Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 10.436
Filtrar
1.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 45(4): 386-394, 2020 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879062

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To establish an electrophysiological model of alcoholic cardiomyopathy by inducing pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) to differentiate into cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CM) in vitro. METHODS: The human iPSC were expanded in vitro and differentiated into iPSC-CM. The iPSC-CM were divided into a blank control group, an alcoholic experiment group (according to the concentration of alcoholic, the alcoholic experiment was also divided into many subgroups), and a KN93 treatment group. Then the efficiency of iPSC differentiated to iPSC-CM was detected by immunofluorescence, the function of iPSC-CM was detected by cell counting kit-8 (CCK8) assay and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity assay kit. The electrophysiological activity of iPSC-CM was monitored by real time cellular analysis (RTCA), the injury of iPSC-CM caused by alcohol was further verified by the mitochondrial membrane potential fluorescence probe JC-1 staining combined with RTCA analysis. RESULTS: Compared with the blank control group, the different doses (25, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300 mmol/L) of alcohol could significantly inhibit the proliferation of iPSC-CM in a dose-dependent manner (all P<0.05). Compared with the blank control group, the activity of iPSC-CM was significantly reduced by 100 mmol/L alcohol, resulting in the increase of LDH release, the decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential, the amplitude and beating rate (all P<0.05). Compared with the 100 mg/mL alcoholic experiment group, the KN93 treatment group significantly alleviated the damage of alcohol to iPSC-CM by blocking the necrotic apoptotic pathway, resulting in the decrease of LDH release, the increase of mitochondrial membrane potential, the amplitude and beating rate (all P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The electrophysiological model of alcoholic cardiomyopathy based on the differentiation of cardiomyocytes are successfully established, which can be used to study the electrophysiological activity and the molecular mechanism for relevant diseases, and it may provide a more reasonable and effective research tool for drug screening and clinical study.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Alcoólica , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas , Diferenciação Celular , Fenômenos Eletrofisiológicos , Humanos , Miócitos Cardíacos
2.
Yonsei Med J ; 61(9): 816-825, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882766

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To understand the pathophysiology of Best disease (BD) and autosomal recessive bestrophinopathy (ARB) by establishing an in vitro model using human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human iPSC lines were generated from mononuclear cells in peripheral blood of one ARB patient, one autosomal dominant BD patient, and two normal controls. Immunocytochemistry and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in iPSC lines were conducted to demonstrate the pluripotent markers. After the differentiation of iPSC into functional retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), morphological characteristics of the RPE were evaluated using confocal microscopy and immunocytochemistry. The rates of fluid flow across iPSC-RPE monolayer were measured to compare apical to basal fluid transports by RPE. RNA sequencing was performed on iPSC-RPE to identify the differences in gene expression profiles, and specific gene sets were tested using Gene Set Enrichment Analysis. RESULTS: Morphological characteristics, gene expression, and epithelial integrity of ARB iPSC were comparable to those of BD patient or normal control. Fluid transport from apical to basal was significantly decreased in ARB iPSC-RPE compared with BD iPSC-RPE or control iPSC-RPE. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis confirmed that ARB iPSC-RPE exhibited significant enrichments of epithelial-mesenchymal transition gene set and TNF-α signaling via NF-κB gene set compared to control iPSC-RPE or BD iPSC-RPE. CONCLUSION: A human iPSC model of ARB showed a functional deficiency rather than anatomical defects. ARB may be caused by RPE dysfunction following BEST1 mutation.


Assuntos
Bestrofinas/genética , Oftalmopatias Hereditárias/genética , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas , Doenças Retinianas/genética , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina , Distrofia Macular Viteliforme/genética , Distrofia Macular Viteliforme/fisiopatologia , Diferenciação Celular , Canais de Cloreto/genética , Canais de Cloreto/metabolismo , Oftalmopatias Hereditárias/diagnóstico , Oftalmopatias Hereditárias/metabolismo , Oftalmopatias Hereditárias/patologia , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Doenças Retinianas/diagnóstico , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/metabolismo , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/fisiopatologia , Transtornos da Visão , Acuidade Visual , Distrofia Macular Viteliforme/metabolismo
3.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 28(4): 1086-1095, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32798382

