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1.
Cell Stem Cell ; 27(3): 359-360, 2020 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888424

RESUMO

COVID-19 has unfortunately halted lab work, conferences, and in-person networking, which is especially detrimental to researchers just starting their labs. Through social media and our reviewer networks, we met some early-career stem cell investigators impacted by the closures. Here, they introduce themselves and their research to our readers.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Pesquisadores , Animais , Humanos , Pandemias , Células-Tronco/citologia
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4816, 2020 09 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32968047

RESUMO

Understanding cell types and mechanisms of dental growth is essential for reconstruction and engineering of teeth. Therefore, we investigated cellular composition of growing and non-growing mouse and human teeth. As a result, we report an unappreciated cellular complexity of the continuously-growing mouse incisor, which suggests a coherent model of cell dynamics enabling unarrested growth. This model relies on spatially-restricted stem, progenitor and differentiated populations in the epithelial and mesenchymal compartments underlying the coordinated expansion of two major branches of pulpal cells and diverse epithelial subtypes. Further comparisons of human and mouse teeth yield both parallelisms and differences in tissue heterogeneity and highlight the specifics behind growing and non-growing modes. Despite being similar at a coarse level, mouse and human teeth reveal molecular differences and species-specific cell subtypes suggesting possible evolutionary divergence. Overall, here we provide an atlas of human and mouse teeth with a focus on growth and differentiation.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular , Células-Tronco/citologia , Dente/citologia , Dente/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Células Epiteliais , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Heterogeneidade Genética , Humanos , Incisivo/citologia , Incisivo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Mesoderma/citologia , Mesoderma/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mesoderma/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Modelos Animais , Dente Molar/citologia , Dente Molar/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Odontoblastos , Adulto Jovem
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4435, 2020 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895385

RESUMO

Colonial ascidians are the only chordates able to undergo whole body regeneration (WBR), during which entire new bodies can be regenerated from small fragments of blood vessels. Here, we show that during the early stages of WBR in Botrylloides diegensis, proliferation occurs only in small, blood-borne cells that express integrin-alpha-6 (IA6), pou3 and vasa. WBR cannot proceed when proliferating IA6+ cells are ablated with Mitomycin C, and injection of a single IA6+ Candidate stem cell can rescue WBR after ablation. Lineage tracing using EdU-labeling demonstrates that donor-derived IA6+ Candidate stem cells directly give rise to regenerating tissues. Inhibitors of either Notch or canonical Wnt signaling block WBR and reduce proliferation of IA6+ Candidate stem cells, indicating that these two pathways regulate their activation. In conclusion, we show that IA6+ Candidate stem cells are responsible for whole body regeneration and give rise to regenerating tissues.


Assuntos
Integrina alfa6/metabolismo , Regeneração/fisiologia , Urocordados , Animais , Cordados não Vertebrados/embriologia , Expressão Gênica , Integrina alfa6/genética , Células-Tronco/citologia , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Urocordados/citologia , Urocordados/embriologia , Urocordados/crescimento & desenvolvimento
4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4239, 2020 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32843640

RESUMO

How stem cells give rise to epidermis is unclear despite the crucial role the epidermis plays in barrier and appendage formation. Here we use single cell-RNA sequencing to interrogate basal stem cell heterogeneity of human interfollicular epidermis and find four spatially distinct stem cell populations at the top and bottom of rete ridges and transitional positions between the basal and suprabasal epidermal layers. Cell-cell communication modeling suggests that basal cell populations serve as crucial signaling hubs to maintain epidermal communication. Combining pseudotime, RNA velocity, and cellular entropy analyses point to a hierarchical differentiation lineage supporting multi-stem cell interfollicular epidermal homeostasis models and suggest that transitional basal stem cells are stable states essential for proper stratification. Finally, alterations in differentially expressed transitional basal stem cell genes result in severe thinning of human skin equivalents, validating their essential role in epidermal homeostasis and reinforcing the critical nature of basal stem cell heterogeneity.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular , Células Epidérmicas/citologia , Homeostase , Células-Tronco/citologia , Comunicação Celular/genética , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Linhagem da Célula/genética , Células Epidérmicas/metabolismo , Epiderme/metabolismo , Prepúcio do Pênis/citologia , Prepúcio do Pênis/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Queratinócitos/citologia , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Masculino , Modelos Biológicos , Transdução de Sinais , Células-Tronco/metabolismo
5.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237773, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822378

