Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 4.971
Filtrar
1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(31): e21403, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756136

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A growing number of studies have used surface-based morphometry (SBM) analyses to investigate gray matter cortical thickness (CTh) abnormalities in Parkinson disease (PD). However, the results across studies are inconsistent and have not been systematically reviewed. A clear picture of CTh alterations in PD remains lacked. Coordinate-based meta-analysis (CBMA) is a powerful tool to quantitatively integrate the results of individual voxel-based neuroimaging studies to identify the functional or structural neural substrates of particular neuropsychiatric disorders. Recently, CBMA has been updated for integrating SBM studies. METHODS: The online databases PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), WanFang, and SinoMed were comprehensively searched without language limitations from the database inception to February 2, 2020. We will include all SBM studies that compared regional CTh between patients with idiopathic PD and healthy control subjects at the whole-cortex level using Seed-based d Mapping with Permutation of Subject Images (SDM-PSI). In addition to the main CBMA, we will conduct several supplementary analyses to test the robustness of the results, such as jackknife analyses, subgroup analyses, heterogeneity analyses, publication bias analyses, and meta-regression analyses. RESULTS: This CBMA will offer the latest evidence of CTh alterations in PD. CONCLUSIONS: Consistent and robust evidence of CTh alterations will feature brain morphometry of PD and may facilitate biomarker development. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020148775.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Neuroimagem , Doença de Parkinson/diagnóstico por imagem , Análise de Regressão
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(31): e21499, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756184

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Numerous studies using a variety of non-invasive neuroimaging techniques in vivo have demonstrated that chronic pain (CP) is associated with brain alterations. Cortical thickness (CTh) via surface-based morphometry (SBM) analysis of magnetic resonance imaging data is a valid and sensitive method to investigate the structure of brain gray matter. Many studies have employed SBM to measure CTh difference between patients with CP and pain-free controls and provided important insights into the brain basis of CP. However, the findings from these studies were inconsistent and have not been quantitatively reviewed. METHODS: Three major electronic medical databases: PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase were searched for eligible studies published in English on April 3, 2020. This protocol was prepared based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic review and Meta-Analysis Protocols. The Seed-based d Mapping with Permutation of Subject Images software package will be employed to conducted a coordinate-based meta-analysis (CBMA) to identify consistent CTh differences between patients with CP and pain-free controls. Several complementary analyses, including sensitivity analysis, heterogeneity analysis, publication bias, subgroup analysis, and meta-regression analysis, will be further conducted to test the robustness of the results. RESULTS: This CBMA will tell us whether CP with different subtypes shares common CTh alterations and what the pattern of its characterized alterations is. CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, this will be the first CBMA of SBM studies that characterizes brain CTh alterations in CP. The CBMA will provide the quantitative evidence of common brain cortical morphometry of CP. The findings will help us to understand the neural basis underlying CP. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: INPLASY202050069.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Dor Crônica/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/estatística & dados numéricos , Neuroimagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Dor Crônica/patologia , Feminino , Substância Cinzenta/patologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Metanálise como Assunto , Neuroimagem/métodos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
3.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(7): e1007686, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735580

RESUMO

The capability of cortical regions to flexibly sustain an "ignited" state of activity has been discussed in relation to conscious perception or hierarchical information processing. Here, we investigate how the intrinsic propensity of different regions to get ignited is determined by the specific topological organisation of the structural connectome. More specifically, we simulated the resting-state dynamics of mean-field whole-brain models and assessed how dynamic multistability and ignition differ between a reference model embedding a realistic human connectome, and alternative models based on a variety of randomised connectome ensembles. We found that the strength of global excitation needed to first trigger ignition in a subset of regions is substantially smaller for the model embedding the empirical human connectome. Furthermore, when increasing the strength of excitation, the propagation of ignition outside of this initial core-which is able to self-sustain its high activity-is way more gradual than for any of the randomised connectomes, allowing for graded control of the number of ignited regions. We explain both these assets in terms of the exceptional weighted core-shell organisation of the empirical connectome, speculating that this topology of human structural connectivity may be attuned to support enhanced ignition dynamics.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral , Conectoma/métodos , Algoritmos , Córtex Cerebral/anatomia & histologia , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Biologia Computacional , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino
4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3948, 2020 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32769984

