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1.
Gene ; 766: 145096, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32919006

RESUMO

The phylogenetic analysis based on sequence similarity targeted to real biological taxa is one of the major challenging tasks. In this paper, we propose a novel alignment-free method, CoFASA (Codon Feature based Amino acid Sequence Analyser), for similarity analysis of nucleotide sequences. At first, we assign numerical weights to the four nucleotides. We then calculate a score of each codon based on the numerical value of the constituent nucleotides, termed as degree of codons. Accordingly, we obtain the degree of each amino acid based on the degree of codons targeted towards a specific amino acid. Utilizing the degree of twenty amino acids and their relative abundance within a given sequence, we generate 20-dimensional features for every coding DNA sequence or protein sequence. We use the features for performing phylogenetic analysis of the set of candidate sequences. We use multiple protein sequences derived from Beta-globin (BG), NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 (ND5), Transferrins (TFs), Xylanases, low identity (<40%) and high identity (⩾40%) protein sequences (encompassing 533 and 1064 protein families) for experimental assessments. We compare our results with sixteen (16) well-known methods, including both alignment-based and alignment-free methods. Various assessment indices are used, such as the Pearson correlation coefficient, RF (Robinson-Foulds) distance and ROC score for performance analysis. While comparing the performance of CoFASA with alignment-based methods (ClustalW, ClustalΩ, MAFFT, and MUSCLE), it shows very similar results. Further, CoFASA shows better performance in comparison to well-known alignment-free methods, including LZW-Kernal, jD2Stat, FFP, spaced, and AFKS-D2s in predicting taxonomic relationship among candidate taxa. Overall, we observe that the features derived by CoFASA are very much useful in isolating the sequences according to their taxonomic labels. While our method is cost-effective, at the same time, produces consistent and satisfactory outcomes.


Assuntos
Sequência de Aminoácidos/genética , Aminoácidos/genética , Códon/genética , Alinhamento de Sequência/métodos , Análise de Sequência de Proteína/métodos , Algoritmos , Animais , Humanos , Nucleotídeos/genética , Filogenia , Proteínas/genética
2.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 21(Suppl 14): 367, 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998698

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Essential genes are those genes that are critical for the survival of an organism. The prediction of essential genes in bacteria can provide targets for the design of novel antibiotic compounds or antimicrobial strategies. RESULTS: We propose a deep neural network for predicting essential genes in microbes. Our architecture called DEEPLYESSENTIAL makes minimal assumptions about the input data (i.e., it only uses gene primary sequence and the corresponding protein sequence) to carry out the prediction thus maximizing its practical application compared to existing predictors that require structural or topological features which might not be readily available. We also expose and study a hidden performance bias that effected previous classifiers. Extensive results show that DEEPLYESSENTIAL outperform existing classifiers that either employ down-sampling to balance the training set or use clustering to exclude multiple copies of orthologous genes. CONCLUSION: Deep neural network architectures can efficiently predict whether a microbial gene is essential (or not) using only its sequence information.


Assuntos
Bactérias/genética , Genes Essenciais , Redes Neurais de Computação , Área Sob a Curva , Análise por Conglomerados , Códon , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/genética , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/genética , Curva ROC
3.
Virol J ; 17(1): 138, 2020 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32928234

RESUMO

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has posed significant threats to international health. The genetic traits as well as evolutionary processes in this novel coronavirus are not fully characterized, and their roles in viral pathogenesis are yet largely unknown. To get a better picture of the codon architecture of this newly emerging coronavirus, in this study we perform bioinformatic analysis, based on publicly available nucleotide sequences of SARS-CoV-2 along with those of other members of human coronaviruses as well as non-human coronaviruses in different hosts, to take a snapshot of the genome-wide codon usage pattern of SARS-CoV-2 and uncover that all over-represented codons end with A/U and this newly emerging coronavirus has a relatively low codon usage bias, which is shaped by both mutation pressure and natural selection. Additionally, there is slight variation in the codon usage pattern among the SARS-CoV-2 isolates from different geo-locations. Furthermore, the overall codon usage pattern of SARS-CoV-2 is generally similar to that of its phylogenetic relatives among non-human betacoronaviruses such as RaTG13. Taken together, we comprehensively analyze the characteristics of codon usage pattern in SARS-CoV-2 via bioinformatic approaches. The information from this research may not only be helpful to get new insights into the evolution of SARS-CoV-2, but also have potential value for developing coronavirus vaccines.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Uso do Códon , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Genoma Viral , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Análise por Conglomerados , Códon , Biologia Computacional , Evolução Molecular , Humanos , Mutação , Pandemias , Filogenia , Seleção Genética , Proteínas Virais/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4676, 2020 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938922