RESUMO

Microglial cells play a key role in brain homeostasis from development to adulthood. Here we show the involvement of a site-specific phosphorylation of Presenilin 1 (PS1) in microglial development. Profiles of microglia-specific transcripts in different temporal stages of development, combined with multiple systematic transcriptomic analysis and quantitative determination of microglia progenitors, indicate that the phosphorylation of PS1 at serine 367 is involved in the temporal dynamics of microglial development, specifically in the developing brain rudiment during embryonic microgliogenesis. We constructed a developing brain-specific microglial network to identify transcription factors linked to PS1 during development. Our data showed that PS1 functional connections appear through interaction hubs at Pu.1, Irf8 and Rela-p65 transcription factors. Finally, we showed that the total number of microglia progenitors was markedly reduced in the developing brain rudiment of embryos lacking PS1 phosphorylation compared to WT. Our work identifies a novel role for PS1 in microglial development.


Assuntos
Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Microglia/fisiologia , Presenilina-1/metabolismo , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/embriologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fosforilação , Presenilina-1/genética , Células-Tronco/citologia , Transcriptoma
6.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0235898, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833999

RESUMO

Myo/Nog cells were discovered in the chick embryo epiblast. Their expression of MyoD reflects a commitment to the skeletal muscle lineage and capacity to differentiate into myofibroblasts. Release of Noggin by Myo/Nog cells is essential for normal morphogenesis. Myo/Nog cells rapidly respond to wounding in the skin and eyes. In this report, we present evidence suggesting that Myo/Nog cells phagocytose tattoo ink in tissue sections of human skin and engulf cell corpses in cultures of anterior human lens tissue and magnetic beads injected into the anterior chamber of mice in vivo. Myo/Nog cells are distinct from macrophages in the skin and eyes indicated by the absence of labeling with an antibody to ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1. In addition to their primary roles as regulators of BMP signaling and progenitors of myofibroblasts, Myo/Nog cells behave as nonprofessional phagocytes defined as cells whose primary functions are unrelated to phagocytosis but are capable of engulfment.


Assuntos
Miofibroblastos/citologia , Fagócitos/citologia , Células-Tronco/citologia , Animais , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Células Cultivadas , Embrião de Galinha , Feminino , Humanos , Cristalino/citologia , Cristalino/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteína MyoD/metabolismo , Miofibroblastos/metabolismo , Fagócitos/metabolismo , Fagocitose , Coelhos , Pele/citologia , Pele/metabolismo , Células-Tronco/metabolismo
7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4278, 2020 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32855388

RESUMO

Activation and migration of endogenous mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are critical for bone regeneration. Here, we report a combinational peptide screening strategy for rapid discovery of ligands that not only bind strongly to osteogenic progenitor cells (OPCs) but also stimulate osteogenic cell Akt signaling in those OPCs. Two lead compounds are discovered, YLL3 and YLL8, both of which increase osteoprogenitor osteogenic differentiation in vitro. When given to normal or osteopenic mice, the compounds increase mineral apposition rate, bone formation, bone mass, and bone strength, as well as expedite fracture repair through stimulated endogenous osteogenesis. When covalently conjugated to alendronate, YLLs acquire an additional function resulting in a "tri-functional" compound that: (i) binds to OPCs, (ii) targets bone, and (iii) induces "pro-survival" signal. These bone-targeted, osteogenic peptides are well suited for current tissue-specific therapeutic paradigms to augment the endogenous osteogenic cells for bone regeneration and the treatment of bone loss.


