ, and the subset of neural stem cells that has a high interferon response shows decreased proliferation in vivo. We find that T cells can inhibit the proliferation of neural stem cells in co-cultures and in vivo, in part by secreting interferon-γ. Our study reveals an interaction between T cells and neural stem cells in old brains, opening potential avenues through which to counteract age-related decline in brain function.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Encéfalo/citologia , Movimento Celular , Células-Tronco Neurais/citologia , Neurogênese , Análise de Célula Única , Nicho de Células-Tronco/fisiologia , Linfócitos T/citologia , Animais , Sangue , Proliferação de Células , Células Clonais/citologia , Técnicas de Cocultura , Células Endoteliais/citologia , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Microglia/citologia , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Transdução de Sinais , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/genética
12.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2835, 2019 06 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31249377

RESUMO

During embryogenesis cells make fate decisions within complex tissue environments. The levels and dynamics of transcription factor expression regulate these decisions. Here, we use single cell live imaging of an endogenous HES5 reporter and absolute protein quantification to gain a dynamic view of neurogenesis in the embryonic mammalian spinal cord. We report that dividing neural progenitors show both aperiodic and periodic HES5 protein fluctuations. Mathematical modelling suggests that in progenitor cells the HES5 oscillator operates close to its bifurcation boundary where stochastic conversions between dynamics are possible. HES5 expression becomes more frequently periodic as cells transition to differentiation which, coupled with an overall decline in HES5 expression, creates a transient period of oscillations with higher fold expression change. This increases the decoding capacity of HES5 oscillations and correlates with interneuron versus motor neuron cell fate. Thus, HES5 undergoes complex changes in gene expression dynamics as cells differentiate.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neurais/metabolismo , Neurogênese , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Animais , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/química , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Masculino , Camundongos/embriologia , Camundongos/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Camundongos Knockout , Células-Tronco Neurais/química , Células-Tronco Neurais/citologia , Proteínas Repressoras/química , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Análise de Célula Única
13.
Genomics Proteomics Bioinformatics ; 17(2): 154-168, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154015

RESUMO

N6-methyladenosine (m6A), catalyzed by the methyltransferase complex consisting of Mettl3 and Mettl14, is the most abundant RNA modification in mRNAs and participates in diverse biological processes. However, the roles and precise mechanisms of m6A modification in regulating neuronal development and adult neurogenesis remain unclear. Here, we examined the function of Mettl3, the key component of the complex, in neuronal development and adult neurogenesis of mice. We found that the depletion of Mettl3 significantly reduced m6A levels in adult neural stem cells (aNSCs) and inhibited the proliferation of aNSCs. Mettl3 depletion not only inhibited neuronal development and skewed the differentiation of aNSCs more toward glial lineage, but also affected the morphological maturation of newborn neurons in the adult brain. m6A immunoprecipitation combined with deep sequencing (MeRIP-seq) revealed that m6A was predominantly enriched in transcripts related to neurogenesis and neuronal development. Mechanistically, m6A was present on the transcripts of histone methyltransferase Ezh2, and its reduction upon Mettl3 knockdown decreased both Ezh2 protein expression and consequent H3K27me3 levels. The defects of neurogenesis and neuronal development induced by Mettl3 depletion could be rescued by Ezh2 overexpression. Collectively, our results uncover a crosstalk between RNA and histone modifications and indicate that Mettl3-mediated m6A modification plays an important role in regulating neurogenesis and neuronal development through modulating Ezh2.


Assuntos
Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Proteína Potenciadora do Homólogo 2 de Zeste/metabolismo , Neurogênese , Neurônios/metabolismo , Adenosina/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Adultas/citologia , Células-Tronco Adultas/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Células-Tronco Neurais/citologia , Células-Tronco Neurais/metabolismo , Neurogênese/genética , Neurônios/citologia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
14.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2612, 2019 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31197141

RESUMO

Primary microcephaly is caused by mutations in genes encoding centrosomal proteins including WDR62 and KIF2A. However, mechanisms underlying human microcephaly remain elusive. By creating mutant mice and human cerebral organoids, here we found that WDR62 deletion resulted in a reduction in the size of mouse brains and organoids due to the disruption of neural progenitor cells (NPCs), including outer radial glia (oRG). WDR62 ablation led to retarded cilium disassembly, long cilium, and delayed cell cycle progression leading to decreased proliferation and premature differentiation of NPCs. Mechanistically, WDR62 interacts with and promotes CEP170's localization to the basal body of primary cilium, where CEP170 recruits microtubule-depolymerizing factor KIF2A to disassemble cilium. WDR62 depletion reduced KIF2A's basal body localization, and enhanced KIF2A expression partially rescued deficits in cilium length and NPC proliferation. Thus, modeling microcephaly with cerebral organoids and mice reveals a WDR62-CEP170-KIF2A pathway promoting cilium disassembly, disruption of which contributes to microcephaly.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Cinesina/metabolismo , Microcefalia/patologia , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Animais , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Diferenciação Celular , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células , Cílios/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Microcefalia/genética , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Células-Tronco Neurais/citologia , Células-Tronco Neurais/patologia , Neuroglia/citologia , Neuroglia/patologia , Organoides/patologia , Fosfoproteínas/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo
15.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 411(21): 5423-5436, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31161326

