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Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2839, 2020 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32503986


Proper speech production requires auditory speech feedback control. Models of speech production associate this function with the right cerebral hemisphere while the left hemisphere is proposed to host speech motor programs. However, previous studies have investigated only spectral perturbations of the auditory speech feedback. Since auditory perception is known to be lateralized, with right-lateralized analysis of spectral features and left-lateralized processing of temporal features, it is unclear whether the observed right-lateralization of auditory speech feedback processing reflects a preference for speech feedback control or for spectral processing in general. Here we use a behavioral speech adaptation experiment with dichotically presented altered auditory feedback and an analogous fMRI experiment with binaurally presented altered feedback to confirm a right hemisphere preference for spectral feedback control and to reveal a left hemisphere preference for temporal feedback control during speaking. These results indicate that auditory feedback control involves both hemispheres with differential contributions along the spectro-temporal axis.

Cérebro/fisiologia , Retroalimentação Sensorial/fisiologia , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Fala/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo
Mol Cell ; 79(3): 521-534.e15, 2020 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32592681


Genome-wide mapping of chromatin interactions at high resolution remains experimentally and computationally challenging. Here we used a low-input "easy Hi-C" protocol to map the 3D genome architecture in human neurogenesis and brain tissues and also demonstrated that a rigorous Hi-C bias-correction pipeline (HiCorr) can significantly improve the sensitivity and robustness of Hi-C loop identification at sub-TAD level, especially the enhancer-promoter (E-P) interactions. We used HiCorr to compare the high-resolution maps of chromatin interactions from 10 tissue or cell types with a focus on neurogenesis and brain tissues. We found that dynamic chromatin loops are better hallmarks for cellular differentiation than compartment switching. HiCorr allowed direct observation of cell-type- and differentiation-specific E-P aggregates spanning large neighborhoods, suggesting a mechanism that stabilizes enhancer contacts during development. Interestingly, we concluded that Hi-C loop outperforms eQTL in explaining neurological GWAS results, revealing a unique value of high-resolution 3D genome maps in elucidating the disease etiology.

Cromatina/metabolismo , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Genoma Humano , Neurogênese/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Adulto , Linhagem Celular , Cérebro/citologia , Cérebro/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cérebro/metabolismo , Cromatina/ultraestrutura , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Feto , Histonas/genética , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/classificação , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neurais/citologia , Células-Tronco Neurais/metabolismo , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/genética , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/metabolismo , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/patologia , Neurônios/citologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Lobo Temporal/citologia , Lobo Temporal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lobo Temporal/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/classificação , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
Neurocirugía (Soc. Luso-Esp. Neurocir.) ; 31(3): 151-154, mayo-jun. 2020. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-192419


El papiloma del plexo coroideo es un tumor poco frecuente del sistema nervioso central, que representa menos del 1% de todas las neoplasias intracraneales. Las ubicaciones habituales son el ventrículo lateral en bebés y niños y el cuarto ventrículo en adultos. El tercer ventrículo es una localización inhabitual, con pocos casos recogidos en la bibliografía. Describimos el caso de un niño de 3 meses que ingresó en nuestro centro con signos de aumento de la presión intracraneal. Los estudios de neuroimagen mostraron una lesión en el tercer ventrículo, con hidrocefalia asociada. Al paciente se le extirpó completamente el tumor mediante abordaje transfrontal y cirugía de derivación ventriculoperitoneal. El curso postoperatorio del niño transcurrió sin incidentes y la imagen de resonancia magnética de seguimiento no reveló tumor residual. La histopatología de la lesión resecada confirmó el diagnóstico de papiloma del plexo coroideo. Discutimos las características clínicas, radiológicas e histológicas de este tipo infrecuente de tumores

Choroid plexus papilloma is an uncommon tumour of the central nervous system, accounting for less than 1% of all intracranial neoplasm. The usual locations are the lateral ventricle in infants and children and the fourth ventricle in adults. The third ventricle is a rare location, with few cases reported in the literature. We describe the case of a 3-month-old boy who was admitted to our centre with signs of raised intracranial pressure. Neuroimaging studies showed a third ventricular mass with associated hydrocephalus. The patient underwent complete tumour removal through a transfrontal approach and ventriculo-peritoneal shunt surgery. Postoperative course of the child was uneventful and follow-up magnetic resonance imaging revealed no residual tumour. Histopathology of the resected lesion confirmed the diagnosis of choroid plexus papilloma. We discuss the clinical, radiological and histological features of this infrequent type of tumours

