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1.
Food Chem ; 370: 131002, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500296

RESUMO

The effects of tempered procedures (well and under-tempered) on the crystalline behaves of cocoa butter were elaborated through detecting crystalline structure and compositions of crystals located at different positions of cocoa butter products in this study. The under-tempered products couldn't form crystalline structures as uniform as the well-tempered ones, whose internal contained more low saturated triacylglycerol and structurally unstable crystals. The low saturated triacylglycerol further created the diverse microstructure and thermal properties between center and outer part of cocoa butter products. During storage, the concentration differences drive migration of low saturated triacylglycerol from center to outer part of the product. Although this reduces the differences in triacylglycerol composition, it results in the polymorphism conversion between ß'-IV and ß-VI form and the fat bloom formation. This work indicates that the monitor for crystalline properties of different positions in cocoa butter products helps the chocolate industry to control formation of fat bloom.


Assuntos
Cacau , Chocolate , Chocolate/análise , Cristalização , Gorduras na Dieta/análise
2.
Food Chem ; 372: 131244, 2022 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628118

RESUMO

The present finding provides a new cocoa butter substitute in confectionary, which is derived from mango by-product (mango seed kernel). The study involves physicochemical characterization and the use of GCMS, FTIR, SEM, TGA, and NMR to prove that mango seed kernel derived fat is a good substitute for cocoa butter. Its texture, organoleptic properties and rancidity were also investigated. Its properties were similar to cocoa butter, with respect to palmitic, oleic, and stearic acids, and it had the ability to substitute 80 per cent of dark chocolate preparation for chocolate substitute. This recently developed cocoa substitute has the potential to address the global problem of cocoa butter scarcity, which is being exacerbated by rising population and improving economies.


Assuntos
Cacau , Chocolate , Mangifera , Gorduras na Dieta/análise , Sementes/química
3.
MMW Fortschr Med ; 163(20): 27, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34767211

Assuntos
Cacau , Chocolate , Humanos
4.
J Food Sci ; 86(11): 4901-4913, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34636050

RESUMO

Eight different roast profiles for each of the three origins of cacao were prepared and made into unsweetened chocolate based upon an I-Optimal response-surface design for minimizing prediction variance. Quantitative chemical analysis of all chocolate treatments was performed with HPLC-DAD on six important bitter compounds (i.e., theobromine, caffeine, epicatechin, catechin, procyanidin B2, and cyclo(Proline-Valine)). Least-squares linear modeling was then performed. Using derived linear models, response-surface contour plots were produced to show predicted changes in the six bitter compounds over the entire experimental region. Significant and large decreases in concentration of epicatechin and procyanidin B2 were observed as roasting progressed, whereas for catechin and cyclo(Proline-Valine), significant increases were observed. Small yet significant theobromine and caffeine concentration increases were also observed with roasting, likely due to moisture loss. Some significant differences were also found between the cacao origins for all bitter compound concentrations except for cyclo(Proline-Valine), suggesting the importance of a survey encompassing a greater number of cacao origins in the future to obtain a more complete picture of the variation in bitter compounds in cacao due to origin. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This research describes how roasting can be used to alter the concentration of bitter and sometimes astringent chemicals for several origins of cacao, which may be used to improve the sensory characteristics of dark chocolate.


Assuntos
Cacau , Chocolate , Cafeína , Chocolate/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Paladar
5.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684467

RESUMO

Mitochondrial dysfunction is widely reported in various diseases and contributes to their pathogenesis. We assessed the effect of cocoa flavanols supplementation on mitochondrial function and whole metabolism, and we explored whether the mitochondrial deacetylase sirtuin-3 (Sirt3) is involved or not. We explored the effects of 15 days of CF supplementation in wild type and Sirt3-/- mice. Whole-body metabolism was assessed by indirect calorimetry, and an oral glucose tolerance test was performed to assess glucose metabolism. Mitochondrial respiratory function was assessed in permeabilised fibres and the pyridine nucleotides content (NAD+ and NADH) were quantified. In the wild type, CF supplementation significantly modified whole-body metabolism by promoting carbohydrate use and improved glucose tolerance. CF supplementation induced a significant increase of mitochondrial mass, while significant qualitative adaptation occurred to maintain H2O2 production and cellular oxidative stress. CF supplementation induced a significant increase in NAD+ and NADH content. All the effects mentioned above were blunted in Sirt3-/- mice. Collectively, CF supplementation boosted the NAD metabolism that stimulates sirtuins metabolism and improved mitochondrial function, which likely contributed to the observed whole-body metabolism adaptation, with a greater ability to use carbohydrates, at least partially through Sirt3.


Assuntos
Cacau/química , Suplementos Nutricionais , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Mitocôndrias Musculares/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias Musculares/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Biomarcadores , Composição Corporal , Flavonoides/química , Glucose/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Sirtuína 3/genética , Sirtuína 3/metabolismo
6.
Plant Sci ; 312: 111055, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620449

RESUMO

High salt environments can induce stress in different plants. The genes containing the ZAT domain constitute a family that belongs to a branch of the C2H2 family, which plays a vital role in responding to abiotic stresses. In this study, we identified 169 ZAT genes from seven plant species, including 44 ZAT genes from G. hirsutum. Phylogenetic tree analysis divided ZAT genes in six groups with conserved gene structure, protein motifs. Two C2H2 domains and an EAR domain and even chromosomal distribution on At and Dt sub-genome chromosomes of G. hirsutum was observed. GhZAT6 was primarily expressed in the root tissue and responded to NaCl and ABA treatments. Subcellular localization found that GhZAT6 was located in the nucleus and demonstrated transactivation activity during a transactivation activity assay. Arabidopsis transgenic lines overexpressing the GhZAT6 gene showed salt tolerance and grew more vigorously than WT on MS medium supplemented with 100 mmol NaCl. Additionally, the silencing of the GhZAT6 gene in cotton plants showed more obvious leaf wilting than the control plants, which were subjected to 400 mmol NaCl treatment. Next, the expressions of GhAPX1, GhFSD1, GhFSD2, and GhSOS3 were significantly lower in the GhZAT6-silenced plants treated with NaCl than the control. Based on these findings, GhZAT6 may be involved in the ABA pathway and mediate salt stress tolerance by regulating ROS-related gene expression.


Assuntos
Estresse Salino/genética , Estresse Salino/fisiologia , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Tolerância ao Sal/fisiologia , Dedos de Zinco/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Cacau/genética , Cacau/fisiologia , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Gossypium/genética , Gossypium/fisiologia , Oryza/genética , Oryza/fisiologia , Filogenia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Sorghum/genética , Sorghum/fisiologia
7.
Planta ; 254(5): 94, 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34642817

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Decreased accumulation of polyphenol oxidase, H2O2 accumulation, effective regulation of programmed cell death, and a protein predicted as allergenic can play key roles in cacao defense against Ceratocystis cacaofunesta. Ceratocystis wilt, caused by the fungus Ceratocystis cacaofunesta, has destroyed millions of Theobroma cacao trees in several countries of the Americas. Through proteomics, systems biology, and enzymatic analyses of infected stems, it was possible to infer mechanisms used by resistant (TSH1188) and susceptible (CCN51) cacao genotypes during infection. Protein extraction from xylem-enriched tissue of stems inoculated with the fungus and their controls 1 day after inoculation was carried out, followed by separation through two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and identification by mass spectrometry. Enzyme activity was determined at 1, 3, 7 and 15 days after inoculation. A total of 50 differentially accumulated distinct proteins were identified in the treatments of both genotypes and were classified into 10 different categories. An interaction network between homologous proteins from Arabidospsis thaliana was generated for each genotype, using the STRING database and Cytoscape software. Primary metabolism processes were apparently repressed in both genotypes. The resistance factors suggested for genotype TSH1188 were: H2O2 accumulation, effective regulation of programmed cell death, production of phytoalexins derived from tryptophan and furanocoumarins, and participation of a predicted allergenic protein with probable ribonuclease function inhibiting the germination and propagation of the fungus. In the susceptible genotype, it is possible that its recognition and signaling mechanism through proteins from the SEC14 family is easily overcome by the pathogen. Our results will help to better understand the interaction between cacao and one of its most aggressive pathogens, to create disease control strategies.