RESUMO

Translation efficiency varies considerably between different mRNAs, thereby impacting protein expression. Translation of the stress response master-regulator ATF4 increases upon stress, but the molecular mechanisms are not well understood. We discover here that translation factors DENR, MCTS1 and eIF2D are required to induce ATF4 translation upon stress by promoting translation reinitiation in the ATF4 5'UTR. We find DENR and MCTS1 are only needed for reinitiation after upstream Open Reading Frames (uORFs) containing certain penultimate codons, perhaps because DENR•MCTS1 are needed to evict only certain tRNAs from post-termination 40S ribosomes. This provides a model for how DENR and MCTS1 promote translation reinitiation. Cancer cells, which are exposed to many stresses, require ATF4 for survival and proliferation. We find a strong correlation between DENR•MCTS1 expression and ATF4 activity across cancers. Furthermore, additional oncogenes including a-Raf, c-Raf and Cdk4 have long uORFs and are translated in a DENR•MCTS1 dependent manner.


Assuntos
Fator 4 Ativador da Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Iniciação em Eucariotos/metabolismo , Biossíntese de Proteínas , Ribossomos/metabolismo , Regiões 5' não Traduzidas , Fator 4 Ativador da Transcrição/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Códon , Fator de Iniciação 2 em Eucariotos/genética , Fator de Iniciação 2 em Eucariotos/metabolismo , Fatores de Iniciação em Eucariotos/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Células HeLa , Humanos , Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas Oncogênicas/genética , Oncogenes , Fases de Leitura Aberta , RNA Mensageiro , RNA de Transferência/genética , RNA de Transferência/metabolismo , Subunidades Ribossômicas Menores de Eucariotos/genética , Subunidades Ribossômicas Menores de Eucariotos/metabolismo , Ribossomos/genética
5.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239044, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32931501

RESUMO

Holothuria leucospilota (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) is a widespread tropical sea cucumber with strong value for the ecological restoration of coral reefs. Therefore, some studies regarding the artificial breeding and cultivation of H. leucospilota have been undertaken recently. However, the biological functions of the digestive system of this species have not been elucidated. In this study, a cDNA coding for α-amylase, an indicator of digestive maturity in animals, was identified from H. leucospilota and designated Hl-Amy. The full-length cDNA of the Hl-Amy gene, which is 1734 bp in length with an open reading frame (ORF) of 1578 bp, encodes a 525 amino acid (a.a.) protein with a deduced molecular weight of 59.34 kDa. According to the CaZy database annotation, Hl-Amy belongs to the class of GH-H with the official nomenclature of α-amylase (EC 3.2.1.1) or 4-α-D-glucan glucanohydrolase. The Hl-Amy protein contains a signal peptide at the N-terminal followed by a functional amylase domain, which includes the catalytic activity site. The mRNA expression of Hl-Amy was abundantly exhibited in the intestine, followed by the transverse vessel with a low level, but was hardly detected in other selected tissues. During embryonic and larval development, Hl-Amy was constitutively expressed in all stages, and the highest expression level was observed in the blastula. By in situ hybridization (ISH), positive Hl-Amy signals were observed in different parts of the three different intestinal segments (foregut, midgut and hindgut). The Hl-Amy recombinant protein was generated in an E. coli system with codon optimization, which is necessary for Hl-Amy successfully expressed in this heterogenous system. The Hl-Amy recombinant protein was purified by immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC), and its activity of starch hydrolysis was further detected. The optimal temperatures and pH for Hl-Amy recombinant protein were 55°C and 6.0, respectively, with an activity of 62.2 U/mg. In summary, this current study has filled a knowledge gap on the biological function and expression profiles of an essential digestive enzyme in sea cucumber, which may encourage future investigation toward rationalized diets for H. leucospilota in artificial cultivation, and optimized heterogenous prokaryotic systems for producing recombinant enzymes of marine origins.