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of OCT4 over-expression on the expression of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-related transcription factors (cMYC,KLF4,LIN28,NANOG and SOX2) in human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMMSCs), so as to provide fundamental basis for exploring the pathogenesis of hematological diseases (leukemia, aplastic anemia, etc.) from the perspective of hemopoietic microenvironment in the future. METHODS: Recombinant plasmid pcDNA3.1-OCT4 was constructed and transferred into the optimal generation P3-4 hBMMSCs by liposome transfection. The cells with stable and high expression of OCT4(hBMMSCs-OCT4)were screened by G418 resistance screening (limited dilution) and subcloning, the expression of OCT4 mRNA and OCT4 protein was verified by RT-PCR and FCM, respectively. The expression of iPSC-related transcription factors (cMYC, KLF4, LIN28, NANOG and SOX2) were also determined by FCM and RT-PCR, so as to evaluate the effect of ectopic high expression of OCT4 on the expression of iPSC related transcription factors in hBMMSCs. RESULTS: Recombinant plasmid pcDNA3.1-OCT4 was successfully constructed and cells with stable and high expression of OCT4 were successfully screened from hBMMSCs by limited dilution and subcloning. The result of flow cytometry showed that the mean expression level of OCT4 protein increased from (3.03±1.49)% to (95.46±1.40)% compared with the untransfected parental MSCs, which was also confirmed by RT-PCR analysis. At the same time, the expression levels of OCT4 protein and mRNA were compared between transient transfection (day 4) and stable expression cells (day 96), respectively, it was showed that the OCT4 protein level increased from (36.36±0.28)% at day 4 to (96.25±1.38)% at day 96, and the OCT4 mRNA level increased from 2.75-folds to 6.23-folds, respectively. Compared with the untransfected parental MSCs, the average expression levels of stemness transcription factors increased from (1.12±0.47)% (cMYC), (0.84±0.30)% (KLF4), (2.14±0.79)% (LIN28), (0.63±0.37)% (NANOG) and (14.34±2.44)% (SOX2) to (80.65±4.75)%, (73.03±4.70)%, (68.08±3.05)%, (39.39±1.85)%and (91.45±4.56)% in hBMMSCs-OCT4, respectively, which were consistent with results of RT-PCR analysis. Moreover, the expression levels of NANOG and SOX2 positively correlated with the mean expression of OCT4 (OCT4 vs NANOG: r=0.7802,OCT4 vs SOX2: r=0.4981;NANOG vs SOX2: r=0.7426). CONCLUSION: Cells with stable and high expression of OCT4 have been successfully established from hBMMSCs. Ectopic high expression of transcription factor OCT4 in hBMMSCs can up-regulate the expression of other iPSC-related transcription factors such as cMYC, KLF4, LIN28, NANOG and SOX2.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Medula Óssea , Humanos , Proteína Homeobox Nanog/genética , Fator 3 de Transcrição de Octâmero/genética , Fatores de Transcrição , Regulação para Cima
4.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 11(17): 2489-2491, 2020 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32840109

RESUMO

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become a severe public health problem with a high rate of morbidity and mortality. A mounting number of clinical investigations illustrate that COVID-19 patients suffer from neurologic conditions in addition to respiratory symptoms. In a recent article, Yuen and colleagues present the first experimental evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the human central nervous system using induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)-derived platform including human neural progenitor cells, neurospheres, and three-dimensional brain organoids (Yuen, K.Y., and Huang, J.D. et al. (2020) Cell Res. DOI: 10.1038/s41422-020-0390-x).


