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1.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1255: 231-247, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32949404

RESUMO

The single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) is a powerful tool for exploring the complexity, clusters, and specific functions of the brain cells. Using scRNA-seq, the heterogeneity and changes in transcriptomic profiles of a single neuron were defined during dynamic development and differentiation of cells in cerebral cortex regions, and in the pathogenesis of neurological diseases. One of the great challenges is that the brain sample is susceptible to interference and confounding. More advanced methodologies of computational systems biology need to be developed to overcome the inherent interference and technical differences in the detection of single-cell signals. It is expected that scRNA-seq will be extended to metabolic profiles of the single neuron cell on basis of transcriptional profiles and regulatory networks. It is also expected if the transcriptional profiles can be integrated with molecular and functional phenomes in a single neuron and with disease-specific phenomes to understand molecular mechanisms of brain development and disease occurrence. scRNA-seq will provide the new emerging neurological disciple of the artificial intelligent single neuron for deep understanding of brain diseases.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/embriologia , Córtex Cerebral/metabolismo , RNA-Seq , Análise de Célula Única , Encefalopatias/genética , Encefalopatias/metabolismo , Encefalopatias/patologia , Córtex Cerebral/citologia , Humanos , Transcriptoma
2.
Viruses ; 12(9)2020 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911874

RESUMO

Since the global outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19), infections of diverse human organs along with multiple symptoms continue to be reported. However, the susceptibility of the brain to SARS-CoV-2, and the mechanisms underlying neurological infection are still elusive. Here, we utilized human embryonic stem cell-derived brain organoids and monolayer cortical neurons to investigate infection of brain with pseudotyped SARS-CoV-2 viral particles. Spike-containing SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus infected neural layers within brain organoids. The expression of ACE2, a host cell receptor for SARS-CoV-2, was sustained during the development of brain organoids, especially in the somas of mature neurons, while remaining rare in neural stem cells. However, pseudotyped SARS-CoV-2 was observed in the axon of neurons, which lack ACE2. Neural infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus did not increase in proportion to viral load, but only 10% of neurons were infected. Our findings demonstrate that brain organoids provide a useful model for investigating SARS-CoV-2 entry into the human brain and elucidating the susceptibility of the brain to SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Neurônios/virologia , Organoides/virologia , Prosencéfalo/virologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/fisiologia , Axônios/enzimologia , Diferenciação Celular , Células Cultivadas , Córtex Cerebral/citologia , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/virologia , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/fisiologia , Células-Tronco Neurais/enzimologia , Células-Tronco Neurais/virologia , Neurônios/enzimologia , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/fisiologia , Prosencéfalo/citologia , Receptores Virais/fisiologia , Carga Viral , Tropismo Viral , Internalização do Vírus
3.
PLoS Biol ; 18(9): e3000584, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956387

RESUMO

The insular cortex (IC) participates in diverse complex brain functions, including social function, yet their cellular bases remain to be fully understood. Using microendoscopic calcium imaging of the agranular insular cortex (AI) in mice interacting with freely moving and restrained social targets, we identified 2 subsets of AI neurons-a larger fraction of "Social-ON" cells and a smaller fraction of "Social-OFF" cells-that change their activity in opposite directions during social exploration. Social-ON cells included those that represented social investigation independent of location and consisted of multiple subsets, each of which was preferentially active during exploration under a particular behavioral state or with a particular target of physical contact. These results uncover a previously unknown function of AI neurons that may act to monitor the ongoing status of social exploration while an animal interacts with unfamiliar conspecifics.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Animais , Córtex Cerebral/citologia , Masculino , Camundongos
4.
Science ; 369(6505): 858-862, 2020 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32792401