Assuntos
Pepinos-do-Mar/enzimologia , Pepinos-do-Mar/genética , alfa-Amilases/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos/genética , Animais , Fenômenos Biológicos , Clonagem Molecular/métodos , Códon/genética , DNA Complementar/genética , Equinodermos/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Fases de Leitura Aberta/genética , Filogenia , Alinhamento de Sequência/métodos , Distribuição Tecidual/genética , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo
6.
Virol J ; 17(1): 131, 2020 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32854725

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Covid19 infection is caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, a novel member of the coronavirus (CoV) family. CoV genomes code for a ORF1a / ORF1ab polyprotein and four structural proteins widely studied as major drug targets. The genomes also contain a variable number of open reading frames (ORFs) coding for accessory proteins that are not essential for virus replication, but appear to have a role in pathogenesis. The accessory proteins have been less well characterized and are difficult to predict by classical bioinformatics methods. METHODS: We propose a computational tool GOFIX to characterize potential ORFs in virus genomes. In particular, ORF coding potential is estimated by searching for enrichment in motifs of the X circular code, that is known to be over-represented in the reading frames of viral genes. RESULTS: We applied GOFIX to study the SARS-CoV-2 and related genomes including SARS-CoV and SARS-like viruses from bat, civet and pangolin hosts, focusing on the accessory proteins. Our analysis provides evidence supporting the presence of overlapping ORFs 7b, 9b and 9c in all the genomes and thus helps to resolve some differences in current genome annotations. In contrast, we predict that ORF3b is not functional in all genomes. Novel putative ORFs were also predicted, including a truncated form of the ORF10 previously identified in SARS-CoV-2 and a little known ORF overlapping the Spike protein in Civet-CoV and SARS-CoV. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings contribute to characterizing sequence properties of accessory genes of SARS coronaviruses, and especially the newly acquired genes making use of overlapping reading frames.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Genoma Viral , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Vírus da SARS/genética , Proteínas Virais Reguladoras e Acessórias/genética , Animais , Códon , Biologia Computacional , Evolução Molecular , Genes Virais , Humanos , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Proteínas da Matriz Viral/genética , Proteínas Virais/química , Proteínas Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais Reguladoras e Acessórias/química
7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4034, 2020 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788576

RESUMO

Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is an X-linked primary immunodeficiency with severe platelet abnormalities and complex immunodeficiency. Although clinical gene therapy approaches using lentiviral vectors have produced encouraging results, full immune and platelet reconstitution is not always achieved. Here we show that a CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing strategy allows the precise correction of WAS mutations in up to 60% of human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs), without impairing cell viability and differentiation potential. Delivery of the editing reagents to WAS HSPCs led to full rescue of WASp expression and correction of functional defects in myeloid and lymphoid cells. Primary and secondary transplantation of corrected WAS HSPCs into immunodeficient mice showed persistence of edited cells for up to 26 weeks and efficient targeting of long-term repopulating stem cells. Finally, no major genotoxicity was associated with the gene editing process, paving the way for an alternative, yet highly efficient and safe therapy.


