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1.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 32(5): 529-530, 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33185068

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the endemic situation of schistosomiasis in a national surveillance site of Yangzhong City, so as to provide the scientific evidence for adjusting the local schistosomiasis control strategy and consolidating the control achievements. METHODS: According to the National Schistosomiasis Surveillance Scheme (2014 version), the snail status, Schistosoma japonicum infections in humans and livestock and wild feces contamination were monitored in Zhinan Village, a national schistosomiasis surveillance site in Yangzhong City from 2015 to 2018. RESULTS: Theareasofsnailhabitatsreducedfrom 8.10 hm2 in 2015 to 2.72 hm2 in 2018, and the mean density of living snails decreased from 0.27 snails/0.1 m2 in 2015 to 0.07 snails/0.1 m2 in 2018 in Zhinan Village; however, no S. japonicum infections were identified in snails during the period from 2015 to 2018. Serological testing for S. japonicum infections was performed in 2 034 local populations and 858 mobile populations from 2015 to 2018, and the sero-prevalence of S. japonicum human infections was 0.59% to 1.98%, with no egg-positives detected. A total of 79 goats were detected for S. japonicum infections from 2015 to 2018, and no egg-positives were found. In addition, no other livestock was found in Zhinan Village from 2015 to 2018, and no wild feces were found in snail habitats. CONCLUSIONS: A great success has been achieved in schistosomiasis control in Yangzhong City; however, there are still snails breeding in the city. Monitoring of the risk factors pertaining to schistosomiasis transmission should be further intensified to consolidate the control achievements.


Assuntos
Esquistossomose Japônica , Esquistossomose , Caramujos/parasitologia , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Doenças Endêmicas , Cabras/parasitologia , Humanos , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/veterinária
2.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(4): e003620, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053053

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii and anti-Neospora caninum antibodies and their associated factors among goats in farms from the Paraná state, South Brazil. The serological analysis was performed by indirect ELISA on 629 goat serum samples collected from 32 farms distributed in five mesorregions from the state. Seropositivity was observed in 30.7% of the animals for T. gondii, 6.3% for N. caninum, and 3.0% for both agents. Final multiple regression models showed that the use of assisted reproduction decreased the chance of seropositivity for T. gondii (PR=0.70) and the slaughtering site on the farm (PR=2.03) increased it. To N. caninum, the supplying concentrated feed to animals (OR=4.80) and animal pre-weaning death (OR=9.96) increased the chance of seropositivity. The variables associated with these seropositivities suggest deficiencies in sanitation and reproductive management. In addition, it recognizes critical points of infection for animal production management.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Coccidiose , Cabras/parasitologia , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/diagnóstico , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Neospora/imunologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/diagnóstico , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia
3.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(4): e005920, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053054

RESUMO

A severe outbreak of diarrhea associated with poor growth was reported in ten newly weaned goat kids that originated from a research farm (Group A). Two of these kids underwent necropsy examination. Five goat kids of the same age maintained in the same pen showed no clinical signs (Group B). The clinical, gross pathological and histopathological features of the clinically sick animals were consistent with severe coccidiosis. Group A animals had significantly lower levels of serum vitamin B12 (<200 pg/ml) compared with group B animals (2000 pg/ml). In addition, kids belonging to group A had significantly higher Eimeria arloingi oocysts per gram (OPG) of faeces (101,400/g) compared with kids of group B (9,154/g). Microscopy and molecular tools (18S rRNA and COI genes) confirmed that the goat kids were infected with the caprine protozoan parasite E. arloingi. This study provides a definitive association between low levels of serum vitamin B12 and clinical E. arloingi infection, and also provides support to our previous studies that demonstrated how low levels of serum vitamin B12 leads to an impairment of neutrophil function and thereby potential lowered immunity to pathogens.


Assuntos
Coccidiose , Eimeria , Doenças das Cabras , Cabras/parasitologia , Deficiência de Vitamina B 12 , Animais , Coccidiose/diagnóstico , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Fezes , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Deficiência de Vitamina B 12/veterinária
4.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(9): e0008735, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32986738

