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1.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(suppl 3): e20201778, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468492

RESUMO

The Cactaceae family is native to the American continent with several centers of diversity. In South America, one of these centers is the Central Andes and many species are considered to be threatened or vulnerable according to the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). Stetsonia coryne is an emblematic giant columnar cacti of the Chaco phytogeographic province. It has an extensive geographical distribution in many countries of the continent. However, to date there are no specific molecular markers for this species, neither reports of population genetic variability studies, such as for many cactus species. The lack of information is fundamentally due to the lack of molecular markers that allow these studies. In this work, by applying a Genotyping by Sequencing (GBS) technique, we developed polymorphic SSR markers for the Stetsonia coryne and evaluated their transferability to phylogenetically close species, in order to account for a robust panel of molecular markers for multispecies-studies within Cactaceae.


Assuntos
Cactaceae , Cactaceae/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , América do Sul
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360734

RESUMO

Biomimetic design provides novel opportunities for enhancing and functionalizing biomaterials. Here we created a zirconia surface with cactus-inspired meso-scale spikes and bone-inspired nano-scale trabecular architecture and examined its biological activity in bone generation and integration. Crisscrossing laser etching successfully engraved 60 µm wide, cactus-inspired spikes on yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) with 200-300 nm trabecular bone-inspired interwoven structures on the entire surface. The height of the spikes was varied from 20 to 80 µm for optimization. Average roughness (Sa) increased from 0.10 µm (polished smooth surface) to 18.14 µm (80 µm-high spikes), while the surface area increased by up to 4.43 times. The measured dimensions of the spikes almost perfectly correlated with their estimated dimensions (R2 = 0.998). The dimensional error of forming the architecture was 1% as a coefficient of variation. Bone marrow-derived osteoblasts were cultured on a polished surface and on meso- and nano-scale hybrid textured surfaces with different spike heights. The osteoblastic differentiation was significantly promoted on the hybrid-textured surfaces compared with the polished surface, and among them the hybrid-textured surface with 40 µm-high spikes showed unparalleled performance. In vivo bone-implant integration also peaked when the hybrid-textured surface had 40 µm-high spikes. The relationships between the spike height and measures of osteoblast differentiation and the strength of bone and implant integration were non-linear. The controllable creation of meso- and nano-scale hybrid biomimetic surfaces established in this study may provide a novel technological platform and design strategy for future development of biomaterial surfaces to improve bone integration and regeneration.


Assuntos
Materiais Biomiméticos , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanoestruturas/química , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Zircônio , Animais , Materiais Biomiméticos/química , Materiais Biomiméticos/farmacologia , Cactaceae , Masculino , Nanoestruturas/ultraestrutura , Osteoblastos/citologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Zircônio/química , Zircônio/farmacologia
3.
Planta ; 254(3): 44, 2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34357508

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: The first South American cactus nuclear genome assembly associated with comparative genomic analyses provides insights into nuclear and plastid genomic features, such as size, transposable elements, and metabolic processes related to cactus development. Here, we assembled the partial genome, plastome, and transcriptome of Cereus fernambucensis (Cereeae, Cactaceae), a representative species of the South American core Cactoideae. We accessed other genomes and transcriptomes available for cactus species to compare the heterozygosity level, genome size, transposable elements, orthologous genes, and plastome structure. These estimates were obtained from the literature or using the same pipeline adopted for C. fermabucensis. In addition to the C. fernambucensis plastome, we also performed de novo plastome assembly of Pachycereus pringlei, Stenocereus thurberi, and Pereskia humboldtii based on the sequences available in public databases. We estimated a genome size of ~ 1.58 Gb for C. fernambucensis, the largest genome among the compared species. The genome heterozygosity was 0.88% in C. fernambucensis but ranged from 0.36 (Carnegiea gigantea) to 17.4% (Lophocereus schottii) in the other taxa. The genome lengths of the studied cacti are constituted by a high amount of transposable elements, ranging from ~ 57 to ~ 67%. Putative satellite DNAs are present in all species, excepting C. gigantea. The plastome of C. fernambucensis was ~ 104 kb, showing events of translocation, inversion, and gene loss. We observed a low number of shared unique orthologs, which may suggest gene duplication events and the simultaneous expression of paralogous genes. We recovered 37 genes that have undergone positive selection along the Cereus branch that are associated with different metabolic processes, such as improving photosynthesis during drought stress and nutrient absorption, which may be related to the adaptation to xeric areas of the Neotropics.


Assuntos
Cactaceae , Genomas de Plastídeos , Cactaceae/genética , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis/genética , Evolução Molecular , Genômica , América do Norte , Filogenia
4.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200974

RESUMO

In this study, we investigated the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory phytochemicals and paramagnetic species in dragon fruit using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). HPLC analysis demonstrated that dragon fruit is enriched with bioactive phytochemicals, with significant variations between each part of the fruit. Anthocyanins namely, cyanidin 3-glucoside, delphinidin 3-glucoside, and pelargonidin 3-glucoside were detected in the dragon fruit peel and fresh red pulp. Epicatechin gallate, epigallocatechin, caffeine, and gallic acid were found in the dragon fruit seed. Additionally, 25-100 mg × L-1 of dragon fruit pulp and peel extracts containing enrichment of cyanidin 3-glucoside were found to inhibit the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen species (RNS), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in cell-based studies without exerted cytotoxicity. EPR primarily detected two paramagnetic species in the red samples. These two different radical species were assigned as stable radicals and Mn2+ (paramagnetic species) based on the g-values and hyperfine components. In addition, the broad EPR line width of the white peel can be correlated to a unique moiety in dragon fruit. Our EPR and HPLC results provide new insight regarding the phytochemicals and related stable intermediates found in various parts of dragon fruit. Thus, we suggest here that there is the potential to use dragon fruit peel, which contains anthocyanins, as a natural active pharmaceutical ingredient.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cactaceae/química , Frutas/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Antocianinas/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância de Spin Eletrônica/métodos , Camundongos , Células RAW 264.7 , Sementes/química
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299311

RESUMO

Aquaporins (AQPs) are essential membrane proteins involved in seed maturation and germination, stomata movement, photosynthesis, and regulation of plant flowering processes. Pitaya flowers are open at night and wither at daybreak, which shows an obvious circadian rhythm. In this study, a comprehensive genome-wide analysis of AQPs in Hylocereus undantus was conducted to screen key genes associated with flowering processes. A total of 33 HuAQP genes were identified from the H. undantus genome. The 33 HuAQPs were grouped into four subfamilies: 10 PIPs, 13 TIPs, 8 NIPs, and 2 SIPs, which were distributed on 9 out of 11 pitaya chromosomes (Chr) (except for Chr7 and Chr10). Results from expression profiles showed that HuNIP6;1 may be involved in pitaya's floral opening. HuNIP6;1 was localized exclusively in the cell membrane. Overexpression of HuNIP6;1 in Arabidopsis thaliana significantly promoted early flowering through regulating negative flowering regulators of MJM30, COL9, and PRR5, suggesting that HuNIP6;1 plays key roles in regulating flowering time. The present study provides the first genome-wide analysis of the AQP gene family in pitaya and valuable information for utilization of HuAQPs.


Assuntos
Aquaporinas/genética , Cactaceae/genética , Genes de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Aquaporinas/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Cactaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cactaceae/metabolismo , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Ritmo Circadiano , Flores/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Família Multigênica , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas
6.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 297, 2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34187352

RESUMO

Here we respond to the paper entitled "Contribution of anthocyanin pathways to fruit flesh coloration in pitayas" (Fan et al., BMC Plant Biol 20:361, 2020). In this paper Fan et al. 2020 propose that the anthocyanins can be detected in the betalain-pigmented genus Hylocereus, and suggest they are responsible for the colouration of the fruit flesh. We are open to the idea that, given the evolutionary maintenance of fully functional anthocyanin synthesis genes in betalain-pigmented species, anthocyanin pigmentation might co-occur with betalain pigments, as yet undetected, in some species. However, in absence of the LC-MS/MS spectra and co-elution/fragmentation of the authentic standard comparison, the findings of Fan et al. 2020 are not credible. Furthermore, our close examination of the paper, and re-analysis of datasets that have been made available, indicate numerous additional problems. Namely, the failure to detect betalains in an untargeted metabolite analysis, accumulation of reported anthocyanins that does not correlate with the colour of the fruit, absence of key anthocyanin synthesis genes from qPCR data, likely mis-identification of key anthocyanin genes, unreproducible patterns of correlated RNAseq data, lack of gene expression correlation with pigmentation accumulation, and putative transcription factors that are weak candidates for transcriptional up-regulation of the anthocyanin pathway.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/metabolismo , Betalaínas/metabolismo , Cactaceae/metabolismo , Vias Biossintéticas , Cactaceae/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Genes de Plantas/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Transcriptoma
7.
New Phytol ; 231(5): 2039-2049, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34101188