RESUMO

It is necessary to characterize and classify neural stem cells (NSCs) and differentiated cells (DCs) for potential use of NSC to treat neurodegenerative diseases. We therefore performed an analysis of NSCs and DCs using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and direct infusion mass spectrometry (DI-MS) with elaborate multivariate statistical analysis for the characterization and classification of rat NSCs and DCs. GC-MS and DI-MS detected a total of 92 metabolites and lipids in NSCs and DCs, and the levels of 72 of them differed significantly between NSCs and DCs. The optimal model for partial least squares (PLS) discriminant analysis was constructed by applying 3 and 2 PLS components with a unit-variance scaling method for classifying NSCs and DCs based on the data obtained in the GC-MS and DI-MS analyses, respectively. The obtained results from PCA and PLS-DA suggest that creatinine, lactic acid, lysine, glutamine, glycine, pyroglutamic acid, PG 18:1/20:2, PS 18:0/20:2, PI 18:0/20:3, PC 16:0/20:4, PI 16:0/20:4, and PI 18:1/20:4 were the main contributors that provided distinct characteristics of NSCs and DCs. The results of this study suggest objective and complementary criteria for the characterization and classification of NSCs and DCs for potential clinical applications. Graphical abstract.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Células-Tronco Neurais/classificação , Células-Tronco Neurais/citologia , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Análise Discriminante , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Análise de Componente Principal , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
16.
Sheng Li Xue Bao ; 71(3): 431-438, 2019 Jun 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31218334

RESUMO

The present study was aimed to investigate the effects and mechanisms of electro-acupuncture (EA) on proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells in the hippocampus of C57 mice exposed to different doses of X-ray radiation. Thirty-day-old C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into control, irradiation, and EA groups. The control group was not treated with irradiation. The irradiation groups were exposed to different doses of X-ray (4, 8 or 16 Gy) for 10 min. The EA groups were electro-acupunctured at Baihui, Fengfu and bilateral Shenyu for 3 courses of treatment after X-ray radiation. Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate proliferation and differentiation of the hippocampal neural stem cell. RT-PCR and Western blot were used to detect mRNA and protein expressions of Notch1 and Mash1 in the hippocampus, respectively. The results showed that, compared with the control group, the numbers of BrdU positive cells (4, 8 Gy subgroup) and BrdU/NeuN double-labeling positive cells (3 dose subgroups) were decreased significantly in the irradiation group, but the above changes could be reversed by EA. Compared with the control group, the number of BrdU/GFAP double-labeling positive cells in each dose subgroup of irradiation group was decreased significantly, while EA could reverse the change of 4 and 8 Gy dose subgroups. In addition, compared with the control group, the expression levels of Notch1 mRNA and protein in hippocampus were up-regulated, and the expression levels of Mash1 mRNA and protein were significantly decreased in each dose subgroup of irradiation group. Compared with irradiation group, the expression levels of Notch1 mRNA and protein in hippocampus of EA group were decreased significantly in each dose subgroup, and the expression levels of Mash1 mRNA and protein were increased significantly in 4 and 8 Gy subgroups. These results suggest that irradiation affects the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells in hippocampus of mice, whereas EA may significantly increase the proliferation and differentiation of hippocampal neural stem cells via the regulation of Notch signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular , Proliferação de Células , Eletroacupuntura , Células-Tronco Neurais/citologia , Raios X/efeitos adversos , Animais , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Hipocampo/citologia , Hipocampo/efeitos da radiação , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Células-Tronco Neurais/efeitos da radiação , Distribuição Aleatória , Receptor Notch1/metabolismo
17.
Sheng Li Xue Bao ; 71(3): 454-462, 2019 Jun 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31218336

RESUMO

Neural stem cell therapy, as a new therapeutic method for neural diseases, has aroused a wide concern for over 20 years since neural stem cells were first found in 1992. Ischemic stroke is highly concerned because of its high incidence, mortality and disability rates. Because the brain has a limited ability to repair itself, to improve neural function and promote neural regeneration may help to prevent occurrence and development of neurological diseases. It is noteworthy that some stroke patients showed an ability to repair brain several months after the stroke happened, suggesting an existence of endogenous nerve repair in these patients. The research advances in functions of endogenous neural stem cells in neural regeneration and the related regulators after ischemic stroke are summarized in this review to provide new views of the mechanism of neural functional recovery after ischemic stroke.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , Regeneração Nervosa , Células-Tronco Neurais/citologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Humanos
18.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 102: 34-44, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31147006