RESUMO

Innovative approaches used to combat Chagas disease transmission tend to combine a set of comprehensive efforts to understand the ecology of local vectors. In this work we identified molecularly the blood meal of 181 Triatoma brasiliensis, distributed in 18 populations (8 sylvatic and 10 peridomestic), which were collected across a range of 240 km (East-West) and 95 km (North-South) in the semi-arid region of northeastern, Brazil. We used the vertebrate mitochondrial gene (cytochrome B) sequencing applied to DNA isolated from bug midgut to identify the insect blood meal sources via the BLAST procedure. The peridomestic populations were classified according to two main hypotheses of site-occupancy for T. brasiliensis: the first says that the infestation is mainly driven by structures that resemble its natural habitat (stony-like ecotopes) and the second assumes that it is associated with key-hosts (rodents and goats). Rodents of the Caviidae family (Galea spixii and Kerodon rupestris) were identified as the key-host of T. brasiliensis, but also the potential Trypanosoma cruzi reservoir-able to connect the sylvatic and domestic T. cruzi cycle. Cats also deserve to be studied better, as potential T. cruzi reservoirs. By modeling the food sources + site-occupancy + T. cruzi natural infection, we identified man-made ecotopes suitable for forming dense triatomine infestations with high rates of T. cruzi natural infection, which may be taken into account for vector control measures.


Assuntos
Ecótipo , Triatoma/fisiologia , Triatoma/parasitologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Brasil , Gatos/parasitologia , Doença de Chagas/transmissão , Citocromos b/genética , Reservatórios de Doenças , Comportamento Alimentar , Cabras/parasitologia , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Roedores/parasitologia
5.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 32(4): 380-383, 2020 Aug 24.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935512

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the genetic variation of Eurytrema pancreaticum isolated from goats in Huaihua City, Hunan Province. METHODS: The partial sequence of mitochondrial cytochrome I (pcox1) and ribosomal 18S rRNA genes were amplified using a PCR assay in E. pancreaticum isolates from goats in Huaihua City, Hunan Province, and the PCR amplification products were sequenced. Then, the gene sequences were subjected to genetic variation and phylogenetic analyses. RESULTS: The sequences of the pcox1 and 18S rRNA genes were 430 bp and 1 857 bp in length in 18 E. pancreaticum isolates from goats in Huaihua City, Hunan Province, and there were 14 and 35 variation sites in pcox1 and 18S rRNA gene sequences, with intra-species genetic variations of 0 to 1.4% and 0 to 0.8%, respectively. The sequences of pcox1 and 18S rRNA genes had 99.0% to 99.8% and 99.5% to 99.8% homologies with those from E. pancreaticum Chinese strain recorded in the GenBank database. Consistent phylogenetic analysis results were found based on pcox1 and 18S rRNA genes. The 18 E. pancreaticum isolates from goats in Huaihua City were clustered into a clade with the known E. pancreaticum isolates registered in GenBank, and the clade with these 18 E. pancreaticum isolates was close to the clades with Eurytrema species and far from the clades with other trematodes. CONCLUSIONS: The E. pancreaticum isolates from goats have a low genetic variation in Huaihua City, Hunan Province. Mitochondrial pcox1 and ribosomal 18S rRNA genes may serve as molecular markers for the studies on the genetic variation in goat-derived E. pancreaticum.


Assuntos
Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons , Variação Genética , Cabras , RNA Ribossômico 18S , Trematódeos , Animais , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Cabras/parasitologia , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Homologia de Sequência do Ácido Nucleico , Trematódeos/classificação , Trematódeos/genética , Trematódeos/isolamento & purificação
6.
Parasitol Res ; 119(12): 4151-4158, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32715343

RESUMO

This study was designed to evaluate the effects of Babesia ovis infection on concentrations of some essential acute phase proteins (APPs) including albumin, fibrinogen, serum amyloid A, haptoglobin, and ceruloplasmin as well as total, protein-binding, and lipid-binding sialic acids (TSA, PBSA, and LBSA) and two crucial cytokines including interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Some hematological parameters also were evaluated. Furthermore, any probable correlation among the APPs, SAs, IFN-γ, and TNF-α was calculated. A total of 420 Marghoz and Raeini goats with the ages of 1-3 years old from the north and northwest of Iran were examined, and 17 goats confirmed to be infected with B. ovis by both routine microscopic examination of blood films and molecular assays. As the control, 17 healthy goats were included. The results revealed a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in erythrocyte count, hemoglobin level, and pack cell volume as well as a nonsignificant increase in white blood cell count in the diseased animals compared with the control. Additionally, all the APPs, SAs, and cytokines were remarkably higher in the infected animals than the uninfected ones, except for albumin, which was significantly lower. Moreover, a strong and positive correlation was detected among the parameters mentioned above, except for albumin, which was inversely correlated with the other parameters. In conclusion, B. ovis infection is associated with the induction of severe inflammatory reactions in goats, and both SA and APP are significantly involved in the pathophysiology of the disease.


Assuntos
Proteínas da Fase Aguda/análise , Babesiose/sangue , Citocinas/sangue , Doenças das Cabras/sangue , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Animais , Babesia , Biomarcadores/análise , Biomarcadores/sangue , Contagem de Eritrócitos , Cabras/parasitologia , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/patologia , Interferon gama/sangue , Irã (Geográfico) , Ovinos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue
7.
Parasitol Res ; 119(9): 2813-2819, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32583163

RESUMO

Cryptosporidium is an opportunistic protozoan parasite that can inhabit in the gastrointestinal tract of various hosts. Cryptosporidium infection in black-boned goats and black-boned sheep may pose a threat to the survival and productivity, causing considerable economic losses to the livestock industry. However, it is yet to know whether black-boned goats and black-boned sheep in China are infected with Cryptosporidium. Thus, the objective of the present study was to investigate the prevalence and associated risk factors of Cryptosporidium infection in black-boned goats and black-boned sheep in Yunnan province, China. A total of 590 fecal samples were obtained from black-boned goats and black-boned sheep from five counties in Yunnan province, and the prevalence and species distribution of Cryptosporidium were determined by amplification of the 18S rDNA fragment using the nested PCR. The overall Cryptosporidium prevalence was 13.2% (78/590), with 18.0% (55/305) in black-boned goats and 8.1% (23/285) in black-boned sheep. The age and sampling site were identified as main factors that result in significant differences in Cryptosporidium prevalence. Three species, namely C. muris, C. xiaoi, and C. ubiquitum, were identified in black-boned goats and black-boned sheep in the present study, with C. muris (46/78) as the predominant species. This is the first report of Cryptosporidium infection in black-boned goats and black-boned sheep in China, and the findings will facilitate better understanding, prevention, and control of Cryptosporidium infection in black-boned goats and black-boned sheep in China.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/classificação , Cryptosporidium/genética , Fezes/parasitologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Cabras/parasitologia , Prevalência , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Fatores de Risco , Ovinos/parasitologia
8.
Parasitol Res ; 119(8): 2539-2548, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32562068

RESUMO

Strongylida are gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) of greatest importance in small ruminants throughout the world. Differences in resistance and resilience to GIN among goat breeds were reported. This study aims to investigate the mechanism underlying the breed-associated differences using a cosmopolitan (Alpine, AB) and an autochthonous (Nera di Verzasca, NV) goat breed. At first, fifteen goats from the same herd (NV = 7, AB = 8) at day 0 were infected with infective larvae (L3) of mixed GIN. From the 15th day post-infection (DPI), individual parasite egg excretion (faecal egg counts, FEC) was performed on all goats, once per week, until the 63rd DPI. Afterwards, in goats under field conditions (30 AB and 30 NV reared on the same farm), individual faecal and blood samples were collected; FEC-specific antibody and PCV levels were explored. In goats with experimental GIN infection, mean eggs per gram of faeces (EPG) values were consistently lower in NV goats. In goats with natural GIN infection, EPG and prevalence values showed high variability in both breeds; among individual variables, breed had a significant influence on EPG. Further, PCV and anti-T. circumcincta IgA levels were influenced by the breed. Lower PCV values were also associated with higher strongyle EPG in AB goats, and anti-T. circumcincta IgA levels were influenced by both strongyle EPG and breed, with IgA levels being higher in AB vs. NV goats and positively associated with EPG. Neither EPG nor breed had any influence on IgE levels. Both studies on experimental and natural infection confirmed that goats of NV are more resistant to infection with gastrointestinal nematodes.


Assuntos
Gastroenteropatias/veterinária , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária , Animais , Formação de Anticorpos , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/sangue , Gastroenteropatias/parasitologia , Doenças das Cabras/sangue , Cabras/classificação , Cabras/imunologia , Cabras/parasitologia , Masculino , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Especificidade da Espécie , Infecções por Strongylida/sangue , Infecções por Strongylida/parasitologia
9.
Parasite ; 27: 28, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32351208

RESUMO

Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is now routinely used for the rapid identification of microorganisms isolated from clinical samples and has been recently successfully applied to the identification of arthropods. In the present study, this proteomics tool was used to identify lice collected from livestock and poultry in Algeria. The MALDI-TOF MS spectra of 408 adult specimens were measured for 14 species, including Bovicola bovis, B. ovis, B. caprae, Haematopinus eurysternus, Linognathus africanus, L. vituli, Solenopotes capillatus, Menacanthus stramineus, Menopon gallinae, Chelopistes meleagridis, Goniocotes gallinae, Goniodes gigas, Lipeurus caponis and laboratory reared Pediculus humanus corporis. Good quality spectra were obtained for 305 samples. Spectral analysis revealed intra-species reproducibility and inter-species specificity that were consistent with the morphological classification. A blind test of 248 specimens was performed against the in-lab database upgraded with new spectra and validated using molecular tools. With identification percentages ranging from 76% to 100% alongside high identification scores (mean = 2.115), this study proposes MALDI-TOF MS as an effective tool for discriminating lice species.