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Encéfalo/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Encéfalo/virologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/virologia , Organoides/patologia , Organoides/virologia , Pandemias
5.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0233582, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735620

RESUMO

The craniofacial developmental disorder Burn-McKeown Syndrome (BMKS) is caused by biallelic variants in the pre-messenger RNA splicing factor gene TXNL4A/DIB1. The majority of affected individuals with BMKS have a 34 base pair deletion in the promoter region of one allele of TXNL4A combined with a loss-of-function variant on the other allele, resulting in reduced TXNL4A expression. However, it is unclear how reduced expression of this ubiquitously expressed spliceosome protein results in craniofacial defects during development. Here we reprogrammed peripheral mononuclear blood cells from a BMKS patient and her unaffected mother into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and differentiated the iPSCs into induced neural crest cells (iNCCs), the key cell type required for correct craniofacial development. BMKS patient-derived iPSCs proliferated more slowly than both mother- and unrelated control-derived iPSCs, and RNA-Seq analysis revealed significant differences in gene expression and alternative splicing. Patient iPSCs displayed defective differentiation into iNCCs compared to maternal and unrelated control iPSCs, in particular a delay in undergoing an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). RNA-Seq analysis of differentiated iNCCs revealed widespread gene expression changes and mis-splicing in genes relevant to craniofacial and embryonic development that highlight a dampened response to WNT signalling, the key pathway activated during iNCC differentiation. Furthermore, we identified the mis-splicing of TCF7L2 exon 4, a key gene in the WNT pathway, as a potential cause of the downregulated WNT response in patient cells. Additionally, mis-spliced genes shared common sequence properties such as length, branch point to 3' splice site (BPS-3'SS) distance and splice site strengths, suggesting that splicing of particular subsets of genes is particularly sensitive to changes in TXNL4A expression. Together, these data provide the first insight into how reduced TXNL4A expression in BMKS patients might compromise splicing and NCC function, resulting in defective craniofacial development in the embryo.


Assuntos
Processamento Alternativo , Atresia das Cóanas/patologia , Surdez/congênito , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Cardiopatias Congênitas/patologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Modelos Biológicos , Ribonucleoproteína Nuclear Pequena U5/deficiência , Spliceossomos/fisiologia , Apoptose , Diferenciação Celular , Técnicas de Reprogramação Celular , Atresia das Cóanas/genética , Células Clonais , Surdez/genética , Surdez/patologia , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Éxons/genética , Face/embriologia , Facies , Feminino , Cabeça/embriologia , Cardiopatias Congênitas/genética , Humanos , Crista Neural/citologia , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Sítios de Splice de RNA , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ribonucleoproteína Nuclear Pequena U5/genética , Deleção de Sequência , Proteína 2 Semelhante ao Fator 7 de Transcrição/genética , Via de Sinalização Wnt
6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3881, 2020 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753572

RESUMO

Cells typically respond to chemical or physical perturbations via complex signaling cascades which can simultaneously affect multiple physiological parameters, such as membrane voltage, calcium, pH, and redox potential. Protein-based fluorescent sensors can report many of these parameters, but spectral overlap prevents more than ~4 modalities from being recorded in parallel. Here we introduce the technique, MOSAIC, Multiplexed Optical Sensors in Arrayed Islands of Cells, where patterning of fluorescent sensor-encoding lentiviral vectors with a microarray printer enables parallel recording of multiple modalities. We demonstrate simultaneous recordings from 20 sensors in parallel in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells and in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs), and we describe responses to metabolic and pharmacological perturbations. Together, these results show that MOSAIC can provide rich multi-modal data on complex physiological responses in multiple cell types.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Microscopia de Fluorescência/métodos , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Imagem Óptica/métodos , Potenciais de Ação/efeitos dos fármacos , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/farmacologia , Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Cálcio/química , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/citologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/fisiologia , Imagem Óptica/instrumentação , Oxidantes/farmacologia , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Propanolaminas/farmacologia
7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4110, 2020 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32807790

RESUMO

Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS) is a premature aging disease in children that leads to early death. Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are the most affected cells in HGPS individuals, although the reason for such vulnerability remains poorly understood. In this work, we develop a microfluidic chip formed by HGPS-SMCs generated from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), to study their vulnerability to flow shear stress. HGPS-iPSC SMCs cultured under arterial flow conditions detach from the chip after a few days of culture; this process is mediated by the upregulation of metalloprotease 13 (MMP13). Importantly, double-mutant LmnaG609G/G609GMmp13-/- mice or LmnaG609G/G609GMmp13+/+ mice treated with a MMP inhibitor show lower SMC loss in the aortic arch than controls. MMP13 upregulation appears to be mediated, at least in part, by the upregulation of glycocalyx. Our HGPS-SMCs chip represents a platform for developing treatments for HGPS individuals that may complement previous pre-clinical and clinical treatments.