Assuntos
Anabolizantes/farmacologia , Fraturas Ósseas/tratamento farmacológico , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Células-Tronco/efeitos dos fármacos , Anabolizantes/química , Animais , Calcificação Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Orquiectomia , Osteogênese/fisiologia , Ovariectomia , Peptídeos/química , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Técnicas de Síntese em Fase Sólida , Células-Tronco/citologia
8.
Nature ; 584(7821): 415-419, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641829

RESUMO

Sexual dimorphism arises from genetic differences between male and female cells, and from systemic hormonal differences1-3. How sex hormones affect non-reproductive organs is poorly understood, yet highly relevant to health given the sex-biased incidence of many diseases4. Here we report that steroid signalling in Drosophila from the ovaries to the gut promotes growth of the intestine specifically in mated females, and enhances their reproductive output. The active ovaries of the fly produce the steroid hormone ecdysone, which stimulates the division and expansion of intestinal stem cells in two distinct proliferative phases via the steroid receptors EcR and Usp and their downstream targets Broad, Eip75B and Hr3. Although ecdysone-dependent growth of the female gut augments fecundity, the more active and more numerous intestinal stem cells also increase female susceptibility to age-dependent gut dysplasia and tumorigenesis, thus potentially reducing lifespan. This work highlights the trade-offs in fitness traits that occur when inter-organ signalling alters stem-cell behaviour to optimize organ size.


Assuntos
Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Intestinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Longevidade/fisiologia , Tamanho do Órgão/fisiologia , Ovário/metabolismo , Esteroides/metabolismo , Envelhecimento , Animais , Carcinogênese , Proliferação de Células , Copulação/fisiologia , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/anatomia & histologia , Drosophila melanogaster/citologia , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Ecdisona/metabolismo , Feminino , Mucosa Intestinal/anatomia & histologia , Mucosa Intestinal/citologia , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Intestinos/anatomia & histologia , Intestinos/citologia , Intestinos/patologia , Masculino , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/metabolismo , Receptores de Esteroides/metabolismo , Células-Tronco/citologia , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
9.
Nat Rev Drug Discov ; 19(7): 463-479, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32612263

RESUMO

Naturally occurring stem cells isolated from humans have been used therapeutically for decades. This has primarily involved the transplantation of primary cells such as haematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cells and, more recently, derivatives of pluripotent stem cells. However, the advent of cell-engineering approaches is ushering in a new generation of stem cell-based therapies, greatly expanding their therapeutic utility. These next-generation stem cells are being used as 'Trojan horses' to improve the delivery of drugs and oncolytic viruses to intractable tumours and are also being engineered with angiogenic, neurotrophic and anti-inflammatory molecules to accelerate the repair of injured or diseased tissues. Moreover, gene therapy and gene editing technologies are being used to create stem cell derivatives with improved functionality, specificity and responsiveness compared with their natural counterparts. Here, we review these engineering approaches and areas in which they will help broaden the utility and clinical applicability of stem cells.


Assuntos
Engenharia Celular/métodos , Transplante de Células-Tronco/métodos , Células-Tronco/citologia , Animais , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Edição de Genes , Terapia Genética/métodos , Humanos , Terapia Viral Oncolítica/métodos
10.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3265, 2020 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32601271

RESUMO

The culture of live pancreatic tissue slices is a powerful tool for the interrogation of physiology and pathology in an in vitro setting that retains near-intact cytoarchitecture. However, current culture conditions for human pancreatic slices (HPSs) have only been tested for short-term applications, which are not permissive for the long-term, longitudinal study of pancreatic endocrine regeneration. Using a culture system designed to mimic the physiological oxygenation of the pancreas, we demonstrate high viability and preserved endocrine and exocrine function in HPS for at least 10 days after sectioning. This extended lifespan allowed us to dynamically lineage trace and quantify the formation of insulin-producing cells in HPS from both non-diabetic and type 2 diabetic donors. This technology is expected to be of great impact for the conduct of real-time regeneration/developmental studies in the human pancreas.