RESUMO

The conversion of neural stem cells into neurons is associated with the remodeling of organelles, but whether and how this is causally linked to fate change is poorly understood. We examined and manipulated mitochondrial dynamics during mouse and human cortical neurogenesis. We reveal that shortly after cortical stem cells have divided, daughter cells destined to self-renew undergo mitochondrial fusion, whereas those that retain high levels of mitochondria fission become neurons. Increased mitochondria fission promotes neuronal fate, whereas induction of mitochondria fusion after mitosis redirects daughter cells toward self-renewal. This occurs during a restricted time window that is doubled in human cells, in line with their increased self-renewal capacity. Our data reveal a postmitotic period of fate plasticity in which mitochondrial dynamics are linked with cell fate.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mitocôndrias/fisiologia , Dinâmica Mitocondrial , Mitose , Células-Tronco Neurais/citologia , Neurogênese/fisiologia , Neurônios/citologia , Animais , Córtex Cerebral/citologia , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Compostos Heterocíclicos de 4 ou mais Anéis/farmacologia , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Plasticidade Neuronal/efeitos dos fármacos , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Sirtuínas/metabolismo
5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3358, 2020 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620757

RESUMO

Neurodevelopmental disorders have a heritable component and are associated with region specific alterations in brain anatomy. However, it is unclear how genetic risks for neurodevelopmental disorders are translated into spatially patterned brain vulnerabilities. Here, we integrated cortical neuroimaging data from patients with neurodevelopmental disorders caused by genomic copy number variations (CNVs) and gene expression data from healthy subjects. For each of the six investigated disorders, we show that spatial patterns of cortical anatomy changes in youth are correlated with cortical spatial expression of CNV genes in neurotypical adults. By transforming normative bulk-tissue cortical expression data into cell-type expression maps, we link anatomical change maps in each analysed disorder to specific cell classes as well as the CNV-region genes they express. Our findings reveal organizing principles that regulate the mapping of genetic risks onto regional brain changes in neurogenetic disorders. Our findings will enable screening for candidate molecular mechanisms from readily available neuroimaging data.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/patologia , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico , Córtex Cerebral/citologia , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Cerebral/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/patologia , Neuroimagem , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Oligodendroglia/metabolismo , Oligodendroglia/patologia , Análise Espacial , Adulto Jovem
6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3342, 2020 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620835

RESUMO

Subdivisions of mouse whisker somatosensory thalamus project to cortex in a region-specific and layer-specific manner. However, a clear anatomical dissection of these pathways and their functional properties during whisker sensation is lacking. Here, we use anterograde trans-synaptic viral vectors to identify three specific thalamic subpopulations based on their connectivity with brainstem. The principal trigeminal nucleus innervates ventral posterior medial thalamus, which conveys whisker-selective tactile information to layer 4 primary somatosensory cortex that is highly sensitive to self-initiated movements. The spinal trigeminal nucleus innervates a rostral part of the posterior medial (POm) thalamus, signaling whisker-selective sensory information, as well as decision-related information during a goal-directed behavior, to layer 4 secondary somatosensory cortex. A caudal part of the POm, which apparently does not receive brainstem input, innervates layer 1 and 5A, responding with little whisker selectivity, but showing decision-related modulation. Our results suggest the existence of complementary segregated information streams to somatosensory cortices.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Córtex Somatossensorial/fisiologia , Tálamo/fisiologia , Tato/fisiologia , Vibrissas/fisiologia , Animais , Tronco Encefálico/citologia , Tronco Encefálico/fisiologia , Córtex Cerebral/citologia , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Neurônios/fisiologia , Córtex Somatossensorial/citologia , Transmissão Sináptica , Tálamo/citologia , Vibrissas/inervação
7.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0223395, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645024

RESUMO

Development of the cerebral cortex may be influenced by the composition of the maternal gut microbiota. To test this possibility, we administered probiotic Lactococcus lactis in drinking water to mouse dams from day 10.5 of gestation until pups reached postnatal day 1 (P1). Pups were assessed in a battery of behavioral tests starting at 10 weeks old. We found that females, but not males, exposed to probiotic during prenatal development spent more time in the center of the open field and displayed decreased freezing time in cue associated learning, compared to controls. Furthermore, we found that probiotic exposure changed the density of cortical neurons and increased the density of blood vessels in the cortical plate of P1 pups. Sex-specific differences were observed in the number of mitotic neural progenitor cells, which were increased in probiotic exposed female pups. In addition, we found that probiotic treatment in the latter half of pregnancy significantly increased plasma oxytocin levels in mouse dams, but not in the offspring. These results suggest that exposure of naïve, unstressed dams to probiotic may exert sex-specific long-term effects on cortical development and anxiety related behavior in the offspring.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Córtex Cerebral/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactococcus lactis , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/psicologia , Probióticos/farmacologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Contagem de Células , Córtex Cerebral/irrigação sanguínea , Córtex Cerebral/citologia , Córtex Cerebral/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Medo , Feminino , Aprendizagem , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neurônios/citologia , Ocitocina/metabolismo , Gravidez , Caracteres Sexuais
8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(25): 14464-14472, 2020 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32518114