Assuntos
Infestações por Piolhos/veterinária , Gado/parasitologia , Ftirápteros/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/veterinária , Argélia , Animais , Anoplura/química , Anoplura/classificação , Bovinos/parasitologia , Galinhas/parasitologia , Cabras/parasitologia , Ftirápteros/classificação , Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Proteômica , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Ovinos/parasitologia
10.
Parasite ; 27: 38, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32425155

RESUMO

Coccidiosis is of great economic importance in many farm animals. This study involved analysis of 280 faecal samples collected from 12 traditional goat farms from Nay Pyi Taw area, Myanmar. Faecal samples were examined by the flotation method and concentrated oocysts were identified on the basis of morphological characters. Of 280 faecal samples examined, 168 (60.0%) were positive for Eimeria oocysts. Three different Eimeria species were identified and their positive detection rates in the herd were: E. arloingi (25.4%), followed by E. hirci (20.7%) and E. christenseni (13.9%). Identifications were confirmed by 18S rDNA and COI sequences. 18S rDNA sequences showed 100% homology with, respectively, E. christenseni reported from Australia, E. arloingi reported from Australia and Iran, and E. hirci from Australia. COI sequences of E. christenseni, E. hirci, and E. arloingi, respectively, exhibited 98.9%, 98.4%, and 98.5% similarities with those reported from Australia. This is the first report of Eimeria infection in Myanmar goats.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Eimeria/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/parasitologia , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras/parasitologia , Animais , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Estudos Transversais , Eimeria/classificação , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Feminino , Masculino , Mianmar , Oocistos/classificação , Oocistos/isolamento & purificação , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética
11.
Korean J Parasitol ; 58(2): 121-127, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32418380

RESUMO

Pakistan is at intersection of hyperendemic regions for hydatidosis. Current study aimed to determine the prevalence of hydatid cysts and cyst characteristics in different intermediate hosts (sheep, goats, cattle and buffaloes) across the 4 provinces of Pakistan. A total of 991 sheep, 1,478 goats, 1,602 cattle and 1,343 buffaloes were examined for presence of hydatid cysts during 2 years (January 2016-December 2018). Differences in frequency of hydatidosis were observed with highest overall prevalence in buffaloes (11.9%) and sheep (11.5%). Highest prevalence and burden of infection were observed in older age animals (23.8%, 9.78±0.49) and females (26.5%, 12.53±0.67). Data for seasonal prevalence alluded to year-round presence of disease with non-significant statistical difference. Organ predilection indicated liver as the most preferred site of cyst localization followed mainly by lungs. An over-dispersion pattern was observed in all infected animals as majority of cysts belonged <10 cysts per infected host category. Highest percentage of fertile cysts was observed in liver of sheep. Interestingly, solitary form of cysts had higher fertility rate than multiple form. Amid lack of data and wide gap of knowledge, this study would try to fill up the lacunae regarding this neglected tropical disease. Extensive rearing of livestock, unregulated official slaughter and home slaughtering have played role in adaptability of E. granulosus in Pakistan.


Assuntos
Búfalos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Bovinos/parasitologia , Equinococose/epidemiologia , Equinococose/veterinária , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Cabras/parasitologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Ovinos/parasitologia , Animais , Equinococose/parasitologia , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Prevalência
12.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 172, 2020 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32312285

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In sub-Saharan Africa, Amblyomma ticks are vectors of heartwater disease in domestic ruminants, caused by the rickettsial pathogen Ehrlichia ruminantium. Immature tick stages often bite humans, whereby they act as vectors of tick-bite fever caused by Rickettsia africae. Moreover, Amblyomma ticks cause damage to livestock due to their feeding behaviour. In South Africa, we studied the abundance of Amblyomma hebraeum ticks on goats of emerging farmers in Mpumalanga Province. A selected number of A. hebraeum nymphs and adult ticks was tested for co-infection with E. ruminantium and R. africae. METHODS: A total of 630 indigenous goats, belonging to farmers in the Mnisi Community area, were examined for ticks in 2013 and 2014. All ticks were identified, and a selected number was tested by PCR with reverse line blot hybridisation. RESULTS: In total, 13,132 ticks were collected from goats distributed over 17 different households. Amblyomma hebraeum was the predominant species, followed by R. microplus. Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, R. simus and R. zambeziensis were also identified. Amblyomma hebraeum was present throughout the year, with peak activity of adults in summer (November) and nymphs in winter (July). The ratio between adults and nymphs ranged from 1:2.7 in summer to 1:55.1 in winter. The mean prevalence of infection for E. ruminantium by PCR/RLB in adult ticks was 17.4% (31/178), whereas 15.7% (28/178) were infected with R. africae. In pooled nymphs, 28.4% were infected with E. ruminantium and 38.8% carried R. africae infection. Co-infections of E. ruminantium and R. africae in adult and pooled nymphal ticks were 3.9% (7/178) and 10% (14.9), respectively. Lameness of goats due to predilection of ticks for the interdigital space of their feet was observed in 89% of the households. CONCLUSIONS: Goats act as important alternative hosts for cattle ticks, which underscored the necessity to include goats in control programs. It is suggested to use acaricide-impregnated leg-bands as a sustainable method to kill ticks and prevent lameness in goats. The challenge of goats by considerable numbers of E. ruminantium-infected ticks is a major obstacle for upgrading the indigenous goat breeds. Humans may be at risk to contract tick-bite fever in this area.


Assuntos
/microbiologia , Vetores Artrópodes/microbiologia , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Cabras/parasitologia , Infecções por Rickettsia/veterinária , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Animais , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Ehrlichia ruminantium/patogenicidade , Fazendas , Geografia , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/microbiologia , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Ninfa/microbiologia , Rickettsia/patogenicidade , Infecções por Rickettsia/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Rickettsia/transmissão , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/epidemiologia
13.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 154, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32228657

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Methyltransferases (MTFs) are broad range of enzymes, which are ubiquitously expressed in diverse organisms ranging from bacteria to animals. MTFs proteins have been associated with various biological/cellular processes including transcriptional regulation, subcellular protein and RNA localization, signal transduction and DNA-damage repair. However, the role of MTFs in immune mechanism during host-parasite interaction has not been addressed yet. RESULTS: An open reading frame (764 bp) of methyltransferase-type 12 gene of H. contortus denoted as HcMTF-12, was successfully cloned using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) followed by prokaryotic expression in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3 strain). The recombinant HcMTF-12 protein (rHcMTF-12) was about 47 kDa along with a fusion vector protein of 18 kDa. Immunoblot results identified the native protein MTF-12 with antibodies produced in rats against rHcMT-12, whereas rHcMTF-12 protein was recognized with sera of goat experimentally infected with H. contortus. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the native MTF-12 protein was mainly located in the periphery (cuticle) of parasite sections as well as within the pharynx and intestinal region. An immunofluorescence assay validated that rHcMTF-12 attached to the surface of goat PBMCs. Furthermore, the cytokines transcription of IL-2, IFN-γ and IL-4 transcripts of PBMCs incubated with rHcMTF-12 were enhanced in a dose-dependent manner. The secretion of TGF-ß1 and IL-10 was significantly decreased. However, IL-6 production was not significantly different as compared to the control groups. Moreover, the migration activity and nitric oxide (NO) production by PBMCs were induced considerably, whereas the proliferation of PBMCs cells was negatively affected when incubated with the rHcMTF-12 protein. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that HcMTF-12 significantly mediated the functions of PBMCs, and it might be a potential candidate for therapeutic interventions against haemonchosis.


Assuntos
Cabras/parasitologia , Haemonchus/enzimologia , Haemonchus/genética , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Metiltransferases/genética , Metiltransferases/imunologia , Metiltransferases/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/sangue , Proliferação de Células , Clonagem Molecular , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Escherichia coli/genética , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Hemoncose/parasitologia , Hemoncose/veterinária , Proteínas de Helminto/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/imunologia , Masculino , Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Alinhamento de Sequência , Análise de Sequência de Proteína
14.
Parasitol Int ; 77: 102105, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32179135