Assuntos
Ilhotas Pancreáticas/citologia , Pâncreas/citologia , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos/métodos , Animais , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Camundongos , Modelos Biológicos , Regeneração , Células-Tronco/citologia
11.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3559, 2020 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32678092

RESUMO

The cell type specific sequences of transcriptional programs during lung regeneration have remained elusive. Using time-series single cell RNA-seq of the bleomycin lung injury model, we resolved transcriptional dynamics for 28 cell types. Trajectory modeling together with lineage tracing revealed that airway and alveolar stem cells converge on a unique Krt8 + transitional stem cell state during alveolar regeneration. These cells have squamous morphology, feature p53 and NFkB activation and display transcriptional features of cellular senescence. The Krt8+ state appears in several independent models of lung injury and persists in human lung fibrosis, creating a distinct cell-cell communication network with mesenchyme and macrophages during repair. We generated a model of gene regulatory programs leading to Krt8+ transitional cells and their terminal differentiation to alveolar type-1 cells. We propose that in lung fibrosis, perturbed molecular checkpoints on the way to terminal differentiation can cause aberrant persistence of regenerative intermediate stem cell states.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais Alveolares/metabolismo , Queratina-8/metabolismo , Alvéolos Pulmonares/fisiologia , Fibrose Pulmonar/patologia , Regeneração , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais Alveolares/citologia , Animais , Comunicação Celular , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Queratina-8/genética , Lesão Pulmonar/induzido quimicamente , Lesão Pulmonar/metabolismo , Lesão Pulmonar/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Alvéolos Pulmonares/citologia , Fibrose Pulmonar/metabolismo , Análise de Célula Única , Células-Tronco/citologia
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(30): 17796-17807, 2020 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32651268

RESUMO

Fluctuation in signal transduction pathways is frequently observed during mammalian development. However, its role in regulating stem cells has not been explored. Here we tracked spatiotemporal ERK MAPK dynamics in human epidermal stem cells. While stem cells and differentiated cells were distinguished by high and low stable basal ERK activity, respectively, we also found cells with pulsatile ERK activity. Transitions from Basalhi-Pulselo (stem) to Basalhi-Pulsehi, Basalmid-Pulsehi, and Basallo-Pulselo (differentiated) cells occurred in expanding keratinocyte colonies and in response to differentiation stimuli. Pharmacological inhibition of ERK induced differentiation only when cells were in the Basalmid-Pulsehi state. Basal ERK activity and pulses were differentially regulated by DUSP10 and DUSP6, leading us to speculate that DUSP6-mediated ERK pulse down-regulation promotes initiation of differentiation, whereas DUSP10-mediated down-regulation of mean ERK activity promotes and stabilizes postcommitment differentiation. Levels of MAPK1/MAPK3 transcripts correlated with DUSP6 and DUSP10 transcripts in individual cells, suggesting that ERK activity is negatively regulated by transcriptional and posttranslational mechanisms. When cells were cultured on a topography that mimics the epidermal-dermal interface, spatial segregation of mean ERK activity and pulses was observed. In vivo imaging of mouse epidermis revealed a patterned distribution of basal cells with pulsatile ERK activity, and down-regulation was linked to the onset of differentiation. Our findings demonstrate that ERK MAPK signal fluctuations link kinase activity to stem cell dynamics.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular , Células Epidérmicas/metabolismo , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Animais , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Proliferação de Células , Ativação Enzimática , Células Epidérmicas/citologia , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Mamíferos , Camundongos , Fosfoproteínas Fosfatases/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Células-Tronco/citologia
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(30): 17842-17853, 2020 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669437

