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1.
Yonsei Med J ; 61(9): 816-825, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882766

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To understand the pathophysiology of Best disease (BD) and autosomal recessive bestrophinopathy (ARB) by establishing an in vitro model using human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human iPSC lines were generated from mononuclear cells in peripheral blood of one ARB patient, one autosomal dominant BD patient, and two normal controls. Immunocytochemistry and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in iPSC lines were conducted to demonstrate the pluripotent markers. After the differentiation of iPSC into functional retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), morphological characteristics of the RPE were evaluated using confocal microscopy and immunocytochemistry. The rates of fluid flow across iPSC-RPE monolayer were measured to compare apical to basal fluid transports by RPE. RNA sequencing was performed on iPSC-RPE to identify the differences in gene expression profiles, and specific gene sets were tested using Gene Set Enrichment Analysis. RESULTS: Morphological characteristics, gene expression, and epithelial integrity of ARB iPSC were comparable to those of BD patient or normal control. Fluid transport from apical to basal was significantly decreased in ARB iPSC-RPE compared with BD iPSC-RPE or control iPSC-RPE. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis confirmed that ARB iPSC-RPE exhibited significant enrichments of epithelial-mesenchymal transition gene set and TNF-α signaling via NF-κB gene set compared to control iPSC-RPE or BD iPSC-RPE. CONCLUSION: A human iPSC model of ARB showed a functional deficiency rather than anatomical defects. ARB may be caused by RPE dysfunction following BEST1 mutation.


Assuntos
Bestrofinas/genética , Oftalmopatias Hereditárias/genética , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas , Doenças Retinianas/genética , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina , Distrofia Macular Viteliforme/genética , Distrofia Macular Viteliforme/fisiopatologia , Diferenciação Celular , Canais de Cloreto/genética , Canais de Cloreto/metabolismo , Oftalmopatias Hereditárias/diagnóstico , Oftalmopatias Hereditárias/metabolismo , Oftalmopatias Hereditárias/patologia , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Doenças Retinianas/diagnóstico , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/metabolismo , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/fisiopatologia , Transtornos da Visão , Acuidade Visual , Distrofia Macular Viteliforme/metabolismo
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4110, 2020 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32807790

RESUMO

Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS) is a premature aging disease in children that leads to early death. Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are the most affected cells in HGPS individuals, although the reason for such vulnerability remains poorly understood. In this work, we develop a microfluidic chip formed by HGPS-SMCs generated from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), to study their vulnerability to flow shear stress. HGPS-iPSC SMCs cultured under arterial flow conditions detach from the chip after a few days of culture; this process is mediated by the upregulation of metalloprotease 13 (MMP13). Importantly, double-mutant LmnaG609G/G609GMmp13-/- mice or LmnaG609G/G609GMmp13+/+ mice treated with a MMP inhibitor show lower SMC loss in the aortic arch than controls. MMP13 upregulation appears to be mediated, at least in part, by the upregulation of glycocalyx. Our HGPS-SMCs chip represents a platform for developing treatments for HGPS individuals that may complement previous pre-clinical and clinical treatments.


Assuntos
Metaloproteinase 13 da Matriz/metabolismo , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Animais , Biotecnologia/métodos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Lamina Tipo A/genética , Lamina Tipo A/metabolismo , Masculino , Inibidores de Metaloproteinases de Matriz/farmacologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Mutantes , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos , Progéria/metabolismo , Progéria/patologia , Proteômica/métodos
4.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0233582, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735620