RESUMO

Assemblies are large populations of neurons believed to imprint memories, concepts, words, and other cognitive information. We identify a repertoire of operations on assemblies. These operations correspond to properties of assemblies observed in experiments, and can be shown, analytically and through simulations, to be realizable by generic, randomly connected populations of neurons with Hebbian plasticity and inhibition. Assemblies and their operations constitute a computational model of the brain which we call the Assembly Calculus, occupying a level of detail intermediate between the level of spiking neurons and synapses and that of the whole brain. The resulting computational system can be shown, under assumptions, to be, in principle, capable of carrying out arbitrary computations. We hypothesize that something like it may underlie higher human cognitive functions such as reasoning, planning, and language. In particular, we propose a plausible brain architecture based on assemblies for implementing the syntactic processing of language in cortex, which is consistent with recent experimental results.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Modelos Neurológicos , Neurônios/fisiologia , Sinapses/fisiologia , Córtex Cerebral/citologia , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Idioma
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(25): 13886-13895, 2020 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32522880

RESUMO

Elucidating the lineage relationships among different cell types is key to understanding human brain development. Here we developed parallel RNA and DNA analysis after deep sequencing (PRDD-seq), which combines RNA analysis of neuronal cell types with analysis of nested spontaneous DNA somatic mutations as cell lineage markers, identified from joint analysis of single-cell and bulk DNA sequencing by single-cell MosaicHunter (scMH). PRDD-seq enables simultaneous reconstruction of neuronal cell type, cell lineage, and sequential neuronal formation ("birthdate") in postmortem human cerebral cortex. Analysis of two human brains showed remarkable quantitative details that relate mutation mosaic frequency to clonal patterns, confirming an early divergence of precursors for excitatory and inhibitory neurons, and an "inside-out" layer formation of excitatory neurons as seen in other species. In addition our analysis allows an estimate of excitatory neuron-restricted precursors (about 10) that generate the excitatory neurons within a cortical column. Inhibitory neurons showed complex, subtype-specific patterns of neurogenesis, including some patterns of development conserved relative to mouse, but also some aspects of primate cortical interneuron development not seen in mouse. PRDD-seq can be broadly applied to characterize cell identity and lineage from diverse archival samples with single-cell resolution and in potentially any developmental or disease condition.


Assuntos
Linhagem da Célula , Córtex Cerebral/citologia , Neurogênese , Córtex Cerebral/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Córtex Cerebral/metabolismo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Acúmulo de Mutações , Células-Tronco Neurais/citologia , Células-Tronco Neurais/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Análise de Célula Única
10.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234930, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32559228

RESUMO

Synaptic plasticity is the cellular basis of learning and memory. When animals learn a novel motor skill, synaptic modifications are induced in the primary motor cortex (M1), and new postsynaptic dendritic spines relevant to motor memory are formed in the early stage of learning. However, it is poorly understood how presynaptic axonal boutons are formed, eliminated, and maintained during motor learning, and whether long-range corticocortical and thalamocortical axonal boutons show distinct structural changes during learning. In this study, we conducted two-photon imaging of presynaptic boutons of long-range axons in layer 1 (L1) of the mouse M1 during the 7-day learning of an accelerating rotarod task. The training-period-averaged rate of formation of boutons on axons projecting from the secondary motor cortical area increased, while the average rate of elimination of those from the motor thalamus (thalamic boutons) decreased. In particular, the elimination rate of thalamic boutons during days 4-7 was lower than that in untrained mice, and the fraction of pre-existing thalamic boutons that survived until day 7 was higher than that in untrained mice. Our results suggest that the late stabilization of thalamic boutons in M1 contributes to motor skill learning.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Aprendizagem , Movimento , Terminações Pré-Sinápticas/fisiologia , Tálamo/fisiologia , Animais , Córtex Cerebral/citologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Teste de Desempenho do Rota-Rod , Tálamo/citologia
11.
J Vis Exp ; (159)2020 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32510512

