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1.
Head Face Med ; 16(1): 3, 2020 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32127030

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The reconstruction of large head and face missing structures in the craniofacial region in children is very challenging for plastic surgeons. Expanded local and expanded axial-pattern flaps are widely used for the reconstruction of large-area scars. Free flaps are used very cautiously in children. 3D printing technology is a new technology with great development potential. 3D printing technology is used to assist in individualizing titanium alloy restorations for prefabricated skull defect repair. This application has great advantages in the repair of large skull loss. However, it is crucial to choose appropriate techniques and treat deformities of the head and face with integrated approaches and collaboration among multiple departments. CASE PRESENTATION: This study proposes a method to combine the expanded flap method and 3D printing technology to achieve natural remodeling of the craniofacial region in a child. CONCLUSION: Large area of head and face missing structures can be reconstructed by using expanded skin flaps combined with 3D printing, and patients can get better new faces.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Craniofaciais , Retalhos de Tecido Biológico , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos , Criança , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/cirurgia , Cabeça , Humanos , Impressão Tridimensional , Crânio
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(12): e19525, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32195955

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To assess the arterial oxygen partial pressure (PaO2) at defined time points during preoxygenation and to compare high-flow heated humidified nasal oxygenation with standard preoxygenation using oxygen insufflation via a facemask for at least 5 minutes, before intubation during induction of general anesthesia. METHODS: This randomized, single-blinded, prospective study will be conducted in patients undergoing head and neck surgery. After standard monitoring, the artery catheter at the radial artery or dorsalis pedis artery will be placed and arterial blood gas analysis (ABGA) for baseline values will be performed simultaneously. Each group will be subjected to 1 of 2 preoxygenation methods (high-flow nasal cannula or simple facemask) for 5 minutes, and ABGA will be performed twice. After confirming intubation, we will start mechanical ventilation and check the vital signs and perform the final ABGA. DISCUSSION: This trial aims to examine the trajectory of PaO2 levels during the whole preoxygenation procedure and after intubation. We hypothesize that preoxygenation with the high-flow nasal cannula will be superior to that with the face mask. STUDY REGISTRATION: This trial was registered with the Clinical Trial Registry (NCT03896906; ClinicalTrials.gov).


Assuntos
Anestesia Geral/tendências , Monitorização Transcutânea dos Gases Sanguíneos/métodos , Cabeça/cirurgia , Oxigenação Hiperbárica/tendências , Pescoço/cirurgia , Gasometria , Cânula/normas , Cânula/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Intubação Intratraqueal/métodos , Máscaras/normas , Máscaras/estatística & dados numéricos , Ventilação não Invasiva/instrumentação , Ventilação não Invasiva/métodos , Oxigênio/sangue , Estudos Prospectivos , Artéria Radial/cirurgia , Respiração Artificial/instrumentação , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Dispositivos de Acesso Vascular/normas
3.
Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi ; 37(1): 136-141, 2020 Feb 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32096387

RESUMO

The segmentation of organs at risk is an important part of radiotherapy. The current method of manual segmentation depends on the knowledge and experience of physicians, which is very time-consuming and difficult to ensure the accuracy, consistency and repeatability. Therefore, a deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) is proposed for the automatic and accurate segmentation of head and neck organs at risk. The data of 496 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma were reviewed. Among them, 376 cases were randomly selected for training set, 60 cases for validation set and 60 cases for test set. Using the three-dimensional (3D) U-NET DCNN, combined with two loss functions of Dice Loss and Generalized Dice Loss, the automatic segmentation neural network model for the head and neck organs at risk was trained. The evaluation parameters are Dice similarity coefficient and Jaccard distance. The average Dice Similarity coefficient of the 19 organs at risk was 0.91, and the Jaccard distance was 0.15. The results demonstrate that 3D U-NET DCNN combined with Dice Loss function can be better applied to automatic segmentation of head and neck organs at risk.


Assuntos
Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/patologia , Órgãos em Risco , Cabeça , Humanos , Pescoço , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
4.
J Sports Sci ; 38(6): 658-668, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32009533

RESUMO

Visual exploratory action, in which football players turn their head to perceive their environment, improves prospective performance with the ball during match-play. This scanning action, however, is relevant for players throughout the entire match, as the information perceived through visual exploration is needed to guide movement around the pitch during both offensive and defensive play. This study aimed to understand how a player's on-pitch position, playing role and phase of play influenced the visual exploratory head movements of players during 11v11 match-play. Twenty-two competitive-elite youth footballers (M = 16.25 years) played a total of 1,623 minutes (M = 73.8). Inertial measurement units, global positioning system units and notational analysis were used to quantify relevant variables. Analyses revealed that players explored more extensively when they were in possession of the ball, and less extensively during transition phases, as compared to team ball-possession and opposition ball-possession phases of play. Players explored most extensively when in the back third of the pitch, and least when they were in the middle third of the pitch. Playing role, pitch position and phase of play should be considered as constraints on visual exploratory actions when developing training situations aimed at improving the scanning actions of players.


Assuntos
Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Futebol/psicologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Cabeça/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Movimento , Futebol/fisiologia , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
5.
Anim Cogn ; 23(2): 405-414, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915949

RESUMO

The ability of ungulates to discriminate among vegetation patches depends largely on the senses of vision, olfaction, tactility, and gustation. However, little is known about how ungulates rely on the respective senses in response to varying distances to discrimination targets. This study aimed to assess how cattle discriminate between patches of green and dead forages by means of senses, with a particular attention to the role of vision in relation to the distance to the forages. Thirteen Japanese Black cows were allowed to choose between the two forages from a distance of about 1 m without (- BF) or with (+ BF) a blindfold. The green forage differed from the dead forage in color, texture, odor, quality, and animals' preference. Cows located and ate the green forage as the first choice (Type 1), or as the second choice after touching (Type 2) or further biting (Type 3) the dead forage in error. Overall, the proportion of [Type 1]/[Types 1 + 2 + 3] was above the chance for both - BF and + BF with a decrease by blindfolding. The proportion of [Type 2]/[Types 2 + 3] was above the chance for both - BF and + BF with no effect of blindfolding. The results indicate that cattle discriminating green forage against dead forage rely greatly on vision and to a lesser degree on olfaction when away from the forages, but rely no longer on vision and at least on tactility on the muzzle or in the mouth when in contact with a wrong choice.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Percepção de Cores , Comportamento Alimentar , Animais , Bovinos , Cor , Feminino , Cabeça , Movimento , Sensação
6.
Anthropol Anz ; 77(1): 75-82, 2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31939989

RESUMO

In the course of a scientific cooperation between the German Mummy Project at the Reiss-Engelhorn-Museen, Mannheim (Germany) and the Musée National d'Histoire et d'Art Luxembourg (Luxembourg), an ancient Egyptian mummy head was analyzed using a multidisciplinary approach including radiocarbon dating, ultra-high resolution computed tomography, physical anthropology, forensic medicine and Egyptology. Dated to the Roman Period, the mummy head belonged to an upper-class woman between 25 and 35 years of age. Computed tomography revealed a lethal blunt force trauma affecting the dorsal parts of the parietal bones, below the intact overlaying soft tissue. Moreover, ancient medical treatment was evidenced through localized shaving of the hair on the affected area, which indicates that efforts have been made to keep the woman alive. This astonishing example of homicide demonstrates the enormous scientific benefit brought by the multidisciplinary investigation of mummified bodies and body parts, and sheds light on life, death and medical care of a woman from Roman Period Egypt.


Assuntos
Traumatismos Craniocerebrais , Múmias , Ferimentos não Penetrantes , Adulto , Antigo Egito , Feminino , Cabeça , História Antiga , Humanos
8.
Orthod Craniofac Res ; 23(1): 102-109, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31550076