RESUMO

The craniofacial developmental disorder Burn-McKeown Syndrome (BMKS) is caused by biallelic variants in the pre-messenger RNA splicing factor gene TXNL4A/DIB1. The majority of affected individuals with BMKS have a 34 base pair deletion in the promoter region of one allele of TXNL4A combined with a loss-of-function variant on the other allele, resulting in reduced TXNL4A expression. However, it is unclear how reduced expression of this ubiquitously expressed spliceosome protein results in craniofacial defects during development. Here we reprogrammed peripheral mononuclear blood cells from a BMKS patient and her unaffected mother into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and differentiated the iPSCs into induced neural crest cells (iNCCs), the key cell type required for correct craniofacial development. BMKS patient-derived iPSCs proliferated more slowly than both mother- and unrelated control-derived iPSCs, and RNA-Seq analysis revealed significant differences in gene expression and alternative splicing. Patient iPSCs displayed defective differentiation into iNCCs compared to maternal and unrelated control iPSCs, in particular a delay in undergoing an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). RNA-Seq analysis of differentiated iNCCs revealed widespread gene expression changes and mis-splicing in genes relevant to craniofacial and embryonic development that highlight a dampened response to WNT signalling, the key pathway activated during iNCC differentiation. Furthermore, we identified the mis-splicing of TCF7L2 exon 4, a key gene in the WNT pathway, as a potential cause of the downregulated WNT response in patient cells. Additionally, mis-spliced genes shared common sequence properties such as length, branch point to 3' splice site (BPS-3'SS) distance and splice site strengths, suggesting that splicing of particular subsets of genes is particularly sensitive to changes in TXNL4A expression. Together, these data provide the first insight into how reduced TXNL4A expression in BMKS patients might compromise splicing and NCC function, resulting in defective craniofacial development in the embryo.


Assuntos
Processamento Alternativo , Atresia das Cóanas/patologia , Surdez/congênito , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Cardiopatias Congênitas/patologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Modelos Biológicos , Ribonucleoproteína Nuclear Pequena U5/deficiência , Spliceossomos/fisiologia , Apoptose , Diferenciação Celular , Técnicas de Reprogramação Celular , Atresia das Cóanas/genética , Células Clonais , Surdez/genética , Surdez/patologia , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Éxons/genética , Face/embriologia , Facies , Feminino , Cabeça/embriologia , Cardiopatias Congênitas/genética , Humanos , Crista Neural/citologia , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Sítios de Splice de RNA , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ribonucleoproteína Nuclear Pequena U5/genética , Deleção de Sequência , Proteína 2 Semelhante ao Fator 7 de Transcrição/genética , Via de Sinalização Wnt
5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3848, 2020 07 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737286

RESUMO

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal disease characterized by the degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons (MNs). We find a significant reduction of the retromer complex subunit VPS35 in iPSCs-derived MNs from ALS patients, in MNs from ALS post mortem explants and in MNs from SOD1G93A mice. Being the retromer involved in trafficking of hydrolases, a pathological hallmark in ALS, we design, synthesize and characterize an array of retromer stabilizers based on bis-guanylhydrazones connected by a 1,3-phenyl ring linker. We select compound 2a as a potent and bioavailable interactor of VPS35-VPS29. Indeed, while increasing retromer stability in ALS mice, compound 2a attenuates locomotion impairment and increases MNs survival. Moreover, compound 2a increases VPS35 in iPSCs-derived MNs and shows brain bioavailability. Our results clearly suggest the retromer as a valuable druggable target in ALS.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/tratamento farmacológico , Hidrazonas/farmacologia , Neurônios Motores/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/genética , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/metabolismo , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/patologia , Animais , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Diferenciação Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Hidrazonas/síntese química , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Locomoção/efeitos dos fármacos , Locomoção/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Neurônios Motores/metabolismo , Neurônios Motores/patologia , Neuroproteção/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/síntese química , Ligação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Multimerização Proteica , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Superóxido Dismutase-1/genética , Superóxido Dismutase-1/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/metabolismo
6.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(8): e1008109, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797034