RESUMO

Protoplasmic astrocytes (PrA) located in the mouse cerebral cortex are tightly juxtaposed, forming an apparently continuous three-dimensional matrix at adult stages. Thus far, no immunostaining strategy can single them out and segment their morphology in mature animals and over the course of corticogenesis. Cortical PrA originate from progenitors located in the dorsal pallium and can easily be targeted using in utero electroporation of integrative vectors. A protocol is presented here to label these cells with the multiaddressable genome-integrating color (MAGIC) Markers strategy, which relies on piggyBac/Tol2 transposition and Cre/lox recombination to stochastically express distinct fluorescent proteins (blue, cyan, yellow, and red) addressed to specific subcellular compartments. This multicolor fate mapping strategy enables to mark in situ nearby cortical progenitors with combinations of color markers prior to the start of gliogenesis and to track their descendants, including astrocytes, from embryonic to adult stages at the individual cell level. Semi-sparse labeling achieved by adjusting the concentration of electroporated vectors and color contrasts provided by the Multiaddressable Genome-Integrating Color Markers (MAGIC Markers or MM) enable to individualize astrocytes and single out their territory and complex morphology despite their dense anatomical arrangement. Presented here is a comprehensive experimental workflow including the details of the electroporation procedure, multichannel image stacks acquisition by confocal microscopy, and computer-assisted three-dimensional segmentation that will enable the experimenter to assess individual PrA volume and morphology. In summary, electroporation of MAGIC Markers provides a convenient method to individually label numerous astrocytes and gain access to their anatomical features at different developmental stages. This technique will be useful to analyze cortical astrocyte morphological properties in various mouse models without resorting to complex crosses with transgenic reporter lines.


Assuntos
Astrócitos/citologia , Córtex Cerebral/citologia , Eletroporação/métodos , Animais , Cor , Feminino , Camundongos , Neurogênese
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(26): 15221-15229, 2020 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32546524

RESUMO

The balance between proliferation and differentiation of stem cells and progenitors determines the size of an adult brain region. While the molecular mechanisms regulating proliferation and differentiation of cortical progenitors have been intensively studied, an analysis of the kinetics of progenitor choice between self-renewal and differentiation in vivo is, due to the technical difficulties, still unknown. Here we established a descriptive mathematical model to estimate the probability of self-renewal or differentiation of cortical progenitor behaviors in vivo, a variable we have termed the expansion coefficient. We have applied the model, one which depends only on experimentally measured parameters, to the developing mouse cortex where the expansive neuroepithelial cells and neurogenic radial glial progenitors are coexisting. Surprisingly, we found that the expansion coefficients of both neuroepithelium cells and radial glial progenitors follow the same developmental trajectory during cortical development, suggesting a common rule governing self-renewal/differentiation behaviors in mouse cortical progenitor differentiation.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Córtex Cerebral/citologia , Modelos Biológicos , Células-Tronco Neurais/fisiologia , Animais , Ciclo Celular/fisiologia , Feminino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR
13.
Nat Methods ; 17(5): 509-513, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32371979

RESUMO

We designed a head-mounted three-photon microscope for imaging deep cortical layer neuronal activity in a freely moving rat. Delivery of high-energy excitation pulses at 1,320 nm required both a hollow-core fiber whose transmission properties did not change with fiber movement and dispersion compensation. These developments enabled imaging at >1.1 mm below the cortical surface and stable imaging of layer 5 neuronal activity for >1 h in freely moving rats performing a range of behaviors.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/citologia , Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Locomoção , Microscopia de Fluorescência por Excitação Multifotônica/métodos , Neuroimagem/métodos , Animais , Encéfalo/citologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Tecnologia de Fibra Óptica , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Masculino , Neurônios/citologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Ratos
14.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(5): e1007834, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32453727

RESUMO

Neurons form complex networks that evolve over multiple time scales. In order to thoroughly characterize these networks, time dependencies must be explicitly modeled. Here, we present a statistical model that captures both the underlying structural and temporal dynamics of neuronal networks. Our model combines the class of Stochastic Block Models for community formation with Gaussian processes to model changes in the community structure as a smooth function of time. We validate our model on synthetic data and demonstrate its utility on three different studies using in vitro cultures of dissociated neurons.