RESUMO

Anthelmintic resistance (AR) against gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) of sheep and goats is a global concern. To address the problem, this study assessed the status of AR in different government and private sheep and goat farms in Bangladesh. We conducted fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) and Egg hatch assay (EHA) experiments. For the detection of resistant larvae, pooled fecal samples from treated and non-treated groups were subjected to coproculture. Furthermore, 195 adult Haemonchus parasites were genotyped to ascertain benzimidazole (BZ) resistance allele from seven topographic zones of Bangladesh using allele specific PCR (AS-PCR). In FECRT, the percentage reduction along with 95% confidence intervals indicated that GINs were resistant to albendazole (ABZ), levamisole (LEV) and ivermectin (IVM). Coproculture revealed that Haemonchus spp., Oesophagostomum spp. and Trichostrongylus spp. were resistant to anthelmintics. ABZ resistance was also confirmed by in vitro EHA in all the farms except the private goat farm in Mymensingh. The genotype frequencies were 6% for homozygous resistant (rr), 59% for heterozygous (rS) and 35% for homozygous susceptible (SS) among different topographic zones. The allelic frequency of the mutation conferring resistance (r) ranged from 25% to 47% signifying resistance to BZ in nematodes of sheep/goats. The genotype frequencies (rr, rS and SS) and allelic frequencies (r and S) varied significantly (p˂0.05) in different zones in Bangladesh. Overall, the data suggest an alarming condition created by multiple AR in Bangladesh.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Nematoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Ruminantes/parasitologia , Alelos , Animais , Bangladesh , Fazendas , Fezes/parasitologia , Doenças das Cabras/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras/parasitologia , Haemonchus/efeitos dos fármacos , Haemonchus/genética , Nematoides/classificação , Oesophagostomum/efeitos dos fármacos , Oesophagostomum/genética , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas , Ovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Trichostrongylus/efeitos dos fármacos , Trichostrongylus/genética
15.
Ann Parasitol ; 66(1): 3-12, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32198990

RESUMO

Parasites are transferred between domestic and wild animals, when host animals come in contact with each other, particularly while grazing the same pastures, or when using same water bodies for drinking. Chances of parasite transmission and adaptation are high when hosts are genetically related. Afghan urial (Ovis vignei blanfordi), Suleiman markhor (Capra falconeri jerdoni) and Chiltan wild goat (C. aegagrus chialtanensis) are wild kin of domestic sheep and goats, sharing numerous parasitic diseases with each other. The present study was conducted in 2014­2015, to determine parasitic infections of Suleiman markhor and Afghan urial of Torghar Game Reserve, and the endemic wild goat of Chiltan National Park. For comparison, parasites of domestic small ruminants of these areas were also studied. A total of 11 species of helminth and 20 species of protozoa were recorded. Highly prevalent helminth among wild ruminants were Trichuris spp., Nematodirus spp., Protostrongylus rufescens and Moniezia benedeni, while highly prevalent Eimeria were E. arloingi and E. ninakohlyakimovae in caprines and E. ovinoidalis in urial. Chiltan wild goats were also found infected with Entamoeba spp. A short tabulated review of the helminth and protozoan parasites of wild sheep and goats of Pakistan, India, Iran and Turkey has been presented.


Assuntos
Doenças das Cabras , Cabras/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal , Parasitos , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais , Animais , Eucariotos/classificação , Eucariotos/isolamento & purificação , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Helmintos/classificação , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Índia , Irã (Geográfico) , Paquistão , Parasitos/classificação , Parasitos/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia
16.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 151, 2020 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32204731

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: RNA interference (RNAi) is an important tool to determine the role of genes. RNAi has been widely used to downregulate target molecules, resulting in the reduction of mRNA for protein expression. Matrix metalloprotease 12A (MMP-12) is known to have important roles during embryonic development, organ morphogenesis and pathological processes in animals. However, MMP-12 from Haemonchus contortus has not been characterized. METHODS: Haemonchus contortus MMP-12 gene was cloned and recombinant protein of MMP-12 (rHc-MMP-12) was expressed. Binding activities of rHc-MMP-12 to goat peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were assessed by immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and the immuno-regulatory effects of rHc-MMP-12 on cell proliferation and nitric oxide production were observed by co-incubation of rHc-MMP-12 with goat PBMCs. Furthermore, a soaking method was used to knockdown the expression of Hc-MMP12 gene using three siRNA, targeting different regions of the gene and infectivity of effective siRNA on the development of H. contortus was evaluated in goat. RESULTS: rHc-MMP-12 was successfully expressed in an expression vector as well as the tissues of the cuticle of adult H. contortus worms and a successful binding with PBMCs surface were observed. Increased cellular proliferation and nitric oxide production by goat PBMCs was observed in a dose-dependent manner. Quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) results confirmed the successful silencing of Hc-MMP-12 gene in siRNA of 1, 2 and 3 treated third-stage larvae (L3) of H. contortus in vitro. The most efficient qRT-PCR-identified siRNA template was siRNA-2, with a 69% suppression rate compared to the control groups. Moreover, in an in vivo study, silencing of the Hc-MMP-12 gene by siRNA-2 reduced the number of eggs (54.02%), hatchability (16.84%) and worm burden (51.47%) as compared to snRNA-treated control group. In addition, a shorter length of worms in siRNA-2-treated group was observed as compared to control groups. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that siRNA-mediated silencing of Hc-MMP-12 gene in H. contortus significantly reduce the egg counts, larval hatchability, and adult worm counts and sizes. The findings of the present study demonstrate important roles of Hc-MMP-12 in the development of H. contortus.