RESUMO

In the last decade, there has been tremendous progress in identifying genetic anomalies linked to clinical disease. New experimental platforms have connected genetic variants to mechanisms underlying disruption of cellular and organ behavior and the emergence of proarrhythmic cardiac phenotypes. The development of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CMs) signifies an important advance in the study of genetic disease in a patient-specific context. However, considerable limitations of iPSC-CM technologies have not been addressed: 1) phenotypic variability in apparently identical genotype perturbations, 2) low-throughput electrophysiological measurements, and 3) an immature phenotype which may impact translation to adult cardiac response. We have developed a computational approach intended to address these problems. We applied our recent iPSC-CM computational model to predict the proarrhythmic risk of 40 KCNQ1 genetic variants. An IKs computational model was fit to experimental data for each mutation, and the impact of each mutation was simulated in a population of iPSC-CM models. Using a test set of 15 KCNQ1 mutations with known clinical long QT phenotypes, we developed a method to stratify the effects of KCNQ1 mutations based on proarrhythmic markers. We utilized this method to predict the severity of the remaining 25 KCNQ1 mutations with unknown clinical significance. Tremendous phenotypic variability was observed in the iPSC-CM model population following mutant perturbations. A key novelty is our reporting of the impact of individual KCNQ1 mutant models on adult ventricular cardiomyocyte electrophysiology, allowing for prediction of mutant impact across the continuum of aging. This serves as a first step toward translating predicted response in the iPSC-CM model to predicted response of the adult ventricular myocyte given the same genetic mutation. As a whole, this study presents a new computational framework that serves as a high throughput method to evaluate risk of genetic mutations based-on proarrhythmic behavior in phenotypically variable populations.


Assuntos
Canal de Potássio KCNQ1/genética , Modelos Cardiovasculares , Mutação/genética , Miócitos Cardíacos , Arritmias Cardíacas/genética , Biologia Computacional , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/classificação , Miócitos Cardíacos/citologia
7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3881, 2020 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753572

RESUMO

Cells typically respond to chemical or physical perturbations via complex signaling cascades which can simultaneously affect multiple physiological parameters, such as membrane voltage, calcium, pH, and redox potential. Protein-based fluorescent sensors can report many of these parameters, but spectral overlap prevents more than ~4 modalities from being recorded in parallel. Here we introduce the technique, MOSAIC, Multiplexed Optical Sensors in Arrayed Islands of Cells, where patterning of fluorescent sensor-encoding lentiviral vectors with a microarray printer enables parallel recording of multiple modalities. We demonstrate simultaneous recordings from 20 sensors in parallel in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells and in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs), and we describe responses to metabolic and pharmacological perturbations. Together, these results show that MOSAIC can provide rich multi-modal data on complex physiological responses in multiple cell types.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Microscopia de Fluorescência/métodos , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Imagem Óptica/métodos , Potenciais de Ação/efeitos dos fármacos , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/farmacologia , Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Cálcio/química , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/citologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/fisiologia , Imagem Óptica/instrumentação , Oxidantes/farmacologia , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Propanolaminas/farmacologia
8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3369, 2020 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32632153

RESUMO

Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived dopaminergic (DA) neurons are an expected source for cell-based therapies for Parkinson's disease (PD). The regulatory criteria for the clinical application of these therapies, however, have not been established. Here we show the results of our pre-clinical study, in which we evaluate the safety and efficacy of dopaminergic progenitors (DAPs) derived from a clinical-grade human iPSC line. We confirm the characteristics of DAPs by in vitro analyses. We also verify that the DAP population include no residual undifferentiated iPSCs or early neural stem cells and have no genetic aberration in cancer-related genes. Furthermore, in vivo studies using immunodeficient mice reveal no tumorigenicity or toxicity of the cells. When the DAPs are transplanted into the striatum of 6-OHDA-lesioned rats, the animals show behavioral improvement. Based on these results, we started a clinical trial to treat PD patients in 2018.


Assuntos
Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/citologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Células-Tronco Neurais/transplante , Doença de Parkinson/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco/métodos , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Linhagem Celular , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Dopamina/metabolismo , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/metabolismo , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Macaca fascicularis , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos SCID , Células-Tronco Neurais/citologia , Células-Tronco Neurais/metabolismo , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/métodos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Ratos Nus , Transplante Heterólogo
9.
Curr Protoc Stem Cell Biol ; 54(1): e118, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32640120