Assuntos
Metaloproteinase 13 da Matriz/metabolismo , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Animais , Biotecnologia/métodos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Lamina Tipo A/genética , Lamina Tipo A/metabolismo , Masculino , Inibidores de Metaloproteinases de Matriz/farmacologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Mutantes , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos , Progéria/metabolismo , Progéria/patologia , Proteômica/métodos
8.
Science ; 369(6503): 561-565, 2020 07 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732423

RESUMO

Most neuropsychiatric disease risk variants are in noncoding sequences and lack functional interpretation. Because regulatory sequences often reside in open chromatin, we reasoned that neuropsychiatric disease risk variants may affect chromatin accessibility during neurodevelopment. Using human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived neurons that model developing brains, we identified thousands of genetic variants exhibiting allele-specific open chromatin (ASoC). These neuronal ASoCs were partially driven by altered transcription factor binding, overrepresented in brain gene enhancers and expression quantitative trait loci, and frequently associated with distal genes through chromatin contacts. ASoCs were enriched for genetic variants associated with brain disorders, enabling identification of functional schizophrenia risk variants and their cis-target genes. This study highlights ASoC as a functional mechanism of noncoding neuropsychiatric risk variants, providing a powerful framework for identifying disease causal variants and genes.


Assuntos
Alelos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Cromatina/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Esquizofrenia/genética , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Risco
9.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008424, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745093

RESUMO

Zika virus (ZIKV) causes congenital Zika syndrome (CZS), which is characterized by fetal demise, microcephaly and other abnormalities. ZIKV in the pregnant woman circulation must cross the placental barrier that includes fetal endothelial cells and trophoblasts, in order to reach the fetus. CZS occurs in ~1-40% of cases of pregnant women infected by ZIKV, suggesting that mothers' infection by ZIKV during pregnancy is not deterministic for CZS phenotype in the fetus. Therefore, other susceptibility factors might be involved, including the host genetic background. We have previously shown that in three pairs of dizygotic twins discordant for CZS, neural progenitor cells (NPCs) from the CZS-affected twins presented differential in vitro ZIKV susceptibility compared with NPCs from the non-affected. Here, we analyzed human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived (hiPSC-derived) trophoblasts from these twins and compared by RNA-Seq the trophoblasts from CZS-affected and non-affected twins. Following in vitro exposure to a Brazilian ZIKV strain (ZIKVBR), trophoblasts from CZS-affected twins were significantly more susceptible to ZIKVBR infection when compared with trophoblasts from the non-affected. Transcriptome profiling revealed no differences in gene expression levels of ZIKV candidate attachment factors, IFN receptors and IFN in the trophoblasts, either before or after ZIKVBR infection. Most importantly, ZIKVBR infection caused, only in the trophoblasts from CZS-affected twins, the downregulation of genes related to extracellular matrix organization and to leukocyte activation, which are important for trophoblast adhesion and immune response activation. In addition, only trophoblasts from non-affected twins secreted significantly increased amounts of chemokines RANTES/CCL5 and IP10 after infection with ZIKVBR. Overall, our results showed that trophoblasts from non-affected twins have the ability to more efficiently activate genes that are known to play important roles in cell adhesion and in triggering the immune response to ZIKV infection in the placenta, and this may contribute to predict protection from ZIKV dissemination into fetuses' tissues.