Humanos , Masculino , Lactente , Papiloma do Plexo Corióideo/diagnóstico por imagem , Papiloma do Plexo Corióideo/cirurgia , Terceiro Ventrículo/cirurgia , Neuroendoscopia/métodos , Terceiro Ventrículo/patologia , Derivação Ventriculoperitoneal/métodos , Ultrassonografia , Cérebro/diagnóstico por imagem , Cérebro/patologia
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi ; 37(5): 543-546, 2020 May 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32335882


OBJECTIVE: To explore the clinical features and genetic variant in a child featuring megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cyst (MLC) type 2B. METHODS: Clinical and imaging data of the child was collected. Potential variant of hepatocyte adhesion molecule (HEPACAM) gene was detected by Sanger sequencing. The growth and development of her mother and uncle was also reviewed. RESULTS: The patient, a 1-year-and-7-month female, presented with convulsion, mental retardation and abnormally increased head circumference. Cranial MRI revealed extensive long T1 long T2 signals in the white matter of bilateral cerebral hemisphere, right anterior sac cyst, cerebral gyrus widening, and shallow sulcus. Sanger sequencing identified a c.437C>T missense variant in exon 3 of the HEPACAM gene. The same variant was detected in her mother but not father. Her mother and maternal uncle both had a history of increased head circumference when they were young. In their adulthood, the head circumference was in the normal range but still greater than the average. CONCLUSION: The heterozygous variant of the HEPACAM gene probably underlies the MLC2B in this child. The variant has derived from her asymptomatic mother, which suggested incomplete penetrance of the MLC2B.

Proteínas de Ciclo Celular , Cistos , Variação Genética , Doenças Desmielinizantes Hereditárias do Sistema Nervoso Central , Adulto , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Cérebro/diagnóstico por imagem , Cistos/diagnóstico por imagem , Cistos/genética , Feminino , Doenças Desmielinizantes Hereditárias do Sistema Nervoso Central/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Desmielinizantes Hereditárias do Sistema Nervoso Central/genética , Humanos , Lactente
World Neurosurg ; 138: e478-e485, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32147552


OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare transcortical and posterior interhemispheric approaches to the atrium using a combined approach of white matter fiber dissections and magnetic resonance (MR) tractography. METHODS: Ten cerebral hemispheres were examined and dissected from the lateral-to-medial surface and from the medial-to-lateral surface, with special attention to the white matter tracts related to the atrium. MR tractography was used to show the relationship of three-dimensional white matter fibers with the atrium of the lateral ventricle and to compare with cadaveric dissection results. RESULTS: The atrium was related laterally to the superior longitudinal fasciculus II and III, middle longitudinal fasciculus, arcuate fasciculus, vertical occipital fasciculus, and sagittal stratum. Medially, it is related to the superior longitudinal fasciculus I, cingulum, sledge runner, and forceps major. CONCLUSIONS: A combined approach of cadaveric white matter fiber dissections and MR tractography were used to describe the main white matter tracts related to the posterior interhemispheric approach and the transcortical approach, providing an in-depth understanding of the three-dimensional anatomy of white matter fibers and the atrium. In the present study, among approaches examined, the posterior interhemispheric parasplenial transprecuneus approach placed fewer eloquent tracts at risk; however, traversing the sledge runner and the forceps major is unavoidable by this approach.

Cérebro/cirurgia , Ventrículos Laterais/cirurgia , Substância Branca/cirurgia , Cérebro/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Dissecação , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Ventrículos Laterais/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(10): e18954, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150046