RESUMO

The normal development of the pulmonary system is critical to transitioning from placental-dependent fetal life to alveolar-dependent newborn life. Human lung development and disease have been difficult to study due to the lack of an in vitro model system containing cells from the large airways and distal alveolus. This article describes a system that allows human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) to differentiate and form three-dimensional (3D) structures that emulate the development, cytoarchitecture, and function of the lung ("organoids"), containing epithelial and mesenchymal cell populations, and including the production of surfactant and presence of ciliated cells. The organoids can also be invested with mesoderm derivatives, differentiated from the same human pluripotent stem cells, such as alveolar macrophages and vasculature. Such lung organoids may be used to study the impact of environmental modifiers and perturbagens (toxins, microbial or viral pathogens, alterations in microbiome) or the efficacy and safety of drugs, biologics, and gene transfer. © 2020 Wiley Periodicals LLC. Basic Protocol: hESC/hiPSC dissection, definitive endoderm formation, and lung progenitor cell induction.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Pulmão/citologia , Organoides/citologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Infecções Respiratórias/patologia , Betacoronavirus , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Diferenciação Celular , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Endoderma/citologia , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Humanas/citologia , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Pulmão/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pulmão/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Pandemias , Modelagem Computacional Específica para o Paciente , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Infecções Respiratórias/terapia , Imagem com Lapso de Tempo
10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(30): 17842-17853, 2020 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669437

RESUMO

Stem cells are capable of unlimited proliferation but can be induced to form brain cells. Factors that specifically regulate human development are poorly understood. We found that human stem cells expressed high levels of the envelope protein of an endogenized human-specific retrovirus (HERV-K, HML-2) from loci in chromosomes 12 and 19. The envelope protein was expressed on the cell membrane of the stem cells and was critical in maintaining the stemness via interactions with CD98HC, leading to triggering of human-specific signaling pathways involving mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase (LPCAT1)-mediated epigenetic changes. Down-regulation or epigenetic silencing of HML-2 env resulted in dissociation of the stem cell colonies and enhanced differentiation along neuronal pathways. Thus HML-2 regulation is critical for human embryonic and neurodevelopment, while it's dysregulation may play a role in tumorigenesis and neurodegeneration.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular , Retrovirus Endógenos/fisiologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Biomarcadores , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Autorrenovação Celular/genética , Cadeia Pesada da Proteína-1 Reguladora de Fusão/metabolismo , Regulação Viral da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neurais/citologia , Células-Tronco Neurais/metabolismo , Neurônios/citologia , Ligação Proteica , Células-Tronco/citologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/genética
11.
Med Sci (Paris) ; 36(6-7): 600-606, 2020.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614311

RESUMO

In inherited retinal diseases such retinitis pigmentosa, characterized by progressive loss of light sensitive neurons (photoreceptors), cell therapy is now considered as an attractive strategy. Photoreceptor cell replacement would be valuable for restoring function to retinas in a way that is independent from the cause of the disease. With advances in stem cell biology, considerable strides have been made towards the generation of retinal cells, in particular with the development of 3D culture systems allowing the generation of retinal organoids from pluripotent stem cells. In this review, we present a state-of-the art of preclinical strategies conducted in animal models for photoreceptor replacement from stem cell-derived photoreceptors and we discuss the important obstacles to overcome in the future.


Assuntos
Células Fotorreceptoras/transplante , Retinite Pigmentosa/terapia , Terapias em Estudo/métodos , Terapias em Estudo/tendências , Animais , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/transplante , Organoides/citologia , Organoides/fisiologia , Células Fotorreceptoras/citologia , Células Fotorreceptoras/fisiologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/citologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/transplante , Retina/citologia , Retina/embriologia , Retina/transplante , Degeneração Retiniana/terapia , Retinite Pigmentosa/patologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos , Coleta de Tecidos e Órgãos/métodos , Coleta de Tecidos e Órgãos/normas , Coleta de Tecidos e Órgãos/tendências
12.
Nature ; 586(7827): 113-119, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32707573