Assuntos
Hemoncose/parasitologia , Haemonchus/enzimologia , Haemonchus/genética , Metaloproteinase 12 da Matriz/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno , Animais , Proliferação de Células , China , Feminino , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Cabras/parasitologia , Haemonchus/patogenicidade , Proteínas de Helminto/genética , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Masculino , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Interferência de RNA , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Análise de Sequência
17.
Parasite Immunol ; 42(6): e12707, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32118305

RESUMO

AIMS: Most breeds of goat are more susceptible to nematode infection than sheep, and this appears to be a consequence of less effective immune responses. Several papers have considered the effectiveness of eosinophils and immunoglobulin A (IgA) in goats but differences in the induction of responses have not been studied in the same detail. The aim of this study was to look at the induction of eosinophil and IgA responses in Boer goats reared indoors under intensive conditions. METHODS AND RESULTS: The goats were experimentally infected with a low dose of 2400 Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus spp. and Oesophagostomum spp. at a 6:1:1 ratio. Faecal egg counts (FEC), packed cell volume (PCV), IgA activity against third-stage larvae and peripheral eosinophilia were measured twice a week for eight weeks. The infection generated an IgA response but did not significantly increase peripheral eosinophilia in the 25 infected kids compared with the 4 control animals. FEC was not associated with IgA activity or eosinophilia. CONCLUSION: A detailed analysis of IgA and eosinophil responses to deliberate nematode infection in Boer goats showed that there was an increase in nematode-specific IgA activity but no detectable eosinophil response. In addition, there was no association between increased IgA activity or eosinophilia with egg counts and worm burdens. These suggest that IgA and eosinophils do not act to control nematode infection in goats.


Assuntos
Eosinofilia/imunologia , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras/imunologia , Hemoncose/veterinária , Haemonchus/imunologia , Imunoglobulina A/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/imunologia , Eosinofilia/parasitologia , Eosinófilos/imunologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Doenças das Cabras/imunologia , Cabras/parasitologia , Hemoncose/imunologia , Hemoncose/parasitologia , Hematócrito/veterinária , Contagem de Leucócitos , Masculino , Oesophagostomum/imunologia , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Trichostrongylus/imunologia
18.
Vet Microbiol ; 242: 108607, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32122611

RESUMO

Parasitic infections are associated with profound changes in the structure and function of the gut microbiome in various host-parasite systems. Here we examined the microbial composition and function in the abomasum, proximal colon and feces of Haemonchus contortus-infected goats after a partial anthelmintic drug clearance. A single-dose treatment of H. contortus-infected goats with Cydectin (moxidectin) resulted in an 83.9 % and 61.8 % reduction in fecal egg counts (EPG) and worm burden, respectively (P < 0.01), and restored abomasal pH to a normal baseline level. The treatment significantly increased the abundance of Proteobacteria, particularly that of Campylobacter, in the proximal colon. It also significantly affected several basic pathways, including bacterial secretion, butyrate metabolism, and LPS biosynthesis, and seemingly reduced the cellulolytic capacity in the colon. Several network modules displayed a strong correlation with EPG and worm burden. The Mantel test indicated a strong correlation between treatment related network topologies of the operational taxonomic units (OTU) belonging to Actinobacteria and Rikenellaceae and EPG and worm burden levels, respectively. Furthermore, microbial signatures that may better predict anthelmintic efficacy were identified. A signature or balance represented by the log ratio of the abundance of Verrucomicrobiaceae and Camplyobacteraceae had a strong correlation with EPG (r = 0.80). These novel insights into the interactions between H. contortus and gut microbiome in the caprine host and the consequence of a partial anthelmintic clearance on animal health and well-being may facilitate the design of more effective next-generation anthelmintics.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças das Cabras/tratamento farmacológico , Hemoncose/veterinária , Macrolídeos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo/microbiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras/parasitologia , Hemoncose/tratamento farmacológico , Haemonchus , Masculino , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Carga Parasitária/veterinária , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0228184, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995591