Assuntos
Potenciais de Ação , Modelos Neurológicos , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Córtex Cerebral/citologia , Eletrodos , Hipocampo/citologia , Cadeias de Markov , Camundongos , Neuroglia/citologia , Distribuição Normal , Probabilidade , Ratos , Processos Estocásticos , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Neuron ; 107(3): 522-537.e6, 2020 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32464088

RESUMO

Dendritic spinules are thin protrusions, formed by neuronal spines, not adequately resolved by diffraction-limited light microscopy, which has limited our understanding of their behavior. Here we performed rapid structured illumination microscopy and enhanced resolution confocal microscopy to study spatiotemporal spinule dynamics in cortical pyramidal neurons. Spinules recurred at the same locations on mushroom spine heads. Most were short-lived, dynamic, exploratory, and originated near simple PSDs, whereas a subset was long-lived, elongated, and associated with complex PSDs. These subtypes were differentially regulated by Ca2+ transients. Furthermore, the postsynaptic Rac1-GEF kalirin-7 regulated spinule formation, elongation, and recurrence. Long-lived spinules often contained PSD fragments, contacted distal presynaptic terminals, and formed secondary synapses. NMDAR activation increased spinule number, length, and contact with distal presynaptic elements. Spinule subsets, dynamics, and recurrence were validated in cortical neurons of acute brain slices. Thus, we identified unique properties, regulatory mechanisms, and functions of spinule subtypes, supporting roles in neuronal connectivity.


Assuntos
Espinhas Dendríticas/ultraestrutura , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/metabolismo , Densidade Pós-Sináptica/ultraestrutura , Células Piramidais/ultraestrutura , Sinapses/ultraestrutura , Animais , Cálcio/metabolismo , Córtex Cerebral/citologia , Espinhas Dendríticas/metabolismo , Espinhas Dendríticas/fisiologia , Imageamento Tridimensional , Camundongos , Microscopia Confocal , Densidade Pós-Sináptica/fisiologia , Células Piramidais/fisiologia , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/agonistas , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Sinapses/fisiologia
16.
Neuron ; 107(2): 274-282.e6, 2020 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32396852

RESUMO

Single-cell transcriptomics of neocortical neurons have revealed more than 100 clusters corresponding to putative cell types. For inhibitory and subcortical projection neurons (SCPNs), there is a strong concordance between clusters and anatomical descriptions of cell types. In contrast, cortico-cortical projection neurons (CCPNs) separate into surprisingly few transcriptomic clusters, despite their diverse anatomical projection types. We used projection-dependent single-cell transcriptomic analyses and monosynaptic rabies tracing to compare mouse primary visual cortex CCPNs projecting to different higher visual areas. We find that layer 2/3 CCPNs with different anatomical projections differ systematically in their gene expressions, despite forming only a single genetic cluster. Furthermore, these neurons receive feedback selectively from the same areas to which they project. These findings demonstrate that gene-expression analysis in isolation is insufficient to identify neuron types and have important implications for understanding the functional role of cortical feedback circuits.


Assuntos
Neurônios/fisiologia , Animais , Córtex Cerebral/citologia , Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Retroalimentação , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Introdução de Genes , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Neocórtex/citologia , Neocórtex/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Vias Neurais/citologia , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Neurônios/classificação , Vírus da Raiva , Transcriptoma , Córtex Visual/citologia , Córtex Visual/fisiologia
17.
Science ; 368(6486): 89-94, 2020 04 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241948

RESUMO

Understanding the neurobiological underpinnings of emotion relies on objective readouts of the emotional state of an individual, which remains a major challenge especially in animal models. We found that mice exhibit stereotyped facial expressions in response to emotionally salient events, as well as upon targeted manipulations in emotion-relevant neuronal circuits. Facial expressions were classified into distinct categories using machine learning and reflected the changing intrinsic value of the same sensory stimulus encountered under different homeostatic or affective conditions. Facial expressions revealed emotion features such as intensity, valence, and persistence. Two-photon imaging uncovered insular cortical neuron activity that correlated with specific facial expressions and may encode distinct emotions. Facial expressions thus provide a means to infer emotion states and their neuronal correlates in mice.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Expressão Facial , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Animais , Córtex Cerebral/citologia , Masculino , Camundongos
18.
Life Sci ; 254: 117655, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32277980