Assuntos
Expressão Gênica , Trofoblastos/metabolismo , Gêmeos Dizigóticos , Infecção por Zika virus/congênito , Quimiocinas/metabolismo , Matriz Extracelular , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas , Lactente , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/genética , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Trofoblastos/virologia , Zika virus , Infecção por Zika virus/genética
10.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4178, 2020 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32826895

RESUMO

Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) is an autosomal-recessive neurodegenerative and cardiac disorder which occurs when transcription of the FXN gene is silenced due to an excessive expansion of GAA repeats into its first intron. Herein, we generate dorsal root ganglia organoids (DRG organoids) by in vitro differentiation of human iPSCs. Bulk and single-cell RNA sequencing show that DRG organoids present a transcriptional signature similar to native DRGs and display the main peripheral sensory neuronal and glial cell subtypes. Furthermore, when co-cultured with human intrafusal muscle fibers, DRG organoid sensory neurons contact their peripheral targets and reconstitute the muscle spindle proprioceptive receptors. FRDA DRG organoids model some molecular and cellular deficits of the disease that are rescued when the entire FXN intron 1 is removed, and not with the excision of the expanded GAA tract. These results strongly suggest that removal of the repressed chromatin flanking the GAA tract might contribute to rescue FXN total expression and fully revert the pathological hallmarks of FRDA DRG neurons.


Assuntos
Ataxia de Friedreich/genética , Ataxia de Friedreich/patologia , Gânglios Espinais/metabolismo , Edição de Genes/métodos , Proteínas de Ligação ao Ferro/genética , Organoides/metabolismo , Células Receptoras Sensoriais/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Diferenciação Celular , Cromatina/metabolismo , Ataxia de Friedreich/tratamento farmacológico , Gânglios Espinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Gânglios Espinais/patologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Íntrons , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Organoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Organoides/patologia , Células Receptoras Sensoriais/patologia , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Transcriptoma
11.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 140(8): 993-1000, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32741873

RESUMO

The human genome consists of more than 20000 genes and is essential for all biological phenomena. To understand these biological phenomena, including diseases, and to be able to modify them, approaches that enable optical control of the genome may be useful. Recently, we developed an optogenetic tool, named photoactivatable Cas9 (PA-Cas9). We divided Cas9 nuclease from the CRISPR-Cas9 system into two fragments and connected photo-inducible dimerization proteins, named Magnet system, to the fragments, leading to the development of PA-Cas9 of which nuclease activity is switchable with light. PA-Cas9 allows direct editing of DNA sequences by light stimulation. Additionally, we developed a light-inducible, RNA-guided programmable system for endogenous gene activation based on the CRISPR-Cas9 system. We demonstrated that this optogenetic tool allows rapid and reversible targeted gene activation by light. Using this tool, we exemplified optical control of neuronal differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). The CRISPR-Cas9-based, photoactivatable transcription system offers a simple and versatile approach to precise gene activation. In addition to the CRISPR-Cas9-based optogenetic tools, we developed a photoactivatable Cre-loxP system. This tool allows optical control of DNA recombination reaction in an internal organ even by external, noninvasive illumination using LED light source. To date, genome engineering technology and optogenetics technology have emerged separately as different applications. Our studies described above merge these emerging research fields together.


Assuntos
Proteína 9 Associada à CRISPR , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Engenharia Genética , Luz , Optogenética , Ativação Transcricional , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , DNA/genética , Edição de Genes , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/fisiologia , Camundongos , Recombinação Genética
12.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3848, 2020 07 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737286

RESUMO

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal disease characterized by the degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons (MNs). We find a significant reduction of the retromer complex subunit VPS35 in iPSCs-derived MNs from ALS patients, in MNs from ALS post mortem explants and in MNs from SOD1G93A mice. Being the retromer involved in trafficking of hydrolases, a pathological hallmark in ALS, we design, synthesize and characterize an array of retromer stabilizers based on bis-guanylhydrazones connected by a 1,3-phenyl ring linker. We select compound 2a as a potent and bioavailable interactor of VPS35-VPS29. Indeed, while increasing retromer stability in ALS mice, compound 2a attenuates locomotion impairment and increases MNs survival. Moreover, compound 2a increases VPS35 in iPSCs-derived MNs and shows brain bioavailability. Our results clearly suggest the retromer as a valuable druggable target in ALS.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/tratamento farmacológico , Hidrazonas/farmacologia , Neurônios Motores/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/genética , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/metabolismo , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/patologia , Animais , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Diferenciação Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Hidrazonas/síntese química , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Locomoção/efeitos dos fármacos , Locomoção/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Neurônios Motores/metabolismo , Neurônios Motores/patologia , Neuroproteção/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/síntese química , Ligação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Multimerização Proteica , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Superóxido Dismutase-1/genética , Superóxido Dismutase-1/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/metabolismo
13.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4038, 2020 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788587