Assuntos
Cacau , Ceratocystis , Genótipo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Doenças das Plantas , Proteoma , Xilema
8.
Molecules ; 26(18)2021 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34576994

RESUMO

In this study, dark chocolates (DCh) containing zinc lactate (ZnL) were enriched with extracts from elderberries (EFrE), elderflowers (EFlE), and chokeberries (ChFrE) to improve their functional properties. Both dried plant extracts and chocolates were analyzed for antioxidant capacity (AC) using four different analytical methods: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), cupric ion-reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC), and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), while total phenolic content (TPC) was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu (F-C) assay. An increase in antioxidant properties of fortified chocolates was found, and the bioaccessibility of their antioxidants was evaluated. The highest AC and TPC were found in ChFrE and chocolate with chokeberries (DCh + ChFrE) before and after simulated in vitro digestion. Bioaccessibility studies indicated that during the simulated digestion the AC of all chocolates reduced significantly, whereas insignificant differences in TPC results were observed between chemical and physiological extracts. Moreover, the influence of plant extracts on physicochemical parameters such as moisture content (MC), fat content (FC), and viscosity of chocolates was estimated. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy with dispersive energy spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) was used to analyze surface properties and differences in the chemical composition of chocolates without and with additives.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Cacau/química , Fenômenos Químicos , Chocolate/análise , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Simulação por Computador , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/química , Photinia/química , Sambucus/química , Espectrometria por Raios X
9.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578786

RESUMO

Chocolate has a history of human consumption tracing back to 400 AD and is rich in polyphenols such as catechins, anthocyanidins, and pro anthocyanidins. As chocolate and cocoa product consumption, along with interest in them as functional foods, increases worldwide, there is a need to systematically and critically appraise the available clinical evidence on their health effects. A systematic search was conducted on electronic databases such as MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) using a search strategy and keywords. Among the many health effects assessed on several outcomes (including skin, cardiovascular, anthropometric, cognitive, and quality of life), we found that compared to controls, chocolate or cocoa product consumption significantly improved lipid profiles (triglycerides), while the effects of chocolate on all other outcome parameters were not significantly different. In conclusion, low-to-moderate-quality evidence with short duration of research (majority 4-6 weeks) showed no significant difference between the effects of chocolate and control groups on parameters related to skin, blood pressure, lipid profile, cognitive function, anthropometry, blood glucose, and quality of life regardless of form, dose, and duration among healthy individuals. It was generally well accepted by study subjects, with gastrointestinal disturbances and unpalatability being the most reported concerns.


Assuntos
Cacau/química , Chocolate , Polifenóis/administração & dosagem , Glicemia/análise , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Sistema Cardiovascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Triglicerídeos/sangue
10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17914, 2021 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34504131

RESUMO

Aging, a critical risk factor of several diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders, affects an ever-growing number of people. Cacao supplementation has been suggested to improve age-related neuronal deficits. Therefore, this study investigated the protective effects of raw cacao powder on oxidative stress-induced aging. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups: Control (C), D-galactose-induced aging (G), D-galactose injection with 10% (LC), and 16% (HC) cacao powder mixed diet. D-galactose (300 mg/3 mL/kg) was intraperitoneally injected into all but the control group for 12 weeks. Cacao supplemented diets were provided for 8 weeks. The levels of serum Malondialdehyde (MDA), Advanced Glycation End-products (AGEs), brain and liver MDA, the indicators of the D-galactose induced oxidative stress were significantly decreased in LC and HC but increased in G. The Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity of brain showed that the cholinergic impairment was significantly lower in LC, and HC than G. Furthermore, the expression levels of catalase (CAT), phospho-Akt/Akt, and procaspase-3 were significantly increased in LC and HC. In conclusion, cacao consumption attenuated the effects of oxidative stress, cholinergic impairment and apoptosis, indicating its potential in future clinical studies.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Cacau/química , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/patologia , Masculino , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
11.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5018, 2021 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465789

RESUMO

Chocolate manufacture includes a complex tempering procedure to direct the crystallization of cocoa butter towards the formation of fat crystal networks with specific polymorphism, nano- and microstructure, melting behavior, surface gloss and mechanical properties. Here we investigate the effects of adding various minor non-triglyceride lipidic components to refined cocoa butter and chocolate on their physical properties. We discover that addition of saturated phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine to neutralized and bleached cocoa butter or molten and recrystallized commercial chocolate at 0.1% (w/w) levels, followed by rapid cooling to 20 °C in the absence of shear, accelerates crystallization, stabilizes the desirable Form V polymorph and induces the formation of chocolate with an optimal microstructure, surface gloss and mechanical strength. Final chocolate structure and properties are comparable to those of a commercial tempered chocolate. Minor lipidic component addition represents an effective way to engineer chocolate material properties at different length scales, thus simplifying the entire tempering process.


Assuntos
Chocolate/análise , Gorduras na Dieta/análise , Aditivos Alimentares/química , Lipídeos/química , Cacau/química , Cristalização , Manipulação de Alimentos
12.
Food Res Int ; 148: 110620, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507764

RESUMO

Chocolates paired with nuts are highly marketed products, however, there is a lack of scientific research and limited understanding of consumer sentiment towards the combination of these food products. The main objective of this research was to determine the consumers' response towards pairing five different chocolates (dark origin, milk, Gold, white fruity, and white vanilla) and three different nuts (hazelnut, almond, and pistachio) for the creation of pairing guidelines within Barry Callebaut's range. TimeSens© software was applied to assess the dynamic interaction of flavors through temporal dominance of sensations (TDS). It was observed that each type of chocolate presents different interactions of dominant flavors depending on the nut and its applications. Furthermore, variables such as liking, balance, and check-all-that-apply (CATA) were analyzed to create pairing guidelines related to different responses on the predominant flavor of each of the chocolates. These case studies determined that the liking of the different pairs was influenced by the dominant flavors of each of the chocolates and the balance found in the match. From the predominant flavors, it was concluded that respondents preferred chocolates with sweet and dairy attributes such as: milky, creamy, buttery. Salty and vanilla flavors also made good pairs as they accentuate the nut flavor. On the contrary, chocolates with intense bitter, roasted, cocoa, and sour flavors did not create the best combinations with the nuts, as these are contrasting or strong flavors that consumers are usually unfamiliar with when combined with nuts. To complement this study, further analysis can be developed using other types of chocolates, nuts, and applications, and then comparing the dominant flavors of the chocolates with distinctive nuts to assess the consumers' response towards the combinations.


Assuntos
Cacau , Chocolate , Chocolate/análise , Nozes , Percepção , Paladar
14.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(11): 11432-11441, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419273

RESUMO

Fat-free chocolate milk formulations containing skim milk, cocoa powder, and sugar were thermally treated and then processed using high-pressure jet (HPJ) technology from 125 to 500 MPa. The rheological properties and stability of HPJ-treated chocolate milks were compared with controls (no HPJ processing) prepared both with and without added κ-carrageenan. As expected, carrageenan-free chocolate milk exhibited immediate phase separation of the cocoa powder, whereas formulations containing κ-carrageenan were stable for 14 d. An increased stability was observed with increasing HPJ processing pressure, with a maximum observed when chocolate milk was processed at 500 MPa. The apparent viscosity at 50 s-1 of HPJ-processed samples increased from ~3 mPa·s to ~9 mPa·s with increasing pressure, and shear-thinning behavior (n < 0.9) was observed for samples processed at HPJ pressures ≥250 MPa. We suggest that HPJ-induced structural changes in casein micelles and new casein-cocoa interactions increased cocoa stability in the chocolate milk. Because casein seemed to be the major component enhancing cocoa stability in HPJ-treated samples, a second study was conducted to determine the effect of additional micellar casein (1, 2, or 4%) and HPJ processing (0-500 MPa) on the stability of fat-free chocolate milk. Formulations with 4% micellar casein processed at 375 and 500 MPa showed no phase separation over a 14-d storage period at 4°C. The addition of micellar casein together with HPJ processing at 500 MPa resulted in a higher apparent viscosity (~17 mPa·s at 50s-1) and more pronounced shear-thinning behavior (n ≤ 0.81) compared with that without added micellar casein. The use of HPJ technology to improve the dispersion stability of cocoa provides the industry with a processing alternative to produce clean-label, yet stable, chocolate milk.


Assuntos
Cacau , Chocolate , Animais , Caseínas , Leite , Viscosidade
15.
J Plant Res ; 134(6): 1323-1334, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34420146

RESUMO

The Theobroma cacao presents a wide diversity in pod color among different cultivars. Although flavonoid biosynthesis has been studied in many plants, molecular mechanisms governing the diversity of coloration in cacao pods are largely unknown. The flavonoid metabolite profiles and flavonoid biosynthetic gene expression in the pod exocarps of light green pod 'TAS 410' (GW), green pod 'TAS 166' (GF), and mauve pod 'TAS 168' (PF) were determined. Changes in flavonoid metabolites, particularly the anthocyanins (cyanidin 3-O-galactoside, cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, and cyanidin O-syringic acid) were significantly up-accumulated in the mauve phenotype (PF) compared to the light green or green phenotypes, endowing the pod color change from light green or green to mauve. Consistently, the PF phenotype showed different expression patterns of flavonoid biosynthetic structural genes in comparison with GW/GF phenotypes. The expression level of LAR and ANR in GW/GF was significantly higher than PF, while the expression level of UFGT in GW/GF was lower than PF. These genes likely generated more anthocyanins in the exocarps samples of PF than that of GW/GF. Simultaneously, colorless flavan-3-ols (catechin, epicatechin and proanthocyanidin) content in the exocarp samples of PF was lower than GW/GF. Additionally, MYB (gene18079) and bHLH (gene5045 and gene21575) may participate in the regulation of the pod color. This study sheds light on the molecular basis of cacao pod color variation, which will contribute to breeding cacao varieties with enhanced flavonoid profiles for nutritional applications.


Assuntos
Antocianinas , Cacau , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Cacau/genética , Cacau/metabolismo , Cor , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Metaboloma , Melhoramento Vegetal , Transcriptoma
16.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(14): 18564-18585, 2021 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34329196

RESUMO

Few studies with mixed results have examined the association between chocolate consumption and mortality. We aimed to examine this association in a US population. A population-based cohort of 91891 participants aged 55 to 74 years was identified. Chocolate consumption was assessed via a food frequency questionnaire. Cox regression was used to estimate risk estimates. After an average follow-up of 13.5 years, 19586 all-cause deaths were documented. Compared with no regular chocolate consumption, the maximally adjusted hazard ratios of all-cause mortality were 0.89 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.84-0.94], 0.84 (95% CI 0.79-0.90), 0.86 (95% CI 0.81-0.93), and 0.87 (95% CI 0.82-0.93) for >0-0.5 servings/week, >0.5-1 serving/week, >1-2 servings/week, and >2 servings/week, respectively (Ptrend = 0.009). A somewhat stronger inverse association was observed for mortality from cardiovascular disease and Alzheimer's disease. A nonlinear dose-response pattern was found for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality (all Pnonlinearity < 0.01), with the lowest risk observed at chocolate consumption of 0.7 servings/week and 0.6 servings/week, respectively. The favorable associations with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality were found to be more pronounced in never smokers than in current or former smokers (all Pinteraction < 0.05). In conclusion, chocolate consumption confers reduced risks of mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and Alzheimer's disease in this US population.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/mortalidade , Cacau , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Chocolate , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Preparações de Plantas , Idoso , Causas de Morte , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias , Fitoterapia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Estados Unidos
17.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(30): 8504-8510, 2021 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34297568

RESUMO

The impact of water on odor-active compounds in fermented and dried cocoa beans as well as in chocolate either produced by a novel processing (NPC) or a traditional processing (TPC) technology from the same batch of cocoa beans was investigated in this study. Quantitation of selected key odorants revealed significantly higher concentrations of Strecker aldehydes such as 3-(methylsulfanyl)propanal (66-fold) and phenylacetaldehyde (50-fold) after water treatment of the cocoa beans. The comparison of the two chocolates showed that higher amounts of the Strecker aldehydes 2-methylbutanal, 3-methylbutanal, and phenylacetaldehyde are released with water in the NPC (24-fold to 39-fold), compared to the TPC (7.3-fold-11-fold). In addition to Strecker aldehydes, the concentrations of many further characteristic key odorants of cocoa and chocolate increased after water treatment. Based on the results, a more intense retronasal odor perception of the analyzed compounds is expected due to their release during consumption in contact with saliva.


Assuntos
Cacau , Chocolate , Chocolate/análise , Fermentação , Odorantes , Sementes , Água
18.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(29): 8200-8212, 2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34278790

RESUMO

Historically often described as the food of gods, cocoa-based products exhibit a pleasant aroma as well as a desirable astringent, bitter, and sour taste, which results in a high consumer preference. The key taste components of cocoa were identified and characterized by combining sensory analysis, fractionation, and structure elucidation. Cocoa astringency is driven by N-phenylpropenoyl-l-amino acids, polyphenol glycosides, and flavan-3-ols, while the latter compound class also contributes to bitterness. The key principle for cocoa bitterness was shown to be the combination of alkaloids and 2,5-diketopiperazines. To understand the influence of plant genetics, breeding, and processing on the sensory profile of cocoa products, high-throughput sensometabolite quantitation must be performed throughout all of these steps. In this work, we present a rapid, sensitive, and robust quantitation method on a single ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) platform, requiring minimal workup for any sample type from farm to fork. This method was applied to a global set of 75 cocoa bean samples from all over the world before and after using a uniform roasting protocol. Within this world map, geographical origin did not predetermine cocoa taste profiles, whereas simulated processing by roasting was confirmed to be crucial in profile development. This method will open avenues for further studies to ultimately enable chocolate producers to control and optimize the taste properties of products as well as to monitor raw material selection and processing.


Assuntos
Cacau , Chocolate , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Melhoramento Vegetal , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
19.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 551, 2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281511

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Theobroma cacao is a major source of flavonoids such as catechins and their monomers proanthocyanidins (PAs), widely studied for their potential benefits in cardiovascular diseases. Light has been shown to promote plant secondary metabolite production in vitro. In this study, cacao cells cultured in 7.5 L stirred tank photobioreactors (STPs) were exposed to a change of white to blue LED lights for 28 days (d). RESULTS: Transcriptomic analyses were performed in three time points comparing changing expression patterns, after cell exposure to white light (d0-VS-d14), after a shift from white to blue light (d14-VS-d15), and after an extended period of blue light for the following 15 days (d15-VS-d28). Under white light, there was enrichment in metabolic pathways associated with cell growth (carbon, glycolysis, and amino acid biosynthesis) accompanied by a significant increase in the PAs content. In the shift to blue light, further increase in PAs content was observed concomitantly with the significant expression of TWO-COMPONENT RESPONSE REGULATOR genes involved in the early stress responses via circadian clock and hormone pathways. Under blue light exposure, we observed a depletion of PAs content associated with ROS-mediated stress pathways. CONCLUSIONS: Light effects on large-scale cell cultures in photobioreactors are complex and pleiotropic; however, we have been able to identify key regulatory players upstream cacao flavonoid biosynthesis in STPs, including TWO-COMPONENT SYSTEM and ROS-signaling genes. The crosstalk between flavonoid biosynthesis and regulatory networks led to understand the dynamics of flavonoid production and degradation in response to light-driven ROS signals. This can be used to optimize the time, and the yield of in vitro targeted metabolites in large-scale culture systems.


Assuntos
Cacau , Cacau/genética , Flavonoides , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Fotobiorreatores , Transcriptoma
20.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206169

RESUMO

In addition to the vast diversity of fauna and flora, the Brazilian Amazon has different climatic periods characterized by periods with greater and lesser rainfall. The main objective of this research was to verify the influence of climatic seasons in the Brazilian Amazon (northeast of Pará state) concerning the aromatic and bioactive profiles of fermented and dried cocoa seeds. About 200 kg of seeds was fermented using specific protocols of local producers. Physicochemical analyzes (total titratable acidity, pH, total phenolic compounds, quantification of monomeric phenolics and methylxanthines) and volatile compounds by GC-MS were carried out. We observed that: in the summer, the highest levels of aldehydes were identified, such as benzaldehyde (6.34%) and phenylacetaldehyde (36.73%), related to the fermented cocoa and honey aromas, respectively; and a total of 27.89% of this same class was identified during winter. There were significant differences (p ≤ 0.05, Tukey test) in the profile of bioactive compounds (catechin, epicatechin, caffeine, and theobromine), being higher in fermented almonds in winter. This study indicates that the climatic seasons in the Amazon affect the aromatic and bioactive profiles and could produce a new identity standard (summer and winter Amazon) for the cocoa almonds and their products.


Assuntos
Cacau , Ecossistema , Flavonoides , Fenóis , Estações do Ano , Sementes , Cacau/química , Cacau/metabolismo , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Odorantes , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo
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