RESUMO

AIMS: There have been recent reports that reconsolidation-based interventions attenuate drug reward memories in rodents. The insular cortex (IC) is an essential part of neural circuits that underlie cue-drug memory reconsolidation. GABAergic interneurons in the IC are a potent control on network excitability and play an important role in the inhibitory mediation of reward circuits. However, the function of GABAergic neurons in the IC for memory reconsolidation remains unclear; therefore, we conducted this study to clarify this. MAIN METHODS: We applied morphine-induced conditioned place preference (mCPP) paradigm and pharmacogenetic techniques to study the mediation effect of GABAergic neurons in the IC on mCPP reconsolidation. Moreover, we preliminarily explored the possible mechanisms of mediating GABAergic neurons in the IC involved in mCPP reconsolidation by assessing Arc and Erg-1 protein levels in the IC. KEY FINDINGS: We found that post-retrieval immediate activation of GABAergic neurons in the IC impaired mCPP reconsolidation. In addition, this effect was not reversed by a priming morphine injection. Further, post-retrieval inhibition and non-retrieval excitation of GABAergic neurons in the IC had no effect on mCPP. SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, our findings suggest that GABAergic neurons in the IC are closely involved in mCPP reconsolidation. Specifically, their excitation could eliminate established mCPP and prevent the relapse risk by disruption of the reconsolidation. The underlying molecular biological mechanisms could involve reduced Arc and Erg-1 levels.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/citologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Memória , Morfina/administração & dosagem , Neurônios/metabolismo , Recompensa , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/metabolismo , Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
19.
Nature ; 580(7801): 106-112, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32238932

RESUMO

Radial glial progenitor cells (RGPs) are the major neural progenitor cells that generate neurons and glia in the developing mammalian cerebral cortex1-4. In RGPs, the centrosome is positioned away from the nucleus at the apical surface of the ventricular zone of the cerebral cortex5-8. However, the molecular basis and precise function of this distinctive subcellular organization of the centrosome are largely unknown. Here we show in mice that anchoring of the centrosome to the apical membrane controls the mechanical properties of cortical RGPs, and consequently their mitotic behaviour and the size and formation of the cortex. The mother centriole in RGPs develops distal appendages that anchor it to the apical membrane. Selective removal of centrosomal protein 83 (CEP83) eliminates these distal appendages and disrupts the anchorage of the centrosome to the apical membrane, resulting in the disorganization of microtubules and stretching and stiffening of the apical membrane. The elimination of CEP83 also activates the mechanically sensitive yes-associated protein (YAP) and promotes the excessive proliferation of RGPs, together with a subsequent overproduction of intermediate progenitor cells, which leads to the formation of an enlarged cortex with abnormal folding. Simultaneous elimination of YAP suppresses the cortical enlargement and folding that is induced by the removal of CEP83. Together, these results indicate a previously unknown role of the centrosome in regulating the mechanical features of neural progenitor cells and the size and configuration of the mammalian cerebral cortex.


Assuntos
Centrossomo/metabolismo , Córtex Cerebral/citologia , Córtex Cerebral/embriologia , Células Ependimogliais/citologia , Células-Tronco Neurais/citologia , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/patologia , Proliferação de Células , Centríolos/metabolismo , Córtex Cerebral/patologia , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/deficiência , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Microtúbulos/patologia , Neurogênese
20.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231165, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298290

RESUMO

In this article we present a biologically inspired model of activation of memory items in a sequence. Our model produces two types of sequences, corresponding to two different types of cerebral functions: activation of regular or irregular sequences. The switch between the two types of activation occurs through the modulation of biological parameters, without altering the connectivity matrix. Some of the parameters included in our model are neuronal gain, strength of inhibition, synaptic depression and noise. We investigate how these parameters enable the existence of sequences and influence the type of sequences observed. In particular we show that synaptic depression and noise drive the transitions from one memory item to the next and neuronal gain controls the switching between regular and irregular (random) activation.


Assuntos
Memória/fisiologia , Modelos Neurológicos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Neurônios/fisiologia , Animais , Córtex Cerebral/citologia , Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Transmissão Sináptica/fisiologia
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