RESUMO

Asparaginyl-tRNA synthetase1 (NARS1) is a member of the ubiquitously expressed cytoplasmic Class IIa family of tRNA synthetases required for protein translation. Here, we identify biallelic missense and frameshift mutations in NARS1 in seven patients from three unrelated families with microcephaly and neurodevelopmental delay. Patient cells show reduced NARS1 protein, impaired NARS1 activity and impaired global protein synthesis. Cortical brain organoid modeling shows reduced proliferation of radial glial cells (RGCs), leading to smaller organoids characteristic of microcephaly. Single-cell analysis reveals altered constituents of both astrocytic and RGC lineages, suggesting a requirement for NARS1 in RGC proliferation. Our findings demonstrate that NARS1 is required to meet protein synthetic needs and to support RGC proliferation in human brain development.


Assuntos
Aspartato-tRNA Ligase/deficiência , Aspartato-tRNA Ligase/genética , Córtex Cerebral/patologia , Microcefalia/genética , Células-Tronco Neurais/patologia , Organoides/patologia , Aminoacil-RNA de Transferência/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Sequência de Bases , Diferenciação Celular , Proliferação de Células , Tamanho Celular , Sobrevivência Celular , Criança , Família , Feminino , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/patologia , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Antígeno Ki-67/metabolismo , Masculino , Mutação/genética , Células-Tronco Neurais/metabolismo , Neuroglia/metabolismo , Linhagem , Adulto Jovem
14.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(8): e1008109, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797034

RESUMO

In the last decade, there has been tremendous progress in identifying genetic anomalies linked to clinical disease. New experimental platforms have connected genetic variants to mechanisms underlying disruption of cellular and organ behavior and the emergence of proarrhythmic cardiac phenotypes. The development of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CMs) signifies an important advance in the study of genetic disease in a patient-specific context. However, considerable limitations of iPSC-CM technologies have not been addressed: 1) phenotypic variability in apparently identical genotype perturbations, 2) low-throughput electrophysiological measurements, and 3) an immature phenotype which may impact translation to adult cardiac response. We have developed a computational approach intended to address these problems. We applied our recent iPSC-CM computational model to predict the proarrhythmic risk of 40 KCNQ1 genetic variants. An IKs computational model was fit to experimental data for each mutation, and the impact of each mutation was simulated in a population of iPSC-CM models. Using a test set of 15 KCNQ1 mutations with known clinical long QT phenotypes, we developed a method to stratify the effects of KCNQ1 mutations based on proarrhythmic markers. We utilized this method to predict the severity of the remaining 25 KCNQ1 mutations with unknown clinical significance. Tremendous phenotypic variability was observed in the iPSC-CM model population following mutant perturbations. A key novelty is our reporting of the impact of individual KCNQ1 mutant models on adult ventricular cardiomyocyte electrophysiology, allowing for prediction of mutant impact across the continuum of aging. This serves as a first step toward translating predicted response in the iPSC-CM model to predicted response of the adult ventricular myocyte given the same genetic mutation. As a whole, this study presents a new computational framework that serves as a high throughput method to evaluate risk of genetic mutations based-on proarrhythmic behavior in phenotypically variable populations.


