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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(3): 659-664, June 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098303

RESUMO

Cephalofacial variables and the body height have priority importance in anthropological researches for a chronological study of the anthropological status of peoples. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the changeability of the cephalofacial variables and stature under the influence of exogenous factors during the over 80 years period-time. The realisation of the goal was done by comparing of some anthropometrical data (stature, 5 cephalofacial measurements and 2 cephalofacial indexes) done on the Albanian male population in three different time-line studies (Coon, 1950; Dhima, 1974-84; Rexhepi et al. 2018; cephalofacial measurements, 1997-2008, and stature, 2007-2017). Regarding the cephalofacial variables, some minor systematic differences were found between three different timeline studies, but without contradictions regarding the group's classification according to the corresponding scale. The major and meaningful differences between the three studies are noted in body height (Coon = 169.71 cm, Dhima=171.61cm; Rexhepi et al.=178.23 cm). The results of this study suggested that the timeline difference over 80 years, with all exogenous factor changes (environment, socioeconomic conditions, health, etc.) has a meaningful impact on body height, while not on the substantial changes on cephalofacial variables.


Las variables cefalofaciales y la altura del cuerpo tienen una importancia mayor en las investigaciones antropológicas para un estudio cronológico del estado antropológico de la población. El objetivo principal de esta investigación fue evaluar la capacidad de cambio de las variables cefalofaciales y la estatura de acuerdo a la influencia de factores exógenos durante un período de más de 80 años. El objetivo se llevó a cabo mediante la comparación de algunos datos antropométricos (estatura, 5 mediciones cefalofaciales y 2 índices cefalofaciales) realizados en la población masculina albanesa en tres estudios de línea de tiempo diferentes (Coon, 1929-30; Dhima, 1974-84; Mediciones cefalofaciales de Rexhepi et al., 1997-2008, y estatura, 2007-2017). Con respecto a las variables cefalofaciales, se encontraron algunas diferencias sistemáticas menores entre tres estudios de línea de tiempo diferentes, pero sin contradicciones con respecto a la clasificación del grupo, según la escala correspondiente. Las diferencias principales y significativas entre los tres estudios se observaron en la altura del cuerpo (Coon = 169,71 cm, Dhima = 171,61 cm; Rexhepi et al. = 178,23 cm). Los resultados de esta investigación sugieren que la diferencia en la línea de tiempo en un periodo de 80 años, junto a todos los cambios de factores exógenos (ambiente, condiciones socioeconómicas, salud, etc.) tienen un impacto significativo en la altura corporal, mientras que esto no ocurre en los cambios de las variables cefalofaciales.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Estatura , Cefalometria/métodos , Cabeça/anatomia & histologia , Antropologia , Fatores de Tempo , Albânia , Face/anatomia & histologia , Kosovo
2.
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi ; 58(4): 290-294, 2020 Apr 02.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32234135

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the reference ranges and influential factors of disturbance coefficient (DC) in children without craniocerebral injury at different ages. Methods: Two hundred children without craniocerebral injury admitted to the Department of Orthopaedics in Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University from May 2018 to October 2019 were enrolled in this prospective study. The children were divided into four groups according to age, 0-1 year, >1-3 years, >3-5 years and >5-16 years, each of which included 50 children. Each child had DC measured twice with the non-invasive dynamic cerebral edema monitor, and the average value was used as the terminal DC value. Each measurement lasted 15 minutes, 12 hours apart. The difference of DC values among the four groups and between different genders were compared with ANOVA test and nonparametric test. And the Loess local weighted nonparametric regression analysis was used to explore the change of DC according to the increase of age, weight and head circumference (HC). Results: The reference values of DC for children of 0-1 year,>1-3 years, >3-5 years, and >5-16 years were 60±14, 92±18, 112±18, 135±18, respectively (F=175.690, P<0.01). There was no statistical significance in DC between male and female children either in the whole or in each separate age group (103 (81, 125) vs. 102 (68, 123) , Z=-0.739, P=0.460; 59 (52, 68) vs. 57 (53, 65) , Z=-0.243, P=0.808; 88 (81, 105) vs. 95 (70, 105) , Z=-0.776, P=0.437; 117 (99, 120) vs. 113 (101, 123) , Z=-0.170, P=0.865; 137 (123, 143) vs. 142 (123, 160) , Z=-1.279, P=0.201). When the child's age was younger than 5 years, weight was less than 18 kg or HC was less than 51 cm, the DC increased significantly with the increase of age, weight or HC. However, when the age, weight and HC were over the above values, the DC did not show obvious increase, but approaching to stable values of 135, 130, and 130, respectively. Conclusions: For children without craniocerebral injury, the reference values of DC are obviously different at different ages. DC is positively related to age, weight and HC, but not related to gender.