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of altered head or tongue posture on upper airway (UA) volumes using MRI imaging based on a new objective and validated UA evaluation protocol. SETTING AND SAMPLE POPULATION: One supine CBCT and five sagittal MRI scans were obtained from ten subjects in different head and tongue positions: (a) supine neutral head position (NHP) with the tongue in a natural resting position with the tip of the tongue in contact with the lingual aspect of the lower incisors (TRP); (b) head extension with TRP; (c) head flexion with TRP; (d) NHP with the tip of the tongue in contact with the posterior edge of the hard palate (THP); and (e) NHP with the tip of the tongue in contact with the floor of the mouth in contact with the caruncula sublingualis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Based on a validated CBCT UA analysis, the retropalatal, oropharyngeal and the corresponding total volumes were measured from each MRI scan. Wilcoxon signed-rank test was applied to determine the statistically significant difference in mean volume between the baseline head and tongue posture (NHP with TRP) and the other postures. RESULTS: Five females and five males with a mean age of 46.5 ± 13.7 years volunteered for this pilot study. UA volumes, particularly the oropharyngeal volume, increased significantly with head extension and NHP with THP and decreased significantly with head flexion. CONCLUSION: Altered head and tongue posture proved to affect UA volumes, thus representing confounding variables during three-dimensional radiographic image acquisition.


Assuntos
Cabeça , Postura , Cefalometria , Feminino , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Faringe , Projetos Piloto , Língua
9.
J Surg Res ; 246: 231-235, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606513

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An estimated 800,000 dog bites require medical attention every year. The purpose of this study is to review the characteristics of dog bite injuries in children and examine temporal trends. METHODS: The Kids' Inpatient Database was used to identify pediatric patients with dog bite injuries over a 10-y period. Demographic data, primary payer, injury characteristics, length of hospitalization, and treatments were recorded. Statistical analysis was performed in SAS 9.3 (SAS Institute Inc, Cary, NC). RESULTS: A total of 6308 patients were identified. Average age at time of injury was 6.4 ± 4.3 y. Children under age 5 y were the most affected subgroup (39.3% in 2000 versus 44.7% in 2009, P < 0.001). Most bites were to the head/neck and significantly increased from 53.9% in 2000 to 60.1% in 2009. Cellulitis complicated many injuries (33.7% in 2000 versus 44.8% in 2009, P < 0.001). Overall, 50% of patients underwent a procedure; 31% had an invasive surgical procedure; and 5.1% of patients required skin grafts or flaps. CONCLUSIONS: Dog bites are a common cause of pediatric injuries and are a significant burden on families and the health care system. Evaluating the characteristics of these injuries can guide educational efforts.


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas/epidemiologia , Celulite (Flegmão)/epidemiologia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Cães , Fatores Etários , Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas/complicações , Mordeduras e Picadas/diagnóstico , Mordeduras e Picadas/cirurgia , Celulite (Flegmão)/etiologia , Celulite (Flegmão)/cirurgia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Cabeça , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pescoço , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transplante de Pele/estatística & dados numéricos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/estatística & dados numéricos
10.
World Neurosurg ; 133: e308-e319, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520752

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We performed a retrospective analysis in a cohort of 1185 patients at our institution who were identified as undergoing ≥1 head computed tomography (CT) examinations during their inpatient stay on the neurosurgery service, to quantify the number, type, and associated radiation burden of head CT procedures performed by the neurosurgery service. METHODS: CT procedure records and radiology reports were obtained via database search and directly validated against records retrieved from manual chart review. Next, dosimetry data from the head CT procedures were extracted via automated text mining of electronic radiology reports. RESULTS: Among 4510 identified adult head CT procedures, 88% were standard head CT examinations. A total of 3.65 ± 3.60 head CT scans were performed during an average adult admission. The most common primary diagnoses were neoplasms, trauma, and other hemorrhage. The median cumulative effective dose per admission was 5.66 mSv (range, 1.06-84.5 mSv; mean, 8.56 ± 8.95 mSv). The median cumulative effective dose per patient was 6.4 mSv (range, 1.1-127 mSv; mean, 9.26 ± 10.0 mSv). CONCLUSIONS: The median cumulative radiation burden from head CT imaging in our cohort equates approximately to a single chest CT scan, well within accepted limits for safe CT imaging in adults. Refined methods are needed to characterize the safety profile of the few pediatric patients identified in our study.


Assuntos
Cabeça/efeitos da radiação , Neuroimagem/efeitos adversos , Segurança do Paciente , Doses de Radiação , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Admissão do Paciente , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Orthod Craniofac Res ; 23(1): 66-71, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514260

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the stability of Natural Head Position (NHP) over time using the 3dMDface System. SETTING AND SAMPLE POPULATION: This was an experimental study. Three-dimensional facial images of 40 students were captured on two different occasions, with an interval of at least two weeks. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The images were taken using a stereophotogrammetric device (3dMD). The mirror positioned NHP was obtained in a standing position and then replicated in a sitting position for capturing. The self-balanced NHP was taken in a sitting position. Rapidform 3D software was used for position angle calculations. The angle changes between the positions were calculated for rotations around the x-, y- and z-axes. RESULTS: The differences between NHP in the self-balanced and mirror positions recorded on the first and second occasions were 2.43 and 1.75 degrees, respectively, around the x-axis. The average changes in NHP around the x-axis between the self-balanced and mirror balanced positions exceeded 3 degrees at the two-week interval. The differences were smaller for the rotations around the y- and z-axes. Some subjects consistently tended to hold their heads in a more extended position when self-balanced, while others did this when mirror balanced. There was no difference in the reproducibility of NHP between men and women. CONCLUSION: The reproducibility of NHP for consecutive stereophotogrammetric captures is generally acceptable. The reproducibility of NHP using the mirror position was slightly better compared with NHP in the sitting self-balanced position.


Assuntos
Fotogrametria , Postura , Feminino , Cabeça , Humanos , Imagem Tridimensional , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
12.
Int J Sports Med ; 41(1): 36-43, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747699

RESUMO

Subconcussive head impacts (SHI), defined as impacts to the cranium that do not result in concussion symptoms, are gaining traction as a major public health concern. The contribution of physiological factors such as physical exertion and muscle damage to SHI-dependent changes in neurological measures remains unknown. A prospective longitudinal study examined the association between physiological factors and SHI kinematics in 15 high school American football players over one season. Players wore a sensor-installed mouthguard for all practices and games, recording frequency and magnitude of all head impacts. Serum samples were collected at 12 time points (pre-season, pre- and post-game for five in-season games, and post-season) and were assessed for an isoenzyme of creatine kinase (CK-MM) primarily found in skeletal muscle. Physical exertion was estimated in the form of excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) from heart rate data captured during the five games. Mixed-effect regression models indicated that head impact kinematics were significantly and positively associated with change in CK-MM but not EPOC. There was a significant and positive association between CK-MM and EPOC. These data suggest that when examining SHI, effects of skeletal muscle damage should be considered when using outcome measures that may have an interaction with muscle damage.


Assuntos
Futebol Americano/lesões , Cabeça/fisiopatologia , Músculo Esquelético/lesões , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Adolescente , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Concussão Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Creatina Quinase Forma MM/sangue , Futebol Americano/fisiologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/enzimologia , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Estados Unidos
13.
J Prosthet Dent ; 123(2): 299-304, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31227235

RESUMO

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: The optimal procedure for the transfer of the sagittal inclination of the occlusal plane (OP) to semiadjustable and fully adjustable articulators is unclear. PURPOSE: The purpose of this clinical study was to evaluate and compare the sagittal inclination of the OP with the Frankfort horizontal plane (FHP) on a facebow transfer to semiadjustable and fully adjustable articulators. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Facebow transfers (Hanau Spring-Bow; Whip Mix Corp) of 30 participants were recorded and transferred to a semiadjustable articulator (Hanau Wide-Vue; Whip Mix Corp) using the indirect method. Another set of facebow transfers from the same set of 30 participants using another facebow (Denar Slidematic Facebow; Whip Mix Corp) was recorded and transferred to a fully adjustable articulator (Denar D5A; Whip Mix Corp). The angle between the OP of the mounted cast and the upper member of the articulator was measured in each participant with a digital protractor on both articulators. Standardized lateral cephalograms of each participant were made as a control. The FHP and OP were traced on each standardized lateral cephalogram. The angle on the cephalogram between the FHP and OP was measured. These values were compared with previously measured values for the Hanau Wide-Vue and the Denar D5A articulators. The data were analyzed using ANOVA. Intergroup comparisons between and among the Hanau Wide-Vue, Denar D5A, and lateral cephalograms were performed using the independent t test. RESULTS: No statistically significant difference was found between the Hanau Wide-Vue and Denar D5A articulators compared with the lateral cephalograms (P=.06). In the intergroup comparison, no statistically significant differences were found between the Hanau Wide-Vue and Denar D5A articulators (P=.18). No statistically significant differences were found between the values obtained on the Hanau Wide-Vue and lateral cephalograms (P=.06). When the Denar D5A articulator was compared with the lateral cephalograms, there was a statistically significant difference (P=.02). CONCLUSIONS: The Hanau Wide-Vue articulator most closely replicated the inclination of the OP. Regarding the sagittal inclination of the OP, the semiadjustable articulator can provide more accurate results than a fully adjustable articulator and thus eliminates occlusal errors.


Assuntos
Articuladores Dentários , Oclusão Dentária , Aparelhos de Tração Extrabucal , Cabeça , Humanos , Registro da Relação Maxilomandibular
14.
Ultraschall Med ; 41(1): 69-76, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30463101

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Altered cerebral hemodynamics are involved in changes in head biometry in fetuses with congenital heart disease (CHD). We compared head growth in different CHD groups with published normative values and investigated whether CHD groups differ from each other in terms of head circumference (HC) development over gestational age (GA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective cohort study consisting of 248 CHD fetuses. Subgroups were generated according to the expected ascending aorta oxygen saturation: Low placental blood content (BC) and therefore low oxygen delivery to the brain (group 1: n = 108), intermediate placental and systemic BC due to intracardiac mixing of blood (group 2: n = 103), high placental BC (group 3: n = 13) and low placental BC and low oxygen delivery to the brain without mixing of blood (group 4: n = 24). Furthermore, group 1 was divided into antegrade (n = 34) and retrograde (n = 74) flow through the aortic arch. Comparisons were made at a GA of 22, 30 and 38 weeks. RESULTS: Estimated values of zHC (z-score transformed) were not significantly different between the four CHD groups at the three time points in gestation (all p > 0.05). Within group 1 fetuses with retrograde aortic arch flow showed a significant negative association between HC and GA compared to reference values (b = -0.054, p < 0.001) and had significantly lower zHC values at 38 weeks (-0.836) compared to fetuses with antegrade flow (0.366, p = 0.009). CONCLUSION: Our data do not confirm that CHD fetuses in general have a significantly smaller HC. HC becomes smaller throughout gestation depending on the direction of aortic arch flow.


Assuntos
Biometria , Cabeça , Cardiopatias Congênitas , Artéria Cerebral Média , Feminino , Feto , Idade Gestacional , Cabeça/diagnóstico por imagem , Cabeça/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cardiopatias Congênitas/complicações , Humanos , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal
15.
Cranio ; 38(2): 74-90, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30063193

RESUMO

Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate change in hyoid bone position for patients suffering from myofascial pain and to evaluate the modified hyoid triangle as a three-dimensional cephalometric modality for measuring hyoid position. Methods: Pre- and post-treatment CBCT scans for 30 female patients resolved of myofascial pain were reviewed by a blinded investigator using the modified hyoid triangle. Changes in dimensions of the hyoid triangle were analyzed with the t-test for paired comparisons. Results: Statistical analysis showed a drawing nearer of the chin to the third cervical vertebra (-2.0 mm, p = 0.026) and a release of the hyoid bone away from the floor of the mouth (1.5 mm, p = 0.011). Discussion: These findings suggest resolution of myofascial pain may correlate with decreased forward head posture and relaxation of suprahyoid musculature. The potential for change in oropharyngeal dimension and airway is evident.


Assuntos
Osso Hioide , Orofaringe , Cefalometria , Feminino , Cabeça , Humanos , Dor
16.
Sports Biomech ; 19(2): 180-188, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29754531

RESUMO

Head impacts resulting in a concussion negatively affect the vestibular system, but little is known about the effect of subconcussive impacts on this system. This study's objective was to determine if subconcussive head impacts sustained over one competitive lacrosse season, effect sway velocity. Healthy Division I male lacrosse players (n = 33; aged 19.52 ± 1.20 years) wore instrumented helmets to track head impact exposures. At the beginning and end of the season the players completed an instrumented Balance Error Scoring System assessment to assess sway velocity. Score differentials were correlated to the head impact exposure data collected via instrumented helmets when averaged within participant. Paired samples t-tests revealed a post-season increase in sway velocity on the double leg stance, firm surface (p = 0.002, d = 0.59); tandem stance, firm surface (p = 0.033, d = 0.39) and double leg, foam surface (p = 0.014, d = 0.45) A significant correlation was found between change in tandem stance, firm surface sway velocities and linear acceleration (p < 0.001, r = 0.65). It appears subconcussive impacts may result in tandem stance balance deficits. Repetitive head impacts may negatively affect sway velocity, even in the absence of a diagnosed concussion injury.


Assuntos
Concussão Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Cabeça/fisiopatologia , Postura/fisiologia , Esportes com Raquete/lesões , Vestíbulo do Labirinto/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
17.
Gait Posture ; 75: 155-162, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698186

RESUMO

Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can exhibit a range of movement issues, which are often characterized by a general slowing of movement responses that can extend to walking speed. The current study was designed to examine the spatio-temporal features and pattern of acceleration for the trunk, neck and head during walking for a cohort of adults with ASD compared to neurotypical individuals. Twenty young adults with ASD and 20 age-matched neurotypical adults participated in this study. Participants performed five walking trials across a 20ft Protokinetics pressure sensitive surface at their preferred walking speed. Accelerations were collected using three triaxial accelerometers affixed to the head, neck, and lower trunk. Comparisons of acceleration amplitude (i.e., RMS), frequency, segmental gain and regularity (i.e., SampEn) during the walking tasks were performed. Results revealed that the adults with ASD walked slower than the neurotypical persons with a greater proportion of time spent in double stance. Despite walking at a slower pace overall, the adults with ASD exhibited a decreased ability to attenuate gait-related oscillations from the trunk to the head. Overall, these findings suggest that adults with ASD exhibited a decreased ability to accommodate and dampen those accelerations related to walking. As declines in gait speed are often linked with loss of head control, one suggestion is that the inability to appropriately compensate for gait-related oscillations may, in part, explain why persons with ASD walk slower.


Assuntos
Aceleração , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/fisiopatologia , Marcha/fisiologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Cabeça/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pescoço/fisiologia , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Tronco/fisiologia , Velocidade de Caminhada/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Craniofac Surg ; 31(1): 172-177, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31842074

RESUMO

This retrospective research aimed to highlight the changes of occlusal plane in Class II hyperdivergent subjects that received cervical headgear treatment and compared them to untreated controls in order to evaluate the occlusal changes that might be connected to a potential mandibular rotation.The sample of this investigation was represented by 20 hyperdivergent Class II subjects (10 males, 10 females; mean age 8.54) corrected by using cervical headgear (treated group) and 21 Class II patients (11 males, 10 females; mean age 8.41) hyperdivergent who had no therapy (control group). Lateral head films were studied for all the patients before treatment (T1) and after therapy (T2) for both groups; cephalometric analysis was used in order to seek the modifications between time points and between groups.Means and standard deviation have been computed for both groups. In order to confront the modification between the time points within the same group the Wilcoxon test was applied. The Mann-Whitney U test was applied to confront the dissimilarities between groups at T2.As a result of the Class II correction by using the cervical headgear treatment the occlusal plane was lowered and flattened compared to T1 and to the control group; the upper molars showed extrusion to the palatal plane, there was a significant forward rotation of mandible and the vertical dimension was not significantly modified. Downward and backward displacement of the upper jaw occurred.


Assuntos
Dimensão Vertical , Cefalometria , Criança , Feminino , Cabeça , Humanos , Masculino , Má Oclusão de Angle Classe II/terapia , Pescoço , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rotação , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Técnicas de Movimentação Dentária/métodos
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