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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(8): 2562-2569, 2020 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32003990

RESUMO

This study was aimed to evaluate the level of furan and acrylamide contamination in cocoa and noncocoa raw materials, in masses from processing stages, and in chocolates originating from three factories. Acrylamide was determined by the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method using the QuEChERS procedure with dispersive solid-phase extraction clean-up and isotopic standard (2,3,3-d3-acrylamide). Furan was analyzed by the headspace solid-phase microextraction/GC-MS technique with the d4-furan marker. Both analytical methods were validated in terms of accuracy, precision, and linearity as well as the limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ). Among all raw materials, the most abundant in acrylamide were cocoa masses and powders (83.0-127.5 ng g-1). Roasting of cocoa beans increased the content of acrylamide 2-3-fold. The obtained results indicate that acrylamide might be formed during wet conching. Only in cocoa powders and lecithin, it was possible to quantify furan (3.7-10.2 and 16.3 ng g-1, respectively). Roasting of cocoa beans increased the content of furan from

Assuntos
Acrilamida/análise , Cacau/química , Chocolate/análise , Furanos/análise , Acrilamida/isolamento & purificação , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos , Furanos/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Sementes/química , Microextração em Fase Sólida
2.
Food Chem ; 302: 125335, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416001

RESUMO

Cocoa bean fermentation still remains a rather empirical process. The research presented here employed an artificial system of fermentation, using controlled incubations, in order to achieve greater control over the external influences that cocoa beans are exposed to, with the aim of experimentally modelling changes to bean components (responses). Experimental design was used, in a first-ever attempt, to study the effects of five factors and their interactions on the profiles of pH, peptides, and flavanols in the bean during the incubations. Temperature, incubation time and the concentration of acetic acid were the main factors influencing the three responses. Moreover, there was a significant amount of factor interaction, revealing the process to be more complex than initially thought, especially with respect to the role of ethanol. Using the model, one was also able to accurately predict the response of the bean to the exposure to specific factors.


Assuntos
Cacau/metabolismo , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos/métodos , Modelos Teóricos , Ácido Acético/metabolismo , Cacau/química , Etanol/metabolismo , Fermentação , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Temperatura Ambiente
3.
Food Chem ; 303: 125392, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446362

RESUMO

In this article, an easy and quick method based on microwave assisted acid digestion technique prior to quantification using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the analysis of heavy metals in cocoa beans, cocoa powder and chocolate was established and validated for arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and antimony (Sb). Limit of quantification for all elements were product dependent and varies from 7.84 to 194.52 µg/kg. The recoveries of the heavy metals at 250 and 1000 µg/kg spiking levels were ranged between 96.27-108.75%, 90.43-101.97% and 89.72-106.26% for cocoa beans, cocoa powder, and chocolate, respectively. Relative standard deviation values obtained were all below 20% and the expanded uncertainty measurements for the elements were less than 25%. The analysis of real samples found that the concentration level is far from the national alarming level except for cadmium in cocoa beans.


Assuntos
Cacau/química , Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Metais Pesados/análise , Micro-Ondas , Sementes/química , Antimônio/análise , Arsênico/análise , Cádmio/análise , Chocolate/análise , Chumbo/análise
4.
Food Chem ; 303: 125398, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470272

RESUMO

Roasting is an important process in cocoa production which may lead to formation of non-desirable compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Therefore, PAH4 (sum of four different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, and benzo[a]pyrene) in roasted cocoa beans was determined using a modified method (combination of QuEChERS and DLLME), and quantified by HPLC-FLD. The modified method was validated and met the performance criteria required by the EU Regulation (No. 836/2011). Results show a significant (p < 0.05) increase of PAH4 (0.19-7.73 ng/g) with an increase in temperatures (110-190 °C) and duration (10-50 min). The PAHs content in whole cocoa bean roasting was detected even at the lowest temperature (110 °C) compared to nib roasting detected at 150 °C which indicates that PAHs was transferred from dried shells to roasted cocoa beans during the roasting process. The data obtained may help to control and minimize PAH4 formation during cocoa processing.


Assuntos
Cacau/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Microextração em Fase Líquida/métodos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/isolamento & purificação , Antracenos/análise , Antracenos/isolamento & purificação , Benzo(a)pireno/análise , Benzo(a)pireno/isolamento & purificação , Crisenos/análise , Crisenos/isolamento & purificação , Fluorenos/análise , Fluorenos/isolamento & purificação , Sementes/química
5.
Food Chem ; 309: 125561, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670117

RESUMO

Cocoa smoky off-flavor is due to inappropriate post-harvest processing and cannot be removed in the subsequent chocolate-manufacturing steps. To date, no reliable analytical method to detect key-analytes responsible for smoky off-flavor in incoming raw material is available. This study aims to develop an analytical method, suitable for quality control, to detect smoky markers. The cocoa volatilome was first profiled by headspace solid phase microextration combined with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry from a set of representative smoky and non-smoky samples; advanced fingerprinting revealed the chemicals responsible for the off-flavor. The results served to develop a 1D-GC method suitable for routine application. Ten identified smoky markers were subjected to accurate quantification, thereby defining operative ranges to accept/reject incoming bean samples. On average, these markers are present in smoky samples at 7 to 125 fold concentrations vs. those in non-smoky beans, ranging from 32.5 ng/g for naphtalene to 721.8 ng/g for phenol.


Assuntos
Cacau/química , Chocolate/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Controle de Qualidade , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Fumaça
6.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(1): 81-91, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31435949

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coffee pulp (CP), cocoa husk (CH), and pod husk (CPH) are the main agro-residues from coffee and cocoa industries. They are sources of useful biomolecules, such as phenolic compounds, fibers, and alkaloids, among others. In this study, different compositions of deep eutectic solvents (DES) were investigated as a green and sustainable extraction media, with respect to their extraction capacity. The extraction yields were evaluated using heat stirring-assisted extraction (HSE) or ultrasound-probe assisted extraction (UPAE). RESULTS: The results showed an important effect of the DES composition. Choline chloride (ChCl) based-DES were the most effective, specifically lactic acid:ChCl (2:1 mol ratio), and the extraction capacity of DES was higher with UPAE (3 min/constant duty cycle (200 W)), in comparison with HSE (1 h/30 min). Chlorogenic acid, caffeine, and theobromine were identified as the main bioactive compounds. Interestingly, under specific conditions, DES allowed the formation of a molecule, identified as furfural by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS), which could not be obtained using conventional extraction solvent (ethanol 70% v/v). CONCLUSION: DES showed a sustainability and high extraction capacity of biomolecules. In addition, their use as extraction solvents could lead to the formation and production of valuable building block molecules from plant biomass. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Cacau/química , Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Coffea/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Resíduos/análise , Cromatografia Líquida , Espectrometria de Massas , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Sementes/química , Solventes/química
7.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 247: 112263, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580944

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Cocoa extracts rich in polyphenols are used as potential agent for treating diabetes. Cocoa polyphenols have been proved to ameliorate important hallmarks of type-2 diabetes (T2D). They can regulate glucose levels by increasing insulin secretion, promoting ß-cell proliferation and a reduction of insulin resistance. In addition, epidemiological evidence indicates that consumption of flavonoid decreases the incidence of T2D. AIM OF THE STUDY: T2D is preceded by a prediabetic state in which the endocrine-metabolic changes described in T2D are already present. Since epidemiological evidence indicates that consumption of flavonoid decreases its incidence, we evaluated possible preventive effects of polyphenol-enriched cocoa extract on a model of prediabetes induced by sucrose. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We determined circulating parameters and insulin sensitivity indexes, liver protein carbonyl groups and reduced glutathione, liver mRNA expression levels of lipogenic enzymes, expression of different pro-inflammatory mediators, fructokinase activity and liver glycogen content. For that, radioimmunoassay, real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, spectrophotometry, and immunohistochemistry were used. RESULTS: We demonstrated that sucrose administration triggered hypertriglyceridemia, insulin-resistance, and liver increased oxidative stress and inflammation markers compared to control rats. Additionally, we found an increase in glycogen deposit, fructokinase activity, and lipogenic genes expression (SREBP-1c, FAS and GPAT) together with a decrease in P-Akt and P-eNOS protein content (P < 0.05). Sucrose-induced insulin resistance, hepatic carbohydrate and lipid dysmetabolism, oxidative stress, and inflammation were effectively disrupted by polyphenol-enriched cocoa extract (PECE) co-administration (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Dietary administration of cocoa flavanols may be an effective and complementary tool for preventing or reverting T2D at an early stage of its development (prediabetes).


Assuntos
Cacau/química , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Sacarose na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Polifenóis/isolamento & purificação , Polifenóis/uso terapêutico , Estado Pré-Diabético/sangue , Estado Pré-Diabético/etiologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/metabolismo , Ratos , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
8.
J Chem Ecol ; 45(10): 869-878, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31741191

RESUMO

Most plant species depend upon insect pollination services, including many cash and subsistence crops. Plants compete to attract those insects using visual cues and floral odor which pollinators associate with a reward. The cacao tree, Theobroma cacao, has a highly specialized floral morphology permitting pollination primarily by Ceratopogonid midges. However, these insects do not depend upon cacao flowers for their life cycle, and can use other sugar sources. To understand how floral cues mediate pollination in cacao we developed a method for rearing Ceratopogonidae through several complete lifecycles to provide material for bioassays. We carried out collection and analysis of cacao floral volatiles, and identified a bouquet made up exclusively of saturated and unsaturated, straight-chain hydrocarbons, which is unusual among floral odors. The most abundant components were tridecane, pentadecane, (Z)-7-pentadecene and (Z)-8-heptadecene with a heptadecadiene and heptadecatriene as minor components. We presented adult midges, Forcipomyia sp. (subgen. Forcipomyia), Culicoides paraensis and Dasyhelea borgmeieri, with natural and synthetic cacao flower odors in choice assays. Midges showed weak attraction to the complete natural floral odor in the assay, with no significant evidence of interspecific differences. This suggests that cacao floral volatiles play a role in pollinator behavior. Midges were not attracted to a synthetic blend of the above four major components of cacao flower odor, indicating that a more complete blend is required for attraction. Our findings indicate that cacao pollination is likely facilitated by the volatile blend released by flowers, and that the system involves a generalized odor response common to different species of Ceratopogonidae.


Assuntos
Cacau/química , Ceratopogonidae/fisiologia , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Animais , Cacau/metabolismo , Ceratopogonidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Flores/química , Flores/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Pólen/química , Pólen/metabolismo , Polinização/efeitos dos fármacos , Olfato , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/farmacologia
9.
Food Funct ; 10(10): 6322-6330, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31524216

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several intervention studies have investigated the relationship between cocoa flavanols and endothelial function. However, the shape of the association and the type of compounds responsible for the effects are largely unknown. OBJECTIVE: To examine the dose-response association between the consumption of cocoa flavanols and endothelial function, measured by flow-mediated dilation (FMD). DESIGN: Two investigators searched Scopus® for the relevant human intervention studies, which were pooled and meta-analysed. Heterogeneity in the findings was explored with various subgroup analyses. RESULTS: Fifteen published articles with 18 intervention arms met the inclusion criteria. Participants in these intervention groups received 80 to 1248 mg (mean: 704 mg) more flavanols than control groups. A significant improvement of FMD by 1.17% (95% CI: 0.76% to 1.57%) was calculated, with strong evidence of a non-linear association (inverted U-shape) between cocoa flavanols and FMD. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis provides evidence that cocoa flavanols could significantly improve endothelial function, with an optimal effect observed with 710 mg total flavanols, 95 mg (-)-epicatechin or 25 mg (+)-catechin. However, there was substantial variation in the results that could not be explained by the characteristics that we explored, and there were significant risk-of-bias concerns with a large majority of the studies.


Assuntos
Cacau/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/fisiologia , Flavonóis/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea , Cacau/química , Chocolate/análise , Feminino , Flavonóis/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
10.
Molecules ; 24(17)2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31480281

RESUMO

Chocolate production is a complex process during which numerous chemical reactions occur. The most important processes, involving most of the reactions important for development of the proper chocolate flavor, are fermentation, drying and roasting of cocoa bean, and chocolate conching. During fermentation, formation of important precursors occurs, which are essential for further chemical reactions in the following processes of chocolate production. Roasting is one of the most important processes due to the occurrence of Maillard's reactions, during which aroma compounds are formed. In this paper, we have reviewed the most important chemical reactions that occur with proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and polyphenols. Additionally, we present other components that may be naturally present or form during the production process, such as methylxanthines, aldehydes, esters, ketones, pyrazines, acids, and alcohols.


Assuntos
Cacau/química , Chocolate/análise , Carboidratos/química , Fermentação , Lipídeos/química , Proteínas de Plantas/análise
11.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(39): 10921-10929, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31496242

RESUMO

Free amino residues react with α-dicarbonyl compounds (DCs) contributing to the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Phenolic compounds can scavenge DCs, thus controlling the dietary carbonyl load. This study showed that high-molecular weight cocoa melanoidins (HMW-COM), HMW bread melanoidins (HMW-BM), and especially HMW coffee melanoidins (HMW-CM) are effective DC scavengers. HMW-CM (1 mg/mL) scavenged more than 40% DCs within 2 h under simulated physiological conditions, suggesting some physiological relevance. Partial acid hydrolysis of HMW-CM decreased the dicarbonyl trapping capacity, demonstrating that the ability to react with glyoxal, methylglyoxal (MGO), and diacetyl was mainly because of polyphenols bound to macromolecules. Caffeic acid (CA) and 3-caffeoylquinic acid showed a DC-scavenging kinetic profile similar to that of HMW-CM, while mass spectrometry data confirmed that hydroxyalkylation and aromatic substitution reactions led to the formation of a stable adduct between CA and MGO. These findings corroborated the idea that antioxidant-rich indigestible materials could limit carbonyl stress and AGE formation across the gastrointestinal tract.


Assuntos
Pão/análise , Cacau/química , Café/química , Diacetil/química , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polímeros/química , Cacau/metabolismo , Café/metabolismo , Diacetil/metabolismo , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Glioxal/química , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Polímeros/metabolismo , Aldeído Pirúvico/química , Aldeído Pirúvico/metabolismo
12.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(14)2019 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31373303

RESUMO

Cocoa is an important commodity crop, not only to produce chocolate, one of the most complex products from the sensory perspective, but one that commonly grows in developing countries close to the tropics. This paper presents novel techniques applied using cover photography and a novel computer application (VitiCanopy) to assess the canopy architecture of cocoa trees in a commercial plantation in Queensland, Australia. From the cocoa trees monitored, pod samples were collected, fermented, dried, and ground to obtain the aroma profile per tree using gas chromatography. The canopy architecture data were used as inputs in an artificial neural network (ANN) algorithm, with the aroma profile, considering six main aromas, as targets. The ANN model rendered high accuracy (correlation coefficient (R) = 0.82; mean squared error (MSE) = 0.09) with no overfitting. The model was then applied to an aerial image of the whole cocoa field studied to produce canopy vigor, and aroma profile maps up to the tree-by-tree scale. The tool developed could significantly aid the canopy management practices in cocoa trees, which have a direct effect on cocoa quality.


Assuntos
Cacau/química , Aprendizado de Máquina , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto/métodos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Cacau/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química
13.
Food Chem ; 299: 125105, 2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295636

RESUMO

Within the cocoa market (Theobroma cacao L.), quality and prices are often determined by geographical origin, making traceability indispensable. Therefore, to investigate possibilities of tracing by analytical methods, 48 carefully selected cocoa samples from 20 countries have been profiled using a combination of stable isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR). Chemometric analysis of combined data sets from both, stable isotope data (δ13C, δ15N, δ18O, δ2H, %C, %N, %O, %H) and 1H NMR fingerprints, achieved good separation with increased classification rates compared to classification with data of the isolated methods. IRMS contributed primarily to discrimination between countries, while 1H NMR significantly contributed to separation of varieties, but also the regions within individual countries. This study thus demonstrates that combination of two analytical methods is an effective tool to enhance both, accuracy and precision, in authenticity testing of cocoa.


Assuntos
Cacau/química , Deutério/análise , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Análise Multivariada , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , Isótopos de Oxigênio/análise
14.
Food Chem ; 299: 125124, 2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288163

RESUMO

Inflammation plays a key role in diseases such as diabetes, asthma, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Diet can influence different stages of inflammation and can have an important impact on several inflammatory diseases. Increasing scientific evidence has shown that polyphenolic compounds, such as flavonoids, which are found in fruits, vegetables, legumes, or cocoa, can have anti-inflammatory properties. Recent studies have demonstrated that flavonoids can inhibit regulatory enzymes or transcription factors important for controlling mediators involved in inflammation. Flavonoids are also known as potent antioxidants with the potential to attenuate tissue damage or fibrosis. Consequently, numerous studies in vitro and in animal models have found that flavonoids have the potential to inhibit the onset and development of inflammatory diseases. In the present review, we focused in flavonoids, the most abundant polyphenols in the diet, to give an overview of the most recent scientific knowledge about their impact on different inflammatory diseases.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/análise , Antioxidantes/análise , Cacau/química , Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Dieta , Fabaceae/química , Flavonoides/análise , Frutas/química , Humanos , Neoplasias/patologia , Polifenóis/análise , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Verduras/química
15.
Food Funct ; 10(8): 4811-4822, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31317981

RESUMO

Cocoa polyphenols exhibit high antioxidant activity and have been proposed as a potential adjuvant for the treatment of metabolic disturbances. Here, we demonstrate that supplementation with low doses (14 and 140 mg per kg per rat) of a complete cocoa extract induces metabolic benefits in a diet-induced obesity (DIO) model of Wistar rats. After 10 weeks, cocoa extract-supplemented animals exhibited significantly lower body weight gain and food efficiency, with no differences in energy intake. Cocoa significantly reduced visceral (epididymal and retroperitoneal) and subcutaneous fat accumulation accompanied by a significant reduction in the adipocyte size, which was mediated by downregulation of the adipocyte-specific genes Cebpa, Fasn and Adipoq. Additionally, cocoa extract supplementation reduced the triacylglycerol/high density lipoprotein (TAG/HDL) ratio, decreased hepatic triglyceride accumulation, improved insulin sensitivity by reducing HOMA-IR, and significantly ameliorated glucose tolerance after an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test. Finally, no adverse effect was observed in an in vivo toxicity evaluation of our cocoa extract at doses up to 500 mg kg-1 day-1. Our data demonstrate that low doses of cocoa extract supplementation (14 and 140 mg kg-1 day-1) are safe and sufficient to counteract obesity and type-2 diabetes in rats and provide new insights into the potential application of cocoa supplements in the management of the metabolic syndrome.


Assuntos
Cacau/química , Resistência à Insulina , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas Estimuladoras de Ligação a CCAAT/genética , Proteínas Estimuladoras de Ligação a CCAAT/metabolismo , Cacau/efeitos adversos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Gorduras/metabolismo , Ácido Graxo Sintase Tipo I/genética , Ácido Graxo Sintase Tipo I/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Extratos Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Sementes/química , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
J Food Sci ; 84(8): 2228-2233, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269245

RESUMO

Every year, the residues generated by the disposal of packaging materials produced from fossil fuels have been growing, denoting a major environmental problem that can be mitigated by the development of biodegradable materials from natural polymers, particularly edible films. This work aimed at the development of pectin films added by cupuassu puree and chitosan nanoparticles and to evaluate the improvement of the physical-mechanical performance of the composite films. The nanostructures displayed an average size of 110 nm and a zeta potential of approximately +40 mV. The films were produced by casting, and they exhibited manageability, homogeneity, and continuity. Based upon the mechanical analysis of maximum stress and elongation, it was concluded that the nanoparticles functioned as fillers, increasing the toughness of the pectin films. Water vapor permeability assays demonstrated that the nanostructured films containing cupuassu exhibited improved barrier properties. The glass transition temperature of the films was not strongly affected by the addition of nanoparticles. Conversely, the initial degradation temperature decreased with the addition of nanoparticles and cupuassu puree. The outcomes of this research pave a new route for the development of nonconventional food packaging materials.


Assuntos
Cacau/química , Quitosana/química , Embalagem de Alimentos/instrumentação , Nanopartículas/química , Pectinas/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polímeros/química , Permeabilidade , Polímeros/síntese química , Vapor/análise
17.
J Microencapsul ; 36(5): 447-458, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269831

RESUMO

The aim of this study was microencapsulated a nanoemulsion of cocoa liquor with whey protein by spray drying, and evaluate the effect of different inlet drying temperatures on the properties of microcapsules. The nanoemulsion showed a particle size of 202.13 nm, PdI of 0.424, and ζ-potential of -25.20 mV. The inlet drying temperature showed differences in physicochemical properties of microcapsules. Microcapsules presented good thermal stability and protection against the melting of cocoa liquor. Microcapsules obtained showed excellent yields of polyphenolic compounds (78-93%), and high retention of volatile compounds, especially of pyrazines. Greater microencapsulation yield of bioactive compounds and retention of volatile compounds was obtained at higher drying temperature (180 °C). Excellent stability of polyphenols content, antioxidant capacity, and volatile compounds of cocoa liquor were observed during storage of the microcapsules at different temperature conditions, indicating the feasibility of this powder for its incorporation into functional foods.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Cacau/química , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/administração & dosagem , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/química , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cápsulas/química , Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Tamanho da Partícula , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/farmacologia
18.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(34): 9501-9509, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31334642

RESUMO

Composition of bioactive compounds in cocoa beans is critical to the sensory and nutritional quality of cocoa based products. Twenty-six cocoa bean genotypes were freshly collected from the same plantation location in Indonesia. The bioactive compounds in these raw cocoa genotypes were identified and quantified. The results showed a great diversity in the composition of bioactive compounds among the 26 cocoa samples. The concentrations of methylxanthines, epicatechin, proanthocyanidin (PA) B-type oligomers, clovamide, and anthocyanins were important variables that differentiated these genotypes. MCC 01, SUL 3, ICCRI 03, and ICS 60 genotypes had the highest contents of flavan-3-ols including PAs and have the potential to be developed for "healthy" product formulations. Some genotypes such as DR 1, DR 2, DR 38, ICS 13, KPC 1, KW 617, RCC 71, and TSH 858 could be favored by industries due to the potential to be made into end-products with brighter appearance.


Assuntos
Cacau/química , Cacau/genética , Extratos Vegetais/química , Cacau/classificação , Catequina/química , Flavonoides , Genótipo , Indonésia , Proantocianidinas/química , Sementes/química , Sementes/genética , Xantinas/química
19.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(13): 5910-5917, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228265

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colombia is known for its production of fine and aromatic cocoa; however, the lack of homogeneity in the ripeness stage of cocoa fruit affects the final quality of cocoa beans. Therefore, the aim of this work was to identify parameters that can be use as indicators of ripeness in cocoa fruit in order to homogenize the characteristics of raw cocoa used in the production of cocoa-products industry. The parameters evaluated were fruit, seed and pod weight, firmness, color, polar and equatorial diameters of the fruit, seed moisture content, total titratable acidity, pH, and total soluble solids of pulp. RESULTS: Factors such as seed weight, firmness, diameters, total soluble solids, pH, and acidity were affected by the clone factor, whereas seed weight, pH, and total titratable acidity were affected by ripeness stage. CONCLUSION: Identification of indicators of ripeness for cocoa fruit is a complex task due to the influence of the clone on the evolution of the physicochemical characteristics of cocoa fruit during its maturation process. Thus, indicators must be developed for each clone, and at least two parameters among color, pH, and total titratable acidity should be used to determine the ripeness stage of cocoa fruit. © 2019 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Cacau/química , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ácidos/análise , Cacau/classificação , Cacau/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Chocolate , Colômbia , Cor , Frutas/química , Frutas/classificação , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Sementes/química , Sementes/classificação
20.
J AOAC Int ; 102(5): 1365-1372, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31242953

RESUMO

Dairy-based functional beverages have been a growing segment as consumer demands for health foods have shifted focus from simply enhancing lifespan to protecting health. Green tea is often limited in use because of poor bioavailability and disagreeable taste. However, milk is considered an ideal platform for the delivery of active polyphenolic compounds in green tea. Furthermore, the antioxidant enzymatic activity and antioxidant index of polyphenols in green tea have been known to be protected through interaction with dairy proteins inside the unstable intestinal environment. In addition, consumption of green tea infused with milk has been found to have a significant impact on reducing skin wrinkles and roughness in elderly subjects, through a decrease in lipid peroxidation and a concomitant reduction in oxidative stress. A similar affinity has been observed between antioxidants in coffee and milk proteins. Dark chocolate has been known to contain significant phenolic content and antioxidant activity. The activation of protein complex NF-κB, which is responsible for cell survival, was found to be significantly reduced upon consumption of cocoa with water, whereas consuming cocoa with milk had no effect on the bioavailability of the phenolic compounds in cocoa. The popularity of dairy as the source for polyphenol fortified beverages in the diet will be dictated by optimization of the technology for maximizing the bioavailability of the antioxidants.


Assuntos
Cacau/química , Café/química , Proteínas do Leite/química , Leite/química , Polifenóis/química , Chá/química , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/metabolismo , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Leite/metabolismo , Proteínas do Leite/metabolismo , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Ligação Proteica
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