Assuntos
Edição de Genes , Terapia Genética , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/metabolismo , Síndrome de Wiskott-Aldrich/genética , Síndrome de Wiskott-Aldrich/terapia , Animais , Plaquetas/metabolismo , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Linhagem da Célula , Códon/genética , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Células HEK293 , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Testes de Mutagenicidade , Células Mieloides/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Síndrome de Wiskott-Aldrich/patologia , Proteína da Síndrome de Wiskott-Aldrich/genética
8.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236590, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735595

RESUMO

Zingiber montanum (Z. montanum) and Zingiber zerumbet (Z. zerumbet) are important medicinal and ornamental herbs in the genus Zingiber and family Zingiberaceae. Chloroplast-derived markers are useful for species identification and phylogenetic studies, but further development is warranted for these two Zingiber species. In this study, we report the complete chloroplast genomes of Z. montanum and Z. zerumbet, which had lengths of 164,464 bp and 163,589 bp, respectively. These genomes had typical quadripartite structures with a large single copy (LSC, 87,856-89,161 bp), a small single copy (SSC, 15,803-15,642 bp), and a pair of inverted repeats (IRa and IRb, 29,393-30,449 bp). We identified 111 unique genes in each chloroplast genome, including 79 protein-coding genes, 28 tRNAs and 4 rRNA genes. We analyzed the molecular structures, gene information, amino acid frequencies, codon usage patterns, RNA editing sites, simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and long repeats from the two chloroplast genomes. A comparison of the Z. montanum and Z. zerumbet chloroplast genomes detected 489 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 172 insertions/deletions (indels). Thirteen highly divergent regions, including ycf1, rps19, rps18-rpl20, accD-psaI, psaC-ndhE, psbA-trnK-UUU, trnfM-CAU-rps14, trnE-UUC-trnT-UGU, ccsA-ndhD, psbC-trnS-UGA, start-psbA, petA-psbJ, and rbcL-accD, were identified and might be useful for future species identification and phylogeny in the genus Zingiber. Positive selection was observed for ATP synthase (atpA and atpB), RNA polymerase (rpoA), small subunit ribosomal protein (rps3) and other protein-coding genes (accD, clpP, ycf1, and ycf2) based on the Ka/Ks ratios. Additionally, chloroplast SNP-based phylogeny analyses found that Zingiber was a monophyletic sister branch to Kaempferia and that chloroplast SNPs could be used to identify Zingiber species. The genome resources in our study provide valuable information for the identification and phylogenetic analysis of the genus Zingiber and family Zingiberaceae.


Assuntos
Genoma de Cloroplastos/genética , Genômica , Filogenia , Zingiberaceae/genética , Códon/genética , Mutação INDEL , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Edição de RNA
9.
Gene ; 762: 145041, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777523

RESUMO

Mitochondrial genome sequencing has become widely used in numerous fields, including systematics, phylogeny, and evolutionary genomics. To elucidate phylogenetic relationships among members of the family Characidae, we sequenced the mitogenomes of four species within this family, namely, Aphyocharax rathbuni, Hyphessobrycon herbertaxelrodi, Hyphessobrycon megalopterus, and Prionobrama filigera. The mitogenomes were found to be 16,678-16,841 bp and encode 37 typical mitochondrial genes (13 protein-coding, 2 ribosomal RNA, and 22 transfer RNA genes). Gene arrangements in the studied species are consistent with those in the inferred ancestral fish. Most protein-coding genes in these mitogenomes have typical ATN start codons and TAR or an incomplete stop codon T-. Phylogenetic relationships based on Bayesian inference and maximum-likelihood methods indicated that A. rathbuni, H. herbertaxelrodi, H. megalopterus, and P. filigera belong to the Characidae family. Of the 15 Characidae species studied, three pairs were of the same genus, but the results for only one pair were well supported. This phylogenetic classification is inconsistent with those described in previous morphological and taxonomic studies on this family. Thus, systematic classification of the Characidae requires further examination. Our findings yield new mitogenomic data that will provide a basis for future phylogenetic and taxonomic studies.