RESUMO

Spinal cord injury (SCI) is one of the most precarious conditions which have been one of the major reasons for continuous increasing mortality rate of SCI patients. Currently, there is no effective treatment modality for SCI patients posing major threat to the scientific and medical community. The available strategies don't mimic with the natural processes of nervous tissues repair/regeneration and majority of the approaches may induce the additional fibrotic or immunological response at the injury site and are not readily available on demand. To overcome these hurdles, we have developed a ready to use bioengineered human functional neurological construct (BHNC) for regenerative applications in SCI defects. We used cryopreserved meningeal tissues (CMT) for bioengineering these neurological constructs using acellularization and repopulation technology. The technology adopted herein generates intact neurological scaffolds from CMT and retains several crucial structural, biochemical and mechanical cues to enhance the regenerative mechanisms. The neurogenic differentiation on CMT scaffolds was almost similar to the freshly prepared meningeal scaffolds and mimics with the natural nervous tissue developmental mechanisms which offer intact 3D-microarchitecture and hospitable microenvironment enriched with several crucial neurotrophins for long-term cell survival and function. Functional assessment of developed BHNC showed highly increased positive staining for pre-synaptic granules of Synapsis-1 along with MAP-2 antibody with punctuate distribution in axonal regions of the neuronal cells which was well supported by the gene expression analysis of functional transcripts. Given the significant improvement in the field may enable to generate more such ready to use functional BHNC for wider applicability in SCI repair/regeneration.


Assuntos
Materiais Biomiméticos/farmacologia , Criopreservação , Meninges/fisiologia , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos , Tecidos Suporte/química , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Adesão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Meninges/efeitos dos fármacos , Meninges/ultraestrutura , Células-Tronco Neurais/citologia , Células-Tronco Neurais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Neurais/ultraestrutura , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(11)2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31159418

RESUMO

Human tonsil-derived mesenchymal stem cells (T-MSCs) are newly identified MSCs and present typical features of MSCs, including having the differentiation capacity into the three germ layers and excellent proliferation capacity. They are easily sourced and are useful for stem cell therapy in various disease states. We previously reported that T-MSCs could be differentiated into skeletal myocytes and Schwann-like cells; therefore, they are a promising candidate for cell therapies for neuromuscular disease. Motor neurons (MNs), which regulate spontaneous behavior, are affected by a wide range of MN diseases (MNDs) for which there are no effective remedies. We investigated the differentiation potential of MN-like cells derived from T-MSCs (T-MSC-MNCs) for application to therapy of MNDs. After the process of MN differentiation, the expression of MN-related markers, including Islet 1, HB9/HLXB9 (HB9), and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), was increased when compared with undifferentiated T-MSCs. The secretion of acetylcholine to the conditioned medium was significantly increased after MN differentiation. We cocultured T-MSC-MNCs and human skeletal muscle cells, and confirmed the presence of the acetylcholine receptor clusters, which demonstrated the formation of neuromuscular junctions. The potential functional improvements afforded by these T-MSC-MNCs could be useful in the treatment of MNDs caused by genetic mutation, viral infection, or environmental problems.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Neurônios Motores/citologia , Neurônios Motores/fisiologia , Junção Neuromuscular/fisiologia , Tonsila Palatina/citologia , Acetilcolina/metabolismo , Biomarcadores , Células Cultivadas , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/metabolismo , Fatores de Crescimento Neural/genética , Fatores de Crescimento Neural/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neurais/citologia , Células-Tronco Neurais/metabolismo
20.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 76(18): 3553-3570, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31101934

RESUMO

Neural stem cells present in the subventricular zone (SVZ), the largest neurogenic niche of the mammalian brain, are able to self-renew as well as generate neural progenitor cells (NPCs). NPCs are highly migratory and traverse the rostral migratory stream (RMS) to the olfactory bulb, where they terminally differentiate into mature interneurons. NPCs from the SVZ are some of the few cells in the CNS that migrate long distances during adulthood. The migratory process of NPCs is highly regulated by intracellular pathway activation and signaling from the surrounding microenvironment. It involves modulation of cell volume, cytoskeletal rearrangement, and isolation from compact extracellular matrix. In malignant brain tumors including high-grade gliomas, there are cells called brain tumor stem cells (BTSCs) with similar stem cell characteristics to NPCs but with uncontrolled cell proliferation and contribute to tumor initiation capacity, tumor progression, invasion, and tumor maintenance. These BTSCs are resistant to chemotherapy and radiotherapy, and their presence is believed to lead to tumor recurrence at distal sites from the original tumor location, principally due to their high migratory capacity. BTSCs are able to invade the brain parenchyma by utilizing many of the migratory mechanisms used by NPCs. However, they have an increased ability to infiltrate the tight brain parenchyma and utilize brain structures such as myelin tracts and blood vessels as migratory paths. In this article, we summarize recent findings on the mechanisms of cellular migration that overlap between NPCs and BTSCs. A better understanding of the intersection between NPCs and BTSCs will to provide a better comprehension of the BTSCs' invasive capacity and the molecular mechanisms that govern their migration and eventually lead to the development of new therapies to improve the prognosis of patients with malignant gliomas.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neurais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Movimento Celular , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Humanos , Ventrículos Laterais/citologia , Ventrículos Laterais/metabolismo , Invasividade Neoplásica , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/citologia , Células-Tronco Neurais/citologia , Neurogênese , Nicho de Células-Tronco
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA