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1.
Nature ; 611(7935): 332-345, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36329272

RESUMO

Despite notable scientific and medical advances, broader political, socioeconomic and behavioural factors continue to undercut the response to the COVID-19 pandemic1,2. Here we convened, as part of this Delphi study, a diverse, multidisciplinary panel of 386 academic, health, non-governmental organization, government and other experts in COVID-19 response from 112 countries and territories to recommend specific actions to end this persistent global threat to public health. The panel developed a set of 41 consensus statements and 57 recommendations to governments, health systems, industry and other key stakeholders across six domains: communication; health systems; vaccination; prevention; treatment and care; and inequities. In the wake of nearly three years of fragmented global and national responses, it is instructive to note that three of the highest-ranked recommendations call for the adoption of whole-of-society and whole-of-government approaches1, while maintaining proven prevention measures using a vaccines-plus approach2 that employs a range of public health and financial support measures to complement vaccination. Other recommendations with at least 99% combined agreement advise governments and other stakeholders to improve communication, rebuild public trust and engage communities3 in the management of pandemic responses. The findings of the study, which have been further endorsed by 184 organizations globally, include points of unanimous agreement, as well as six recommendations with >5% disagreement, that provide health and social policy actions to address inadequacies in the pandemic response and help to bring this public health threat to an end.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Técnica Delfos , Cooperação Internacional , Saúde Pública , Humanos , COVID-19/economia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Governo , Pandemias/economia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública/economia , Saúde Pública/métodos , Organizações , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Comunicação , Educação em Saúde , Política de Saúde , Opinião Pública
4.
Goiânia; SES-GO; 14 jul. 2022. 1-6 p. ilus, mapas, graf.
Não convencional em Português | Coleciona SUS, CONASS, SES-GO | ID: biblio-1379177

RESUMO

A Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), doença causada pelo vírus Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (Sars-CoV-2), detectada em dezembro de 2019 na China, foi declarada Emergência de Saúde Pública de Importância Internacional (ESPII) em 2020. Desde então, em todo o mundo, já foram confirmados 539.893.858 casos e 6.324.112 óbitos, enquanto que no Brasil, estimam-se 31.754.465 casos e 669.161 mortes. Diante da repercussão da doença, em abril de 2020, a Aliança Global para Vacinas e Imunização (GAVI), com o apoio da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS), lançaram o Covax Facility iniciativa que reúne governos, organizações, fabricantes, cientistas, sociedade civil e setor privado para proporcionar acesso inovador e equitativo à vacina contra COVID-19. Os esforços alcançaram êxito em tempo recorde e em dezembro do mesmo ano foi aplicada a primeira dose no Reino Unido e em janeiro de 2021, no Brasil. (ALLIANCE, 2020; DIAS, 2020; BRASIL, 2020a; RIBEIRO, 2022)


Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), a disease caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (Sars-CoV-2) virus, detected in December 2019 in China, was declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) in 2020. Since then, worldwide, 539,893,858 cases and 6,324,112 deaths have been confirmed, while in Brazil, 31,754,465 cases and 669,161 deaths are estimated. Faced with the repercussion of the disease, in April 2020, the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI), with the support of the World Health Organization (WHO), launched Covax Facility initiative that brings together governments, organizations, manufacturers, scientists, civil society and the private sector to provide innovative and equitable access to the COVID-19 vaccine. The efforts were successful in record time and in December of the same year the first dose was applied in the United Kingdom and in January 2021, in Brazil. (ALLIANCE, 2020; DIAS, 2020; BRASIL, 2020a; RIBEIRO, 2022)


Assuntos
Humanos , Vacinas contra COVID-19/economia , COVID-19/economia , COVID-19/epidemiologia
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35886225

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 is still raging. Similar to other RNA viruses, SARS-COV-2 is constantly mutating, which leads to the production of many infectious and lethal strains. For instance, the omicron variant detected in November 2021 became the leading strain of infection in many countries around the world and sparked an intense public debate on social media. The aim of this study is to explore the Chinese public's perception of the omicron variants on social media. A total of 121,632 points of data relating to omicron on Sina Weibo from 0:00 27 November 2021 to 23:59:59 30 March 2022 (Beijing time) were collected and analyzed with LDA-based topic modeling and DLUT-Emotion ontology-based sentiment analysis. The results indicate that (1) the public discussion of omicron is based on five topics, including omicron's impact on the economy, the omicron infection situation in other countries/regions, the omicron infection situation in China, omicron and vaccines and pandemic prevention and control for omicron. (2) From the 3 sentiment orientations of 121,632 valid Weibo posts, 49,402 posts were judged as positive emotions, accounting for approximately 40.6%; 47,667 were negative emotions, accounting for nearly 39.2%; and 24,563 were neutral emotions, accounting for about 20.2%. (3) The result of the analysis of the temporal trend of the seven categories of emotion attribution showed that fear kept decreasing, whereas good kept increasing. This study provides more insights into public perceptions of and attitudes toward emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants. The results of this study may provide further recommendations for the Chinese government, public health authorities, and the media to promote knowledge about SARS-CoV-2 variant pandemic-resistant messages.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Emoções , Análise de Classes Latentes , Opinião Pública , SARS-CoV-2 , Análise de Sentimentos , Mídias Sociais , Atitude , COVID-19/economia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/virologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , China/epidemiologia , Governo Federal , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Pública
7.
Health Econ ; 31(9): 2050-2071, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35771194

RESUMO

Governments worldwide have issued massive amounts of debt to inject fiscal stimulus during the COVID-19 pandemic. This paper analyzes fiscal responses to an epidemic, in which interactions at work increase the risk of disease and mortality. Fiscal policies, which are designed to borrow against the future and provide transfers to individuals suffering economic hardship, can facilitate consumption smoothing while reduce hours worked and hence mitigate infections. We examine the optimal fiscal policy and characterize the condition under which fiscal policy improves social welfare. We then extend the model analyzing the static and dynamic pecuniary externalities under scale economies-the decrease in labor supply during the epidemic lowers the contemporaneous average wage rate while enhances the post-epidemic workforce health and productivity. We suggest that fiscal policy may not work effectively unless the government coordinates working time, and the optimal size of public debt is affected by production technology and disease severity and transmissibility.


Assuntos
COVID-19/economia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Política Fiscal , Pandemias/economia , Seguridade Social/economia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Eficiência , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pobreza , Salários e Benefícios , Fatores de Tempo , Fluxo de Trabalho , Recursos Humanos/economia , Carga de Trabalho/economia
8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(27): e2200816119, 2022 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35763577

RESUMO

We investigated the immediate and longer-term impact (over 4-6 months) of probable COVID-19 infection on mental health, wellbeing, financial hardship, and social interactions among older people living in England. Data were analysed from 5146 older adults participating in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing who provided data before the pandemic (2018-19) and at two COVID-19 assessments in 2020 (June-July and November-December). The associations of probable COVID-19 infection (first COVID-19 assessment) with depression, anxiety, poor quality of life (QoL), loneliness, financial hardship, and social contact with family/friends at the first and second COVID-19 assessments were tested using linear/logistic regression and were adjusted for pre-pandemic outcome measures. Participants with probable infection had higher levels of depression and anxiety, poorer QoL, and greater loneliness scores compared with those without probable infection at both the first (ORdepression = 1.62, P-value = 0.005; ORanxiety = 1.59, P-value = 0.049; bpoorQoL = 1.34, P < 0.001; bloneliness = 0.49, P < 0.001) and second (ORdepression = 1.56, P-value = 0.003; ORanxiety = 1.55, P-value = 0.041; bpoorQoL = 1.38, P-value < 0.001; bloneliness = 0.31, P-value = 0.024) COVID-19 assessments. Participants with probable infection also experienced greater financial difficulties than those without infection at the first assessment (OR = 1.50, P-value = 0.011). Probable COVID-19 infection is associated with longer-term deterioration of mental health and wellbeing and short-term increases in financial hardship among older adults. It is important to monitor the mental health of older people affected by COVID-19 and provide additional support to those in need.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Estresse Financeiro , Saúde Mental , Idoso , COVID-19/economia , COVID-19/psicologia , Humanos , Solidão , Estudos Longitudinais , Qualidade de Vida
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(25): e2117155119, 2022 06 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35714290

RESUMO

This paper provides a picture of how societies in the G7 countries have responded to the COVID-19 pandemic. Our point of departure is to examine the effects of the pandemic in terms of four fundamental normative sources for well-being: Solidarity (S; willingness for social cooperation), Agency (A; empowerment to shape one's prospects through one's own efforts), GDP (G), and Environmental Performance (E)-SAGE for short. The normative foundations of SAGE are communitarianism, classical liberalism, materialistic utilitarianism, and ecoethics. We find that although G and E responded predictably and uniformly to the pandemic (such as G declining and carbon emissions improving), the societal responses were strikingly different. Societies that are cohesive and empowered (high S and A) may be expected to cope with the pandemic better than those that are fragmented and disempowered (low S and A). Furthermore, the pandemic has had diverse effects on S and A; while some societies became cohering and empowering (rising S and A), others became fragmenting and disempowering (falling S and A), and yet others became fragmenting and empowering. We also show that most G7 countries experienced greater tribalization (measured as the difference between inward S and outward S) during the pandemic. These trends are a matter of concern since they suggest that the willingness and perceived ability to address collective challenges collectively have waned. The analysis also suggests that governments' social policies may have an important role to play alongside economic and health policies in coping with the pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Política Pública , Comportamento Social , Adaptação Psicológica , COVID-19/economia , COVID-19/psicologia , Comportamento Cooperativo , Empoderamento , Produto Interno Bruto , Humanos , Responsabilidade Social
10.
Bol. malariol. salud ambient ; 62(1): 39-46, jun, 2022. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1381293

RESUMO

Este trabajo se propone analizar el impacto de la pandemia por COVID-19 en los registros de creación de nuevas empresas en el departamento del Magdalena (Colombia) principalmente entre el 2019 y 2020, de la misma manera se desarrolla un análisis de las medidas de control epidemiológico a nivel nacional y a nivel departamental para comprender de mejor manera las iniciativas de contención de la COVID-19. Para el desarrollo de este trabajo, se tomaron como referencia los datos de creación de empresas de los últimos cinco años (2016 ­ 2020) en el Magdalena; así como se analizaron medidas para el control epidemiológico a nivel nacional (prevenir, mitigar, y suprimir), así como las adoptadas específicamente para el Magdalena. Entre los principales hallazgos, se encontró que, al contrastar los años 2019 y 2020, hubo una disminución del 2,6% en la creación de nuevas empresas en el departamento del Magdalena, porcentaje que representa 202 unidades productivas menos que en 2019; esta tendencia decreciente en materia de creación de empresas, venía desde 2019, año en el que hubo una caída del 0,8% en los nacimientos de nuevas empresas con respecto al 2018 -62 empresas menos-; la contundente caída en el año 2020 es un reflejo del nefasto efecto de la aparición de la COVID-19 en las dinámicas empresariales en el Magdalena; de otra parte, resaltan medidas de gestión intergremial al igual que las estrategias de apoyo financiero para dinamizar la economía en el Magdalena, así como una cronología prudente en materia de controles epidemiológicos en el Territorio(AU)


This study aims to analyze the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the records of the creation of new companies in the department of Magdalena (Colombia), mainly between 2019 and 2020. In the same way, an analysis of epidemiology control measures is developed at the national and departmental levels to better understand COVID-19 containment initiatives. For the development of this study, the data on business creation of the last five years (2016 - 2020) in Magdalena was taken as a reference; as well as measures for epidemiological control at the national level (prevent, mitigate, and suppress), along with those adopted specifically for Magdalena were analyzed. Among the main findings, it was found that, when comparing the years 2019 and 2020, there was a 2.6% decrease in the creation of new companies in Magdalena, a percentage that represents 202 production units less than in 2019; This downward trend in the creation of companies came from 2019, the year in which there was a 0.8% drop in the establishment of new companies compared to 2018 -62 fewer companies-; the overwhelming drop in 2020 is a reflection of the disastrous effect of the appearance of COVID-19 on business dynamics in Magdalena; On the other hand, the business associations management measures were a key important factor. Additionally, the financial support to boost the economy in Magdalena, as well as a prudent chronology - in terms of epidemiological controls in the Territory(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , COVID-19/economia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Colômbia/epidemiologia
13.
Nature ; 603(7899): 25-27, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35233098

Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/efeitos dos fármacos , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Monofosfato de Adenosina/administração & dosagem , Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Monofosfato de Adenosina/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Alanina/administração & dosagem , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/economia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Antivirais/farmacologia , COVID-19/economia , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/virologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Citidina/análogos & derivados , Citidina/uso terapêutico , Depsipeptídeos/farmacologia , Depsipeptídeos/uso terapêutico , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Combinação de Medicamentos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Ésteres/farmacologia , Ésteres/uso terapêutico , Guanidinas/farmacologia , Guanidinas/uso terapêutico , Hospitalização , Humanos , Hidroxilaminas/uso terapêutico , Internacionalidade , Lactamas/uso terapêutico , Leucina/uso terapêutico , Camundongos , National Institutes of Health (U.S.)/organização & administração , Nitrilas/uso terapêutico , Fator 1 de Elongação de Peptídeos/antagonistas & inibidores , Peptídeos Cíclicos/farmacologia , Peptídeos Cíclicos/uso terapêutico , Prolina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteases/uso terapêutico , RNA Polimerase Dependente de RNA/antagonistas & inibidores
15.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0265003, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35275935

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19, SARS and MERS are diseases that present an important health burden worldwide. This situation demands resource allocation to the healthcare system, affecting especially middle- and low-income countries. Thus, identifying the main cost drivers is relevant to optimize patient care and resource allocation. OBJECTIVE: To systematically identify and summarize the current status of knowledge on direct medical hospitalization costs of SARS, MERS, or COVID-19 in Upper-Middle-Income Countries. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review across seven key databases (PubMed, EMBASE, BVS Portal, CINAHL, CRD library, MedRxiv and Research Square) from database inception to February 2021. Costs extracted were converted into 2021 International Dollars using the Purchasing Power Parity-adjusted. The assessment of quality was based on the protocol by the BMJ and CHEERS. PROSPERO 2020: CRD42020225757. RESULTS: No eligible study about SARS or MERS was recovered. For COVID-19, five studies presented cost analysis performed in Brazil, China, Iran, and Turkey. Regarding total direct medical costs, the lowest cost per patient at ward was observed in Turkey ($900.08), while the highest in Brazil ($5,093.38). At ICU, the lowest was in Turkey ($2,984.78), while the highest was in China ($52,432.87). Service care was the most expressive (58% to 88%) cost driver of COVID-19 patients at ward. At ICU, there was no consensus between service care (54% to 87%) and treatment (72% to 81%) as key burdens of total cost. CONCLUSION: Our findings elucidate the importance of COVID-19 on health-economic outcomes. The marked heterogeneity among studies leaded to substantially different results and made challenging the comparison of data to estimate pooled results for single countries or regions. Further studies concerning cost estimates from standardized analysis may provide clearer data for a more substantial analysis. This may help care providers and policy makers to organize care for patients in the most efficient way.


Assuntos
COVID-19/economia , Atenção à Saúde/economia , Hospitalização/economia , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Custos e Análise de Custo , Humanos
16.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264484, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35271587

RESUMO

Companies developing automated driving system (ADS) technologies have spent heavily in recent years to conduct live testing of autonomous vehicles operating in real world environments to ensure their reliable and safe operations. However, the unexpected onset and ongoing resurgent effects of the Covid-19 pandemic starting in March 2020 has serve to halt, change, or delay the achievement of these new product development test objectives. This study draws on data obtained from the California automated vehicle test program to determine the extent that testing trends, test resumptions, and test environments have been affected by the pandemic. The importance of government policies to support and enable autonomous vehicles development during pandemic conditions is highlighted.


Assuntos
Automação/métodos , Testes Mecânicos/métodos , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Acidentes de Trânsito/tendências , Automação/economia , Condução de Veículo/estatística & dados numéricos , COVID-19/economia , California , Humanos , Testes Mecânicos/economia , Design Centrado no Usuário
18.
Multimedia | Recursos Multimídia | ID: multimedia-9597

RESUMO

As empresas questionam pagar a taxa de registro de suas marcas à Anvisa. Em 1999, Philip Morris e Souza Cruz entraram com um mandato de segurança questionando o pagamento da taxa, desde então, os valores estão sendo depositados em juízo, e desde 2019 o processo tramita em segredo de justiça. Estima-se que R$170 milhões estejam nessa conta, a taxa é cobrada de outros produtos, incluindo remédios.


Assuntos
Indústria do Tabaco/economia , Tributação de Produtos Derivados do Tabaco , Tabagismo/economia , Promoção da Saúde , COVID-19/economia , Gastos Públicos com Saúde
19.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0264016, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35180268

RESUMO

A key factor for business management is the assessment of the financial situation of companies. Nowadays, it is essential to monitor the liquidity crisis, which is closely linked to corporate crises. The aim of the paper is to analyse a selected sector of the economy from the perspective of the corporate crisis and to identify the factors of crisis. More than 2000 engineering companies in Slovakia were analysed during the period from 2015 to 2019 with the aim of analysing financial results, especially in the area of financial forecast for the future. In the analysis, statistical testing of the significance of relationships using the Spearman correlation coefficient, the significance of differences by the power of t-test, regression and clustering were used. A significant part of the paper is the analysis of selected indicators of the company's crisis-Altman's Z score and the IN05 index. The results indicate that engineering companies in Slovakia are achieving good results and their financial situation is improving within the years between 2015-2019. The results can also be used as a starting point for research concerning the impact of COVID-19 in this area. In the context of corporate crisis management, engineering companies behave in the same way but it is necessary to monitor individual factors that can detect a corporate crisis. Possible measures would thus lead to the stabilization of financial results and long-term sustainable positive prospects for companies in the future.


Assuntos
Engenharia/organização & administração , Indústrias/organização & administração , Modelos Econômicos , COVID-19/economia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Engenharia/economia , Indústrias/economia , Pandemias/economia , Eslováquia
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