RESUMO

The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in 2019 has triggered an ongoing global pandemic of the severe pneumonia-like disease coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)1. The development of a vaccine is likely to take at least 12-18 months, and the typical timeline for approval of a new antiviral therapeutic agent can exceed 10 years. Thus, repurposing of known drugs could substantially accelerate the deployment of new therapies for COVID-19. Here we profiled a library of drugs encompassing approximately 12,000 clinical-stage or Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved small molecules to identify candidate therapeutic drugs for COVID-19. We report the identification of 100 molecules that inhibit viral replication of SARS-CoV-2, including 21 drugs that exhibit dose-response relationships. Of these, thirteen were found to harbour effective concentrations commensurate with probable achievable therapeutic doses in patients, including the PIKfyve kinase inhibitor apilimod2-4 and the cysteine protease inhibitors MDL-28170, Z LVG CHN2, VBY-825 and ONO 5334. Notably, MDL-28170, ONO 5334 and apilimod were found to antagonize viral replication in human pneumocyte-like cells derived from induced pluripotent stem cells, and apilimod also demonstrated antiviral efficacy in a primary human lung explant model. Since most of the molecules identified in this study have already advanced into the clinic, their known pharmacological and human safety profiles will enable accelerated preclinical and clinical evaluation of these drugs for the treatment of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Antivirais/análise , Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Monofosfato de Adenosina/farmacologia , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/farmacologia , Células Epiteliais Alveolares/citologia , Células Epiteliais Alveolares/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Linhagem Celular , Inibidores de Cisteína Proteinase/análise , Inibidores de Cisteína Proteinase/farmacologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Modelos Biológicos , Morfolinas/análise , Morfolinas/farmacologia , Pandemias , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/análise , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Triazinas/análise , Triazinas/farmacologia , Internalização do Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(31): 18412-18423, 2020 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32694205

RESUMO

Stem cells with the capability to self-renew and differentiate into multiple cell derivatives provide platforms for drug screening and promising treatment options for a wide variety of neural diseases. Nevertheless, clinical applications of stem cells have been hindered partly owing to a lack of standardized techniques to characterize cell molecular profiles noninvasively and comprehensively. Here, we demonstrate that a label-free and noninvasive single-cell Raman microspectroscopy (SCRM) platform was able to identify neural cell lineages derived from clinically relevant human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). By analyzing the intrinsic biochemical profiles of single cells at a large scale (8,774 Raman spectra in total), iPSCs and iPSC-derived neural cells can be distinguished by their intrinsic phenotypic Raman spectra. We identified a Raman biomarker from glycogen to distinguish iPSCs from their neural derivatives, and the result was verified by the conventional glycogen detection assays. Further analysis with a machine learning classification model, utilizing t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding (t-SNE)-enhanced ensemble stacking, clearly categorized hiPSCs in different developmental stages with 97.5% accuracy. The present study demonstrates the capability of the SCRM-based platform to monitor cell development using high content screening with a noninvasive and label-free approach. This platform as well as our identified biomarker could be extensible to other cell types and can potentially have a high impact on neural stem cell therapy.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Neurônios/citologia , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Análise Espectral Raman/métodos , Diferenciação Celular , Humanos
14.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234087, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32511282