Assuntos
Canal de Potássio KCNQ1/genética , Modelos Cardiovasculares , Mutação/genética , Miócitos Cardíacos , Arritmias Cardíacas/genética , Biologia Computacional , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/classificação , Miócitos Cardíacos/citologia
15.
Nature ; 586(7827): 113-119, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32707573

RESUMO

The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in 2019 has triggered an ongoing global pandemic of the severe pneumonia-like disease coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)1. The development of a vaccine is likely to take at least 12-18 months, and the typical timeline for approval of a new antiviral therapeutic agent can exceed 10 years. Thus, repurposing of known drugs could substantially accelerate the deployment of new therapies for COVID-19. Here we profiled a library of drugs encompassing approximately 12,000 clinical-stage or Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved small molecules to identify candidate therapeutic drugs for COVID-19. We report the identification of 100 molecules that inhibit viral replication of SARS-CoV-2, including 21 drugs that exhibit dose-response relationships. Of these, thirteen were found to harbour effective concentrations commensurate with probable achievable therapeutic doses in patients, including the PIKfyve kinase inhibitor apilimod2-4 and the cysteine protease inhibitors MDL-28170, Z LVG CHN2, VBY-825 and ONO 5334. Notably, MDL-28170, ONO 5334 and apilimod were found to antagonize viral replication in human pneumocyte-like cells derived from induced pluripotent stem cells, and apilimod also demonstrated antiviral efficacy in a primary human lung explant model. Since most of the molecules identified in this study have already advanced into the clinic, their known pharmacological and human safety profiles will enable accelerated preclinical and clinical evaluation of these drugs for the treatment of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Antivirais/análise , Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Monofosfato de Adenosina/farmacologia , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/farmacologia , Células Epiteliais Alveolares/citologia , Células Epiteliais Alveolares/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Linhagem Celular , Inibidores de Cisteína Proteinase/análise , Inibidores de Cisteína Proteinase/farmacologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Modelos Biológicos , Morfolinas/análise , Morfolinas/farmacologia , Pandemias , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/análise , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Triazinas/análise , Triazinas/farmacologia , Internalização do Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(31): 18412-18423, 2020 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32694205

RESUMO

Stem cells with the capability to self-renew and differentiate into multiple cell derivatives provide platforms for drug screening and promising treatment options for a wide variety of neural diseases. Nevertheless, clinical applications of stem cells have been hindered partly owing to a lack of standardized techniques to characterize cell molecular profiles noninvasively and comprehensively. Here, we demonstrate that a label-free and noninvasive single-cell Raman microspectroscopy (SCRM) platform was able to identify neural cell lineages derived from clinically relevant human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). By analyzing the intrinsic biochemical profiles of single cells at a large scale (8,774 Raman spectra in total), iPSCs and iPSC-derived neural cells can be distinguished by their intrinsic phenotypic Raman spectra. We identified a Raman biomarker from glycogen to distinguish iPSCs from their neural derivatives, and the result was verified by the conventional glycogen detection assays. Further analysis with a machine learning classification model, utilizing t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding (t-SNE)-enhanced ensemble stacking, clearly categorized hiPSCs in different developmental stages with 97.5% accuracy. The present study demonstrates the capability of the SCRM-based platform to monitor cell development using high content screening with a noninvasive and label-free approach. This platform as well as our identified biomarker could be extensible to other cell types and can potentially have a high impact on neural stem cell therapy.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Neurônios/citologia , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Análise Espectral Raman/métodos , Diferenciação Celular , Humanos
17.
Med Sci (Paris) ; 36(6-7): 600-606, 2020.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614311

RESUMO

In inherited retinal diseases such retinitis pigmentosa, characterized by progressive loss of light sensitive neurons (photoreceptors), cell therapy is now considered as an attractive strategy. Photoreceptor cell replacement would be valuable for restoring function to retinas in a way that is independent from the cause of the disease. With advances in stem cell biology, considerable strides have been made towards the generation of retinal cells, in particular with the development of 3D culture systems allowing the generation of retinal organoids from pluripotent stem cells. In this review, we present a state-of-the art of preclinical strategies conducted in animal models for photoreceptor replacement from stem cell-derived photoreceptors and we discuss the important obstacles to overcome in the future.