Assuntos
Caraciformes/genética , Genoma Mitocondrial , Filogenia , Animais , Caraciformes/classificação , Códon/genética , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Fases de Leitura Aberta , RNA Ribossômico/genética , RNA de Transferência/genética
10.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 21(1): 340, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738892

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ribosome profiling has been widely used for studies of translation under a large variety of cellular and physiological contexts. Many of these studies have greatly benefitted from a series of data-mining tools designed for dissection of the translatome from different aspects. However, as the studies of translation advance quickly, the current toolbox still falls in short, and more specialized tools are in urgent need for deeper and more efficient mining of the important and new features of the translation landscapes. RESULTS: Here, we present RiboMiner, a bioinformatics toolset for mining of multi-dimensional features of the translatome with ribosome profiling data. RiboMiner performs extensive quality assessment of the data and integrates a spectrum of tools for various metagene analyses of the ribosome footprints and for detailed analyses of multiple features related to translation regulation. Visualizations of all the results are available. Many of these analyses have not been provided by previous methods. RiboMiner is highly flexible, as the pipeline could be easily adapted and customized for different scopes and targets of the studies. CONCLUSIONS: Applications of RiboMiner on two published datasets did not only reproduced the main results reported before, but also generated novel insights into the translation regulation processes. Therefore, being complementary to the current tools, RiboMiner could be a valuable resource for dissections of the translation landscapes and the translation regulations by mining the ribosome profiling data more comprehensively and with higher resolution. RiboMiner is freely available at https://github.com/xryanglab/RiboMiner and https://pypi.org/project/RiboMiner .


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Biossíntese de Proteínas , Ribossomos/metabolismo , Software , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Aminoácidos/genética , Códon/genética , Análise de Dados , Mineração de Dados
11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(28): 16333-16338, 2020 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32601241

RESUMO

Bacterial transfer RNAs (tRNAs) contain evolutionarily conserved sequences and modifications that ensure uniform binding to the ribosome and optimal translational accuracy despite differences in their aminoacyl attachments and anticodon nucleotide sequences. In the tRNA anticodon stem-loop, the anticodon sequence is correlated with a base pair in the anticodon loop (nucleotides 32 and 38) to tune the binding of each tRNA to the decoding center in the ribosome. Disruption of this correlation renders the ribosome unable to distinguish correct from incorrect tRNAs. The molecular basis for how these two tRNA features combine to ensure accurate decoding is unclear. Here, we solved structures of the bacterial ribosome containing either wild-type [Formula: see text] or [Formula: see text] containing a reversed 32-38 pair on cognate and near-cognate codons. Structures of wild-type [Formula: see text] bound to the ribosome reveal 23S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) nucleotide A1913 positional changes that are dependent on whether the codon-anticodon interaction is cognate or near cognate. Further, the 32-38 pair is destabilized in the context of a near-cognate codon-anticodon pair. Reversal of the pairing in [Formula: see text] ablates A1913 movement regardless of whether the interaction is cognate or near cognate. These results demonstrate that disrupting 32-38 and anticodon sequences alters interactions with the ribosome that directly contribute to misreading.


Assuntos
Biossíntese de Proteínas/genética , RNA de Transferência/química , RNA de Transferência/genética , Anticódon/química , Anticódon/genética , Anticódon/metabolismo , Pareamento de Bases , Códon/genética , Códon/metabolismo , Cristalografia por Raios X , Modelos Moleculares , Mutação , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , RNA Bacteriano/química , RNA Bacteriano/genética , RNA Bacteriano/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , RNA Ribossômico 23S/química , RNA Ribossômico 23S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 23S/metabolismo , RNA de Transferência/metabolismo , Ribossomos/química , Ribossomos/metabolismo , Thermus thermophilus/genética , Thermus thermophilus/metabolismo
12.
Nat Cell Biol ; 22(8): 999-1010, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32719554

RESUMO

Nonstop or stop-loss mutations convert a stop into a sense codon, resulting in translation into the 3' untranslated region as a nonstop extension mutation to the next in-frame stop codon or as a readthrough mutation into the poly-A tail. Nonstop mutations have been characterized in hereditary diseases, but not in cancer genetics. In a pan-cancer analysis, we curated and analysed 3,412 nonstop mutations from 62 tumour entities, generating a comprehensive database at http://NonStopDB.dkfz.de. Six different nonstop extension mutations affected the tumour suppressor SMAD4, extending its carboxy terminus by 40 amino acids. These caused rapid degradation of the SMAD4 mutants via the ubiquitin-proteasome system. A hydrophobic degron signal sequence of ten amino acids within the carboxy-terminal extension was required to induce complete loss of the SMAD4 protein. Thus, we discovered that nonstop mutations can be functionally important in cancer and characterize their loss-of-function impact on the tumour suppressor SMAD4.