RESUMO

Thalamocortical dysrhythmia is a key pathology of chronic neuropathic pain, but few studies have investigated thalamocortical networks in chronic low back pain (cLBP) given its non-specific etiology and complexity. Using fMRI, we propose an analytical pipeline to identify abnormal thalamocortical network dynamics in cLBP patients and validate the findings in two independent cohorts. We first identify two reoccurring dynamic connectivity states and their associations with chronic and temporary pain. Further analyses show that cLBP patients have abnormal connectivity between the ventral lateral/posterolateral nucleus (VL/VPL) and postcentral gyrus (PoCG) and between the dorsal/ventral medial nucleus and insula in the less frequent connectivity state, and temporary pain exacerbation alters connectivity between the VL/VPL and PoCG and the default mode network in the more frequent connectivity state. These results extend current findings on thalamocortical dysfunction and dysrhythmia in chronic pain and demonstrate that cLBP pathophysiology and clinical pain intensity are associated with distinct thalamocortical network dynamics.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Dor Crônica/fisiopatologia , Núcleos Laterais do Tálamo/fisiopatologia , Dor Lombar/fisiopatologia , Núcleos Ventrais do Tálamo/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Dor Crônica/diagnóstico , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos , Núcleos Laterais do Tálamo/diagnóstico por imagem , Dor Lombar/diagnóstico , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Rede Nervosa/fisiopatologia , Medição da Dor , Núcleos Ventrais do Tálamo/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
5.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0235609, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776940

RESUMO

Soccer is the most popular sport in the world and, since it is a contact sport, players are at risk for head injury, including concussion. Here, we proposed to investigate the association of heading and concussion with macroscopic brain structure among adult amateur soccer players. For this study, 375 amateur soccer players (median age 23 years) completed HeadCount-12m to estimate heading over the 12 months prior to MRI and lifetime concussion. T1-weighted 3D magnetization prepared rapid acquisition gradient echo (MP-RAGE) MRI was performed at 3 Tesla. Parcellation was performed using Freesurfer to extract regional gray and white matter volumes as well as regional cortical thickness and total intracranial volume. Regional cortical brain volumes were normalized by total intracranial volume. We categorized heading into quartiles and concussion as 0, 1 or 2 or more. Generalized linear regressions were used to test the association of heading or concussion with each brain morphometry metric, including age and sex, as covariates. Neither heading nor concussion were associated with reduced brain volume or cortical thickness. We observed that greater heading was associated with greater gray matter volume in the left inferior parietal area, which may reflect effects related to training.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas/diagnóstico por imagem , Concussão Encefálica/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Futebol , Adulto , Encéfalo/anatomia & histologia , Concussão Encefálica/etiologia , Córtex Cerebral/anatomia & histologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão
6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3358, 2020 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620757

RESUMO

Neurodevelopmental disorders have a heritable component and are associated with region specific alterations in brain anatomy. However, it is unclear how genetic risks for neurodevelopmental disorders are translated into spatially patterned brain vulnerabilities. Here, we integrated cortical neuroimaging data from patients with neurodevelopmental disorders caused by genomic copy number variations (CNVs) and gene expression data from healthy subjects. For each of the six investigated disorders, we show that spatial patterns of cortical anatomy changes in youth are correlated with cortical spatial expression of CNV genes in neurotypical adults. By transforming normative bulk-tissue cortical expression data into cell-type expression maps, we link anatomical change maps in each analysed disorder to specific cell classes as well as the CNV-region genes they express. Our findings reveal organizing principles that regulate the mapping of genetic risks onto regional brain changes in neurogenetic disorders. Our findings will enable screening for candidate molecular mechanisms from readily available neuroimaging data.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/patologia , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico , Córtex Cerebral/citologia , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Cerebral/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/patologia , Neuroimagem , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Oligodendroglia/metabolismo , Oligodendroglia/patologia , Análise Espacial , Adulto Jovem
7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3771, 2020 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32724052