RESUMO

Stem cells are capable of unlimited proliferation but can be induced to form brain cells. Factors that specifically regulate human development are poorly understood. We found that human stem cells expressed high levels of the envelope protein of an endogenized human-specific retrovirus (HERV-K, HML-2) from loci in chromosomes 12 and 19. The envelope protein was expressed on the cell membrane of the stem cells and was critical in maintaining the stemness via interactions with CD98HC, leading to triggering of human-specific signaling pathways involving mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase (LPCAT1)-mediated epigenetic changes. Down-regulation or epigenetic silencing of HML-2 env resulted in dissociation of the stem cell colonies and enhanced differentiation along neuronal pathways. Thus HML-2 regulation is critical for human embryonic and neurodevelopment, while it's dysregulation may play a role in tumorigenesis and neurodegeneration.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular , Retrovirus Endógenos/fisiologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Biomarcadores , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Autorrenovação Celular/genética , Cadeia Pesada da Proteína-1 Reguladora de Fusão/metabolismo , Regulação Viral da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neurais/citologia , Células-Tronco Neurais/metabolismo , Neurônios/citologia , Ligação Proteica , Células-Tronco/citologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/genética
14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(32): 19276-19286, 2020 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32719141

RESUMO

Bone homeostasis requires continuous remodeling of bone matrix to maintain structural integrity. This involves extensive communication between bone-forming osteoblasts and bone-resorbing osteoclasts to orchestrate balanced progenitor cell recruitment and activation. Only a few mediators controlling progenitor activation are known to date and have been targeted for intervention of bone disorders such as osteoporosis. To identify druggable pathways, we generated a medaka (Oryzias latipes) osteoporosis model, where inducible expression of receptor-activator of nuclear factor kappa-Β ligand (Rankl) leads to ectopic formation of osteoclasts and excessive bone resorption, which can be assessed by live imaging. Here we show that upon Rankl induction, osteoblast progenitors up-regulate expression of the chemokine ligand Cxcl9l. Ectopic expression of Cxcl9l recruits mpeg1-positive macrophages to bone matrix and triggers their differentiation into osteoclasts. We also demonstrate that the chemokine receptor Cxcr3.2 is expressed in a distinct subset of macrophages in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM). Live imaging revealed that upon Rankl induction, Cxcr3.2-positive macrophages get activated, migrate to bone matrix, and differentiate into osteoclasts. Importantly, mutations in cxcr3.2 prevent macrophage recruitment and osteoclast differentiation. Furthermore, Cxcr3.2 inhibition by the chemical antagonists AMG487 and NBI-74330 also reduced osteoclast recruitment and protected bone integrity against osteoporotic insult. Our data identify a mechanism for progenitor recruitment to bone resorption sites and Cxcl9l and Cxcr3.2 as potential druggable regulators of bone homeostasis and osteoporosis.


Assuntos
Matriz Óssea/metabolismo , Quimiocina CXCL9/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Oryzias/metabolismo , Osteoclastos/metabolismo , Osteoporose/metabolismo , Receptores CXCR3/metabolismo , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Animais , Matriz Óssea/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Diferenciação Celular , Quimiocina CXCL9/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Humanos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Oryzias/genética , Oryzias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Osteoblastos/citologia , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Osteoclastos/citologia , Osteoporose/genética , Osteoporose/fisiopatologia , Ligação Proteica , Receptores CXCR3/genética , Células-Tronco/citologia
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(32): 19287-19298, 2020 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32723825

RESUMO

Retinal ganglion cell axons forming the optic nerve (ON) emerge unmyelinated from the eye and become myelinated after passage through the optic nerve lamina region (ONLR), a transitional area containing a vascular plexus. The ONLR has a number of unusual characteristics: it inhibits intraocular myelination, enables postnatal ON myelination of growing axons, modulates the fluid pressure differences between eye and brain, and is the primary lesion site in the age-related disease open angle glaucoma (OAG). We demonstrate that the human and rodent ONLR possesses a mitotically active, age-depletable neural progenitor cell (NPC) niche, with unique characteristics and culture requirements. These NPCs generate both forms of macroglia: astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, and can form neurospheres in culture. Using reporter mice with SOX2-driven, inducible gene expression, we show that ONLR-NPCs generate macroglial cells for the anterior ON. Early ONLR-NPC loss results in regional dysfunction and hypomyelination. In adulthood, ONLR-NPCs may enable glial replacement and remyelination. ONLR-NPC depletion may help explain why ON diseases such as OAG progress in severity during aging.