Assuntos
Mutação , Neoplasias/genética , Proteína Smad4/genética , Proteína Smad4/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Códon/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Proteólise
13.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(7): e1008038, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649657

RESUMO

The importance of mRNA translation models has been demonstrated across many fields of science and biotechnology. However, a whole cell model with codon resolution and biophysical dynamics is still lacking. We describe a whole cell model of translation for E. coli. The model simulates all major translation components in the cell: ribosomes, mRNAs and tRNAs. It also includes, for the first time, fundamental aspects of translation, such as competition for ribosomes and tRNAs at a codon resolution while considering tRNAs wobble interactions and tRNA recycling. The model uses parameters that are tightly inferred from large scale measurements of translation. Furthermore, we demonstrate a robust modelling approach which relies on state-of-the-art practices of translation modelling and also provides a framework for easy generalizations. This novel approach allows simulation of thousands of mRNAs that undergo translation in the same cell with common resources such as ribosomes and tRNAs in feasible time. Based on this model, we demonstrate, for the first time, the direct importance of competition for resources on translation and its accurate modelling. An effective supply-demand ratio (ESDR) measure, which is related to translation factors such as tRNAs, has been devised and utilized to show superior predictive power in complex scenarios of heterologous gene expression. The devised model is not only more accurate than the existing models, but, more importantly, provides a framework for analyzing complex whole cell translation problems and variables that haven't been explored before, making it important in various biomedical fields.


Assuntos
Códon/metabolismo , Biossíntese de Proteínas , RNA de Transferência/metabolismo , Ribossomos/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Cinética , Modelos Genéticos , Modelos Estatísticos , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Análise de Regressão , Biologia de Sistemas , Transcriptoma
14.
C R Biol ; 343(1): 111-122, 2020 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32720493

RESUMO

Nucleotide affinities for noncovalent interactions with amino acids produce associations between mRNAs and cognate peptides, potentially regulating ribosomal translation. Correlations between nucleotide affinities and residue hydrophobicity are explored for 25 theoretical minimal RNA rings, 22 nucleotide-long RNAs designed in silico to code for each amino acid once after three translation rounds, and forming stem-loop hairpins. This design presumably mimicks life's first RNAs. RNA rings resemble consensual tRNAs, suggesting proto-tRNA function, predicted anticodon and cognate amino acid. The 25 RNA rings and their presumed evolutionary order, deduced from the genetic code integration order of the amino acid cognate to their predicted anticodon, produces noteworthy associations with several ancient properties of the cell's translational machinery. Here we use this system to explore the evolution of codon affinity-residue hydrophobicity correlations, assuming these reflect pre-tRNA and pre-ribosomal translations. This hypothesis expects that correlations decrease with genetic code inclusion orders of RNA ring cognates. RNA ring associations between nucleotide affinities and residue hydrophobicities resemble those from modern natural genes/proteins. Association strengths decrease with genetic code inclusion ranks of proto-tRNA cognate amino acids. In silico design of minimal RNA rings didn't account for affinities between RNA and peptides coded by these RNAs. Yet, interactions between RNA rings and translated cognate peptides resemble modern natural genes. This property is strongest for ancient RNA rings, weakest for recent RNA rings, spanning a period during which modern tRNA- and ribosome-based translation presumably evolved. Results indicate that translation lacking tRNA-like adaptors based on codon-amino acid affinities and the genetic code pre-existed tRNA-mediated translation. Theoretical minimal RNA rings appear valid prebiotic peptide-RNA world models for the transition between pre-tRNA- and tRNA-mediated translations.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/genética , Nucleotídeos/genética , RNA de Transferência/genética , RNA/genética , Códon , Simulação por Computador , Evolução Molecular , Código Genético
15.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(14): 7899-7913, 2020 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609816