RESUMO

People and other animals learn the values of choices by observing the contingencies between them and their outcomes. However, decisions are not guided by choice-linked reward associations alone; macaques also maintain a memory of the general, average reward rate - the global reward state - in an environment. Remarkably, global reward state affects the way that each choice outcome is valued and influences future decisions so that the impact of both choice success and failure is different in rich and poor environments. Successful choices are more likely to be repeated but this is especially the case in rich environments. Unsuccessful choices are more likely to be abandoned but this is especially likely in poor environments. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) revealed two distinct patterns of activity, one in anterior insula and one in the dorsal raphe nucleus, that track global reward state as well as specific outcome events.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Modelos Neurológicos , Núcleos da Rafe/fisiologia , Recompensa , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Macaca mulatta , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Modelos Animais , Núcleos da Rafe/diagnóstico por imagem
8.
Neurology ; 95(2): e140-e154, 2020 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32591470

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the sensitivity of structural MRI and 18F-fludeoxyglucose PET (18FDG-PET) to detect longitudinal changes in frontotemporal dementia (FTD). METHODS: Thirty patients with behavioral variant FTD (bvFTD), 7 with nonfluent/agrammatic variant primary progressive aphasia (nfvPPA), 16 with semantic variant primary progressive aphasia (svPPA), and 43 cognitively normal controls underwent 2-4 MRI and 18FDG-PET scans (total scans/visit = 270) as part of the Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration Neuroimaging Initiative study. Linear mixed-effects models were carried out voxel-wise and in regions of interest to identify areas showing decreased volume or metabolism over time in patients as compared to controls. RESULTS: At baseline, patients with bvFTD showed bilateral temporal, dorsolateral, and medial prefrontal atrophy/hypometabolism that extended with time into adjacent structures and parietal lobe. In nfvPPA, baseline atrophy/hypometabolism in supplementary motor cortex extended with time into left greater than right precentral, dorsolateral, and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. In svPPA, baseline atrophy/hypometabolism encompassed the anterior temporal and medial prefrontal cortex and longitudinal changes were found in temporal, orbitofrontal, and lateral parietal cortex. Across syndromes, there was substantial overlap in the brain regions showing volume and metabolism loss. Even though the pattern of metabolic decline was more extensive, metabolic changes were also more variable and sample size estimates were similar or higher for 18FDG-PET compared to MRI. CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrated the sensitivity of 18FDG-PET and structural MRI for tracking disease progression in FTD. Both modalities showed highly overlapping patterns of longitudinal change and comparable sample size estimates to detect longitudinal changes in future clinical trials.


Assuntos
Demência Frontotemporal/diagnóstico por imagem , Demência Frontotemporal/metabolismo , Idoso , Atrofia , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Cerebral/metabolismo , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Demência Frontotemporal/psicologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neuroimagem , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos
10.
Rinsho Shinkeigaku ; 60(7): 473-478, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32536664

RESUMO

An 82-year-old female suffered from head trauma, and developed acute consciousness disturbance 6 days after the event. Head CT showed the acute subdural hematoma in the left temporooccipital area and the patient underwent emergency hematoma evacuation and decompression. However, her consciousness disturbance became worse after surgery. Intermittent large negative infraslow shifts (lasting longer than 40 seconds) were recorded in the right posterior quadrant by scalp EEG with TC of 2 sec, that was defined as cortical spreading depolarizations (CSDs). Clinically consciousness disturbance sustained poor until 1 month after surgery in spite of treatment by anti-epileptic drugs. CSDs were observed on the right side where head injury most likely occurred. It may explain the sustained consciousness disturbance associated with significant prolonged ischemia. Once scalp EEG could record CSDs in this particular patient, the degree and its prognosis of traumatic head injury were estimated.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/diagnóstico , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/fisiopatologia , Lesões Encefálicas/diagnóstico , Lesões Encefálicas/fisiopatologia , Córtex Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Couro Cabeludo/fisiologia , Doença Aguda , Idoso , Lesões Encefálicas/cirurgia , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/cirurgia , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos da Consciência/etiologia , Descompressão Cirúrgica , Feminino , Humanos , Trombectomia , Fatores de Tempo , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
11.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0228365, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32421714