Assuntos
Cefalometria , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais , Edema/diagnóstico , Feminino , Cabeça/anatomia & histologia , Hospitalização , Hospitais Pediátricos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
3.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229120, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130246

RESUMO

A remarkable new genus and species of Nemourinae, Sinonemura balangshana gen. et sp. n., is described from Balang Mountains, Sichuan, southwestern China. The description is based on morphology and molecular data. The Nemourinae genera related to the new taxon are re-evaluated on the basis of comparative functional morphology of male epiproct. Notes on the Asian distribution of the Nemourinae are also given.


Assuntos
Insetos/classificação , Neópteros/classificação , Filogenia , Distribuição Animal , Animais , China , Classificação/métodos , Demografia , Feminino , Especiação Genética , Cabeça/anatomia & histologia , Cabeça/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Insetos/anatomia & histologia , Insetos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Neópteros/anatomia & histologia , Neópteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Especificidade da Espécie , Asas de Animais/anatomia & histologia , Asas de Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento
4.
BMC Evol Biol ; 20(1): 4, 2020 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914921

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early Cambrian Lagerstätten from China have greatly enriched our perspective on the early evolution of animals, particularly arthropods. However, recent studies have shown that many of these early fossil arthropods were more derived than previously thought, casting uncertainty on the ancestral euarthropod body plan. In addition, evidence from fossilized neural tissues conflicts with external morphology, in particular regarding the homology of the frontalmost appendage. RESULTS: Here we redescribe the multisegmented megacheirans Fortiforceps and Jianfengia and describe Sklerolibyon maomima gen. et sp. nov., which we place in Jianfengiidae, fam. nov. (in Megacheira, emended). We find that jianfengiids show high morphological diversity among megacheirans, both in trunk ornamentation and head anatomy, which encompasses from 2 to 4 post-frontal appendage pairs. These taxa are also characterized by elongate podomeres likely forming seven-segmented endopods, which were misinterpreted in their original descriptions. Plesiomorphic traits also clarify their connection with more ancestral taxa. The structure and position of the "great appendages" relative to likely sensory antero-medial protrusions, as well as the presence of optic peduncles and sclerites, point to an overall homology with the anterior head of radiodontans. This is confirmed by our Bayesian phylogeny, which places jianfengiids as the basalmost euarthropods, paraphyletic with other megacheirans, and in contiguity with isoxyids and radiodontans. CONCLUSIONS: Sklerolibyon and other jianfengiids expand the disparity of megacheirans and suggest that the common euarthropod ancestor possessed a remarkable phenotypic variability associated with the externalized cephalon, as well as endopods that were already heptopodomerous, which differs from previous hypotheses and observations. These animals also demonstrate that the frontalmost pair of arthrodized appendage is homologous between radiodontans and megacheirans, refuting the claim that the radiodontan frontal appendages evolved into the euarthropod labrum, and questioning its protocerebral identity. This evidence based on external anatomy now constitutes a solid benchmark upon which we should address issues of homology, with the help of carefully examined palaeoneurological data.


Assuntos
Artrópodes/anatomia & histologia , Fósseis , Animais , Artrópodes/classificação , Teorema de Bayes , Evolução Biológica , China , Extremidades/anatomia & histologia , Olho/anatomia & histologia , Cabeça/anatomia & histologia , Filogenia
5.
Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed ; 105(3): 248-252, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31256011

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the predictive value of tidal volume (Vt) of spontaneous breaths at birth in infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: Tertiary neonatal intensive care unit. PATIENTS: Thirty infants with antenatally diagnosed CDH born at Hospital Sant Joan de Déu in Barcelona from September 2013 to September 2015. INTERVENTIONS: Spontaneous breaths and inflations given in the first 10 min after intubation at birth were recorded using respiratory function monitor. Only expired Vt of uninterrupted spontaneous breaths was included for analysis. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis was performed and the area under the curve (AUC) was estimated to assess the predictive accuracy of Vt. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mortality before hospital discharge and chronic lung disease (CLD) at day 28 of life. RESULTS: There were 1.233 uninterrupted spontaneous breaths measured, and the overall mean Vt was 2.8±2.1 mL/kg. A lower Vt was found in infants who died (n=14) compared with survivors (n=16) (1.7±1.6 vs 3.7±2.1 mL/kg; p=0.008). Vt was lower in infants who died during admission or had CLD (n=20) compared with survivors without CLD (n=10) (2.0±1.7 vs 4.3±2.2 mL/kg; p=0.004). ROC analysis showed that Vt ≤2.2 mL/kg predicted mortality with 79% sensitivity and 81% specificity (AUC=0.77, p=0.013). Vt ≤3.4 mL/kg was a good predictor of death or CLD (AUC=0.80, p=0.008) with 85% sensitivity and 70% specificity. CONCLUSION: Vt of spontaneous breaths measured immediately after birth is associated with mortality and CLD. Vt seems to be a reliable predictor but is not an independent predictor after adjustment for observed/expected lung to head ratio and liver position.


Assuntos
Hérnias Diafragmáticas Congênitas/mortalidade , Hérnias Diafragmáticas Congênitas/fisiopatologia , Volume de Ventilação Pulmonar/fisiologia , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Cabeça/anatomia & histologia , Hérnias Diafragmáticas Congênitas/complicações , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Intubação Intratraqueal , Pulmão/anatomia & histologia , Pneumopatias/etiologia , Masculino , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal , Estudos Prospectivos , Curva ROC
6.
J Craniofac Surg ; 31(1): 300-302, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31449229

RESUMO

The posterior auricular nerve (PAN) is the first branch of the facial nerve after it leaves the stylomastoid foramen. The literature describing the anatomy of the PAN is very sparse. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to clarify the detailed anatomical features of the PAN and consider its clinical and surgical applications. The authors examined 10 sides from 6 fresh frozen adult cadaveric Caucasian heads. The PAN was observed as the first branch of the facial nerve in all specimens. During the dissection of the PAN, the posterior auricular artery was constantly near the PAN. Moreover, the PAN was located under the investing layer of deep cervical facia covering the sternocleidomastoid and mastoid process in all specimens. The diameter of the PAN was 0.82 ±â€Š0.21 mm (range from 0.55 to 1.21). The distance from the stylomastoid foramen to where the PAN branched from the facial nerve was 0.40 ±â€Š1.25 mm (range from 0 to 4.35). The distance from the location of this branching point of the PAN to the entering point of the PAN to any muscles was 28.03 ±â€Š5.51 mm (range from 19.71 to 38.75). Understanding the anatomical features of the PAN is essential for performing surgical procedures in this region.


Assuntos
Nervo Facial/anatomia & histologia , Glândula Parótida/anatomia & histologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cadáver , Nervo Facial/cirurgia , Feminino , Cabeça/anatomia & histologia , Humanos , Masculino , Processo Mastoide/anatomia & histologia , Processo Mastoide/cirurgia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pescoço/anatomia & histologia , Músculos do Pescoço/anatomia & histologia , Glândula Parótida/cirurgia , Osso Temporal/anatomia & histologia
7.
Anticancer Res ; 39(12): 6931-6938, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31810964

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Many patients with head-and-neck cancers receive radiotherapy. Treatment planning can be very complex in case of dental fillings or implants that cause metal artefacts. Verification of dose distributions may be performed using specific phantoms. This study aimed to develop a 3D-printed phantom that can be produced easily and cost-effectively. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The phantom was designed to allow fast adaption to a patient's individual situation with a particular focus on metal artefacts due to dental fillings. Bone and soft-tissue shells were 3D-printed and filled with tissue-equivalent materials. RESULTS: Attenuation properties of the tissue-equivalent structures in the phantom corresponded well to the structures of real human anatomy. In magnetic resonance (MR)-imaging, useful signals of the materials in the phantom were obtained. CONCLUSION: The phantom met the requirements including equivalence with human tissues and can be useful for highly individual treatment planning in precision-radiotherapy of head-and-neck cancers. It can be also used for scientific issues related to MR-imaging.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/radioterapia , Cabeça/anatomia & histologia , Restauração Dentária Permanente , Restauração Dentária Temporária , Humanos , Imagens de Fantasmas , Impressão Tridimensional , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador/métodos
8.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 19(1): 223, 2019 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864303

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malnutrition is a common problem among children with chronic liver diseases (CLD). We aimed to assess the nutritional status of children with CLD and to correlate the anthropometric indices with the severity of liver disease, liver function tests, insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25- OH D). METHODS: A total of 69 patients with CLD and 50 healthy controls (6 months - 6 years) were included in the study. Nutritional status was assessed by anthropometric indices expressed in standard deviation score (Z score), biochemical, hematological and clinical parameters. RESULTS: We found 52.2% of CLD patients underweight by weight for age (W/A); 50.2% were stunted by height for age/ length for age (HAZ or LAZ); and 39% exhibited wasting by weight/height or (length) for age (W/HZ or W/LZ) z scores analysis. The mean values of z scores for all anthropometric parameters were significantly correlated with unconjugated and conjugated bilirubin and INR (p < 0.05), except HAZ or LAZ. Also, a significant correlation to albumin was found, except for W/HZ or (W/LZ) (p = 0.157). The z scores < - 2 SD based on W/ H versus arm indicators showed significant differences in MUAC, UAA and AMA (p < 0.001). We found no correlation between anthropometric z-scores and the mean IGF-1 and (25- OH D) values (p > 0.05). Malnutrition was directly correlated with the severity of hepatic dysfunction, particularly, Child-Pugh C cases. The mean IGF-1 and (25- OH D) values were significantly correlated with the severity of liver disease (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our results identified anthropometric arm indicators and MUAC/A measurements as an effective applied methods for assessing nutritional status in CLD children. Moreover, Integrating comprehensive clinical assessment, anthropometric measurements and objective biochemical analyses is essential for evaluation, follow-up and management of CLD children with variable degree of malnutrition.


Assuntos
Hepatopatias/complicações , Desnutrição/diagnóstico , Avaliação Nutricional , Fatores Etários , Braço/anatomia & histologia , Estatura , Peso Corporal , Proteínas de Transporte/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doença Crônica , Estudos Transversais , Egito , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento/sangue , Transtornos do Crescimento/diagnóstico , Cabeça/anatomia & histologia , Humanos , Lactente , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/análise , Hepatopatias/sangue , Testes de Função Hepática , Masculino , Desnutrição/sangue , Desnutrição/etiologia , Albumina Sérica/análise , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Pregas Cutâneas , Magreza/sangue , Magreza/diagnóstico , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Vitamina D/sangue , Síndrome de Emaciação/sangue , Síndrome de Emaciação/diagnóstico
9.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(4): 1353-1360, Dec. 2019. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040137

RESUMO

The myodural bridge (MDB) is confirmed that connecting the most of suboccipital muscles to the cervical dura mater through the posterior intervertebral spaces and widely exists in mammals and birds. In order to reveal whether the MDB is universally existing in amniota of vertebrates, we explored the existence and the morphological features of the MDB in the Trachemys scripta elegans. Twenty fresh red-eared slider specimens were observed by the gross anatomy dissection and histological analysis. In the results, three kind of muscles in the postoccipital region of the red-eared slider were found. The rectus capitis dorsum minor muscle originated from the posterior margin of the occiput (C0) and terminated at the spinous process of the atlas (C1). The transversospinales muscle was attached to the vertebral arch and the postzygapophysis of the atlas and extended to the spinous process of the axis (C2). The C2-C3 intertransversales muscle were extended from the postzygapophysis of C2 and the one of C3. The three muscles covered the dorsal interspaces among C0-C3, and meantime they were closely connected with dense connective tissues, which filled in these interspaces. Each of these thick dense connective tissue membranes sent off several short and strong fibrous bundles ventrally to merge with the cervical spinal dura mater. Furthermore the connective tissues connecting these muscles with cervical spinal dura mater directly were revealed under the microscopy and they consisted of parallel and intensive collagen fibers with orientation from dorsal to ventral. In conclusion, this study for the first time demonstrated the existence of the MDB in the testudines, in all of the dorsal atlantooccipital, atlantoaxial and C2-C3 intervertebral spaces. Based on our results and comparative anatomical evidences in recent year, it could be inferred that the MDB might be its highly conserved structure in the evolution of amniota.


Se confirma que el puente miodural (PMD) conecta la mayoría de los músculos suboccipitales con la duramadre cervical a través de los espacios intervertebrales posteriores y existe ampliamente en mamíferos y aves. Para revelar si el MDB existe universalmente en la amniota de vertebrados, exploramos la existencia y las características morfológicas del PMD en Trachemys scripta elegans. Veinte muestras se observaron mediante disección anatómica y análisis histológico. En los resultados, se encontraron tres tipos de músculos en la región occipital. El músculo recto capitis dorsum minor se originó en el margen posterior del occipital (C0) y terminó en el proceso espinoso del atlas (C1). El músculo transverso espinal se unió al arco vertebral y el proceso del atlas y se extendió al proceso espinoso del axis (C2). El músculo intertransversario C2-C3 se extendió entre los procesos transversos de C2 y el de C3. Los tres músculos cubrían los espacios intermedios dorsales entre C0-C3 y, mientras tanto, estaban estrechamente conectados con tejidos conectivos densos, que rellenaban estos espacios. Cada una de estas membranas densas de tejido conectivo envían varios haces fibrosos cortos y fuertes ventralmente para fusionarse con la duramadre espinal cervical. Además, los tejidos conectivos que conectan estos músculos con la duramadre cervical y espinal se revelaron directamente bajo microscopía y consistían en intensas fibras de colágeno, paralelas, con orientación desde dorsal a ventral. En conclusión, este estudio demostró por primera vez la existencia del PMD en los estudios de prueba, en todos los espacios dorsales atlantooccipital, atlantoaxial e intervertebral C2-C3. Sobre la base de nuestros resultados y las evidencias anatómicas comparativas de los últimos años, se podría inferir que el PMD podría ser una estructura altamente conservada en la evolución de la amniota.


Assuntos
Animais , Tartarugas/anatomia & histologia , Dura-Máter/anatomia & histologia , Evolução Biológica , Cabeça/anatomia & histologia , Pescoço/anatomia & histologia
10.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0222399, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31751344

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal physical and mental health during pregnancy are key determinants of birth outcomes. There are relatively few prospective data that integrate physical and mental maternal health measures with birth outcomes in low- and middle-income country settings. We aimed to investigate maternal health during pregnancy and the impact on birth outcomes in an African birth cohort study, the Drakenstein Child Health Study. METHODS: Pregnant women attending 2 public health clinics, Mbekweni (serving a predominantly black African population) and TC Newman (predominantly mixed ancestry) in a poor peri-urban area of South Africa were enrolled in their second trimester and followed through childbirth. All births occurred at a single public hospital. Maternal sociodemographic, physical and psychosocial characteristics were comprehensively assessed. Multivariable linear regression models were used to explore associations between maternal health and birth outcomes. RESULTS: Over 3 years, 1137 women (median age 25.8 years; 21% HIV-infected) gave birth to 1143 live babies. Most pregnancies were uncomplicated but gestational diabetes (1%), anaemia (22%) or pre-eclampsia (2%) occurred in a minority. Most households (87%) had a monthly income of less than USD 350; only 27% of moms were employed and food insecurity was common (37%). Most babies (80%) were born by vaginal delivery at full term; 17% were preterm, predominantly late preterm. Only 74 (7%) of babies required hospitalisation immediately after birth and only 2 babies were HIV-infected. Food insecurity, socioeconomic status, pregnancy-associated hypertension, pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes and mixed ancestry were associated with lower infant gestational age while maternal BMI at enrolment was associated with higher infant gestational age. Primigravida or alcohol use during pregnancy were negatively associated with infant birth weight and head circumference. Maternal BMI at enrolment was positively associated with birth weight and gestational diabetes was positively associated with birth weight and head circumference for gestational age. Smoking during pregnancy was associated with lower infant birth weight. CONCLUSION: Several modifiable risk factors including food insecurity, smoking, and alcohol consumption during pregnancy were identified as associated with negative birth outcomes, all of which are amenable to public health interventions. Interventions to address key exposures influencing birth outcomes are needed to improve maternal and child health in low-middle income country settings.


Assuntos
Saúde Materna , Resultado da Gravidez , Adulto , Peso ao Nascer , Feminino , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Cabeça/anatomia & histologia , Cabeça/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Tamanho do Órgão , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(21)2019 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684116

RESUMO

Car operation requires advanced brain function. Currently, evaluation of the motor vehicle driving ability of people with higher brain dysfunction is medically unknown and there are few evaluation criteria. The increase in accidents by elderly drivers is a social problem in Japan, and a method to evaluate whether elderly people can drive a car is needed. Under these circumstances, a system to evaluate brain dysfunction and driving ability of elderly people is needed. Gaze estimation research is a rapidly developing field. In this paper, we propose the gaze calculation method by eye and head angles. We used the eye tracking device (TalkEyeLite) made by Takei Scientific Instruments Cooperation. For our image processing technique, we estimated the head angle using the template matching method. By using the eye tracking device and the head angle estimate, we built a system that can be used during actual on-road car operation. In order to evaluate our proposed method, we tested the system on Japanese drivers during on-road driving evaluations at a driving school. The subjects were one instructor of the car driving school and eight general drivers (three 40-50 years old and five people over 60 years old). We compared the gaze range of the eight general subjects and the instructor. As a result, we confirmed that one male in his 40s and one elderly driver had narrower gaze ranges.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Automóveis , Olho/anatomia & histologia , Fixação Ocular/fisiologia , Cabeça/anatomia & histologia , Adulto , Idoso , Calibragem , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
12.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0224245, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644568

RESUMO

An understanding of species' morphological and physiological parameters is crucial to developing conservation strategies for wild animals kept in human care. Detailed information is lacking for crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous) eyes and adnexa. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe anatomical, histological and computed tomography (CT) features of the eye and adnexa in crab-eating fox, compared to domestic dogs. CT of the eye and adnexa of one live animal and a frozen specimen was performed for anatomical identification. In addition, the heads of five animals of each species were fixed in 10% buffered formalin for gross anatomical description of the eye and adnexa using topographic dissection and exenteration techniques. All steps were photographed and features such as location, shape, and distances and relationships between structures were described. For histological evaluation, two eyes of each species were fixed in 10% buffered formalin, processed by routine paraffin inclusion technique and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The CT scan was difficult to evaluate, mainly that of the frozen head, which did not provide good definition of the soft tissues; nevertheless, it demonstrated the potential for structure visualization and description. The gross anatomical and histological evaluations showed the presence of eyelashes on the upper eyelid and of upper and lower lacrimal points, an incomplete orbit with supraorbital ligament, slightly exposed sclera with discretely pigmented limbus and pigmentation throughout the conjunctiva, and a slit-shaped pupil. Hematoxylin and eosin staining demonstrated structural similarities between the crab-eating fox and domestic dog. Thus, the possibility of using the domestic dog as a study model for the preventive and therapeutic management of wild dogs kept in human care is demonstrated.


Assuntos
Olho/anatomia & histologia , Cabeça/anatomia & histologia , Músculos Oculomotores/anatomia & histologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Animais , Animais Domésticos , Cães , Olho/diagnóstico por imagem , Raposas , Cabeça/diagnóstico por imagem , Cabeça/fisiologia , Músculos Oculomotores/diagnóstico por imagem , Músculos Oculomotores/fisiologia
13.
Sci Adv ; 5(9): eaax2742, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31535026

RESUMO

High-performance suction feeding is often presented as a classic innovation of ray-finned fishes, likely contributing to their remarkable evolutionary success, whereas sharks, with seemingly less sophisticated jaws, are generally portrayed as morphologically conservative throughout their history. Here, using a combination of computational modeling, physical modeling, and quantitative three-dimensional motion simulation, we analyze the cranial skeleton of one of the earliest known stem elasmobranchs, Tristychius arcuatus from the Middle Mississippian of Scotland. The feeding apparatus is revealed as highly derived, capable of substantial oral expansion, and with clear potential for high-performance suction feeding some 50 million years before the earliest osteichthyan equivalent. This exceptional jaw performance is not apparent from standard measures of ecomorphospace using two-dimensional data. Tristychius signals the emergence of entirely new chondrichthyan ecomorphologies in the aftermath of the end-Devonian extinction and highlights sharks as significant innovators in the early radiation of the modern vertebrate biota.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Cabeça/fisiologia , Arcada Osseodentária/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Tubarões/fisiologia , Comportamento de Sucção/fisiologia , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Cabeça/anatomia & histologia , Arcada Osseodentária/anatomia & histologia , Músculo Esquelético/anatomia & histologia , Tubarões/anatomia & histologia
14.
J Clin Neurophysiol ; 36(5): 345-348, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490452

RESUMO

The montages in clinical EEG recordings in neonates, infants, and children follow some basic principles of adolescent or adult EEG recordings; however, special considerations are needed to obtain optimal diagnostic yield in pediatric patients. The aim of this review is to summarize the pediatric montages recommended in clinical practice in the standard clinical neurophysiology laboratory and in special situations.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia/instrumentação , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Cabeça/anatomia & histologia , Cabeça/fisiologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Couro Cabeludo/anatomia & histologia , Couro Cabeludo/fisiologia
15.
J Nepal Health Res Counc ; 17(2): 168-172, 2019 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455929

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal pillow height for the best laryngoscopic view in adult patients scheduled for elective surgery under general anaesthesia. METHODS: 150 adult patients undergoing surgery under general anaesthesia with endotracheal intubation with no features suggestive of difficult airway were enrolled for the study. After induction of anaesthesia the assessment of direct laryngoscopic views was done at head positions without a pillow and with non-compressible pillows of heights 5cm and 10cm. RESULTS: The laryngoscopic view with the 5cm pillow was significantly superior to other head position (p<0.01). The incidence of difficult laryngoscopy (Cormack and Lehane grade III) was 32.7% without a pillow which improved to (Cormack and Lehane grade III) 4% with 10cm pillow and there were no cases of difficult laryngoscopy with 5cm pillow. CONCLUSIONS: The use of 5cm pillow in the 'sniffing' position obtains the best laryngoscopic view during direct laryngoscopy.


Assuntos
Roupas de Cama, Mesa e Banho , Cabeça/anatomia & histologia , Laringoscopia , Posicionamento do Paciente , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Anestesia Geral , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos , Feminino , Humanos , Intubação Intratraqueal , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
16.
Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica ; 36(2): 222-230, 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31460633

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES.: To determine the ratio of microcephaly in newborns in level II and III health facilities of the Ministry of Health (MINSA) of Peru for the period 2005-2013. MATERIALS AND METHODS.: A secondary analysis of the databases of the Perinatal Information System was carried out during 2005-2013. Microcephaly was identified applying World Health Organization (WHO), Fenton, mixed (WHO-Fenton), and proportionality criteria. The ratios and indices of microcephaly were estimated per 10,000 live births (LB) by region and concordance was compared, using the WHO parameter as a reference. RESULTS.: The ratio of microcephaly during 2005 to 2013 was 3.4%, the average rate of microcephaly was 335 per 10,000 LBs according to the WHO criterion. The mixed parameter showed a substantial concordance (Kappa of 0.635), while the proportionality parameter showed a reasonable concordance (Kappa of 0.298). CONCLUSIONS.: The ratio of microcephaly in MINSA Level II and III health facilities was higher than that reported in other countries in the region before the appearance of Zika in the Americas. The frequency variations observed with those of other countries and among Peruvian regions could be explained by different factors, such as the technique for measuring head circumference, data capture, constitutional factors, and social determinants. We suggest standardizing measurements and their recording, harmonizing diagnostic criteria, and establishing health strategies to strengthen the epidemiological surveillance of the causes of microcephaly.


Assuntos
Microcefalia/epidemiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Cabeça/anatomia & histologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Peru/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Adulto Jovem
17.
BMC Evol Biol ; 19(1): 165, 2019 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387545

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Artiopodan euarthropods represent common and abundant faunal components in sites with exceptional preservation during the Cambrian. The Chengjiang biota in South China contains numerous taxa that are exclusively known from this deposit, and thus offer a unique perspective on euarthropod diversity during the early Cambrian. One such endemic taxon is the non-trilobite artiopodan Sinoburius lunaris, which has been known for approximately three decades, but few details of its anatomy are well understood due to its rarity within the Chengjiang, as well as technical limitations for the study of these fossils. Furthermore, the available material does not provide clear information on the ventral organization of this animal, obscuring our understanding of phylogenetically significant details such as the appendages. RESULTS: We employed X-ray computed tomography to study the non-biomineralized morphology of Sinoburius lunaris. Due to the replacement of the delicate anatomy with pyrite typical of Chengjiang fossils, computed tomography reveals substantial details of the ventral anatomy of Sinoburius lunaris, and allow us to observe in detail the three-dimensionally preserved appendicular organization of this taxon for the first time. The dorsal exoskeleton consists of a crescent-shaped head shield with well-developed genal spines, a thorax with seven freely articulating tergites, and a fused pygidium with lateral and median spines. The head bears a pair of ventral stalked eyes that are accommodated by dorsal exoskeletal bulges, and an oval elongate ventral hypostome. The appendicular organization of the head is unique among Artiopoda. The deutocerebral antennae are reduced, consisting of only five podomeres, and bear an antennal scale on the second podomere that most likely represents an exite rather than a true ramus. The head includes four post-antennal biramous limb pairs. The first two biramous appendages are differentiated from the rest. The first appendage pair consists of a greatly reduced endopod coupled with a greatly elongated exopod with a potentially sensorial function. The second appendage pair carries a more conventionally sized endopod, but also has an enlarged exopod. The remaining biramous appendages are homonomous in their construction, but decrease in size towards the posterior end of the body. They consist of a basipodite with ridge-like crescentic endites, an endopod with seven podomeres and a terminal claw, and a lamellae-bearing exopod with a slender shaft. Contrary to previous reports, we confirm the presence of segmental mismatch in Sinoburius lunaris, expressed as diplotergites in the thorax. Maximum parsimony and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses support the monophyly of Xandarellida within Artiopoda, and illuminate the internal relationships within this enigmatic clade. Our results allow us to propose a transformation series explaining the origin of archetypical xandarellid characters, such as the evolution of eye slits in Xandarella spectaculum and Phytophilaspis pergamena as derivates from the anterolateral notches in the head shield observed in Cindarella eucalla and Luohuilinella species. In this context, Sinoburius lunaris is found to feature several derived characters within the group, such as the secondary loss of eye slits and a high degree of appendicular tagmosis. Contrary to previous findings, our analyses strongly support close affinities between Sinoburius lunaris, Xandarella spectaculum and Phytophilaspis pergamena, although the precise relationships between these taxa are sensitive to different methodologies. CONCLUSIONS: The revised morphology of Sinoburius lunaris, made possible through the use of computed tomography to resolve details of its three-dimensionally preserved appendicular anatomy, contributes towards an improved understanding of the morphology of this taxon and the evolution of Xandarellida more broadly. Our results indicate that Sinoburius lunaris possesses an unprecedented degree of appendicular tagmosis otherwise unknown within Artiopoda, with the implication that this iconic group of Palaeozoic euarthropods likely had a more complex ecology and functional morphology than previously considered. The application of computer tomographic techniques to the study of Chengjiang euarthropods holds exceptional promise for understanding the morphological diversity of these organisms, and also better reconstructing their phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary history.