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The existing diagnostic techniques for detecting schistosomiasis turkestanica, such as aetiological assays, identify infection by parasitic worms via the incubation of miracidia from faeces or observing eggs under microscopy. However, they are limited in the diagnosis of low-grade and prepatent infections, which lead to a high misdetection rates. Therefore, a new method for parasite diagnosis with increased sensitivity is urgently needed. METHODS: Goats in Nimu County (Tibet, China) infected with Schistosoma turkestanicum in an epidemic area were selected according positivity for the infection by faecal examination. Adult worms were collected, eggs were extracted by the sodium hydroxide (NaOH) erosion method, and soluble worm antigen preparation (SWAP) and soluble egg antigen (SEA) were isolated. The best coating concentration of the antigens and the best degree of dilution for serum were determined by square array experiments, and the optimal blocking solution and serum diluents were selected. The specificity, sensitivity and crossover of the ELISA method were determined using 48 samples of goat sera positive for S. turkestanicum, 100 samples of goat sera negative for S. turkestanicum, and 54 samples of buffalo sera positive for S. japonicum. Serological assays were established with samples from goats naturally grazed in a rural area of Nimu County, Tibet Province, by using the indirect ELISA method for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis, and faeces were collected for miracidia hatching. The sensitivity of the two detection methods was compared. RESULTS: Eggs of S. turkestanicum were distributed in the host duodenum and small intestine. Eggs in the host intestinal wall were extracted by the NaOH erosion method, which provided intact eggs with reduced impurities. The testing results obtained by isolating SEA were more stable than those obtained by using SWAP and less affected by the coating concentration and serum dilution. Additionally, the value of positive serum/negative (P/N) serum for SEA was much higher than that for SWAP. The optimal coating concentration of SEA was 0.5 µg/ml, and the optimal serum dilution was 1:100. The specificity and sensitivity of the indirect ELISA based on SEA (S. turkestanicum) were both 100%, and no cross-reactivity was found with schistosomiasis japonica. An epidemiological survey of goats in naturally infected areas showed that the prevalence rate of schistosomiasis turkestanica was 93%, and the infection rate increased with the ages of the goats. CONCLUSION: We aimed to develop a sensitive method to utilize in the mass field screening of livestock. As a diagnostic antigen, SEA (S. turkestanicum) was more suitable for serological testing than SWAP (S. turkestanicum). The indirect ELISA using SEA (S. turkestanicum) exhibited good sensitivity, specificity and no cross-reactivity with schistosomiasis japonica. The degree of infectivity and prevalence of S. turkestanicum infection in endemic areas are serious and should be a focus of concern among local departments.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Helmintos/imunologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Schistosoma , Esquistossomose/veterinária , Testes Sorológicos/veterinária , Animais , Reações Cruzadas/imunologia , Doenças das Cabras/diagnóstico , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras/parasitologia , Óvulo/imunologia , Schistosoma/imunologia , Schistosoma japonicum/imunologia , Esquistossomose/diagnóstico , Esquistossomose/imunologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Tibet
20.
Parasitol Int ; 76: 102060, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31962194

RESUMO

The consumption of ovine and caprine meat is considered one of the major transmission routes for Toxoplasma gondii infection in humans. The present study aimed at obtaining epidemiological and molecular data on T. gondii infection in small ruminants slaughtered or commercialized in Italy. Meat juices from 227 sheep and 51 goats were analyzed with a commercial ELISA and antibodies were detected in 28.6% sheep and 27.5% goats. A significant difference was highlighted between adult sheep and the other considered categories (young sheep, young and adult goats) concerning the detection of antibodies (94.1%; p-value = .008). Muscles of positives samples were submitted to molecular analysis, and T. gondii DNA was detected in 15 sheep and three goats; sequencing of B1 gene showed that all belonged to Type II. The present study confirmed small ruminants' meat as a possible source of T. gondii infection for consumers eating raw or undercooked meat, particularly in those countries where the consumption of sheep and goats' meat products is a traditional gastronomic habit.


Assuntos
Ruminantes/parasitologia , Sorologia , Toxoplasma/genética , Matadouros , Animais , Genótipo , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras/parasitologia , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Músculos/parasitologia , Carne Vermelha/parasitologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Ovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/transmissão
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