RATIONALE: In patients receiving biological therapies, serious infections are a major concern. Infections associated with anti-tumor necrosis factor antibody therapy include tuberculosis, viral, fungal, and bacterial infections. Likewise, severe infections of the upper and lower respiratory tract, lung, skin and soft tissue, urinary tract, gastrointestinal tract, joint, and bone have also been reported previously. However, infections involving the central nervous system are rare, especially an intracranial infection caused by odontogenic infection. To date, only few cases have been reported of this infection. This is the first case of a patient with psoriatic arthritis receiving adalimumab and developing brain abscess of odontogenic origin. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 39-year-old male with psoriatic arthritis receiving adalimumab treatment came to the emergency department with initial presentation of sudden onset convulsions. He had been receiving adalimumab treatment for 1 month. Two days after the third injection, the patient had an episode of sudden-onset general convulsion for nearly 5 min with the upgazing and general tonic presentation. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed left frontal lobe brain abscess. Pus culture from the brain abscess detected Streptococcus sanguinis (S. sanguinis), Fusobacterium nucleatum (F. nucleatum), and Parvimonas micra (P. micra). DIAGNOSIS: Brain abscess with odontogenic infection. INTERVENTIONS: The patient received left frontal craniotomy, abscess drainage and systemic empiric antibiotics treatment with vancomycin, cefepime, and metronidazole. Due to drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms during the treatment, vancomycin and metronidazole were discontinued, and systemic antibiotics were switched to teicoplanin and ceftriaxone. OUTCOMES: A brain MRI follow-up performed after 1 month of initial treatment revealed the reduced size of the abscess lesion and minimal oedema. The patient was discharged with stable condition. LESSONS: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of a patient with psoriatic arthritis receiving adalimumab and developing brain abscess of odontogenic origin. Such a rare diagnosis must be kept in mind when patients treated with adalimumab present with sudden-onset convulsions. Careful dental examination should be performed before administration of adalimumab.

Adalimumab/efeitos adversos , Antirreumáticos/efeitos adversos , Artrite Psoriásica/tratamento farmacológico , Abscesso Encefálico/diagnóstico , Cérebro , Adulto , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Abscesso Encefálico/diagnóstico por imagem , Abscesso Encefálico/etiologia , Abscesso Encefálico/microbiologia , Ceftriaxona/administração & dosagem , Ceftriaxona/uso terapêutico , Terapia Combinada , Craniotomia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Firmicutes/isolamento & purificação , Fusobacterium nucleatum/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Periodontite/complicações , Streptococcus/isolamento & purificação , Teicoplanina/administração & dosagem , Teicoplanina/uso terapêutico
Endocrinol. diabetes nutr. (Ed. impr.) ; 67(2): 78-88, feb. 2020. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-187432


Introduction: Protocol for prescribing hormone replacement therapy in isolated growth hormone (GH) deficiency includes magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. There is controversy on the frequency of structural pituitary abnormalities and on the importance of abnormal MRI findings on prognosis and response to GH replacement. Methods: A descriptive, retrospective study of children of both sexes aged 0-14 years, who had undergone brain MRI, diagnosed with isolated GH deficiency at a tertiary hospital in the past 14 years, aimed at reporting the frequency of abnormal MRI findings in isolated GH deficiency, and to establish whether differences exist in height diagnosis and evolution according to MRI findings. MRI findings were also compared with the findings reported in healthy children in order to establish incidence. Results: 96 patients were studied, of whom 74/96 (77%) reached adult age. Abnormal MRI findings were seen in 11.5% of them (8/11 of pituitary origin). No brain or pituitary tumor was seen in any case. Patients with abnormal images had a mean age at treatment start of 8 years, a target height of -0.8SD, and a final height of 1.04SD, while patients with normal MRI findings had an age at treatment start of 10 years old, a target height of -1.44SD, and a final height of -1.75SD, with statistically significant differences. Conclusions: Patients with abnormal MRI findings show a more favorable response to GH replacement therapy

