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1.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 405, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416471

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sarcoptic mange is a broadly distributed parasitic disease caused by Sarcoptes scabiei that affects wild mammals from all over the world, including the Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica). Selective culling of the scabietic individuals is the main management measure for disease control in Iberian ibex populations. Although visual identification of mange-compatible lesions is the reference method to decide the target individual, both false negative and positive cases are common in the wild. The aim of this work is to determine the sensitivity (SE), and the specificity (SP) of selective culling after evaluating 403 ibexes hunted in the Sierra Nevada Nature Space for sarcoptic mange control between 2002 and 2015. METHODS: A combination of skin scrapings and potassium hidroxide (KOH) skin digestion was used for sarcoptic mange diagnosis. Generalized linear models (GLM) were used to assess the effects of sex, age (juveniles and adults) and period of the year (wet and dry periods) on the SE and SP of the visual diagnosis method. RESULTS: The SE obtained for the visual determination of scabietic ibexes was 87.14%, whereas the SP was 60.71%. According to our model selection, SE of the visual diagnosis was explained by the additive effects of age and the period of the year. In fact, SE was lower in juveniles (64.76%) than in adults (94.26%) and during the dry period (73.44%) as compared to the wet period (92.09%). On the other hand, SP was best explained by the GLM including the additive effects of sex and the period of the year. The visual diagnosis of sarcoptic mange resulted less specific in females (22.73%) than in males (74.19%) and during the wet (55.22%) than in the dry period (82.35%). CONCLUSIONS: Maximizing SE and SP is essential to achieving a high rate of removal of affected individuals from the environment without eliminating potentially resistant individuals. Selective culling must be conservative during the wet period and with females due to the lower SP. Conversely, visual diagnosis of scabietic juveniles and during the dry period has to be improved, due to the lower SE.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Doenças das Cabras/diagnóstico , Cabras/parasitologia , Escabiose/veterinária , Pele/patologia , Animais , Clima , Feminino , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Masculino , Sarcoptes scabiei , Escabiose/diagnóstico , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Fatores Sexuais , Pele/parasitologia , Espanha
2.
Parasitol Res ; 118(9): 2735-2740, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375956

RESUMO

Knowledge about vector-borne pathogens important for human and veterinary medicine in wild ruminants in Tyrol (Austria) is scarce. Blood samples from Alpine ibex (Capra ibex; n = 44), Alpine chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra; n = 21), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus; n = 18) and red deer (Cervus elaphus; n = 6) were collected over a period of 4 years (2015-2018) in four regions in North Tyrol, with a primary focus on the Kaunertal. Blood spots on filter paper were tested for the presence of DNA of vector-borne pathogens (Anaplasmataceae, Piroplasmida, Rickettsia and filarioid helminths). Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia capreoli were detected in two of 89 (2.3%) blood samples. Rickettsia spp., Theileria spp. and filarioid helminths were not documented. One Alpine chamois was positive for A. phagocytophilum and B. capreoli. Moreover, an ibex from the Kaunertal region was positive for A. phagocytophilum. While the ibex was a kid less than 1 year old, the chamois was an adult individual. Further research is recommended to evaluate effects of climate change on infection rates of North Tyrolean wild ruminants by these pathogens and the distribution of their vectors.


Assuntos
Anaplasma phagocytophilum/isolamento & purificação , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Babesia/isolamento & purificação , Rickettsia/isolamento & purificação , Ruminantes/microbiologia , Ruminantes/parasitologia , Theileria/isolamento & purificação , Anaplasma phagocytophilum/classificação , Anaplasma phagocytophilum/genética , Animais , Áustria , Babesia/classificação , Babesia/genética , Cervos/microbiologia , Cervos/parasitologia , Vetores de Doenças , Cabras/microbiologia , Cabras/parasitologia , Rickettsia/classificação , Rickettsia/genética , Rupicapra/microbiologia , Rupicapra/parasitologia , Theileria/classificação , Theileria/genética
3.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(3): 479-488, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390436