RESUMO

In the Elongator-dependent modification pathway, chemical modifications are introduced at the wobble uridines at position 34 in transfer RNAs (tRNAs), which serve to optimize codon translation rates. Here, we show that this three-step modification pathway exists in Dictyostelium discoideum, model of the evolutionary superfamily Amoebozoa. Not only are previously established modifications observable by mass spectrometry in strains with the most conserved genes of each step deleted, but also additional modifications are detected, indicating a certain plasticity of the pathway in the amoeba. Unlike described for yeast, D. discoideum allows for an unconditional deletion of the single tQCUG gene, as long as the Elongator-dependent modification pathway is intact. In gene deletion strains of the modification pathway, protein amounts are significantly reduced as shown by flow cytometry and Western blotting, using strains expressing different glutamine leader constructs fused to GFP. Most dramatic are these effects, when the tQCUG gene is deleted, or Elp3, the catalytic component of the Elongator complex is missing. In addition, Elp3 is the most strongly conserved protein of the modification pathway, as our phylogenetic analysis reveals. The implications of this observation are discussed with respect to the evolutionary age of the components acting in the Elongator-dependent modification pathway.


Assuntos
Dictyostelium/genética , RNA de Transferência/metabolismo , Anticódon/química , Anticódon/metabolismo , Códon , Dictyostelium/metabolismo , Deleção de Genes , Glutamina , Histona Acetiltransferases/genética , Histona Acetiltransferases/metabolismo , Mutação , Nucleosídeos/química , Filogenia , Biossíntese de Proteínas , Proteínas de Protozoários/classificação , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Proteínas de Protozoários/metabolismo , Uridina/metabolismo
16.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0225563, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32570272

RESUMO

To evaluate the impact of hypermutation on the HIV-1 dissemination at the population level we studied 7072 sequences HIV-1 gene vif retrieved from the public databank. From this dataset 854 sequences were selected because they had associated values of CD4+ T lymphocytes counts and viral loads and they were used to assess the correlation between clinical parameters and hypermutation. We found that the frequency of stop codons at sites 5, 11 and 79 ranged from 2.8x10-4 to 4.2x10-4. On the other hand, at codons 21, 38, 70, 89 and 174 the frequency of stop codons ranged from 1.4x10-3 to 2.5x10-3. We also found a correlation between clinical parameters and hypermutation where patients harboring proviruses with one or more stop codons at the tryptophan sites of the gene vif had higher CD4+ T lymphocytes counts and lower viral loads compared to the population. Our findings indicate that A3 activity potentially restrains HIV-1 replication because individuals with hypermutated proviruses tend to have lower numbers of RNA copies. However, owing to the low frequency of hypermutated sequences observed in the databank (44 out of 7072), it is unlikely that A3 has a significant impact to curb HIV-1 dissemination at the population level.


Assuntos
Códon/genética , HIV-1/genética , Triptofano , Produtos do Gene vif do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/genética , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Códon de Terminação/genética , HIV-1/fisiologia , Mutação , Carga Viral/genética
17.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(1): 83-95, 2020 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516569

RESUMO

Synonymous codon usage has been identified as a determinant of translational efficiency and mRNA stability in model organisms and human cell lines. However, whether natural selection shapes human codon content to optimize translation efficiency is unclear. Furthermore, aside from those that affect splicing, synonymous mutations are typically ignored as potential contributors to disease. Using genetic sequencing data from nearly 200,000 individuals, we uncover clear evidence that natural selection optimizes codon content in the human genome. In deriving intolerance metrics to quantify gene-level constraint on synonymous variation, we discover that dosage-sensitive genes, DNA-damage-response genes, and cell-cycle-regulated genes are particularly intolerant to synonymous variation. Notably, we illustrate that reductions in codon optimality in BRCA1 can attenuate its function. Our results reveal that synonymous mutations most likely play an underappreciated role in human variation.