Introducción: El protocolo de prescripción de hormona sustitutiva en el déficit aislado de hormona del crecimiento (GH) incluye la realización de una resonancia cerebral. Hay controversia sobre la frecuencia de anomalías hipofisarias y la importancia de los hallazgos anormales de resonancia magnética en el pronóstico y la respuesta al tratamiento de GH. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo retrospectivo de niños de 0 a 14 años, de ambos sexos, con imágenes de resonancia magnética cerebral, que fueron diagnosticados de deficiencia aislada de GH en un hospital terciario en los últimos 14 años, para describir la frecuencia de las anomalías en la resonancia magnética y establecer si existen diferencias en el diagnóstico de talla y evolución de acuerdo con los hallazgos de la resonancia magnética. Además, comparamos los hallazgos en la resonancia con los hallazgos publicados en niños sanos, con el fin de establecer la incidencia. Resultados: Se estudiaron 96 pacientes, alcanzando 74/96 (77%) la edad adulta. El 11,5% tenía imágenes de resonancia magnética anormales (8/11 de origen hipofisario). En ningún caso se observó tumor cerebral o hipofisario. Los pacientes con imágenes anormales mostraron una edad media al inicio de tratamiento de 8 años, talla diana de -0,8 DE y una talla final de 1,04 DE; mientras que los pacientes con imágenes de resonancia magnética normal muestran una edad de inicio de tratamiento de 10 años, una talla diana de -1,44 DE y una talla final de -1,75 DE, con diferencias estadísticamente significativas. Conclusiones: Los pacientes con alteraciones en la resonancia magnética muestran una respuesta más favorable al tratamiento sustitutivo de GH

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/deficiência , Cérebro/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/análise , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudos Longitudinais , Estatura , Sela Túrcica/diagnóstico por imagem
Acta otorrinolaringol. esp ; 71(1): 3-8, ene.-feb. 2020. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-192429


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Migrainous dizziness is one of the most frequent complaints. Dizziness associated with migraine may be the result of abnormal eye movements. Brain imaging and changes in eye movements may explain the dizziness and highlight possible pathophysiological substrates in migraine dizziness. Our aim is to evaluate eye movement using videonystagmography (VNG) and video head impulse test (vHIT) and to study the occipital lobe metabolic profile in vestibular migraine patients (VM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: There were 2 groups enrolled in the study; the first group consisted of 25 vestibular migraine patients (VM) according to the recent criteria of Barany society. The second group consisted of 20 age matched healthy subjects. Both groups underwent the following: (1) A detailed history, VNG test protocol, vHIT in three planes. (2) Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the brain and inner ear using 1.5 T magnet and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (H1-MRS). RESULTS: Sixty eight percent of the patients complained of spontaneous vertigo and 28% complained of positional vertigo. Non-paroxysmal positional nystagmus was recorded in 92% during their dizzy spell. The brain MRI was unremarkable in 72% of the cases. Chemical shift in the occipital lobe was found in 92% of VM. Lactate peaks were statistically significant related with the presence of non-paroxysmal positional nystagmus. CONCLUSIONS: A statistically significant relationship exists between non-paroxysmal positional nystagmus and presence of lactate peaks in the occipital lobe in VM patients

ANTECEDENTES Y OBJETIVO: El mareo migrañoso es una de las quejas más frecuentes. Las pruebas de imagen del cerebro y los cambios en los movimientos oculares pueden explicar los mareos y destacar los posibles sustratos fisiopatológicos en la migraña vestibular. Nuestro objetivo fue evaluar el movimiento ocular utilizando videonistagmografía (VNG) y la prueba de impulso cefálico por vídeo (vHIT), y estudiar el perfil metabólico del lóbulo occipital en pacientes con migraña vestibular (VM). MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Se incluyeron dos grupos en el estudio; el primer grupo consistió en 25 pacientes con VM según los criterios recientes de la sociedad Bárány. El segundo grupo consistió en 20 sujetos sanos emparejados por edad. Ambos grupos se sometieron a lo siguiente: 1) Una historia detallada, protocolo de prueba de VNG y vHIT en 3 planos, y 2) Imágenes de resonancia magnética (IRM) para el cerebro y el oído interno con el imán de 1,5 tesla y la espectroscopía de resonancia magnética de protones (H1-MRS). RESULTADOS: El 68% de los pacientes se quejó de vértigo espontáneo, y el 28% de vértigo posicional. El nistagmo posicional no paroxístico se registró en el 60% de los pacientes durante su mareo. La resonancia magnética cerebral no mostró alteraciones en el 72% de los casos. El cambio químico en el lóbulo occipital se encontró en el 92% de los casos de VM. Los picos de lactato fueron estadísticamente significativos con relación a la presencia de nistagmo posicional no paroxístico. CONCLUSIONES: Existe una relación estadísticamente significativa entre el nistagmo posicional no paroxístico y la presencia de picos de lactato en el lóbulo occipital en pacientes con VM