Assuntos
Artrópodes/anatomia & histologia , Artrópodes/classificação , Evolução Biológica , Fósseis , Animais , Artrópodes/genética , Teorema de Bayes , Biota , China , Extremidades/anatomia & histologia , Cabeça/anatomia & histologia , Filogenia , Tórax/anatomia & histologia
18.
Integr Comp Biol ; 59(5): 1382-1398, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31397852

RESUMO

Grasshoppers, Melanoplus sanguinipes (Orthoptera: Acrididae), develop larger head width (HW) and shorter leg length, relative to body size, when fed low nutrient, lignin-rich grasses compared to sibs fed a diet of high nutrient grasses. To elucidate how underlying genetic variation and plasticity of growth generate plasticity of this linear static allometry within coarse-grained environments, I measured head and leg size of three nymphal instars and adult grasshoppers raised on either a low or high nutrient diet within a half-sib quantitative genetic experiment. Doubly-multivariate repeated measures multiple analysis of variance (MANOVA) of head, mandible, and hind leg size and their rate of growth (mm/period) and growth period (days) through ontogeny were used to analyze how the ontogeny of diet-induced plasticity for these variables and additive genetic variation for plasticity (genotype × environment interaction [G×E]) contribute to plasticity in functional linear static allometry. Genetic variation for diet-induced plasticity (G×E) of head and leg size varied through ontogeny, as did genetic variation for plasticity of growth in third and fourth instar nymphs. Despite extensive genetic variation in plasticity of HW and leg length in fourth instar nymphs, the static allometry between head and leg was stable within each diet because the patterns of G×E were similar for HW, leg length and their coordinated growth. Nutrient sensitive plasticity in growth shifted the intercept but not the slope of static allometry, a result consistent with one outcome of a graphical model of the relationships between G× E and plasticity of within environment static allometry. In addition, G×E of fourth instar head and leg size was reduced in adults by negatively size-dependent, convergent growth in the last period of ontogeny. Consequently, the bivariate reaction norms of head and leg size for adults exhibited no G×E and, again, plasticity in the intercept but not in the slope of static allometry. The ontogeny of seemingly simple diet-induced linear static allometry between functional body parts in grasshoppers arises from a complex combination of differing patterns of nutrient-sensitive growth, duration of growth, convergent growth, and G×E, all relevant to understanding the development and evolution of functional allometry in hemimetabolous insects.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Dieta , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Gafanhotos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Extremidades/anatomia & histologia , Extremidades/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Gafanhotos/anatomia & histologia , Gafanhotos/genética , Cabeça/anatomia & histologia , Cabeça/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Ninfa/anatomia & histologia , Ninfa/genética , Ninfa/crescimento & desenvolvimento
19.
Neuroimage ; 201: 116039, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31369809

RESUMO

For accurate EEG forward solutions, it is necessary to apply numerical methods that allow to take into account the realistic geometry of the subject's head. A commonly used method to solve this task is the finite element method (FEM). Different approaches have been developed to obtain EEG forward solutions for dipolar sources with the FEM. The St. Venant approach is frequently applied, since its high numerical accuracy and stability as well as its computational efficiency was demonstrated in multiple comparison studies. In this manuscript, we propose a variation of the St. Venant approach, the multipole approach, to improve the numerical accuracy of the St. Venant approach even further and to allow for the simulation of additional source scenarios, such as quadrupolar sources. Exploiting the multipole expansion of electric fields, we demonstrate that the newly proposed multipole approach achieves even higher numerical accuracies than the St. Venant approach in both multi-layer sphere and realistic head models. Additionally, we exemplarily show that the multipole approach allows to not only simulate dipolar but also quadrupolar sources.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia , Análise de Elementos Finitos , Cabeça/anatomia & histologia , Modelos Anatômicos , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
20.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 40(15): 4357-4369, 2019 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31294909

RESUMO

Optically pumped magnetometers (OPMs) have reached sensitivity levels that make them viable portable alternatives to traditional superconducting technology for magnetoencephalography (MEG). OPMs do not require cryogenic cooling and can therefore be placed directly on the scalp surface. Unlike cryogenic systems, based on a well-characterised fixed arrays essentially linear in applied flux, OPM devices, based on different physical principles, present new modelling challenges. Here, we outline an empirical Bayesian framework that can be used to compare between and optimise sensor arrays. We perturb the sensor geometry (via simulation) and with analytic model comparison methods estimate the true sensor geometry. The width of these perturbation curves allows us to compare different MEG systems. We test this technique using simulated and real data from SQUID and OPM recordings using head-casts and scanner-casts. Finally, we show that given knowledge of underlying brain anatomy, it is possible to estimate the true sensor geometry from the OPM data themselves using a model comparison framework. This implies that the requirement for accurate knowledge of the sensor positions and orientations a priori may be relaxed. As this procedure uses the cortical manifold as spatial support there is no co-registration procedure or reliance on scalp landmarks.


Assuntos
Magnetometria/instrumentação , Modelos Teóricos , Algoritmos , Teorema de Bayes , Simulação por Computador , Estimulação Elétrica , Desenho de Equipamento , Potenciais Somatossensoriais Evocados/fisiologia , Cabeça/anatomia & histologia , Humanos , Funções Verossimilhança , Magnetoencefalografia/instrumentação , Magnetometria/métodos , Magnetometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Manequins , Cadeias de Markov , Nervo Mediano/fisiologia , Dispositivos Ópticos
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