RESUMO

We investigated the global structure of intrinsic cross-frequency dynamics by systematically examining power-based temporal associations among a broad range of oscillation frequencies both within and across EEG-based current sources (sites). We focused on power-based associations that could reveal unique timescale dependence independently of interacting frequencies. Large spectral-power fluctuations across all sites occurred at two characteristic timescales, sub-second and seconds, yielding distinct patterns of cross-frequency associations. On the fast sub-second timescale, within-site (local) associations were consistently between pairs of ß-γ frequencies differing by a constant Δf (particularly Δf ~ 10 Hz at posterior sites and Δf ~ 16 Hz at lateral sites) suggesting that higher-frequency oscillations are organized into Δf amplitude-modulated packets, whereas cross-site (long-distance) associations were all within-frequency (particularly in the >30 Hz and 6-12 Hz ranges, suggestive of feedforward and feedback interactions). On the slower seconds timescale, within-site (local) associations were characterized by a broad range of frequencies selectively associated with ~10 Hz at posterior sites and associations among higher (>20 Hz) frequencies at lateral sites, whereas cross-site (long-distance) associations were characterized by a broad range of frequencies at posterior sites selectively associated with ~10 Hz at other sites, associations among higher (>20 Hz) frequencies among lateral and anterior sites, and prevalent associations at ~10 Hz. Regardless of timescale, within-site (local) cross-frequency associations were weak at anterior sites indicative of frequency-specific operations. Overall, these results suggest that the fast sub-second-timescale coordination of spectral power is limited to local amplitude modulation and insulated within-frequency long-distance interactions (likely feedforward and feedback interactions), while characteristic patterns of cross-frequency interactions emerge on the slower seconds timescale. The results also suggest that the occipital α oscillations play a role in organizing higher-frequency oscillations into ~10 Hz amplitude-modulated packets to communicate with other regions. Functional implications of these timescale-dependent cross-frequency associations await future investigations.


Assuntos
Comportamento/fisiologia , Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Oculares , Adolescente , Adulto , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção , Visão Ocular/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Neurology ; 94(24): e2532-e2544, 2020 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393648

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We previously identified 4 empirically derived mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subtypes via cluster analysis within the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) and demonstrated high correspondence between patterns of cortical thinning at baseline and each cognitive subtype. We aimed to determine whether our MCI subtypes demonstrate unique longitudinal atrophy patterns. METHODS: ADNI participants (295 with MCI and 134 cognitively normal [CN]) underwent annual structural MRI and neuropsychological assessments. General linear modeling compared vertex-wise differences in cortical atrophy rates between each MCI subtype and the CN group. Linear mixed models examined trajectories of cortical atrophy over 3 years within lobar regions of interest. RESULTS: Compared to the CN group, those with amnestic MCI (memory deficit) initially demonstrated greater atrophy rates within medial temporal lobe regions that became more widespread over time. Those with dysnomic/amnestic MCI (naming/memory deficits) showed greater atrophy rates largely localized to temporal lobe regions. The mixed MCI (impairment in all cognitive domains) group showed greater atrophy rates in widespread regions at all time points. The cluster-derived normal group, who had intact neuropsychological performance and normal cortical thickness at baseline despite their MCI diagnosis via conventional diagnostic criteria, continued to show normal cognition and minimal cortical atrophy over 3 years. CONCLUSIONS: ADNI's purported amnestic MCI sample produced more refined cognitive subtypes with unique longitudinal cortical atrophy rates. These novel MCI subtypes reliably reflect underlying atrophy, reduce false-positive diagnostic errors, and improve prediction of clinical course. Such improvements have implications for the selection of participants for clinical trials and for providing more precise risk assessment for individuals diagnosed with MCI.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Amnésia/etiologia , Amnésia/psicologia , Atrofia , Córtex Cerebral/patologia , Análise por Conglomerados , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Estudos Longitudinais , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Lobo Temporal/diagnóstico por imagem
13.
PLoS Biol ; 18(4): e3000678, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32243449