Humanos , Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Vestibulares/diagnóstico , Testes Calóricos/métodos , Nistagmo Fisiológico/fisiologia , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/fisiopatologia , Testes de Função Vestibular/métodos , Eletronistagmografia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Cérebro/diagnóstico por imagem , Orelha Interna/diagnóstico por imagem , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Vertigem/diagnóstico
Neurocirugía (Soc. Luso-Esp. Neurocir.) ; 31(1): 24-36, ene.-feb. 2020. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-190369


La monitorización continua de la oxigenación cerebral y su aplicación al manejo del paciente neurológico grave es uno de los grandes retos actuales de la medicina crítica. Aunque han sido descritas diversas técnicas para la monitorización de la oxigenación cerebral, la monitorización tisular cerebral de oxígeno proporciona una relevante información sobre los niveles de oxígeno a nivel del tejido cerebral. Su desarrollo se ha asociado a la necesidad de responder no solamente aspectos técnicos sobre la misma, sino también al significado de la alteración de los valores de la oxigenación cerebral en el paciente neurocrítico. El documento de consenso da respuesta a diversas cuestiones relativas a la monitorización de la oxigenación cerebral mediante sensor de presión tisular cerebral de oxígeno. Para ello se elaboró un panel de preguntas y se realizó una revisión de la literatura médica, y evaluando la calidad de la evidencia y el nivel de recomendación mediante la metodología GRADE

Continuous monitoring of cerebral oxygenation and its application to the management of the severe neurological patient is a challenge for the management of patients with acute critical brain damage. Although several techniques have been described for monitoring brain, brain tissue oxygen monitoring provides relevant information about oxygen levels of brain tissue. However, the development of this technique has been associated with the need to answer not only some technical aspects of it as well as the meaning of the changes of the cerebral oxygenation in the neurocritical patient. The consensus document responds to various questions related to the monitoring of cerebral oxygenation by means of a cerebral oxygen tissue pressure sensor. For this purpose, a list of questions was prepared and a reviewed of the medical literature was made. The quality of the evidence and the degree of recommendation was evaluated using the GRADE methodology

Humanos , Conferências de Consenso como Assunto , Pressão Intracraniana/fisiologia , Lesões Encefálicas/metabolismo , Cuidados Críticos , Oximetria/métodos , Monitorização Fisiológica/normas , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Lesões Encefálicas/complicações , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Cérebro/metabolismo
Med. intensiva (Madr., Ed. impr.) ; 44(1): 1-8, ene.-feb. 2020. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-188790


Objetivo: Evaluar la factibilidad del empleo de la minigammacámara portátil Sentinella(R), para el diagnóstico de muerte encefálica (ME). Diseño: Estudio observacional, prospectivo, de factibilidad. Ámbito: Unidad de cuidados intensivos de un hospital de tercer nivel. Pacientes: Desde enero a diciembre de 2017 se registraron de forma consecutiva los pacientes mayores de edad que tras su ingreso en unidad de cuidados intensivos fueron diagnosticados de ME según criterios clínicos. Intervenciones: El procedimiento se realizó a la cabecera del paciente tras la administración intravenosa de tecnecio 99 metaestable-hexametil-propilen-amino-oxima. La ausencia de perfusión a nivel de hemisferios cerebrales y fosa posterior se describía como patrón compatible con ME. Se correlacionó el diagnóstico con doppler transcraneal y/o electroencefalograma. Resultados: Cincuenta y seis pacientes presentaron exploración física compatible con ME. Un 66,1% fueron hombres con una mediana de edad de 60 (RIQ: 51-72) años. La causa más frecuente que precipitó la ME fue el ictus hemorrágico en el 48,2% (27) seguido por traumatismo craneoencefálico grave en el 30,4% (17), ictus isquémico en el 10,7% (6) y encefalopatía anóxica tras parada cardiorrespiratoria en el 7,1% (4). En todos los casos se realizó el diagnóstico clínico de ME y posteriormente una gammagrafía portátil que confirmó dicho diagnóstico en el 100% de los pacientes. Se contrastó el resultado con doppler transcraneal en 46 de ellos que confirmaba la presencia de reverberación diastólica y/o picos sistólicos. En 10 casos se registró el electroencefalograma, con aparición de silencio eléctrico, debido a la ausencia de ventana acústica en el doppler transcraneal. Conclusiones: El uso de minigammacámara portátil puede resultar una herramienta útil y factible para el diagnóstico de ME

Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of using the Sentinella(R) portable gamma-camera for the diagnosis of brain death (BD). Design: A prospective, observational feasibility study was carried out. Setting: Intensive Care Unit of a third level hospital. Patients: Consecutive recording was made of the adults diagnosed with brain death based on clinical criteria following admission to the Intensive Care Unit in the period from January to December 2017. Interventions: The procedure was performed at the patient bedside with the intravenous administration of technetium 99 metastable hexamethylpropylene amine oxime. The absence of perfusion in the cerebral hemispheres and brainstem was described as a pattern consistent with BD. The diagnosis was correlated to the transcranial Doppler and / or electroencephalographic findings. Results: A total of 66.1% of the patients were men with an average age of 60 years [IQR: 51-72]. The most frequent causes resulting in BD were hemorrhagic stroke (48.2%, n=27), followed by traumatic brain injury (30.4%, n=17), ischemic stroke (10.7%, n=6) and post-cardiac arrest anoxic encephalopathy (7.1%, n=4). A clinical diagnosis of BD was made in all cases, and the portable gamma-camera confirmed the diagnosis in 100% of the patients with a pattern characterized by the absence of brain perfusion. In addition, the results were compared with the transcranial Doppler findings in 46 patients, confirming the presence of diastolic reverberation and / or systolic peaks. The electroencephalographic tracing was obtained in 10 cases, with the appearance of electrical silence, due to the absence of an acoustic window in the transcranial Doppler study. Conclusions: A portable gamma-camera could be a useful and feasible tool for the diagnosis of BD

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Morte Encefálica/diagnóstico por imagem , Diagnóstico por Imagem/métodos , Neuroimagem/métodos , Câmaras gama , Cérebro/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos de Viabilidade , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Ultrassonografia Doppler Transcraniana , Eletroencefalografia
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32062416


Our objective was to determine whether consumption of a single meal has the potential to alter brain oxylipin content. We examined the cerebrum of mice fed a single high-fat/high-sucrose Western meal or a low-fat/low-sucrose control meal, as well as fasted mice. We found no changes in fatty acid composition of cerebrum across the groups. The cerebral oxylipin profile of mice fed a Western meal is distinct from the profile of mice fed a low-fat/low-sucrose meal. Cerebral gene expression of cyclooxygenase 1, cyclooxygenase 2, and epoxide hydrolase 1 were elevated in Western meal-fed mice compared to low-fat/low-sucrose meal-fed mice. Mice that consumed either meal had lower gene expression of cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily j, polypeptide 12 than fasted mice. Our data in this hypothesis-generating study indicates that the composition of a single meal has the potential to alter brain oxylipins and the gene expression of the enzymes responsible for their production.

Cérebro/química , Dieta Ocidental/efeitos adversos , Oxilipinas/química , Animais , Cérebro/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo-Oxigenase 1/metabolismo , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Epóxido Hidrolases/metabolismo , Jejum , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Masculino , Refeições , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Camundongos
Cell ; 180(3): 536-551.e17, 2020 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31955849


Goal-directed behavior requires the interaction of multiple brain regions. How these regions and their interactions with brain-wide activity drive action selection is less understood. We have investigated this question by combining whole-brain volumetric calcium imaging using light-field microscopy and an operant-conditioning task in larval zebrafish. We find global, recurring dynamics of brain states to exhibit pre-motor bifurcations toward mutually exclusive decision outcomes. These dynamics arise from a distributed network displaying trial-by-trial functional connectivity changes, especially between cerebellum and habenula, which correlate with decision outcome. Within this network the cerebellum shows particularly strong and predictive pre-motor activity (>10 s before movement initiation), mainly within the granule cells. Turn directions are determined by the difference neuroactivity between the ipsilateral and contralateral hemispheres, while the rate of bi-hemispheric population ramping quantitatively predicts decision time on the trial-by-trial level. Our results highlight a cognitive role of the cerebellum and its importance in motor planning.

Cerebelo/fisiologia , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Peixe-Zebra/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Cérebro/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Condicionamento Operante/fisiologia , Objetivos , Habenula/fisiologia , Temperatura Alta , Larva/fisiologia , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Movimento , Neurônios/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Rombencéfalo/fisiologia