Assuntos
Neurônios/citologia , Nervo Óptico/citologia , Nicho de Células-Tronco , Células-Tronco/citologia , Animais , Astrócitos , Axônios/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/genética , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/metabolismo , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Bainha de Mielina/metabolismo , Neuroglia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Oligodendroglia , Nervo Óptico/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição SOXB1/genética , Fatores de Transcrição SOXB1/metabolismo , Células-Tronco/metabolismo
16.
Nature ; 584(7820): 268-273, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32728211

RESUMO

The ability of the skin to grow in response to stretching has been exploited in reconstructive surgery1. Although the response of epidermal cells to stretching has been studied in vitro2,3, it remains unclear how mechanical forces affect their behaviour in vivo. Here we develop a mouse model in which the consequences of stretching on skin epidermis can be studied at single-cell resolution. Using a multidisciplinary approach that combines clonal analysis with quantitative modelling and single-cell RNA sequencing, we show that stretching induces skin expansion by creating a transient bias in the renewal activity of epidermal stem cells, while a second subpopulation of basal progenitors remains committed to differentiation. Transcriptional and chromatin profiling identifies how cell states and gene-regulatory networks are modulated by stretching. Using pharmacological inhibitors and mouse mutants, we define the step-by-step mechanisms that control stretch-mediated tissue expansion at single-cell resolution in vivo.


Assuntos
Mecanotransdução Celular/fisiologia , Análise de Célula Única , Pele/citologia , Pele/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Junções Aderentes/metabolismo , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Autorrenovação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatina/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatina/genética , Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Clonais/citologia , Células Clonais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Clonais/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidrogéis/administração & dosagem , Hidrogéis/farmacologia , Mecanotransdução Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Mecanotransdução Celular/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Mutação , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA-Seq , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco/citologia , Células-Tronco/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Transativadores/antagonistas & inibidores , Transativadores/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição AP-1/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236519, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730297

RESUMO

Stem cells, with their capacity to self-renew and to differentiate to more specialized cell types, play a key role to maintain homeostasis in adult tissues. To investigate how, in the dynamic stochastic environment of a tissue, non-genetic diversity and the precise balance between proliferation and differentiation are achieved, it is necessary to understand the molecular mechanisms of the stem cells in decision making process. By focusing on the impact of stochasticity, we proposed a computational model describing the regulatory circuitry as a tri-stable dynamical system to reveal the mechanism which orchestrate this balance. Our model explains how the distribution of noise in genes, linked to the cell regulatory networks, affects cell decision-making to maintain homeostatic state. The noise effect on tissue homeostasis is achieved by regulating the probability of differentiation and self-renewal through symmetric and/or asymmetric cell divisions. Our model reveals, when mutations due to the replication of DNA in stem cell division, are inevitable, how mutations contribute to either aging gradually or the development of cancer in a short period of time. Furthermore, our model sheds some light on the impact of more complex regulatory networks on the system robustness against perturbations.