RESUMO

Histological atlases of the cerebral cortex, such as those made famous by Brodmann and von Economo, are invaluable for understanding human brain microstructure and its relationship with functional organization in the brain. However, these existing atlases are limited to small numbers of manually annotated samples from a single cerebral hemisphere, measured from 2D histological sections. We present the first whole-brain quantitative 3D laminar atlas of the human cerebral cortex. It was derived from a 3D histological atlas of the human brain at 20-micrometer isotropic resolution (BigBrain), using a convolutional neural network to segment, automatically, the cortical layers in both hemispheres. Our approach overcomes many of the historical challenges with measurement of histological thickness in 2D, and the resultant laminar atlas provides an unprecedented level of precision and detail. We utilized this BigBrain cortical atlas to test whether previously reported thickness gradients, as measured by MRI in sensory and motor processing cortices, were present in a histological atlas of cortical thickness and which cortical layers were contributing to these gradients. Cortical thickness increased across sensory processing hierarchies, primarily driven by layers III, V, and VI. In contrast, motor-frontal cortices showed the opposite pattern, with decreases in total and pyramidal layer thickness from motor to frontal association cortices. These findings illustrate how this laminar atlas will provide a link between single-neuron morphology, mesoscale cortical layering, macroscopic cortical thickness, and, ultimately, functional neuroanatomy.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/anatomia & histologia , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Redes Neurais de Computação
14.
Neurology ; 94(24): e2577-e2580, 2020 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32327494

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This case series describes and discusses the potential clinical utility of a prominent vein (index vein) found on susceptibility-weighted MRI during migraine aura that drains the cortical area responsible for patients' symptoms. METHODS: Six patients with acute migraine aura had a prominent draining sulcal vein on emergency MRI done initially for suspected stroke. The location of the prominent vein was correlated to patients' symptoms, and the diameter was compared to the corresponding contralateral vein. RESULTS: In our patients with typical migraine aura, an accentuated sulcal vein pointed towards the cortical area correlating with the clinical presentation. Such an index vein outstands the ipsilateral area of hypoperfusion and exceeds the corresponding contralateral vessel in diameter by a factor 2.0 ± 1.6 (mean ± SD). CONCLUSION: This case series provides a definition of an index vein in MRI pointing to the area where the patients' symptoms originate. Although confirmation in a larger systematic study is necessary, the presence of such an index vein might support that, in patients with an acute neurologic deficit, migraine aura is the underlying etiology.


Assuntos
Veias Cerebrais/diagnóstico por imagem , Enxaqueca com Aura/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Córtex Cerebral/irrigação sanguínea , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico
15.
Ann Neurol ; 88(1): 67-80, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32277502

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The study of cortical gyrification in Alzheimer's disease (AD) could help to further understanding of the changes undergone in the brain during neurodegeneration. Here, we aimed to study brain gyrification differences between healthy controls (HC), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients, and AD patients, and explore how cerebral gyrification patterns were associated with memory and other cognitive functions. METHODS: We applied surface-based morphometry techniques in 2 large, independent cross-sectional samples, obtained from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative project. Both samples, encompassing a total of 1,270 participants, were analyzed independently. RESULTS: Unexpectedly, we found that AD patients presented a more gyrificated entorhinal cortex than HC. Conversely, the insular cortex of AD patients was hypogyrificated. A decrease in the gyrification of the insular cortex was also found in older HC participants as compared with younger HC, which argues against the specificity of this finding in AD. However, an increased degree of folding of the insular cortex was specifically associated with better memory function and semantic fluency, only in AD patients. Overall, MCI patients presented an intermediate gyrification pattern. All these findings were consistently observed in the two samples. INTERPRETATION: The marked atrophy of the medial temporal lobe observed in AD patients may explain the increased folding of the entorhinal cortex. We additionally speculate regarding alternative mechanisms that may also alter its folding. The association between increased gyrification of the insular cortex and memory function, specifically observed in AD, could be suggestive of compensatory mechanisms to overcome the loss of memory function. ANN NEUROL 2020 ANN NEUROL 2020;88:67-80.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Memória/fisiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença de Alzheimer/psicologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neuroimagem , Testes Neuropsicológicos
16.
Ann Neurol ; 88(1): 113-122, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32285980