Assuntos
Uso do Códon/genética , Genoma Humano/genética , Seleção Genética/genética , Códon/genética , Evolução Molecular , Humanos , Mutação/genética , Processamento de RNA/genética , Estabilidade de RNA/genética
18.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 21(1): 264, 2020 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32580695

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prokaryotes are asexual, but these organisms frequently engage in homologous recombination, a process that differs from meiotic recombination in sexual organisms. Most tools developed to simulate genome evolution either assume sexual reproduction or the complete absence of DNA flux in the population. As a result, very few simulators are adapted to model prokaryotic genome evolution while accounting for recombination. Moreover, many simulators are based on the coalescent, which assumes a neutral model of genomic evolution, and those are best suited for organisms evolving under weak selective pressures, such as animals and plants. In contrast, prokaryotes are thought to be evolving under much stronger selective pressures, suggesting that forward-in-time simulators are better suited for these organisms. RESULTS: Here, I present CoreSimul, a forward-in-time simulator of core genome evolution for prokaryotes modeling homologous recombination. Simulations are guided by a phylogenetic tree and incorporate different substitution models, including models of codon selection. CONCLUSIONS: CoreSimul is a flexible forward-in-time simulator that constitutes a significant addition to the limited list of available simulators applicable to prokaryote genome evolution.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Genoma Bacteriano , Recombinação Homóloga , Modelos Genéticos , Códon , Genoma Arqueal , Genômica , Filogenia , Software
19.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2908, 2020 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32518267

RESUMO

Adoptive cell therapy (ACT) with tumor-specific T cells can mediate cancer regression. The main target of tumor-specific T cells are neoantigens arising from mutations in self-proteins. Although the majority of cancer neoantigens are unique to each patient, and therefore not broadly useful for ACT, some are shared. We studied oligoclonal T-cell receptors (TCRs) that recognize a shared neoepitope arising from a driver mutation in the p53 oncogene (p53R175H) presented by HLA-A2. Here we report structures of wild-type and mutant p53-HLA-A2 ligands, as well as structures of three tumor-specific TCRs bound to p53R175H-HLA-A2. These structures reveal how a driver mutation in p53 rendered a self-peptide visible to T cells. The TCRs employ structurally distinct strategies that are highly focused on the mutation to discriminate between mutant and wild-type p53. The TCR-p53R175H-HLA-A2 complexes provide a framework for designing TCRs to improve potency for ACT without sacrificing specificity.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Neoplasias/química , Antígeno HLA-A2/química , Mutação , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/química , Sítios de Ligação , Biotinilação , Códon , Cristalografia por Raios X , Epitopos , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunoterapia Adotiva , Ligantes , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Peptídeos/química , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica , Dobramento de Proteína , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Software , Ressonância de Plasmônio de Superfície
20.
PLoS Biol ; 18(6): e3000725, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516343

RESUMO

Inherited prion diseases are caused by autosomal dominant coding mutations in the human prion protein (PrP) gene (PRNP) and account for about 15% of human prion disease cases worldwide. The proposed mechanism is that the mutation predisposes to conformational change in the expressed protein, leading to the generation of disease-related multichain PrP assemblies that propagate by seeded protein misfolding. Despite considerable experimental support for this hypothesis, to-date spontaneous formation of disease-relevant, transmissible PrP assemblies in transgenic models expressing only mutant human PrP has not been demonstrated. Here, we report findings from transgenic mice that express human PrP 117V on a mouse PrP null background (117VV Tg30 mice), which model the PRNP A117V mutation causing inherited prion disease (IPD) including Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker (GSS) disease phenotypes in humans. By studying brain samples from uninoculated groups of mice, we discovered that some mice (≥475 days old) spontaneously generated abnormal PrP assemblies, which after inoculation into further groups of 117VV Tg30 mice, produced a molecular and neuropathological phenotype congruent with that seen after transmission of brain isolates from IPD A117V patients to the same mice. To the best of our knowledge, the 117VV Tg30 mouse line is the first transgenic model expressing only mutant human PrP to show spontaneous generation of transmissible PrP assemblies that directly mirror those generated in an inherited prion disease in humans.


Assuntos
Amiloide/metabolismo , Príons/metabolismo , Adulto , Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Códon/genética , Heterozigoto , Homozigoto , Humanos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Príons/isolamento & purificação
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