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ventricular septal perforation and left ventricular aneurysm are examples of potentially fatal complications of myocardial infarction. While various artificial materials are used in the repair of these issues, the possibility of associated infection and calcification is non-negligible. Cell-seeded biodegradable tissue-engineered patches may be a potential solution. This study evaluated the feasibility of a new left ventricular patch rat model to study neotissue formation in biodegradable cardiac patches. METHODS: Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiac progenitor cells (hiPS-CPCs) were cultured onto biodegradable patches composed of polyglycolic acid and a 50:50 poly (l-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) copolymer for one week. After culturing, patches were implanted into left ventricular walls of male athymic rats. Unseeded controls were also used (n = 10/group). Heart conditions were followed by echocardiography and patches were subsequently explanted at 1, 2, 6, and 9 months post-implantation for histological evaluation. RESULT: Throughout the study, no patches ruptured demonstrating the ability to withstand the high pressure left ventricular system. One month after transplantation, the seeded patch did not stain positive for human nuclei. However, many new blood vessels formed within patches with significantly greater vessels in the seeded group at the 6 month time point. Echocardiography showed no significant difference in left ventricular contraction rate between the two groups. Calcification was found inside patches after 6 months, but there was no significant difference between groups. CONCLUSION: We have developed a surgical method to implant a bioabsorbable scaffold into the left ventricular environment of rats with a high survival rate. Seeded hiPS-CPCs did not differentiate into cardiomyocytes, but the greater number of new blood vessels in seeded patches suggests the presence of cell seeding early in the remodeling process might provide a prolonged effect on neotissue formation. This experiment will contribute to the development of a treatment model for left ventricular failure using iPS cells in the future.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/citologia , Engenharia Tecidual , Implantes Absorvíveis , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ecocardiografia , Ventrículos do Coração/metabolismo , Ventrículos do Coração/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Infarto do Miocárdio/patologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/transplante , Poliésteres/química , Ácido Poliglicólico/química , Ratos , Ratos Nus , Tecidos Suporte/química , Troponina T/metabolismo , Função Ventricular
15.
Mol Cell ; 79(3): 521-534.e15, 2020 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32592681

RESUMO

Genome-wide mapping of chromatin interactions at high resolution remains experimentally and computationally challenging. Here we used a low-input "easy Hi-C" protocol to map the 3D genome architecture in human neurogenesis and brain tissues and also demonstrated that a rigorous Hi-C bias-correction pipeline (HiCorr) can significantly improve the sensitivity and robustness of Hi-C loop identification at sub-TAD level, especially the enhancer-promoter (E-P) interactions. We used HiCorr to compare the high-resolution maps of chromatin interactions from 10 tissue or cell types with a focus on neurogenesis and brain tissues. We found that dynamic chromatin loops are better hallmarks for cellular differentiation than compartment switching. HiCorr allowed direct observation of cell-type- and differentiation-specific E-P aggregates spanning large neighborhoods, suggesting a mechanism that stabilizes enhancer contacts during development. Interestingly, we concluded that Hi-C loop outperforms eQTL in explaining neurological GWAS results, revealing a unique value of high-resolution 3D genome maps in elucidating the disease etiology.


Assuntos
Cromatina/metabolismo , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Genoma Humano , Neurogênese/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Adulto , Linhagem Celular , Cérebro/citologia , Cérebro/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cérebro/metabolismo , Cromatina/ultraestrutura , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Feto , Histonas/genética , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/classificação , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neurais/citologia , Células-Tronco Neurais/metabolismo , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/genética , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/metabolismo , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/patologia , Neurônios/citologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Lobo Temporal/citologia , Lobo Temporal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lobo Temporal/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/classificação , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
16.
Hum Genomics ; 14(1): 25, 2020 06 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32591003

RESUMO

Human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) and CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing system represent two instruments of basic and translational research, which both allow to acquire deep insight about the molecular bases of many diseases but also to develop pharmacological research.This review is focused to draw up the latest technique of gene editing applied on hiPSCs, exploiting some of the genetic manipulation directed to the discovery of innovative therapeutic strategies. There are many expediencies provided by the use of hiPSCs, which can represent a disease model clinically relevant and predictive, with a great potential if associated to CRISPR/Cas9 technology, a gene editing tool powered by ease and precision never seen before.Here, we describe the possible applications of CRISPR/Cas9 to hiPSCs: from drug development to drug screening and from gene therapy to the induction of the immunological response to specific virus infection, such as HIV and SARS-Cov-2.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Descoberta de Drogas , Edição de Genes , Terapia Genética , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Viroses/terapia , Animais , Reprogramação Celular , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/transplante , Viroses/genética
17.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233980, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32511247