Assuntos
Modelos Biológicos , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Autorrenovação Celular , Humanos , Células-Tronco/citologia
18.
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol ; 319(3): C465-C480, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32639873

RESUMO

Bioprinting aims to direct the spatial arrangement in three dimensions of cells, biomaterials, and growth factors. The biofabrication of clinically relevant constructs for the repair or modeling of either diseased or damaged tissues is rapidly advancing, resulting in the ability to three-dimensional (3D) print biomimetic platforms which imitate a large number of tissues in the human body. Primary tissue-specific cells are typically isolated from patients and used for the fabrication of 3D models for drug screening or tissue repair purposes. However, the lack of resilience of these platforms, due to the difficulties in harnessing, processing, and implanting patient-specific cells can limit regeneration ability. The printing of stem cells obviates these hurdles, producing functional in vitro models or implantable constructs. Advancements in biomaterial science are helping the development of inks suitable for the encapsulation and the printing of stem cells, promoting their functional growth and differentiation. This review specifically aims to investigate the most recent studies exploring innovative and functional approaches for the printing of 3D constructs to model disease or repair damaged tissues. Key concepts in tissue physiology are highlighted, reporting stem cell applications in biofabrication. Bioprinting technologies and biomaterial inks are listed and analyzed, including recent advancements in biomaterial design for bioprinting applications, commenting on the influence of biomaterial inks on the encapsulated stem cells. Ultimately, most recent successful efforts and clinical potentials for the manufacturing of functional physiological tissue substitutes are reported here, with a major focus on specific tissues, such as vasculature, heart, lung and airways, liver, bone and muscle.


Assuntos
Bioimpressão , Células-Tronco/citologia , Engenharia Tecidual , Bioimpressão/métodos , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Humanos , Tinta , Técnicas de Cultura de Órgãos/métodos , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos
19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(29): 16969-16975, 2020 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32611816

RESUMO

Understanding to what extent stem cell potential is a cell-intrinsic property or an emergent behavior coming from global tissue dynamics and geometry is a key outstanding question of systems and stem cell biology. Here, we propose a theory of stem cell dynamics as a stochastic competition for access to a spatially localized niche, giving rise to a stochastic conveyor-belt model. Cell divisions produce a steady cellular stream which advects cells away from the niche, while random rearrangements enable cells away from the niche to be favorably repositioned. Importantly, even when assuming that all cells in a tissue are molecularly equivalent, we predict a common ("universal") functional dependence of the long-term clonal survival probability on distance from the niche, as well as the emergence of a well-defined number of functional stem cells, dependent only on the rate of random movements vs. mitosis-driven advection. We test the predictions of this theory on datasets of pubertal mammary gland tips and embryonic kidney tips, as well as homeostatic intestinal crypts. Importantly, we find good agreement for the predicted functional dependency of the competition as a function of position, and thus functional stem cell number in each organ. This argues for a key role of positional fluctuations in dictating stem cell number and dynamics, and we discuss the applicability of this theory to other settings.


Assuntos
Linhagem da Célula , Autorrenovação Celular , Nicho de Células-Tronco , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular , Feminino , Homeostase , Intestinos/citologia , Intestinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rim/citologia , Rim/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/citologia , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Camundongos , Modelos Teóricos , Razão Sinal-Ruído , Células-Tronco/citologia , Células-Tronco/fisiologia
20.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2722, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32483172

RESUMO

Mammalian gene expression patterns are controlled by regulatory elements, which interact within topologically associating domains (TADs). The relationship between activation of regulatory elements, formation of structural chromatin interactions and gene expression during development is unclear. Here, we present Tiled-C, a low-input chromosome conformation capture (3C) technique. We use this approach to study chromatin architecture at high spatial and temporal resolution through in vivo mouse erythroid differentiation. Integrated analysis of chromatin accessibility and single-cell expression data shows that regulatory elements gradually become accessible within pre-existing TADs during early differentiation. This is followed by structural re-organization within the TAD and formation of specific contacts between enhancers and promoters. Our high-resolution data show that these enhancer-promoter interactions are not established prior to gene expression, but formed gradually during differentiation, concomitant with progressive upregulation of gene activity. Together, these results provide new insight into the close, interdependent relationship between chromatin architecture and gene regulation during development.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/genética , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Genoma/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Cromatina/genética , Cromossomos de Mamíferos/genética , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/citologia , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Murinas/citologia , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Murinas/metabolismo , Células-Tronco/citologia
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