RESUMO

Approximately one-half of all flowering plants express genetically based physiological mechanisms that prevent self-fertilisation. One such mechanism, termed RNase-based self-incompatibility, employs ribonucleases as the pistil component. Although it is widespread, it has only been characterised in a handful of distantly related families, partly due to the difficulties presented by life history traits of many plants, which complicate genetic research. Many species in the cactus family are known to express self-incompatibility but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. We demonstrate the utility of a candidate-based RNA-seq approach, combined with some unusual features of self-incompatibility-causing genes, which we use to uncover the genetic basis of the underlying mechanisms. Specifically, we assembled transcriptomes from Schlumbergera truncata (crab cactus or false Christmas cactus), and interrogated them for tissue-specific expression of candidate genes, structural characteristics, correlation with expressed phenotype(s), and phylogenetic placement. The results were consistent with operation of the RNase-based self-incompatibility mechanism in Cactaceae. The finding yields additional evidence that the ancestor of nearly all eudicots possessed RNase-based self-incompatibility, as well as a clear path to better conservation practices for one of the most charismatic plant families.


Assuntos
Cactaceae , Autoincompatibilidade em Angiospermas , Cactaceae/genética , Flores/genética , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Ribonucleases/genética , Autoincompatibilidade em Angiospermas/genética
9.
Food Chem ; 362: 130196, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091165

RESUMO

This review examines the nutritional and functional aspects of some representatives of the Cactaceae family, as well as its technological potential in the most diverse industrial fields. The studied species are good sources of nutrients and phytochemicals of biological interest, such as phenolic compounds, carotenoids, betalains, phytosterols, tocopherols, etc. They also have shown great potential in preventing some diseases, including diabetes, obesity, cancer, and others. As to technological applications, the Cactaceae family can be explored in the production of food (e.g., cakes, yogurts, bread, ice cream, and juices), as natural dyes, sources of pectins, water treatment and in animal feed. In addition, they have great potential for many technological domains, including food chemistry, pharmacy, biotechnology, and many others.


Assuntos
Cactaceae/química , Alimentos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Ração Animal , Animais , Betalaínas/química , Betalaínas/farmacologia , Pão , Cactaceae/classificação , Corantes/química , Humanos , Sorvetes , Valor Nutritivo , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Pectinas/química , Pectinas/farmacologia , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Iogurte
10.
J Dairy Res ; 88(2): 134-138, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33988095

RESUMO

Spineless cactus (Nopalea cochenillifera) is widely used in animal feed in semi-arid regions, due to the adaptive characteristics to such conditions and for having high levels of soluble carbohydrates. This research article describes the effect of replacing grain maize with spineless cactus in the diet of dairy goats on dry matter intake, water intake, milk yield, milk physicochemical characteristics and diet production costs. Eight multiparous Anglo Nubian goats were fed diets in which grain maize was replaced with spineless cactus at four levels (0, 33, 66, and 100%) in a double 4 × 4 Latin square design. Milk yield was measured and samples collected in the last three days of each period for physicochemical analysis and for determining nutrient intake. Diet production costs were also determined. Replacing maize with spineless cactus did not influence dry matter intake. Water intake via the drinker decreased linearly in response to the increasing levels of spineless cactus in the diet. The replacement of maize with spineless cactus did not change milk yield or physicochemical parameters. Total feed cost and the percentage of revenue losses from feed decreased with the replacement. Therefore, spineless cactus can fully replace grain maize in the diet of dairy goats, as it does not change dry matter intake or milk yield, but rather reduces feed costs and the drinking-water intake of goats.


Assuntos
Cactaceae , Indústria de Laticínios , Dieta/veterinária , Cabras/fisiologia , Zea mays , Ração Animal/economia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Fenômenos Químicos , Dieta/economia , Ingestão de Líquidos , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Lactação/fisiologia , Leite/química
11.
Arch Microbiol ; 203(7): 4033-4040, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34041559

RESUMO

Pitaya fruit canker is an important disease in pitaya production. Facilitating resistance through the application of biological control principles is a promising alternative to traditional control strategies. This study evaluated the induced resistance of Penicillium rolfsii, numbered Y17 isolated from papaya leaves in pitaya fruit, and evaluated the activity of the defense enzymes, total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), and malondialdehyde (MDA) content of the treated fruit. The results demonstrate that treatment with Y17 effectively induced resistance of pitaya fruit to canker disease caused by Neoscytalidium dimidiatum, with an inhibition rate of 70.87%. In addition, Y17 notably improved the activities of peroxidase, catalase, and polyphenol oxidase as well as the T-AOC of the treated samples. Y17 treatment reduced the MDA content in these fruits. Taken together, our results suggest that Y17 treatment could trigger pitaya fruit defense responses and effectively induce resistance to fruit canker disease.


Assuntos
Cactaceae , Carica , Frutas , Interações Microbianas , Penicillium , Ascomicetos , Cactaceae/microbiologia , Carica/microbiologia , Endófitos/fisiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Frutas/microbiologia , Interações Microbianas/fisiologia , Penicillium/fisiologia , Controle Biológico de Vetores
12.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 259: 119909, 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33992890

RESUMO

The genotypic diversity of 17 cacti species were examined and grouped in four clusters using seven inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. Group representatives (five species) were chosen for AuNPs synthesis in the cacti syrups. To synthesize the Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), reducing and capping potential of five species of cacti rich in the polyphenolics were explored. Based on the synthesized AuNPs traits (concentration, pH, temperature, and synthesis time), Opuntia pycnacantha with the highest absorption peak at 540 nm was chosen for further characterizations. Varieties of diffraction peaks confirmed the successful synthesis of AuNPs. AuNPs functionalization with the phenolic compounds was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. At the optimum conditions (pH = 5.0 and T = 60 °C), both dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed more than 87% of AuNPs to be 2.5 nm in size with Zeta potential to be equal to -19.9 mV.


Assuntos
Cactaceae , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Antibacterianos , Ouro , Química Verde , Tamanho da Partícula , Extratos Vegetais , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
13.
J R Soc Interface ; 18(178): 20210040, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33975461

RESUMO

Climbing plants must reach supports and navigate gaps to colonize trees. This requires a structural organization ensuring the rigidity of so-called 'searcher' stems. Cacti have succulent stems adapted for water storage in dry habitats. We investigate how a climbing cactus Selenicereus setaceus develops its stem structure and succulent tissues for climbing. We applied a 'wide scale' approach combining field-based bending, tensile and swellability tests with fine-scale rheological, compression and anatomical analyses in laboratory conditions. Gap-spanning 'searcher' stems rely significantly on the soft cortex and outer skin of the stem for rigidity in bending (60-94%). A woody core contributes significantly to axial and radial compressive strength (80%). Rheological tests indicated that storage moduli were consistently higher than loss moduli indicating that the mucilaginous cortical tissue behaved like a viscoelastic solid with properties similar to physical or chemical hydrogels. Rheological and compression properties of the soft tissue changed from young to old stages. The hydrogel-skin composite is a multi-functional structure contributing to rigidity in searcher stems but also imparting compliance and benign failure in environmental situations when stems must fail. Soft tissue composites changing in function via changes in development and turgescence have a great potential for exploring candidate materials for technical applications.


Assuntos
Cactaceae , Força Compressiva , Hidrogéis , Pressão , Árvores
15.
J Med Chem ; 64(11): 7746-7759, 2021 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34015925

RESUMO

Here, we report the discovery of the first plant-derived and noncanonical epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) agonist, the 36-residue bleogen pB1 from Pereskia bleo of the Cactaceae family. We show that bleogen pB1 is a low-affinity EGFR agonist using a suite of chemical, biochemical, cellular, and animal experiments which include incisor eruption and wound-healing mouse models. A focused positional scanning pB1 library of Ala- and d-amino acid scans yielded a high-affinity pB1 analog, [K29k]pB1, with a 60-fold-improved EGFR affinity and mitogenicity. We show that the potency of [K29k]pB1 and the epidermal growth factor (EGF) is comparable in a diabetic mouse wound-healing model. We also show that both bleogen pB1 and [K29k]pB1 are hyperstable, being >100-fold more stable than EGF against proteolytic degradation. Overall, our discovery of a noncanonical proteolytic-resistant EGFR agonist scaffold could open new avenues for developing wound healing and skin regeneration therapeutics and biomaterials.


Assuntos
Cactaceae/química , Receptores ErbB/agonistas , Peptídeos/química , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Cactaceae/metabolismo , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Estabilidade Proteica , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Food Chem ; 361: 130078, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34023692

RESUMO

Ora-pro-nobis (Pereskia aculeata Miller) is a non-conventional food plant common in Brazil. The objective of this study was to optimize the extraction of bioactive phenolic compounds from ora-pro-nobis leaves by employing solvent mixtures. Ten extracts were obtained with water, ethanol, acetone, and their binary and ternary mixtures, evaluating the chemical composition, antioxidant activity and bioactivities in vitro. The response surface methodology was applied to model the results and calculate the optimal solvent composition, which is 60% water, 40% ethanol and 0% acetone. The optimized extract is rich in phenolic compounds (64 mg GAE/g) and proteins (823 mg/g) and presents antioxidant activity (in intracellular media as well) and inhibits lipid peroxidation (32%) along with hypotonic hemolysis (H50 = 0.339%), it does not present toxicity in vitro against cancer and normal cells. This is the first report of chicoric, caffeoyl-hexaric and coumaroyl-hexaric acids and some glycosylate derivatives of flavonols in ora-pro-nobis leaves.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Cactaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química
17.
Neotrop Entomol ; 50(4): 515-523, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33846963

RESUMO

The insect/plant interaction is known to be a trigger for diversification and even speciation. Experimental analyses on fitness traits and phenotypic variation using alternative host sites have been performed to understand the process of diversification relative to insect/plant interactions. For cactophilic species of Drosophila, the speciation process is considered an adaptive radiation in response to the exploration of species of the Cactaceae as breeding and feeding sites. In this work, we analyzed life history and morphological traits in individuals from two phyletic lineages (Evolutionarily Significant Units ESU) of the cactophilic species Drosophila meridionalis (Wasserman 1962) (Diptera: Drosophilidae) raised from media prepare. The characters analyzed corresponded to viability, developmental time, and four morphological measurements. The experiments were performed in a semi-natural medium prepared with fermenting tissues of the natural hosts, Cereus hildmaniannus and Opuntia monacantha. Viability, development time, and three morphological measurements were influenced by lineage, suggesting differentiation between the lineages. However, in O. monacantha, the mean viability was greater (~15%) and development time was longer (~336 h) than in C. hildmaniannus (~11% and ~301 h, respectively). Only the developmental time was significantly affected by the host cactus. In general, ESU group A had better values than ESU group BC for the evaluated traits. This finding suggested differentiation between the two lineages and different plastic responsiveness to the contrasting environments of the hosts, and that C. hildmaniannus may be a relatively stressful environment for the larvae, as for other Drosophila species.


Assuntos
Cactaceae , Drosophila , Filogenia , Animais , Drosophila/classificação , Fenótipo
18.
Viruses ; 13(4)2021 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33923787

RESUMO

The family Cactaceae comprises a diverse group of typically succulent plants that are native to the American continent but have been introduced to nearly all other continents, predominantly for ornamental purposes. Despite their economic, cultural, and ecological importance, very little research has been conducted on the viral community that infects them. We previously identified a highly divergent geminivirus that is the first known to infect cacti. Recent research efforts in non-cultivated and asymptomatic plants have shown that the diversity of this viral family has been under-sampled. As a consequence, little is known about the effects and interactions of geminiviruses in many plants, such as cacti. With the objective to expand knowledge on the diversity of geminiviruses infecting cacti, we used previously acquired high-throughput sequencing results to search for viral sequences using BLASTx against a viral RefSeq protein database. We identified two additional sequences with similarity to geminiviruses, for which we designed abutting primers and recovered full-length genomes. From 42 cacti and five scale insects, we derived 42 complete genome sequences of a novel geminivirus species that we have tentatively named Opuntia virus 2 (OpV2) and 32 genomes of an Opuntia-infecting becurtovirus (which is a new strain of the spinach curly top Arizona virus species). Interspecies recombination analysis of the OpV2 group revealed several recombinant regions, in some cases spanning half of the genome. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that OpV2 is a novel geminivirus more closely related to viruses of the genus Curtovirus, which was further supported by the detection of three recombination events between curtoviruses and OpV2. Both OpV2 and Opuntia becurtoviruses were identified in mixed infections, which also included the previously characterized Opuntia virus 1. Viral quantification of the co-infected cactus plants compared with single infections did not show any clear trend in viral dynamics that might be associated with the mixed infections. Using experimental Rhizobium-mediated inoculations, we found that the initial accumulation of OpV2 is facilitated by co-infection with OpV1. This study shows that the diversity of geminiviruses that infect cacti is under-sampled and that cacti harbor diverse geminiviruses. The detection of the Opuntia becurtoviruses suggests spill-over events between viruses of cultivated species and native vegetation. The threat this poses to cacti needs to be further investigated.


Assuntos
Cactaceae/virologia , Geminiviridae , Hemípteros/virologia , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Animais , Geminiviridae/classificação , Geminiviridae/isolamento & purificação , Genoma Viral
19.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(2): 281, 2021 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33890182

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of three varieties of cactus cladodes resistant to carmine cochineal on the animal performance and histology of the large intestine of sheep. Forty lambs (21.0 ± 2.0 kg body weight) were distributed in a completely randomized design, with four treatments and ten repetitions. The experimental treatments consisted of a control diet and three more diets in which part (750 g/kg) of the elephant grass hay, and all the corn were replaced by Miúda cactus cladodes, IPA-Sertânia cactus cladodes, or Orelha de Elefante Mexicana (O.E.M.) cactus cladodes. On the 60th day after the introduction of the tested diets, blood samples were collected to quantify serum magnesium (Mg2+) levels. After 63 days of experiment, the animals were slaughtered and fragments of the cecum and colon were collected for histopathological analysis. The inclusion of the Miúda and O.E.M. cactus cladodes in the diet caused inflammatory lesions in the cecum (100% of the animals) and in the colon (71.43% of the animals) of the sheep. The inflammation in the cecum caused by Miúda and O.E.M. cactus cladodes was considered accentuated (P = 0.009). Less voluntary water intake was observed for animals submitted to diets with cactus cladodes (P < 0.001), as well as higher water content in the feces (P < 0.001). The cactus cladodes, especially the Miúda and O.E.M. varieties, cause lesions in the tissue morphology of the cecum and colon of sheep, but improve productive performance.


Assuntos
Cactaceae , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Intestinos , Ovinos , Zea mays
20.
Molecules ; 26(8)2021 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33918584

RESUMO

Dragon fruits are a valued source of bioactive compounds with high potential to become a functional food. The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare the chemopreventive potential and chemical composition of fruits harvested in Thailand and Israel. The amount of different compounds in water and methanol extracts and antioxidant activity was investigated. Moreover, cytotoxic activity against cancer and normal cells of skin, prostate, and gastrointestinal origin was performed, accompanied by anti-inflammatory assay based on NO production in RAW 264.7 macrophage model. Additionally, the quenching properties of polyphenols from fruits were determined by the interaction of the main drug carrier in blood human serum (HSA). The chemometric analysis was used to reveal the relationships between the determined parameters. Dragon fruits harvested in Israel revealed higher antioxidant properties and total content of polyphenols and betacyanins when compared to those from Thailand. The examined fruits of both origins showed significant cytotoxic activity toward colon and prostate cancer cells, with no toxic effect on normal cells, but also no anti-inflammatory effect. Moreover, a high binding ability to HSA was observed for water extracts of dragon fruits. All these predestine dragon fruits are the candidates for the attractive and chemopreventive elements of daily diet.


Assuntos
Cactaceae/química , Quimioprevenção , Frutas/química , Polifenóis/análise , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Proteínas Sanguíneas/metabolismo , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Fluorescência , Humanos , Israel , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Tailândia
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