RESUMO

This study documented the first outbreak of cerebral coenurosis in goats in Salalah, southern Oman. Deaths of 130 (16.6%) adult native goats in a herd (n=780) were reported from January to June 2017. Affected goats showed various nervous signs ended by death. Investigations for thiamine deficiency, polioencephalomalacia, caprine arthritis encephalitis, and listeriosis were negative. Upon necropsy, multiple (1-4) thin-walled cysts 2-3.5 cm in diameter containing clear fluid with numerous clusters of protoscolices in the cerebrum and cerebellum had replaced the brain parenchyma, causing space-occupying lesions. Parasitologically, the recovered cysts were Coenurus cerebralis, based on the arrangement of protoscolices, and the number and size of their hooks. Morphologically, each protoscolex had four suckers and a rostellum with double-crown hooks. The large and small hooks were 157.7±0.5 µm and 115±0.6 µm in length, respectively. Histopathologically, the parasite destroyed the affected tissues associated with multifocal to diffuse lymphocytic, non-suppurative meningoencephalitis; ischemic neuronal necrosis; and malacia. This is the first report of cerebral coenurosis in livestock in Oman, which should alert the local public health authorities for the application of prevention and control measures.


Assuntos
Cabras/parasitologia , Neurocisticercose/veterinária , Taenia/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Masculino , Neurocisticercose/epidemiologia , Neurocisticercose/patologia , Omã/epidemiologia
4.
Vet Parasitol ; 271: 64-67, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303206

RESUMO

The present study aimed to evaluate the viability of Haemonchus placei parasitism in experimentally infected goats. For that, 14 75 days old kids male Saanen kids were placed in one of the four experimental groups: GI - infected with 5000 H. placei L3 (n = 4); GII - infected with 5000 H. contortus L3 (n = 4); GIII - infected with 2500 H. contortus L3 + 2500 H. placei L3 (n = 4), and GIV - control, inoculated with distilled water (n = 2). Each kid received, orally, the infective dose in a single inoculum. Based on daily fecal egg counts, the average pre-patent period was determined as 24 days for H. contortus, and 31 days for H. placei. Regarding the Haemonchus spp. recovered at necropsy, the experimental groups GI, GII, and GIII had, respectively, an average of 25.5, 619.5, and 724.75 (120 H. placei, and 604.75 H. contortus) adult specimens, and no immature forms. Under the conditions of this study, the viability of goat infection by H. placei was confirmed, although, with low susceptibility. Nevertheless, the parasitism of this helminth species was more intense when associated with H. contortus. This fact indicates that in common grazing between cattle and young goats, when the latter end up ingesting both Haemonhcus species, especially in a mixed infection, H. placei may also parasitize them.


Assuntos
Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Hemoncose/veterinária , Haemonchus/fisiologia , Animais , Coinfecção , Fezes/parasitologia , Cabras/parasitologia , Hemoncose/parasitologia , Masculino , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas
5.
J Immunoassay Immunochem ; 40(5): 495-501, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31317821

RESUMO

Toxoplasmosis, caused by T. gondii, is an important zoonosis worldwide. In Ghana, information on the disease in humans abounds but scanty in animals. This study was therefore conducted to estimate the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection sheep and goats sampled from the Kumasi Abattoir in Ashanti Region, Ghana. A total of 347 serum samples collected from 170 sheep and 177 goats were analyzed for the presence of T. gondii antibodies using a commercial ELISA kit. Results of this study estimated the seroprevalence of 23.7% in goats an, 35.9% in sheep. In sheep, 24 (35.82%) out of a total of 67 male samples were positive and 37 (35.92%) out of a total of 104 female samples were positive while in goats, 6 (8.2%) bucks out of a total of 73 were positive while 36 (34.6%) does out of a total of 104 were positive. There was a significant difference in the rate of seropositivity of female goats (p-value 0.01). This study confirms the existence of T. gondii infection in small ruminants in Ghana and it showed that sheep and dogs are more at risk to T. gondii infection hence meat from such animals could be a potential risk to public health if consumed raw or undercooked.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/imunologia , Cabras/imunologia , Cabras/parasitologia , Ovinos/imunologia , Ovinos/parasitologia , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Gana , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
6.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 346, 2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300017

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oestrosis, caused by the larvae of Oestrus ovis, commonly known as sheep nose bot, is an obligatory cavitary myiasis of sheep and goats. Oestrus ovis is a widespread parasite, but little is known about the prevalence of oestrosis at the global and broad geographical levels. The present study aimed to explore the epidemiology of oestrosis at the global and regional level to estimate prevalences and their associated factors using a systematic approach. This is, to the author's knowledge, the first meta-analysis of oestrosis in sheep and goats. METHODS: Published articles were obtained from nine electronic databases (PubMed, CAB Abstracts, Web of Science, Scopus, UCB library, Medline, Biosis Citation Index, Indian journals and Google Scholar) reporting the prevalence of O. ovis in sheep and goats from 1970 to 2018. Pooled prevalences were estimated using a random effect meta-analysis model. RESULTS: Sixty-six studies were eligible, and data from 40,870 sheep and 18,216 goats were used for quantitative analysis. The random effect estimated prevalence of oestrosis at the global level in sheep was 51.15% (95% CI: 42.80-59.51%) and in goats was 42.19% (95% CI: 33.43-50.95%). The pooled prevalence estimates for Africa, Asia, Europe and the Americas were 47.85% (95% CI: 36.04-59.66%), 44.48% (95% CI: 33.09-55.87%), 56.83% (95% CI: 48.92-64.74%) and 34.46% (95% CI: 19.90-49.01%), respectively. Heterogeneity (I2 > 80%) was detected in most pooled estimates. CONCLUSIONS: Oestrosis is highly prevalent in many geographical regions of the world, especially in Europe and Africa. Factors that contribute to the pooled prevalence estimate of oestrosis need to be emphasised in any survey to estimate the true prevalence of oestrosis. Furthermore, there is a need for immunisation or implementation of other preventive measures to reduce the burden of oestrosis in sheep and goats and to improve the health and welfare status.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Ectoparasitoses/veterinária , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Miíase/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Animais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Ectoparasitoses/epidemiologia , Feminino , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras/parasitologia , Larva , Masculino , Miíase/epidemiologia , Nariz/parasitologia , Prevalência , Estações do Ano , Ovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia
7.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 65: 116-123, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300099

RESUMO

Fasciolosis is a re-emerging disease of livestock and rarely human, being endemic in Iran. Herein, we aimed to quantitatively assess the human seropositivity and prevalence of animal fasciolosis in our country. English and Persian databases were searched for online literature. In total, 10 human seroprevalence studies and 49 animal investigations were obtained from January 1999 to March 2019. Only animal studies were included in meta-analysis. The highest human seroprevalence was detected in Guilan province (326/452; 50%). The pooled prevalence of the animal infections was calculated as 6.2% (95% CI = 5.8%-6.5%). In detail, the prevalence ranges in three hosts included as 4.2% (95% CI = 3.8%-4.5%) in sheep, 9% (95% CI = 8.0%-9.9%) in cattle and 3.1% (95% CI = 2.4%-3.7%) in goat. The highest prevalence rate was observed in the north, 11.8% (95% CI = 8.4%-15.1%), while the lowest prevalence was detected in the central Iran with 1.8% (95% CI = 1.3%-2.3%). Egger's regression test revealed no significant publication bias (P = 0.307). Also, there was no remarkable correlation between weighted prevalence and sample size (P = 0.249) as well as year of study (P = 0.172). These findings would be necessary for better preventive strategies in case of human and animal Fasciola infections as well as snail intermediate hosts.


Assuntos
Fasciolíase/epidemiologia , Gado/parasitologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/parasitologia , Animais , Bovinos/parasitologia , Cabras/parasitologia , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Ovinos/parasitologia
8.
Parasitol Res ; 118(9): 2583-2590, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278516

RESUMO

Cystic echinococcosis (CE), the parasitic disease caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.), is a global public health problem. In Mongolia, despite wide distribution of human CE, not enough information is available on the prevalence and molecular characterization of CE in livestock and its zoonotic linkage with human cases. We investigated the distribution of human CE cases and livestock population using statistical models to get insight into the zoonotic linkage. The incidence of human CE cases increased by a factor of 1.71 for one interquartile range increment in the density of the camel population. No significant association was observed with other livestock species. The samples collected from 96 camels and 15 goats in an endemic region showed a CE prevalence of 19.7% and 6.7%, respectively. All livestock CE were E. granulosus s.l. G6/G7 species of the E. granulosus s.l. complex. The genetic diversity was investigated using the haplotype network based on full cox1 gene analysis of the samples collected from livestock CE and nucleotide sequences previously reported from human CE and wild canids infection in Mongolia. Four haplotypes were identified within the livestock samples, two of which had not been previously reported. A common haplotype was identified among humans, camels, goats, and a wolf, all of which were within the same geographical area. A mixed infection of E. granulosus s.l. G6/G7 with different haplotypes in the intermediate host was identified. To the best of our knowledge, this is the most comprehensive description of the current epidemiological situation of CE in Mongolia with substantial evidence that camels might be the main intermediate host of E. granulosus s.l. G6/G7 in Mongolia. Moreover, our result presents the first report in the country to provide insight into the prevalence of E. granulosus s.l. G6/G7 in livestock.


Assuntos
Camelus/parasitologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Equinococose/parasitologia , Equinococose/transmissão , Echinococcus granulosus/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Camelus/fisiologia , Canidae/parasitologia , Echinococcus granulosus/classificação , Echinococcus granulosus/genética , Genótipo , Cabras/parasitologia , Haplótipos , Humanos , Gado/parasitologia , Mongólia , Zoonoses/parasitologia , Zoonoses/transmissão
9.
Korean J Parasitol ; 57(3): 319-324, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284358

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the tick species and give background for tick-borne investigations in Korea. Ticks were collected from the area within 2 km radius of the 4 domestic animal farms, where they were located in mountainous areas and raising animals on pasture, and from animal bodies in 2014 and 2015. In total, 7,973 nymphal and adult ticks were collected from the farms - 7,758 Haemaphysalis longicornis, 198 Haemaphysalis flava, and 17 Ixodes nipponensis, and 1,763 were collected from animals - 729 H. longicornis from cattle; 569 H. longicornis from goats; and 297 H. longicornis, 118 H. flava, 1 I. nipponensis, and 49 Amblyomma testudinarium from wild boars. As more species of ticks were collected from wild boars than domesticated animals and their habitats, various animal hosts should be considered while investigating tick species.


Assuntos
Bovinos/parasitologia , Cabras/parasitologia , Ixodidae/classificação , Sus scrofa/parasitologia , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Animais , Animais Domésticos/parasitologia , Feminino , Ixodidae/genética , Ixodidae/fisiologia , Masculino , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/epidemiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/parasitologia
10.
Vet Res ; 50(1): 42, 2019 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164173

RESUMO

Haemonchus contortus (H. contortus) has evolved sophisticated evasion mechanisms to ensure their survival, including generating excretion and secretion products (ESPs) to regulate the secretion of host cytokines. Interleukin 4 (IL4) is a classic T-helper cell type 2 (Th2)-type cytokine that plays an irreplaceable role against nematode infection. In this study, three proteins, glutathione S-transferase domain containing protein (HcGST), transthyretin domain containing protein (HcTTR) and calponin actin-binding domain containing protein (HcCab), were identified to bind to goat IL4 by co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) assays and yeast two-hybrid screening. Additionally, cell proliferation analysis showed that HcTTR blocked the IL4-induced proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in goats, while HcGST and HcCab did not. In addition, HcTTR could also downregulate the transcription of candidate genes in the IL4-induced JAK/STAT pathway. These results indicated that HcTTR is a novel antagonist against goat IL4 from HcESPs, and this information could improve our understanding of the relationship between host cytokines and parasite infections.


Assuntos
Regulação para Baixo/genética , Cabras/fisiologia , Haemonchus/genética , Proteínas de Helminto/genética , Interleucina-4/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores de Albumina/genética , Animais , Cabras/parasitologia , Haemonchus/metabolismo , Proteínas de Helminto/metabolismo , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Receptores de Albumina/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transcrição Genética/genética
11.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 78(3): 421-430, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31175472

RESUMO

Spotted fever group (SFG) Rickettsia are zoonotic and emerging pathogens with considerable impact in public and animal health. Greece is an endemic country of diseases caused by SFG Rickettsia. This work aims to evaluate the prevalence of SFG Rickettsia in ticks collected from domestic hosts including sheep, goats and dogs. Several genetic markers for bacterial genes, such as 16S rRNA, ompA, ompB, atpA, gltA, recA, dnaA and dnaK, were amplified and sequenced to accurately classified the rickettsial pathogens in the ticks. Taxonomy and species classification of the Rickettsia was achieved by combining phylogenetic and in silico digestion analysis of the gene sequences obtained. A total of 187 ticks were collected and classified at the species level as Ixodes gibosus, Dermacentor marginatus, Haemaphysalis parva, H. sulcata, H. punctata, Hyalomma scavatum, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, R. bursa and Rhipicephalus sp. The results showed that 7.5% of ticks were infected with at least one SFG Rickettsia including R. massiliae (n = 3), R. slovaca (n = 5), R. raoultii (n = 1) and R. hoogstraalii (n = 5), collected from sheep (n = 4), goats (n = 5) and dogs (n = 3). Molecular analysis revealed the presence of novel genetic variants of R. hoogstraalii (in H. sulcata and H. parva from goat and sheep) and R. raoultii (in D. marginatus from goat). These results proof the presence of SFG Rickettsia in domestic hosts in Greece, and support the need for continued monitoring, surveillance and further analyses of other hosts and study areas.


Assuntos
Ixodidae/microbiologia , Rickettsia/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Cães/parasitologia , Feminino , Cabras/parasitologia , Grécia , Ixodidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/microbiologia , Masculino , Filogenia , Rickettsia/classificação , Ovinos/parasitologia
12.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 296, 2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196180

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Small ruminants are important hosts for various tick species and tick-associated organisms, many of which are zoonotic. The aim of the present study was to determine the presence of tick-borne protozoans and bacteria of public health and veterinary significance in goats and wild Siberian roe deer (Capreolus pygargus) from Heilongjiang Province, northeastern China. METHODS: The occurrence of piroplasms, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, A. bovis, A. marginale, A. capra, A. ovis, Ehrlichia spp. and spotted fever group rickettsiae was molecularly investigated and analyzed in 134 goats and 9 free ranging C. pygargus living in close proximity. RESULTS: Piroplasm DNA was detected in 16 (11.9%) goats and 5 C. pygargus. Sequence analysis of 18S rRNA sequences identified 3 Theileria species (T. luwenshuni, T. capreoli and T. cervi). Four Anaplasma species (A. ovis, A. phagocytophilum, A. bovis and A. capra) were identified in goats and C. pygargus. Anaplasma ovis and A. bovis were detected in 11 (8.2%) and 6 (4.5%) goats, respectively; A. phagocytophilum, A. bovis and A. capra were found in 3, 7 and 3 C. pygargus, respectively. Sequence analysis of 16S rRNA sequences revealed the presence of 5 different genetic variants of A. bovis in goats and C. pygargus, while the analysis of 16S rRNA and gltA sequence data showed that A. capra isolates identified from C. pygargus were closely related to the genotype identified from sheep and Haemaphysalis qinghaiensis, but differed with the genotype from humans. Anaplasma/Theileria mixed infection was observed in 2 (1.5%) goats and 5 C. pygargus, and co-existence involving potential zoonotic organisms (A. phagocytophilum and A. capra) was found in 2 C. pygargus. All samples were negative for A. marginale, Ehrlichia spp. and SFG rickettsiae. CONCLUSIONS: These findings report the tick-borne pathogens in goats and C. pygargus, and a greater diversity of these pathogens were observed in wild animals. Three Theileria (T. luwenshuni, T. capreoli and T. cervi) and four Anaplasma species (A. ovis, A. phagocytophilum, A. bovis and A. capra) with veterinary and medical significance were identified in small domestic and wild ruminants. The contact between wild and domestic animals may increase the potential risk of spread and transmission of tick-borne diseases.


Assuntos
Anaplasma/isolamento & purificação , Anaplasmose/epidemiologia , Babesia/isolamento & purificação , Babesiose/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rickettsia/veterinária , Rickettsia/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/veterinária , Anaplasma/genética , Animais , Babesia/genética , Cervos/microbiologia , Cervos/parasitologia , Cabras/microbiologia , Cabras/parasitologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Rickettsia/genética , Infecções por Rickettsia/epidemiologia , Ruminantes , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia , Carrapatos/microbiologia , Carrapatos/parasitologia
13.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 10(4): 868-874, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31047827