Assuntos
Células Fotorreceptoras/transplante , Retinite Pigmentosa/terapia , Terapias em Estudo/métodos , Terapias em Estudo/tendências , Animais , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/transplante , Organoides/citologia , Organoides/fisiologia , Células Fotorreceptoras/citologia , Células Fotorreceptoras/fisiologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/citologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/transplante , Retina/citologia , Retina/embriologia , Retina/transplante , Degeneração Retiniana/terapia , Retinite Pigmentosa/patologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos , Coleta de Tecidos e Órgãos/métodos , Coleta de Tecidos e Órgãos/normas , Coleta de Tecidos e Órgãos/tendências
18.
J Oral Sci ; 62(4): 393-396, 2020 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32684574

RESUMO

Stage-specific embryonic antigens (SSEA-1, 3, and 4) are carbohydrate antigens that have been used as markers of embryonic stem (ES) cells. However, the roles of these antigens in the establishment and maintenance of stemness of ES and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are still poorly understood. This study investigated the biological and functional significance of globo-series glycolipids such as SSEA-3 and 4 in mouse iPS cells induced from tail-tip fibroblasts (TTFs) of α1,4Gal-T-knockout mice (lacking SSEA-3 and 4). These iPS cells were induced by retroviral transduction of four factors (Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc) into TTFs, and colonies were picked up. Morphologically, the colonies resembled ES cells and were positive for alkaline phosphatase and ES cell markers. Furthermore, in vitro-differentiated induction experiments after embryoid body formation revealed that some colonies derived from α1, 4Gal-T knockout mice were able to differentiate into three germ layers. Three germ layers were also observed in teratomas from iPS cells derived from α1,4Gal-T-knockout mice. These results suggest that SSEA-3 and 4 are not essential, at least for the establishment and maintenance of stemness of mouse iPS cells.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Embrionárias , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas , Animais , Antígenos Glicosídicos Associados a Tumores , Diferenciação Celular , Células Cultivadas , Fibroblastos , Camundongos , Antígenos Embrionários Estágio-Específicos
19.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3791, 2020 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32728089

RESUMO

Brain organoids are promising tools for disease modeling and drug development. For proper neuronal network formation excitatory and inhibitory neurons as well as glia need to co-develop. Here, we report the directed self-organization of human induced pluripotent stem cells in a collagen hydrogel towards a highly interconnected neuronal network at a macroscale tissue format. Bioengineered Neuronal Organoids (BENOs) comprise interconnected excitatory and inhibitory neurons with supportive astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. Giant depolarizing potential (GDP)-like events observed in early BENO cultures mimic early network activity of the fetal brain. The observed GABA polarity switch and reduced GDPs in >40 day BENO indicate progressive neuronal network maturation. BENOs demonstrate expedited complex network burst development after two months and evidence for long-term potentiation. The similarity of structural and functional properties to the fetal brain may allow for the application of BENOs in studies of neuronal plasticity and modeling of disease.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/citologia , Neurogênese , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Organoides/fisiologia , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos , Potenciais de Ação/fisiologia , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Diferenciação Celular , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/metabolismo
20.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3369, 2020 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32632153

RESUMO

Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived dopaminergic (DA) neurons are an expected source for cell-based therapies for Parkinson's disease (PD). The regulatory criteria for the clinical application of these therapies, however, have not been established. Here we show the results of our pre-clinical study, in which we evaluate the safety and efficacy of dopaminergic progenitors (DAPs) derived from a clinical-grade human iPSC line. We confirm the characteristics of DAPs by in vitro analyses. We also verify that the DAP population include no residual undifferentiated iPSCs or early neural stem cells and have no genetic aberration in cancer-related genes. Furthermore, in vivo studies using immunodeficient mice reveal no tumorigenicity or toxicity of the cells. When the DAPs are transplanted into the striatum of 6-OHDA-lesioned rats, the animals show behavioral improvement. Based on these results, we started a clinical trial to treat PD patients in 2018.


Assuntos
Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/citologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Células-Tronco Neurais/transplante , Doença de Parkinson/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco/métodos , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Linhagem Celular , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Dopamina/metabolismo , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/metabolismo , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Macaca fascicularis , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos SCID , Células-Tronco Neurais/citologia , Células-Tronco Neurais/metabolismo , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/métodos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Ratos Nus , Transplante Heterólogo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA