Abstract Objective: to analyze the psychosocial impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic among Brazilian women from rural settlements. Method: this is a quantitative and longitudinal study conducted with 13 settled women. The data were collected between January 2020 and September 2021 using questionnaires on the perception of the social environment (quality of life, social support, self-efficacy), common mental disorder symptoms and sociodemographic aspects. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, cluster analysis and variance analysis. Results: intersecting vulnerability conditions were identified that possibly intensified the challenges arising from the pandemic. The Quality of Life physical domain fluctuated differently and inversely according to the mental disorder symptoms. As for the psychological domain, at the end of the segment, an increase over time was identified in the entire sample, as the women's perception was better than before the pandemic. Conclusion: worsening of the participants' physical health deserves to be highlighted and, probably, it can be related to the difficulty accessing health services in this period as well as to the fear of contamination. Despite this, the participants were emotionally resilient throughout the period, including signs of improvement in terms of psychological aspects, suggesting a possible effect of the community organization of the settlement.
Resumo Objetivo: analisar os impactos psicossociais da pandemia de COVID-19 entre mulheres brasileiras de assentamentos rurais. Método: trata-se de um estudo quantitativo longitudinal com 13 mulheres assentadas. Os dados foram coletados entre janeiro de 2020 e setembro de 2021 utilizando questionários sobre a percepção do ambiente social (qualidade de vida, apoio social, autoeficácia), sintomas de transtorno mental comum e aspectos sociodemográficos. Os dados foram analisados por meio de estatística descritiva, análise de agrupamento e de variância. Resultados: foram identificadas condições de vulnerabilidade interseccionadas que, possivelmente, exacerbaram os desafios decorrentes da pandemia. O domínio físico da qualidade de vida oscilou diferentemente e inversamente de acordo com os sintomas de transtorno mental. Quanto ao domínio psicológico, no final do segmento, identificou-se em toda a amostra um incremento ao longo do tempo, pois a percepção das mulheres estava melhor do que antes da pandemia. Conclusão: a piora na saúde física das participantes merece destaque e, provavelmente, pode estar relacionada à dificuldade de acesso aos serviços de saúde neste período bem como ao medo da contaminação. Apesar disso, as participantes apresentaram-se emocionalmente resilientes em todo o período, inclusive, com sinais de melhora em relação aos aspectos psicológicos, sugerindo um possível efeito da organização comunitária do assentamento.
Resumen Objetivo: analizar los impactos psicosociales de la pandemia de COVID-19 en mujeres brasileñas de asentamientos rurales. Método: se trata de un estudio longitudinal cuantitativo con 13 mujeres asentadas. Los datos se recolectaron entre enero de 2020 y septiembre de 2021 mediante cuestionarios sobre percepción del entorno social (calidad de vida, apoyo social, autoeficacia), síntomas de trastorno mental común y aspectos sociodemográficos. Los datos se analizaron mediante estadística descriptiva, análisis de conglomerados y análisis de varianza. Resultados: se identificaron condiciones de vulnerabilidad entrelazadas que posiblemente exacerbaron los desafíos impuestos por la pandemia. El dominio físico de la calidad de vida fluctuó de manera diferente e inversa de acuerdo a los síntomas del trastorno mental. En cuanto al dominio psicológico, al final del segmento, se identificó un aumento en el tiempo en toda la muestra, dado que la percepción de las mujeres era mejor que antes de la pandemia. Conclusión: hay que destacar el empeoramiento de la salud física de las participantes que, probablemente, puede estar relacionado con la dificultad para acceder a los servicios de salud durante ese período y el miedo al contagio. A pesar de eso, las participantes fueron resilientes emocionalmente durante todo el período e, inclusive, tuvieron signos de mejoría en los aspectos psicológicos, lo que sugiere un posible efecto de la organización comunitaria del asentamiento.
AssuntosHumanos , Feminino , População Rural , Perfil de Impacto da Doença , Impacto Psicossocial , COVID-19/psicologia , Vulnerabilidade Social
Abstract Objective: to identify the sociodemographic profile and the characteristics of interpersonal violence against older adults during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic in a capital city from the Brazilian Southeast region. Method: a descriptive and exploratory research study with a cross-sectional design based on the notifications of suspected or confirmed cases of violence against older adults between March 2020 and March 2021. A univariate statistical analysis and Fisher's exact test (p<0.05) were performed. Results: a total of 2,681 notifications were recorded during the period. The main victims were individuals aged between 60 and 64 years old, female, white-skinned and with low schooling levels. The instances of violence were more frequent in the victims' homes. Physical and psychological violence predominated, through physical force/beatings and threats, respectively. Most of the aggressors were male, younger than the victims and generally their children or intimate partners. The aggressions were perpetrated more than once and were driven by generational conflicts. There was low referral to entities for the protection of older adults. Conclusion: the sociodemographic profile found evidences vulnerable victims, subjected to many types of violence, and at a potential risk against their overall health.
Resumo Objetivo: identificar o perfil sociodemográfico e as características da violência interpessoal contra a pessoa idosa no primeiro ano da pandemia COVID-19 em uma capital da região sudeste do Brasil. Método: pesquisa descritiva, exploratória, com delineamento transversal a partir da análise das notificações de casos suspeitos ou confirmados de violência contra a pessoa idosa, ocorridas entre março de 2020 e março de 2021. Foi realizada a análise estatística univariada e teste exato de Fisher (p<0,05). Resultados: houve 2681 notificações no período. As principais vítimas foram pessoas com idade entre 60 e 64 anos, do sexo feminino, brancas e com baixa escolaridade. As ocorrências tiveram maior frequência nos domicílios. As violências físicas e psicológicas foram as mais comuns, com uso de força física/espancamento e ameaça, respectivamente. O agressor era, em sua maioria, do sexo masculino, mais jovem do que a vítima, geralmente filho ou parceiro íntimo. As agressões ocorreram mais de uma vez e foram motivadas por conflitos geracionais. Houve baixo encaminhamento para órgãos de proteção a pessoa idosa. Conclusão: o perfil sociodemográfico encontrado evidencia vítimas vulneráveis, sujeitas a muitas formas de violência e com potenciais riscos à integralidade de sua saúde.
Resumen Objetivo: identificar el perfil sociodemográfico y las características de la violencia interpersonal contra los adultos mayores en el primer año de la pandemia de COVID-19 en una ciudad capital de la región sureste de Brasil. Método: investigación descriptiva, exploratoria con diseño transversal a partir del análisis de las notificaciones de casos sospechosos o confirmados de violencia contra el adulto mayor, ocurridos entre marzo de 2020 y marzo de 2021. Se realizó un análisis estadístico univariado y la prueba exacta de Fisher (p< 0,05). Resultados: hubo 2681 notificaciones en el período. Las principales víctimas fueron personas entre 60 y 64 años, de sexo femenino, blancas y con baja escolaridad. La mayoría de los casos se registró en el hogar. La violencia física y psicológica fueron las más comunes, con uso de fuerza física/golpes y amenaza, respectivamente. El agresor era generalmente del sexo masculino, más joven que la víctima, hijo o pareja. Las agresiones se produjeron más de una vez y fueron motivadas por conflictos generacionales. Hubo baja derivación a organismos de protección de adultos mayores. Conclusión: el perfil sociodemográfico obtenido revela que son víctimas vulnerables, sujetas a múltiples formas de violencia y que la integridad de su salud está en riesgo potencial.
AssuntosHumanos , Idoso , Perfil de Saúde , Violência Doméstica , Notificação de Abuso , Abuso de Idosos/estatística & dados numéricos , COVID-19/psicologia , Fatores Sociodemográficos
Introdução: Ao desempenhar e promover práticas que visam a melhoria da saúde, a equipe de enfermagem se assumiu como protagonista e linha de frente em tempos de pandemia de COVID-19. Logo, fica evidente a exposição pessoal-profissional-familiar; a carência de pessoal e a insegurança laboral-emocional, além das consequências que vão recair sobre os contextos de saúde e de trabalho destes profissionais. Objetivo: Analisar os contextos de saúde e trabalho de profissionais de enfermagem durante a pandemia de COVID-19. Metodologia: Estudo de método misto, combinando as abordagens por meio da estratégia de incorporação concomitante - QUAN(qual), realizado em Minas Gerais, Brasil, entre agosto e dezembro de 2020. Aplicou-se, via ligação telefônica, um roteiro de perguntas a 58 profissionais enfermeiros, técnicos e auxiliares de enfermagem. O roteiro continha perguntas abertas e fechadas ligadas a questões sociodemográficas e aos contextos e condições de saúde, trabalho e COVID-19. Realizou-se análise quantitativa descritiva e Análise de Conteúdo Temática. Resultados: A maioria mulheres (93,1%) técnicas de enfermagem (69%). 39,7% trabalhavam em plantão noturno; 58,6% relataram terem sofrido violências no trabalho e 48,3% relataram diagnósticos de transtorno mental. Os contextos de trabalho na pandemia evidenciaram necessidade de estímulos e valorização profissional e relações com fatores institucionais, a dinâmica e organização do trabalho, condições adequadas de trabalho e ao favorável relacionamento interpessoal, enquanto que contextos de saúde evidenciaram relação com interesses, oportunidades, rotina, normalidade, esperança e tenacidade que seriam trazidos pelo fim da COVID-19. Conclusão: A pandemia de COVID-19 fortaleceu um contexto de saúde e de trabalho crítico, amedrontado e inseguro da equipe de Enfermagem brasileira, exacerbando a necessidade de providências, ações e políticas que considerem a Saúde do Trabalhador como estruturantes para a organização dos serviços.
Introducción: Al realizar y promover prácticas que tienen como objetivo la mejora de la salud, el equipo de enfermería asumió el protagonismo en los tiempos de la pandemia por COVID-19. Por tanto, es evidente la exposición personal-profesional-familiar, la falta de personal y la inseguridad laboral-emocional, además de las consecuencias que recaerán sobre la salud y los contextos laborales de este grupo profesional. Objetivo: Analizar el contexto sanitario y laboral de profesionales de enfermería durante la pandemia por COVID-19. Metodología: Estudio de método mixto, combinando los abordajes a través de la estrategia de incorporación concomitante - QUAN(qual), realizado en Minas Gerais, Brasil, entre agosto y diciembre de 2020. Se aplicó un guion de preguntas, mediante llamada telefónica, a 58 profesionales, personal técnico y auxiliares de enfermería. El guion contenía preguntas abiertas y cerradas relacionadas con cuestiones sociodemográficas y los contextos y condiciones de salud, trabajo y COVID-19. Se realizó un análisis cuantitativo descriptivo y un análisis de contenido temático. Resultados: La mayor parte de la muestra estuvo compuesta por mujeres (93.1 %) y personal técnico de enfermería (69 %). El 39.7 % trabajaba en turno de noche, el 58.6 % declaró haber sufrido violencia en el trabajo y el 48.3 % informó de diagnósticos de trastorno mental. Los contextos de trabajo en la pandemia mostraron la necesidad de estímulo y valoración profesional y las relaciones con los factores institucionales, la dinámica y la organización del trabajo, las condiciones adecuadas de trabajo y la relación interpersonal favorable. Los contextos de salud, mientras tanto, mostraron una relación con los intereses, las oportunidades, la rutina, la normalidad, la esperanza y la tenacidad que se produciría al final de la COVID-19. Conclusión: La pandemia de la COVID-19 fortaleció un contexto de salud y trabajo crítico, atemorizado e inseguro del equipo de enfermería brasileño, exacerbando la necesidad de providencias, acciones y políticas que consideren la salud de la persona trabajadora como estructurante para la organización de los servicios.
Introduction: By performing and promoting practices that aim to improve health, the nursing team has assumed itself as a protagonist during the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, the personal, professional, and family exposure is evident; the lack of personnel and occupational security, in addition to the consequences on the health and work contexts of these professionals. Objective: To analyze the health and work contexts of nursing professionals during the pandemic of COVID-19. Methodology: This is a mixed-method study that combines approaches through the concurrent incorporation strategy - QUAN(qual), conducted in Minas Gerais, Brazil, between August and December 2020. A script of questions was applied over the phone to 58 professional nurses, nursing technicians, and nursing assistants. The script included open and closed questions related to sociodemographic issues and health, work, and COVID-19 contexts and conditions. A descriptive quantitative analysis and thematic content analysis were performed. Results: The majority were women (93.1%) nursing technicians (69%). The 39.7% of the participants worked the night shift; the 58.6% reported experiencing violence at work and the 48.3% was diagnosed with mental disorders. The work contexts during the pandemic showed that there was a need for encouragement and professional evaluation; they also portrayed the relationships with the institutional factors, the work dynamics and the organization, the appropriate working conditions and the favorable interpersonal relationships. On the other hand, health contexts showed the relationship between interests, opportunities, routine, normality, hope and tenacity that would occur at the end of COVID-19. Conclusion: The pandemic of COVID-19 strengthened a critical, fearful, and insecure health and work context of the Brazilian nursing team, exacerbating the need for provisions, actions and policies that consider worker's health crucial for the organization of services.
AssuntosHumanos , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Brasil , Infecções por Coronavirus , Condições de Trabalho , Descrição de Cargo
Introdução: Indivíduos fisicamente ativos parecem apresentar melhores indicadores de saúde mental e estresse em comparação a seus congêneres com prática insuficiente de atividade física. Contudo, a análise da prática de atividade física e de indicadores de saúde mental de trabalhadores do setor bancário não tem sido explorada durante a pandemia da COVID-19. Objetivo: Analisar escores de depressão, ansiedade, estresse e da prática de atividade física em trabalhadores do setor bancário durante a pandemia da COVID-19. Método: Uma estratégia comparativa associativa foi empregada com 21 trabalhadores do setor bancário (24-44 anos, 71,4% mulheres) de uma cidade do Nordeste brasileiro. Um questionário on-line foi aplicado explorando informações sociodemográficas, antropométricas, indicadores de ansiedade, depressão e estresse (EADS-21), de função laboral e do nível de atividade física. A correlação entre os escores EADS-21 e o nível de atividade física foi obtida pelo coeficiente Rho de Spearman e a comparação dos indicadores entre trabalhadores insuficientemente ativos e fisicamente ativos foi realizada pelo teste U de Mann-Whitney. Resultados: O nível de atividade física apresentou uma correlação fraca e inversa com os escores de ansiedade (Rho= −0,15), depressão (Rho= −0,35) e de estresse (Rho= −0,11). Além disso, verificou-se que não houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre os trabalhadores do setor bancário insuficientemente ativos vs. fisicamente ativos em relação à ansiedade (P= 0,719), depressão (P= 0,548) ou estresse (P= 0,842). Conclusão: Os indicadores de saúde mental e estresse foram inversamente associados à prática regular de atividade física. Em adição, os níveis de ansiedade, depressão e estresse foram similares entre trabalhadores do setor bancário fisicamente ativos e insuficientemente ativos.
Introducción: Las personas físicamente activas parecen tener mejores indicadores de salud mental y estrés en comparación con personas con actividad física insuficiente. Sin embargo, el análisis de la práctica de actividad física y los indicadores de salud mental de trabajadores del sector bancario no ha sido explorado durante la pandemia por COVID-19. Objetivo: Analizar los puntajes de depresión, ansiedad, estrés y actividad física en trabajadores del sector bancario durante la pandemia por COVID-19. Método: Se aplicó una estrategia comparativa asociativa con 21 trabajadores del sector bancario (24-44 años, 71.4 % mujeres) en una ciudad del Nordeste de Brasil. Se aplicó un cuestionario en línea explorando información sociodemográfica y antropométrica, indicadores de ansiedad, depresión y estrés (EADS-21), función laboral y nivel de actividad física. La correlación entre las puntuaciones del EADS-21 y el nivel de actividad física se obtuvo mediante el coeficiente Rho de Spearman. Además, la comparación de indicadores entre personas adultas insuficientemente activas y físicamente activas se realizó mediante la prueba U de Mann-Whitney. Resultados: El nivel de actividad física mostró una correlación débil y inversa con las puntuaciones de ansiedad (Rho= −0.15), depresión (Rho= −0.35) y estrés (Rho= −0.11). Además, se encontró que no hubo diferencia estadísticamente significativa entre personas trabajadoras insuficientemente activas en el sector bancario vs. físicamente activas, en relación con la ansiedad (P= 0.719), la depresión (P= 0.548) o el estrés (P= 0.842). Conclusión: Los indicadores de salud mental y estrés se asociaron inversamente con la práctica habitual de actividad física. Además, las puntuaciones de ansiedad, depresión y estrés fueron similares entre personas trabajadoras bancarias físicamente activas e insuficientemente activas.
Introduction: Physically active individuals seem to have better indicators of mental health and stress compared to their insufficient physical activity peers. However, the analysis of physical activity levels and mental health indicators of bank employees has not been explored during the COVID-19 pandemic. Objective: To analyze depression, anxiety, stress, and physical activity scores in bank employees during the COVID-19 pandemic. Method: An associative comparative strategy was applied with 21 bank employees (24-44 years, 71.4% women) in a city in Northeast Brazil. An online questionnaire was applied exploring sociodemographic and anthropometric information, indicators of anxiety, depression, and stress (EADS-21), occupational function, and physical activity levels. The correlation between the EADS-21 scores and the physical activity levels was obtained using Spearman's Rho coefficient and the comparison of indicators between insufficiently active and physically active workers was performed using the Mann-Whitney U test. Results: The physical activity levels showed a weak and inverse correlation with anxiety (Rho= −0.15), depression (Rho= −0.35), and stress (Rho= −0.11) scores. In addition, it was found that there was no statistically significant difference between insufficiently active vs. physically active bank employees concerning anxiety (P= 0.719), depression (P= 0.548), or stress (P= 0.842). Conclusion: Mental health and stress indicators were inversely associated with regular physical activity levels. In addition, scores of anxiety, depression, and stress were similar between physically active and insufficiently active bank employees.
AssuntosHumanos , Masculino , Feminino , Ansiedade/psicologia , Estresse Ocupacional , COVID-19/psicologia , Brasil , Riscos Ocupacionais
Throughout the pandemic of COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2, university students were considered a vulnerable risk group for mental health impairment and wellbeing deterioration. This study aimed at evaluating the pandemic's impact on the physical and mental health and wellbeing among students of a Portuguese university. This cross-sectional study included 913 participants and ran from June to October 2020. Data collected included sociodemographics, three mental health self-report questionnaires (Depression Anxiety Stress Scale, Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire and Brief COPE) and lifestyle practices (eating and sleeping patterns, media, and entertainment habits) during the first months of the pandemic, which included a 72-day full national lockdown. Descriptive and correlational statistical analysis were conducted. Students' food habits changed during the pandemic, namely on the consumption of snacks and fast food and, overall, less balanced meals became more prevalent. Additionally, almost 70% of the students reported Body Mass Index changes, while 59% went through sleep pattern changes-these were more pronounced in women and younger students. Over half (67%) of the inquirees exhibited an increase in their stress, depression, and generalized anxiety symptoms. Also, the study demonstrates that students' lifestyles trended negatively during the pandemic and highlights how important regular psychological, health monitoring and emotional support is, amongst this somehow overlooked population throughout the pandemic. Universities should provide support to overcome challenges in future stressful situations. This study might have an impact on how universities and higher education systems approach their students in terms of mental and physical health monitoring and promotion in future situations, non-related with COVID. Moreover, it has a large sample of students well characterized in terms of mental and physical health, which might be of interest for future comparison with other worldwide group of students throughout stressful situations, such as tragic events, wars, pandemics.
AssuntosCOVID-19 , Humanos , Feminino , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Pandemias , Portugal/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudos Transversais , Universidades , Depressão/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Ansiedade/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to screen the potential risk factors for academic burnout among adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic, develop and validate a predictive tool based on the risk factors for predicting academic burnout. DESIGN: This article presents a cross-sectional study. SETTING: This study surveyed two high schools in Anhui Province, China. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1472 adolescents were enrolled in this study. OUTCOME MEASURES: The questionnaires included demographic characteristic variables, living and learning states and adolescents' academic burnout scale. Least absolute shrinkage and selection operator and multivariate logistic regression analyses were employed to screen the risk factors for academic burnout and develop a predictive model. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and decision curve analysis (DCA) were used to assess the accuracy and discrimination of the nomogram. RESULTS: In this study, 21.70% of adolescents reported academic burnout. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that single-child family (OR=1.742, 95% CI: 1.243 to 2.441, p=0.001), domestic violence (OR=1.694, 95% CI: 1.159 to 2.476, p=0.007), online entertainment (>8 hours/day, OR=3.058, 95% CI: 1.634 to 5.720, p<0.001), physical activity (<3 hours/week, OR=1.686, 95% CI: 1.032 to 2.754, p=0.037), sleep duration (<6 hours/night, OR=2.342, 95% CI: 1.315 to 4.170, p=0.004) and academic performance (<400 score, OR=2.180, 95% CI: 1.201 to 3.958, p=0.010) were independent significant risk factors associated with academic burnout. The area under the curve of ROC with the nomogram was 0.686 in the training set and 0.706 in the validation set. Furthermore, DCA demonstrated that the nomogram had good clinical utility for both sets. CONCLUSIONS: The developed nomogram was a useful predictive model for academic burnout among adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic. It is essential to emphasise the importance of mental health and promote a healthy lifestyle among adolescents during the future pandemic.
AssuntosEsgotamento Psicológico , COVID-19 , População do Leste Asiático , Nomogramas , Estudantes , Adolescente , Humanos , Esgotamento Psicológico/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , População do Leste Asiático/psicologia , População do Leste Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Estudantes/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Medição de Risco
OBJECTIVE: This cross-sequential study examines whether the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic affected the mental health of staff working at an Australian air medical service, the Royal Flying Doctors Service South Eastern (RFDSSE) Section. METHODS: The risk of anxiety and depression was measured using a prospective anonymized online survey using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, which was answered by 119 employees. This cross-sequential study was completed in December 2021 with reference to 2 time points: now and the beginning of the pandemic. A high risk of anxiety was defined using a Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale score of 11 to 21 (low risk: 0-10). Chi-square testing was used to compare subgroups at single time points. McNemar testing was used to compare the risk of anxiety and depression between the beginning of the pandemic and December 2021. RESULTS: Employees recalled a higher risk of anxiety at the beginning of the pandemic (29%) compared with December 2021 (16%) (P = .012). At the beginning of the pandemic, nonoperational staff members were more anxious than operational staff (P = .019). One third (31%) of operational staff members were concerned about dying at the beginning of the pandemic. CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrate that RFDSSE employees recalled higher levels of anxiety at the beginning of the pandemic compared with their risk in December 2021. Operational and nonoperational staff have different mental health needs; anxiety experienced by nonoperational staff during a pandemic should not be underestimated. The overall prevalence of anxiety and depression is high, suggesting health care staff in an air medical service may require extra psychological support. Other air medical organizations may reflect on our study findings and plan how to better support their own staff as a result.
AssuntosAnsiedade , COVID-19 , Depressão , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Pandemias , Estudos Prospectivos , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Depressão/epidemiologia
The COVID-19 pandemic has affected all domains of human life, including the economic and social fabric of societies. One of the central strategies for managing public health throughout the pandemic has been through persuasive messaging and collective behaviour change. To help scholars better understand the social and moral psychology behind public health behaviour, we present a dataset comprising of 51,404 individuals from 69 countries. This dataset was collected for the International Collaboration on Social & Moral Psychology of COVID-19 project (ICSMP COVID-19). This social science survey invited participants around the world to complete a series of moral and psychological measures and public health attitudes about COVID-19 during an early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic (between April and June 2020). The survey included seven broad categories of questions: COVID-19 beliefs and compliance behaviours; identity and social attitudes; ideology; health and well-being; moral beliefs and motivation; personality traits; and demographic variables. We report both raw and cleaned data, along with all survey materials, data visualisations, and psychometric evaluations of key variables.
AssuntosCOVID-19 , Humanos , Atitude , COVID-19/psicologia , Princípios Morais , Pandemias , Inquéritos e Questionários , Mudança Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos
COVID-19 lockdowns greatly affected the mental health of populations and collectives. This study compares the mental health and self-perceived health in five countries of Latin America and Spain, during the first wave of COVID 19 lockdown, according to social axes of inequality. This was a cross-sectional study using an online, self-managed survey in Brazil, Chile, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, and Spain. Self-perceived health (SPH), anxiety (measured through GAD-7) and depression (measured through PHQ-9) were measured along with lockdown, COVID-19, and social variables. The prevalence of poor SPH, anxiety, and depression was calculated. The analyses were stratified by gender (men = M; women = W) and country. The data from 39,006 people were analyzed (W = 71.9%). There was a higher prevalence of poor SPH and bad mental health in women in all countries studied. Peru had the worst SPH results, while Chile and Ecuador had the worst mental health indicators. Spain had the lowest prevalence of poor SPH and mental health. The prevalence of anxiety and depression decreased as age increased. Unemployment, poor working conditions, inadequate housing, and the highest unpaid workload were associated with worse mental health and poor SPH, especially in women. In future policies, worldwide public measures should consider the great social inequalities in health present between and within countries in order to tackle health emergencies while reducing the health breach between populations.
AssuntosCOVID-19 , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Saúde Mental , América Latina/epidemiologia , Espanha/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Nível de Saúde , Depressão/epidemiologia
The lockdown during the first wave of COV- ID-19 in Spain has been related to higher levels of anxiety in the general population. However, the emotional impact on Spanish caregivers of individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD) has not been studied so far.
AssuntosTranstorno do Espectro Autista , COVID-19 , Síndrome de Down , Síndrome de Williams , Humanos , Síndrome de Williams/psicologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Cuidadores/psicologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Espanha/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Ansiedade/epidemiologia
Importance: Emergency medicine (EM) physicians experience tremendous emotional health strain, which has been exacerbated during COVID-19, and many have taken to social media to express themselves. Objective: To analyze social media content from academic EM physicians and resident physicians to investigate changes in content and language as indicators of their emotional well-being. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study used machine learning and natural language processing of Twitter posts from self-described academic EM physicians and resident physicians between March 2018 and March 2022. Participants included academic EM physicians and resident physicians with publicly accessible posts (at least 300 total words across the posts) from the US counties with the top 10 COVID-19 case burdens. Data analysis was performed from June to September 2022. Exposure: Being an EM physician or resident physician who posted on Twitter. Main Outcomes and Measures: Social media content themes during the prepandemic period, during the pandemic, and across the phases of the pandemic were analyzed. Psychological constructs evaluated included anxiety, anger, depression, and loneliness. Positive and negative language sentiment within posts was measured. Results: This study identified 471 physicians with a total of 198â¯867 posts (mean [SD], 11â¯403 [18â¯998] words across posts; median [IQR], 3445 [1100-11â¯591] words across posts). The top 5 prepandemic themes included free open-access medical education (Cohen d, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.38-0.50), residency education (Cohen d, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.37-0.49), gun violence (Cohen d, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.32-0.44), quality improvement in health care (Cohen d, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.27-0.39), and professional resident associations (Cohen d, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.27-0.39). During the pandemic, themes were significantly related to healthy behaviors during COVID-19 (Cohen d, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.77-0.90), pandemic response (Cohen d, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.65-0.77), vaccines and vaccination (Cohen d, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.53-0.66), unstable housing and homelessness (Cohen d, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.34-0.47), and emotional support for others (Cohen d, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.34-0.46). Across the phases of the pandemic, thematic content within social media posts changed significantly. Compared with the prepandemic period, there was significantly less positive, and concordantly more negative, language used during COVID-19. Estimates of loneliness, anxiety, anger, and depression also increased significantly during COVID-19. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional study, key thematic shifts and increases in language related to anxiety, anger, depression, and loneliness were identified in the content posted on social media by academic EM physicians and resident physicians during the pandemic. Social media may provide a real-time and evolving landscape to evaluate thematic content and linguistics related to emotions and sentiment for health care workers.
AssuntosCOVID-19 , Medicina de Emergência , Médicos , Mídias Sociais , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudos Transversais , Emoções
BACKGROUND: Stress is a crucial driver that affects hygiene behavior. The Hong Kong population lacks a COVID-19 or pandemic related stress measure investigating the COVID-19 related stress after one year of outbreak. DESIGN AND METHODS: The original COVID Stress Scale (CSS) was translated and culturally adapted into the Chinese (Cantonese) version (CSS-C). Six hundred and twenty-four participants were recruited from the general public to examine the internal consistency, and concurrent and convergent validity of the CSS-C. The test-retest reliability of CSS-C was examined using 39 university students. RESULTS: People with old age, women, single, low educational level and borderline and abnormal levels of anxiety and depression were likely to perceive high level of COVID-19 related stress. All CSS-C subscales demonstrated good internal consistency, moderate to good test-retest reliability, and weak to moderate correlations with various mental health-related measures. DISCUSSION: The CSS could help monitor the stress associated the current and potential future pandemics.
AssuntosCOVID-19 , Pandemias , Estresse Psicológico , Feminino , Humanos , COVID-19/psicologia , População do Leste Asiático , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia
Introduction: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2-virus. COVID-19 has officially been declared as the latest in the list of pandemics by WHO at the start of 2020. This study investigates the associations among decrease in economic activity, gender, age, and psychological distress during the COVID-19 pandemic considering the economic status and education level of countries using multinational surveys. Methods: Online self-report questionnaires were administered in 15 countries which were spontaneously participate to 14,243 respondents in August 2020. Prevalence of decrease in economic activity and psychological distress was stratified by age, gender, education level, and Human Development Index (HDI). With 7,090 of female (49.8%), mean age 40.67, 5,734 (12.75%) lost their job and 5,734 (40.26%) suffered from psychological distress. Results: Associations among psychological distress and economic status, age, and gender was assessed using multivariate logistic regression, adjusted for country and education as random effects of the mixed model. We then measured the associations between HDI and age using multivariate logistic regression. Women had a higher prevalence of psychological distress than men with 1.067 Odds ratio, and younger age was significantly associated with decrease in economic activity for 0.998 for age increasing. Moreover, countries with lower HDI showed a higher prevalence of decrease in economic activity, especially at lower education levels. Discussion: Psychological distress due to COVID-19 revealed a significant association with decrease in economic activity, women, and younger age. While the proportion of decrease in economic activity population was different for each country, the degree of association of the individual factors was the same. Our findings are relevant, as women in high HDI countries and low education level in lower HDI countries are considered vulnerable. Policies and guidelines for both financial aid and psychological intervention are recommended.
AssuntosCOVID-19 , Angústia Psicológica , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Pandemias , Inquéritos e Questionários
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Telepsychiatry practiced by psychiatrists is evidence-based, regulated, private, and effective in diverse settings. The use of telemedicine has grown since the COVID-19 pandemic as people routinely obtain more healthcare services online. At the same time, there has been a rapid increase in the number of digital mental health startups that offer various services including online therapy and access to prescription medications. These digital mental health firms advertise directly to the consumer primarily through digital advertising. The purpose of this narrative review is to contrast traditional telepsychiatry and the digital mental health market related to online therapy. RECENT FINDINGS: In contrast to standard telepsychiatry, most of the digital mental health startups are unregulated, have unproven efficacy, and raise concerns related to self-diagnosis, self-medicating, and inappropriate prescribing. The role of digital mental health firms for people with serious mental illness has not been determined. There are inadequate privacy controls for the digital mental health firms, including for online therapy. We live in an age where there is widespread admiration for technology entrepreneurs and increasing emphasis on the role of the patient as a consumer. Yet, the business practices of digital mental health startups may compromise patient safety for profits. There is a need to address issues with the digital mental health startups and to educate patients about the differences between standard medical care and digital mental health products.
AssuntosCOVID-19 , Psiquiatria , Telemedicina , Humanos , Saúde Mental , COVID-19/psicologia , Pandemias
Importance: There has been increasing concern about the burden of mental health problems among youth, especially since the COVID-19 pandemic. Trends in mental health-related emergency department (ED) visits are an important indicator of unmet outpatient mental health needs. Objective: To estimate annual trends in mental health-related ED visits among US children, adolescents, and young adults between 2011 and 2020. Design, Setting, and Participants: Data from 2011 to 2020 in the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, an annual cross-sectional national probability sample survey of EDs, was used to examine mental health-related visits for youths aged 6 to 24 years (unweighted = 49â¯515). Main Outcomes and Measures: Mental health-related ED visits included visits associated with psychiatric or substance use disorders and were identified by International Classification of Diseases-Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM; 2011-2015) and ICD-10-CM (2016-2020) discharge diagnosis codes or by reason-for-visit (RFV) codes. We estimated the annual proportion of mental health-related pediatric ED visits from 2011 to 2020. Subgroup analyses were performed by demographics and broad psychiatric diagnoses. Multivariable-adjusted logistic regression analyses estimated factors independently associated with mental health-related ED visits controlling for period effects. Results: From 2011 to 2020, the weighted number of pediatric mental health-related visits increased from 4.8 million (7.7% of all pediatric ED visits) to 7.5 million (13.1% of all ED visits) with an average annual percent change of 8.0% (95% CI, 6.1%-10.1%; P < .001). Significant linearly increasing trends were seen among children, adolescents, and young adults, with the greatest increase among adolescents and across sex and race and ethnicity. While all types of mental health-related visits significantly increased, suicide-related visits demonstrated the greatest increase from 0.9% to 4.2% of all pediatric ED visits (average annual percent change, 23.1% [95% CI, 19.0%-27.5%]; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: Over the last 10 years, the proportion of pediatric ED visits for mental health reasons has approximately doubled, including a 5-fold increase in suicide-related visits. These findings underscore an urgent need to improve crisis and emergency mental health service capacity for young people, especially for children experiencing suicidal symptoms.
AssuntosServiço Hospitalar de Emergência , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Transtornos Mentais , Saúde Mental , Suicídio , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/tendências , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Mental/tendências , Pandemias , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Pesquisas sobre Atenção à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Suicídio/psicologia , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos
Previous pandemics and related lockdowns have had a deleterious impact on pregnant women's mental health. We studied the impact of the SARS-CoV-2/Covid-19 pandemic and France's first lockdown on pregnant women's mental health. A cross-sectional study was conducted in July 2020 using a web-questionnaire completed by 500 adult women who were pregnant during the first lockdown in France (March-May 2020). Questions focused on their self-perceived psychological state and affects they felt before and during the lockdown and anxiety symptomatology (HAD) two months after it ended. A robust variance Poisson regression model was used to estimate adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) for anxiety and self-perceived psychological state evolution. One in five respondents (21.1%) reported psychological deterioration during lockdown. Associated determinants were: i) little or no social support (self-perceived) (aRP = 1.77, 95%CI[1.18-2.66]), ii) increased workload (1.65, [1.02-2.66]), and iii) poor/moderate knowledge about SARS-CoV-2 transmission (1.60, [1.09-2.35]). Seven percent of women reporting psychological deterioration had access to professional psychological support during lockdown, while 19% did not despite wanting it. Women reported heightened powerlessness (60.3%), frustration (64%) and fear (59.2%) during lockdown. One in seven respondents (14.2%, 95%CI[10.9-18.2]) had anxiety symptoms. Determinants associated: i) at least one pregnancy-related pathology (aPR = 1.82, 95%CI[1.15-2.88]), ii) overweightness or obesity (1.61, [1.07-2.43]), iii) one child under the age of six years in the household during the lockdown (3.26, [1.24-8.53]), iv) little or no social support (self-perceived) during the lockdown (1.66, [1.07-2.58]), v) friend or relatives diagnosed with Covid-19 or with symptoms of the disease (1.66; [1.06-2.60]), vi) no access to medication for psychological distress (2.86, [1.74-4.71]), and vii) unsuccessfully seeking exchanges with healthcare professionals about their pregnancy during the pandemic (1.66, [1.08-2.55]). Our results can guide prevention and support policies for pregnant women during pandemics, current or future, with or without lockdowns. Preventing perinatal mental health problems is essential to ensure a supportive environment for the child's development.
AssuntosCOVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Pandemias , Gestantes/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Estudos Transversais , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/diagnóstico
BACKGROUND: Social stigma associated with infectious diseases existed throughout the history of pandemics due to fears of contagion and death. This study aims to assess social and self-stigma resulting from COVID-19 infection and other associated factors in Egypt during the pandemic. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 533 adult Egyptians via an online questionnaire. The questionnaire included social stigma toward current and recovered COVID-19 patients and the negative self-image of being a COVID-19 patient. RESULTS: The mean calculated overall COVID-19-related stigma score for the studied sample was 4.7±3.1. The highest reported stigma category was mild stigma: Social stigma towards current COVID-19 patients (88.2%), Social stigma toward recovered COVID-19 patients (64.2%), Negative self-image for being a COVID-19 patient; perceived self-stigma (71.6%) and total stigma score (88.2%) respectively. The overall stigma score was negatively associated with a higher level of education and getting information from healthcare workers and positively associated with getting information from social networks. CONCLUSION: Social and self-stigma related to COVID-19 infection was mild from the Egyptian perspective but found in a large proportion of the population and mainly affected by getting information from healthcare workers or through social media and being more among those with lower education levels. The study recommends more legislative control on social media for disseminating health-related information and conducting awareness campaigns to counteract these adverse effects.
AssuntosCOVID-19 , População do Norte da África , Autoimagem , Estigma Social , Adulto , Humanos , COVID-19/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Egito , Pandemias , População do Norte da África/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Internet , Comunicação em Saúde/métodos , Escolaridade
BACKGROUND: The effect of social distancing due to the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health of pregnant women is of particular concern, given potential effects on physical health, family functioning, and child development. METHODS: Pregnant women were recruited for the "Implications of and Experiences Surrounding being Pregnant during the COVID-19 Pandemic" study at Woman's Hospital in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Participants enrolled at any point during their pregnancy and surveys were delivered weekly until the participant indicated that she had delivered her baby; a postpartum survey followed four weeks after delivery. This analysis includes 1037 participants with baseline, 596 with follow-up, and 302 with postpartum surveys. Questions on social distancing behaviors were asked at baseline and grouped based on whether they involved social distancing from work, friends and family, or public places. Symptoms of anxiety, stress, depression, and pregnancy-related anxiety were measured. Each type of social distancing was examined as a predictor of mental health using linear model with control for confounders. RESULTS: The study population was largely white (84.1%), married (81.8%), and educated (76.2% with a bachelor's or higher degree). Women who were younger, Black, unmarried, or had less education or income reported fewer social distancing behaviors. Mean anxiety score in the highest quartile of overall social distancing was 8.3 (SD 5.6), while in the lowest quartile it was 6.0 (SD 5.0) (p < 0.01), while perceived stress postpartum and pregnancy-related stress were not associated with social distancing. Associations were substantially diminished when controlled for baseline levels of anxiety symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Greater social distancing was associated with more anxiety symptoms, but worse mental health, particularly anxiety, may also have contributed to greater social distancing behaviors.
AssuntosCOVID-19 , Saúde Mental , Distanciamento Físico , Gestantes , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Ansiedade/psicologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Gestantes/psicologia , SARS-CoV-2
Mental health care for students in general, particularly anxiety, is a significant problem that needs more attention, especially during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This study aimed to describe the prevalence of anxiety and examine the associated factors among students during the COVID-19 pandemic in Vietnam. A cross-sectional study was conducted from August to September 2021 among 5730 students. An online survey was used to collect sociodemographic information, and the generalized anxiety disorder questionnaire (GAD-7) was used to assess anxiety symptoms among Vietnamese students. Results showed that the prevalence of anxiety among study participants was 16.2% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 15.3%-17.2%). Factors related to anxiety among students were gender, type of housemate, COVID-19 exposure/infection status, vaccination status, health status, academic performance, and social relationships during the COVID-19 pandemic. A significant number of students experienced anxiety during COVID-19, and this rate was related to several factors. Psychological interventions are required to support students during and after the COVID-19 pandemic and other health crises. Further studies are required to confirm our findings.