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: C9orf72 expansion is the most common genetic cause of frontotemporal dementia (FTD). We examined aging trajectories of cortical thickness (CTh) and surface area in C9orf72 expansion adult carriers compared to healthy controls to characterize preclinical cerebral changes leading to symptoms. METHODS: Data were obtained from the Genetic Frontotemporal Dementia Initiative. T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans were processed with CIVET 2.1 to extract vertex-wide CTh and cortical surface area (CSA). Symptomatic and presymptomatic subjects were compared to age-matched controls using mixed-effects models, controlling for demographic variables. Aging trajectories were compared between carriers and noncarriers by testing the "age by genetic status" interaction. False discovery rate corrections were applied to all vertex-wide analyses. RESULTS: The sample included 640 scans from 386 subjects, including 54 symptomatic C9orf72 carriers (72.2% behavioral variant FTD), 83 asymptomatic carriers, and 249 controls (age range = 18-86 years). Symptomatic carriers showed fairly symmetric reduction in CTh/CSA in most of the frontal lobes, in addition to large temporoparietal areas. Presymptomatic subjects had reduced CTh/CSA in more restricted areas of the medial frontoparietal lobes, in addition to scattered lateral frontal, parietal, and temporal areas. These differences were explained by faster cortical thinning linearly throughout adulthood in a similar anatomical distribution, with differences emerging in the early 30s. CSA reduction was also faster in mutation carriers predominantly in the ventrofrontal regions. INTERPRETATION: C9orf72 mutation carriers have faster cortical thinning and surface loss throughout adulthood in regions that show atrophy in symptomatic subjects. This suggests that the pathogenic effects of the mutation lead to structural cerebral changes decades prior to symptoms. ANN NEUROL 2020 ANN NEUROL 2020;88:113-122.


Assuntos
Proteína C9orf72/genética , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Expansão das Repetições de DNA , Demência Frontotemporal/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Atrofia/diagnóstico por imagem , Atrofia/genética , Feminino , Demência Frontotemporal/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
17.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0232292, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32343744

RESUMO

Epilepsy is clinically heterogeneous, and neurological or psychiatric comorbidities are frequently observed in patients. It has not been tested whether common risk variants for generalized or focal epilepsy are enriched in people with other disorders or traits related to brain or cognitive function. Here, we perform two brain-focused phenome association studies of polygenic risk scores (PRS) for generalized epilepsy (GE-PRS) or focal epilepsy (FE-PRS) with all binary brain or cognitive function-related traits available for 334,310 European-ancestry individuals of the UK Biobank. Higher GE-PRS were associated with not having a college or university degree (P = 3.00x10-4), five neuroticism-related personality traits (P<2.51x10-4), and having ever smoked (P = 1.27x10-6). Higher FE-PRS were associated with several measures of low educational attainment (P<4.87x10-5), one neuroticism-related personality trait (P = 2.33x10-4), having ever smoked (P = 1.71x10-4), and having experienced events of anxiety or depression (P = 2.83x10-4). GE- and FE-PRS had the same direction of effect for each of the associated traits. Genetic factors associated with GE or FE showed similar patterns of correlation with genetic factors associated with cortical morphology in a subset of the UKB with 16,612 individuals and T1 magnetic resonance imaging data. In summary, our results suggest that genetic factors associated with epilepsies may confer risk for other neurological and psychiatric disorders in a population sample not enriched for epilepsy.