RESUMO

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory and demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) that results in variable severities of neurodegeneration. The understanding of MS has been limited by the inaccessibility of the affected cells and the lengthy timeframe of disease development. However, recent advances in stem cell technology have facilitated the bypassing of some of these challenges. Towards gaining a greater understanding of the innate potential of stem cells from people with varying degrees of disability, we generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from peripheral blood mononuclear cells derived from stable and progressive MS patients, and then further differentiated them into oligodendrocyte (OL) lineage cells. We analyzed differentiation under both homeostatic and inflammatory conditions via sustained exposure to low-dose interferon gamma (IFNγ), a prominent cytokine in MS. We found that all iPSC lines differentiated into mature myelinating OLs, but chronic exposure to IFNγ dramatically inhibited differentiation in both MS groups, particularly if exposure was initiated during the pre-progenitor stage. Low-dose IFNγ was not toxic but led to an early upregulation of interferon response genes in OPCs followed by an apparent redirection in lineage commitment from OL to a neuron-like phenotype in a significant portion of the treated cells. Our results reveal that a chronic low-grade inflammatory environment may have profound effects on the efficacy of regenerative therapies.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Esclerose Múltipla Crônica Progressiva/patologia , Oligodendroglia/citologia , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Homeostase , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/fisiologia , Inflamação/patologia , Interferon gama/farmacologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/citologia , Regeneração
18.
J Vis Exp ; (160)2020 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32597877

RESUMO

The current protocol describes methods to generate scalable, mesh-shaped engineered cardiac tissues (ECTs) composed of cardiovascular cells derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), which are developed towards the goal of clinical use. HiPSC-derived cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, and vascular mural cells are mixed with gel matrix and then poured into a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) tissue mold with rectangular internal staggered posts. By culture day 14 ECTs mature into a 1.5 cm x 1.5 cm mesh structure with 0.5 mm diameter myofiber bundles. Cardiomyocytes align to the long-axis of each bundle and spontaneously beat synchronously. This approach can be scaled up to a larger (3.0 cm x 3.0 cm) mesh ECT while preserving construct maturation and function. Thus, mesh-shaped ECTs generated from hiPSC-derived cardiac cells may be feasible for cardiac regeneration paradigms.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/métodos , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos , Células Endoteliais/citologia , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia
19.
J Vis Exp ; (160)2020 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32597849

RESUMO

The cerebellum plays a critical role in the maintenance of balance and motor coordination, and a functional defect in different cerebellar neurons can trigger cerebellar dysfunction. Most of the current knowledge about disease-related neuronal phenotypes is based on postmortem tissues, which makes understanding of disease progression and development difficult. Animal models and immortalized cell lines have also been used as models for neurodegenerative disorders. However, they do not fully recapitulate human disease. Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have great potential for disease modeling and provide a valuable source for regenerative approaches. In recent years, the generation of cerebral organoids from patient-derived iPSCs improved the prospects for neurodegenerative disease modeling. However, protocols that produce large numbers of organoids and a high yield of mature neurons in 3D culture systems are lacking. The protocol presented is a new approach for reproducible and scalable generation of human iPSC-derived organoids under chemically-defined conditions using scalable single-use bioreactors, in which organoids acquire cerebellar identity. The generated organoids are characterized by the expression of specific markers at both mRNA and protein level. The analysis of specific groups of proteins allows the detection of different cerebellar cell populations, whose localization is important for the evaluation of organoid structure. Organoid cryosectioning and further immunostaining of organoid slices are used to evaluate the presence of specific cerebellar cell populations and their spatial organization.


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos , Cerebelo/citologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Organoides/citologia , Coloração e Rotulagem , Animais , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Humanos , Neurônios/citologia , Organoides/metabolismo
20.
J Vis Exp ; (160)2020 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32597842

RESUMO

This study focuses on understanding how growing iPSCs on different ECM coating substrates can affect cell confluence. A protocol to assess iPSC confluence in real time has been established without the need to count cells in single cell suspension to avoid any growth perturbation. A high-content image analysis system was used to assess iPCS confluence on 4 different ECMs over time in an automated manner. Different analysis settings were used to assess cell confluence of adherent iPSCs and only a slight difference (at 24 and 48 hours with laminin) has been observed whether a 60, 80 or 100% mask was applied. We also show that laminin lead to the best confluence compared to Matrigel, vitronectin and fibronectin.


Assuntos
Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Automação , Contagem de Células , Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Humanos
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