RESUMO

In Switzerland, tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a notifiable human disease with an average of 210 cases per year in the last 10 years (2008-2017). A national surveillance conducted in 2009 reported a prevalence of 0.46% for tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) detected in ticks, which is in accordance with the prevalences found in Europe from 0.1%-5%. The Canton of Ticino in the southern part of Switzerland, geographically separated from the rest of the national territory by the Alps, is considered a non-endemic region, as no autochthonous clinical cases and no TBEV presence in ticks have ever been reported. In order to understand the epidemiological situation in Ticino, we conducted a large study investigating the TBEV presence in field-collected Ixodes ricinus ticks and in goat and human sera. Goats and sheep were considered as sentinel hosts showing persistence of antibodies also after 28 months in the absence of symptoms; this longevity supports the data validity to characterize an area with the TBEV status. The goat sera collection was composed of a total of 662 samples from 37 flocks. The total seroprevalence was 14.6%. 39 (40%) of the 97 SNT-positive samples showed an antibody titer ≥ 1:120 which indicates recent infection and consequently the probable presence of active foci among the pastures frequented by the goats belonging to 10 flocks. In total, 51 owners participated in the study and all were TBEV antibody-free. A total of 12'052 I. ricinus ticks (nymphs and adults) were collected and 1'371 pools were tested using quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Only one positive pool was reported with a prevalence of 0.35%. Metagenomic analysis revealed that the TBEV strain isolated from the ticks collected in Ticino is closely related to 2 strains coming from the Canton of Valais (99.1% and 98.7% identity, respectively), a neighbouring region of the Canton of Ticino. These two Cantons are close together but separated by high mountains (Alps) and we hypothesize that infected ticks were transported by wild animals from Valais into the Valle Maggia in Ticino where we found positive ticks. In conclusion, our data show for the first time the presence of TBEV in ticks and the related sero-reactivity in goats, confirming the presence of TBEV in the environment of the Canton of Ticino. Further surveillance studies will have to be conducted to follow the persistence of TBEV in this region.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Vírus da Encefalite Transmitidos por Carrapatos/isolamento & purificação , Encefalite Transmitida por Carrapatos/veterinária , Cabras/virologia , Ixodes/virologia , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Animais , Vírus da Encefalite Transmitidos por Carrapatos/genética , Encefalite Transmitida por Carrapatos/epidemiologia , Cabras/parasitologia , Humanos , Metagenômica , Ninfa/virologia , Prevalência , RNA Viral/sangue , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Estações do Ano , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Suíça/epidemiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/epidemiologia
14.
Acta Parasitol ; 64(2): 360-366, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31077030

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Haemaphysalis longicornis is an important ectoparasite of domestic and wild animals that can transmit many pathogens including viruses, fungi, bacteria and protozoa. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, we examined genetic variation and population genetics in three mitochondrial (mt) genes [cox1 (cytochrome c subunit 1), rrnL (large subunit ribosomal RNA) and nad5 (NADH dehydrogenase 5)] among four H. longicornis populations from China. RESULTS: The sizes of the partial sequences of cox1, rrnL and nad5 were 776 bp, 409 bp, 510 bp, respectively. Among the obtained sequences, we identified 22 haplotypes for cox1, 2 haplotypes for rrnL and 17 haplotypes for nad5. Low gene flow and significant genetic differentiation (66.2%) were detected among H. longicornis populations. There was no rapid expansion event in the demographic history of four H. longicornis populations in China. In addition, phylogenetic analyses confirmed that all the Haemaphysalis isolates were H. longicornis which were segregated into two major clades. CONCLUSION: The mt DNA genes provide a potential novel genetic marker for molecular epidemiology of H. longicornis and assist in the control of tick and tick-borne diseases in humans and animals.


Assuntos
Genes Mitocondriais , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional , Ixodidae/genética , Filogenia , Animais , Bovinos/parasitologia , China , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Cabras/parasitologia , Ouriços-Cacheiros/parasitologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Infestações por Carrapato/parasitologia , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária
15.
Gen Comp Endocrinol ; 281: 1-6, 2019 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31095943

RESUMO

In this study we have monitored the stress of Iberian ibex at individual level within the course of an experimental infection with Sarcoptes scabiei mites. For this purpose we have measured faecal 11-ketoetiocholanolone (11-k) using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). We used linear mixed models to explore the effects of host sex and age, clinic (mange status) and time (number of days post-infection) on the concentration of faecal 11-k. The most parsimonious model included clinic, time and host age, which explained 76.6% of the variance of the response variable. Moreover, the concentration of faecal 11-k varied greatly between individuals. Our results evidence the stressor nature of the disease and highlight the negative effects on hosts due to cortisol release and activity.


Assuntos
Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras/psicologia , Sarcoptes scabiei/fisiologia , Escabiose/veterinária , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Animais , Etiocolanolona/análogos & derivados , Etiocolanolona/metabolismo , Feminino , Modelos Lineares , Masculino
16.
Acta Trop ; 195: 15-22, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30980802

RESUMO

Giardiasis is a common gastrointestinal disease of humans and various animal species worldwide. In this study, 302 stool samples were collected from West African Dwarf and Sokoto Red breeds of goats in Ogun State, Nigeria, and screened for Giardia intestinalis coproantigens using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The genotypes of G. intestinalis in faecal samples collected from 152 goats raised on selected farms were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and sequence analyses of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (ssu rRNA), glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), triosephosphate isomerase (tpi) and ß-giardin (bg) genes. Based on ELISA, an overall prevalence of 45.7% was recorded with the infection rates in pre-weaned (60.2%) and post-weaned goat kids (51.5%) being significantly (p < 0.05) higher than in adults (28.2%). Giardia intestinalis DNA was amplified in 31.6% and 29.6% of goat faeces at the ssu rRNA and gdh loci respectively. These were genotyped at the ssu rRNA locus as assemblages B (n = 13) and E (n = 36). Similar results were observed at the gdh locus except that eight isolates contained assemblage E mixed with either assemblage A or B. Additionally, sub-assemblages BI (n = 7) and BIII (n = 2) were identified with up to four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) occurring in these isolates. Multilocus genotypes (MLG) of all assemblage E isolates were identified using the ssu rRNA and gdh loci while MLG of all isolates containing assemblage B and mixed assemblages were determined after further typing at the tpi and bg loci. Forty-two MLG isolates were identified and these comprised 32, 8 and 2 (sub)-assemblage E, BI and BIII respectively. All isolates with mixed assemblages at the gdh locus were consequently designated as assemblage E by MLG. The assemblage E isolates from goats were genetically related to isolates from cattle, sheep and goats while the assemblage B isolates were related to isolates of human, pig and lemur origin. This suggests that G. intestinalis isolated from goats bred in Ogun State, Nigeria may be capable of cross-species transmission and may be of zoonotic importance.


Assuntos
Giardia lamblia/classificação , Cabras/parasitologia , Animais , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Giardia lamblia/genética , Giardia lamblia/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Nigéria , Filogenia
17.
Parasitol Int ; 71: 194-206, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30974207

RESUMO

Cryptosporidium is a medical and veterinary significant protozoan parasite that infects all classes of vertebrates. Environmental contamination with infective oocyst increases the risk of transmission to susceptible host. Estimates of Cryptosporidium prevalence in humans and animals are lacking in Nigeria, therefore a systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to understand the epidemiology of the disease over a period of 30 years using publications from EMBASE, Ovid MEDLINE, Web of Science, AJOL and Google Scholar databases. Studies that met the inclusion criteria of Cryptosporidium infections under the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) checklist were analysed. Point estimates prevalence and subgroup analyses based on potential risk factors and diagnostic techniques were evaluated at 95% confidence interval (CI). A total of 64 eligible studies published between 1987 and 2017 were selected for meta-analysis. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection using quality effects model among human, cattle, sheep, goat, pigs, laboratory animals and birds was estimated as 15.0, 26.1, 16.6, 26.0, 20.1, 9.0 and 7.2%, respectively. The high report of C. parvum subtype family IIc indicates the importance of anthroponotic transmission of Cryptosporidium in Nigeria. Heterogeneity of subgroup (regions, species) and risk factors (HIV status, age, gender, faecal type) analyses were determined. The pooled prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in different hosts were high and linked with several risk factors such as environmental contamination and animal contact. There is need for increased awareness on the prevalence of the disease to provide strategies that mitigate the disease in humans and animals.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/transmissão , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Cryptosporidium/fisiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Genótipo , Cabras/parasitologia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Humanos , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Oocistos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Ovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Suínos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia
18.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 15: 100262, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30929939

RESUMO

Cryptosporidium spp. is a protozoan parasite that causes enteric infection in a wide range of hosts, including livestock and humans. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in small ruminants in Grenada, West Indies. Fecal samples were collected from 100 sheep and 202 goats from 32 farms. The fecal samples were tested using an Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for qualitative detection of antigens in feces (Diagnostic Automation Inc., USA). The overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. was 19.5% [95% confidence interval (CI): 15.4% to 24.4%] in both sheep and goats. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in sheep and goats was 14% (95% CI: 8.4% to 22.3%) and 22.3% (95% CI: 17.1% to 28.5%), respectively. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. infection between sheep and goats (p = .42, Fisher's exact test) in Grenada. Of the 32 farms visited, 19 (59.4%) had at least one Cryptosporidium spp. positive animal.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Ruminantes/parasitologia , Animais , Antígenos de Protozoários/imunologia , Antígenos de Protozoários/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Transversais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Fezes/parasitologia , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Cabras/parasitologia , Granada/epidemiologia , Gado/parasitologia , Prevalência , Ovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia
19.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 15: 100266, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30929943

RESUMO

Coenurus cerebralis is the larval stage of Taenia multiceps, which infects the muscles and brain of goats and, to a lesser extent, sheep. The resulting cerebral and non-cerebral infections caused by the larval form (metacestode) of this cestode are commonly known as coenurosis. A weak emaciated carcass of five months old female goat, on necropsy, revealed numerous parasitic cysts (n = 56, grossly visible) in the visceral cavity including heart, diaphragm, thoracic cavity, abdominal cavity and pelvic inlet. A large number of variable sized parasitic cysts were also observed embedded in the pericardium and myocardium causing functional damage to the heart. The parasite caused extensive tissue damage at gross and microscopic levels in the heart including traumatic destruction of the myocardium with degenerative and necrotic changes and infiltration of mononuclear cells. On parasitological examination, the cysts were identified as Coenurus cerebralis, as the scolices had characteristic four suckers and a rostellum with a double crown of hooks. Further confirmation was done using polymerase chain reaction targeting specific ND1 and CO1 genes. Phylogenetic analysis of CO1 and ND1 genes showed a major branch comprising two clades of T. multiceps grouped as separate entities with the first clade showing T. multiceps/Coenurus cerebralis native CIRG strain (cerebral) being placed in proximity to T. multiceps/Coenurus cerebralis CIRG strain (non-cerebral/visceral) compared to the Chinese strains of T. multiceps. The phylogenetic analysis of ND1 and CO1 genes of C. cerebralis of cerebral and non-cerebral isolates revealed close proximity but expressed in two different disease forms (i.e., visceral coenurosis and neural coenurosis) which indicated that they were very close divergent from a common ancestor. On the basis of the observations it was concluded that goat died due to cardiac dysfunction resulting from severe systemic infection of metacestode of T. multiceps was closely related to isolate that caused neural coenurosis in another goat. Based on the sequencing analysis and phylogenetic information, the possible differences in the clinical manifestation (neural or visceral) could be attributed to the pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/parasitologia , Infecções por Cestoides/veterinária , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Coração/parasitologia , Filogenia , Taenia/classificação , Animais , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Feminino , Variação Genética , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras/parasitologia , Índia/epidemiologia , Miocárdio/patologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Taenia/patogenicidade
20.
Vet Parasitol ; 267: 47-53, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30878085

RESUMO

Haemonchosis commonly occurs as chronic and subclinical infection in small ruminants, and understanding of immunological response against subclinical haemonchosis is of paramount importance for designing and implementing effective control strategies. The present study was designed to evaluate immunological response during subclinical haemonchosis, experimentally established in goats. Sixteen 5-6 month-old helminth naive kids were randomly allocated into one of two groups, infected and uninfected; the infected group being infected per os with 250 Haemonchus contortus larvae per kg body weight. Faecal, blood and serum samples were collected every third day up to 30 days post-infection (DPI), thereafter weekly up to 58 DPI to record changes in faecal egg count (FEC), haemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), peripheral eosinophil percentage and immunological parameters, such as macrophage cytokine interleukin-12 (IL-12), Th1 cytokine (IFN-γ), Th2 cytokines (IL-4, 13, 25, 33) and immunoglobulins (IgG and IgE). Pre-patent period of H. contortus in the present study was 18 days and eggs per gram (EPG) peaked on 30 DPI. The total reduction in body weight gain in the infected group was 26 g per day when compared with uninfected animals. Hb (7.35 ± 0.34 g/dL in infected animals compared with 9.76 ± 0.67 in control animals) and PCV levels (22 ± 1.54 g/dL in infected animals compared with 29.2 ± 1.27 in control animals) decreased significantly up to 44 DPI in infected group (P = 0.000). IL-4, IL-13, IL-33, IgG and IgE showed significant increase in infected animals at different periods. IFN-γ, IL-12 and IL-25 did not show any significant changes barring a steep rise of IFN-γ on 27 DPI. A positive correlation was observed between IgE and IL-4 in subclinical haemonchosis. Of particular note was that all the major cytokines, such as IFN-γ (P = 0.000), IL-4 (P = 0.000), IL-13 (P = 0.009), and both IgG (P = 0.000) and IgE (P = 0.003), were observed at the lowest concentration on 24 DPI. The effect of infection was found to be significant on cytokines with a strong interaction with time. Taken together, the data suggest that Th2 immune response is predominating in subclinical haemonchosis. The economic loss in term of body weight gain due to subclinical haemonchosis was considerable.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/sangue , Citocinas/sangue , Doenças das Cabras/imunologia , Cabras/parasitologia , Hemoncose/veterinária , Animais , Infecções Assintomáticas , Peso Corporal , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Hemoncose/imunologia , Haemonchus , Hematócrito , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Índia , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas , Células Th2/imunologia
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