Assuntos
Epilepsias Parciais/genética , Epilepsia Generalizada/genética , Herança Multifatorial , Adulto , Idoso , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Escolaridade , Epilepsias Parciais/diagnóstico por imagem , Epilepsias Parciais/psicologia , Epilepsia Generalizada/diagnóstico por imagem , Epilepsia Generalizada/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neuroimagem , Personalidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
18.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230298, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32210453

RESUMO

Early-life education (years of schooling) has been investigated in regards to cognition, health outcomes and mortality. It has been shown to confer cognitive reserve that might lessen the impact of brain pathology and its impact on cognitive and motor functioning in a variety of neurodegenerative diseases and, for instance, to influence electrical activity [Begum, T., Reza, F., Ahmed, I., & Abdullah, J. M. (2014). Influence of education level on design-induced N170 and P300 components of event related potentials in the human brain. J Integr Neurosci, 13(1), 71-88. doi:10.1142/S0219635214500058]. On the other hand, demonstrations of a direct association between education and brain-structural measures have been more equivocal and scant. The current study sought to identify univariate cortical-thickness patterns underlying education and general intelligence after adjusting for age, gender and possible in-scanner movement in 353 individuals aged 40 to 80. We followed up this idea with multivariate analyses as well. For univariate analyses, our analyses yielded no robust associations between education and general intelligence beyond confounding effects of gender, age and extraneous in-scanner movement. A subsequent multivariate analyses showed a relationship between education and regional cortical thickness with a robust pattern of negative as well as positive loadings in several right-sided brain areas, speaking to a subtle but robust distributed effect of education on cortical thickness. Cortical thickness variance that is the residual of this education-related pattern was shown to be positively associated with age and extraneous in-scanner movement. Our study thus presents a complex picture of the association of education with regional cortical thickness: education was associated with a distributed brain-wide pattern of positive as well as negative loadings with unaccounted residuals being larger for older participants. Focal regional associations beyond demographic and age covariates were not identified.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Cognição , Escolaridade , Longevidade , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
Br J Anaesth ; 124(5): 594-602, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32171548

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to surgery with general anaesthesia (surgery/GA) is associated with cortical atrophy, but the aetiology remains unknown. Amyloid-ß (Aß) deposition is one of the hallmark pathological characteristics of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We examined brain Aß burden in study participants exposed to surgery/GA. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of residents of Olmsted County, MN, USA, in the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging who were aged 70-97 yr and underwent measurement of (i) brain Aß with Pittsburgh compound B positron emission tomography (PiB PET), (ii) brain glucose metabolism with 18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET, and (iii) temporal cortical thickness with MRI. Separate analyses were performed with exposure to surgery/GA, defined as occurring after age 40 yr, and with exposure to surgery/GA, defined as occurring within 20 yr before neuroimaging. Imaging measurements were compared between participants who were exposed to surgery/GA vs not exposed. RESULTS: Of the 2563 participants, 585 had PET scans. Regardless of the definition used to quantify exposure, no significant associations were detected between exposure and either global PiB PET or FDG PET. In contrast, exposure to surgery/GA was associated with an increased likelihood of abnormal cortical thinning: odds ratio (OR)=1.98 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.19-3.31); P=0.010 in those exposed after age 40 yr, and OR=1.64 (95% CI: 1.05-2.55); P=0.029 in those exposed in the prior 20 yr. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to surgery/GA is not associated with increases in cortical amyloid deposition. This finding suggests that the modest cortical thinning associated with surgery/GA is not related to AD pathology, but rather is caused by other processes.


Assuntos
Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Anestesia Geral/efeitos adversos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Anestésicos Gerais/farmacologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Cerebral/efeitos dos fármacos , Córtex Cerebral/patologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Período Pós-Operatório , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
World Neurosurg ; 138: 125-128, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32147548

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hemichorea may point to a structural lesion in the contralateral basal ganglia with a large list of possible causes. Cavernous angioma may be rarely a possible cause for acute appearance of this movement disorder. CASE DESCRIPTION: We present a rare case of a 32-year-old female patient with hemichorea caused by a cavernoma (or cavernous angioma) in the contralateral insula and putamen with complete improvement of symptoms with surgical resection of the lesion. CONCLUSIONS: We believe that surgical resection of basal ganglia cavernomas may be feasible with minor risks and resolution of clinical symptoms in the immediate postoperative period.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/complicações , Neoplasias Encefálicas/cirurgia , Hemangioma Cavernoso/complicações , Hemangioma Cavernoso/cirurgia , Paresia/etiologia , Paresia/cirurgia , Adulto , Gânglios da Base/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/terapia , Putamen/diagnóstico por imagem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA