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1.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92 Suppl 1: e20180757, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32491136

RESUMO

Pereskia grandifolia Haworth (PGH) and Pereskia aculeata Miller (PAM) are recognized sources of proteins; dietary fiber; vitamins and minerals make this plant leaves, raw, cooked, and braised, an important ally against protein and micronutrient deficiencies. One of the main problems is the presence of antinutritional factors that may interfere in the digestibility and bioavailability of some nutrients. The objective was to evaluate the amino acid profile and the chemical score of the raw leaves and the effects of heating media and time on the total dietary fiber, minerals, trypsin inhibition, oxalic acid and tannins of leaves of PGH and PAM. The samples had similar amino acid profiles and total dietary fiber. With regard to antinutritional compounds, heating the leaves of PGH led to a decrease in trypsin inhibition, primarily after the first minutes of wet cooking. Oxalic acid and tannins predominated in both species. Considering the interaction with time, the variables related to iron and zinc minimized the tannin responses in PGH and PAM, respectively. Heating media and times interfered with the chemical components present in the leaves of Pereskia species and led to high antinutrient retention after heat treatment.


Assuntos
Cactaceae/química , Valor Nutritivo , Verduras/química , Aminoácidos/análise , Cactaceae/classificação , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos , Minerais/análise , Proteínas/análise , Taninos/análise , Verduras/classificação
2.
Food Chem ; 312: 126073, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31901824

RESUMO

The Mexican drylands possess enormous biotic and cultural wealth, representing 65% of the national territory. Approximately 50% of Mexican dryland flora is endemic and accompanied by ample local and traditional knowledge. There are certain types of cactus fruits that are being technologically produced. However, there are other cactus fruit that are underutilized and understudied that could be promoted for their sustainable use. Evidence indicates that the genera of Escontria, Myrtilocactus, Hylocereus, and Stenocereus contain bioactive compounds such as betalains and phenols. Opuntia, the most abundant cactus in Mexico, produces fruit known as prickly pears with bioactive compounds that are associated with health benefits. The purpose of this review is to compile the nutritional and functional properties of selected cactus fruits from the Mexican drylands, as well as their use in the health, food, cosmetic, and agricultural industries in order to establish knowledge gaps and well-supported future research directions.


Assuntos
Cactaceae/química , Betalaínas/análise , Frutas/química , México , Fenóis/análise
3.
J Forensic Sci ; 65(1): 61-66, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310334

RESUMO

Unregulated cacti from the genus Echinopsis are used recreationally as mescaline-containing alternatives to the outlawed peyote. Echinopsis-derived plant materials appear in a variety of nondescript forms, making rapid assessment of whether they are mescaline-containing materials or simply innocuous plant-derived food products, very challenging. Reported here is a DART-HRMS approach for the rapid detection of mescaline in whole plant material and a validated method for the quantification of mescaline in cactus tissue, using mescaline-d9 as the internal standard. Calibration curves exhibited R2 values of ≥0.995, and the method exhibited a LLOQ and a linear range of 1 ppm and 1-100 ppm, respectively. Application of the method to commercially available Echinopsis spp. yielded results consistent with previous studies performed by GC- and LC-MS, with mescaline levels of <2% dry weight in all cases. Therefore, DART-HRMS is a suitable technique for the rapid screening of mescaline and its subsequent quantification within complex plant-derived matrices.


Assuntos
Cactaceae/química , Alucinógenos/análise , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Mescalina/análise , Toxicologia Forense , Humanos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias
4.
Food Funct ; 10(12): 8116-8128, 2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31746888

RESUMO

It has been revealed in our previous studies that trypsin scavenges superoxide anions. In the current study, the mechanisms of storage quality improvement by trypsin were evaluated in H. undatus. Strikingly, the improvement is due not to its antibacterial or antifungal activity but to its superoxide scavenging activity. Moreover, trypsin significantly decreased the levels of ROS, cell permeability and membrane lipid peroxidation. The activities of major antioxidant enzymes were significantly improved by trypsin treatment. Transcriptome profiles of H. undatus treated with trypsin revealed the pathways and regulatory mechanisms of antioxidant genes up or down-regulated following trypsin treatment by Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway (KEGG) enrichment analyses. The results of protein-protein interaction networks indicated that CAT is the key among the enzymes of the complicated antioxidant system. In addition, the current results showed that the synergistic effect of trypsin with antioxidant enzymes can regulate the levels of endogenous active oxygen species, reduce malondialdehyde content, improve cell membrane integrity, alleviate cell damage and delay fruit ageing.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Cactaceae/química , Cactaceae/genética , Frutas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Tripsina/química , Antioxidantes/análise , Cactaceae/metabolismo , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Ontologia Genética , Malondialdeído/análise , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/análise , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
5.
Food Funct ; 10(11): 7275-7290, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621721

RESUMO

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by severe mucosal damage in the intestine and a deregulated immune response. Natural products derived from plants that are rich in bioactive compounds are used by many patients with IBD. Xique-xique (Pilosocereus gounellei) is a cactus of the Caatinga family that has been used by the local population for food and medicinal purposes. The intestinal anti-inflammatory effect of xique-xique cladode juice was evaluated in the present study. A dose of 5 mL kg-1 had a protective effect on intestinal inflammation, with an improvement in macroscopic damage, and a decrease in pro-inflammatory markers and oxidative stress, in addition to preserving the colonic tissue. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed the downregulation of IL-17, NF-κB, and iNOS, and upregulation of SOCs-1, ZO-1, and MUC-2. These protective effects could be attributed to the phenolic compounds as well as the fibers present in xique-xique juice. Further studies are needed before suggesting the use of xique-xique juice as a new alternative for treating IBD.


Assuntos
Cactaceae/química , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Ácido Acético , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios , Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucina-2/genética , Mucina-2/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/química , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Sulfassalazina/uso terapêutico , Proteína da Zônula de Oclusão-1/genética , Proteína da Zônula de Oclusão-1/metabolismo
6.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 103(21-22): 8657-8667, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520131

RESUMO

The Cactaceae family is native from the American continent but is distributed in the arid and semiarid regions worldwide. Cacti exhibit different morphological (succulent body, extended root system, presence of spines, thick waterproof epidermis) and physiological adaptations (crassulacean acid metabolism) that allow growth in adverse conditions intolerable for most C3 and C4 crops. In addition, these plants produce a wide range of secondary metabolites involved in defense mechanism against biotic and abiotic stresses. The present review focused on the content of alkaloids, phenolic compounds, and terpenes present in cacti plants. Data were limited to those compounds clearly characterized by chromatographic and/or spectrometric techniques in both globular and columnar cacti. Additional information about their pharmacological or biological activities, validated by in vitro or in vivo assays, is also presented. Data revealed that the level of some chemical constituents could give value added to these species from a nutritional, pharmacological, and biological point of view.


Assuntos
Cactaceae/química , Cactaceae/metabolismo , Alcaloides/química , Alcaloides/metabolismo , Cactaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Valor Nutritivo , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/metabolismo
7.
J Sep Sci ; 42(19): 3141-3151, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376226

RESUMO

A simple and efficient multiresidue method using dispersive solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry was developed for the targeted analysis of indaziflam and its five metabolites (indaziflam-diaminotriazine, indaziflam-carboxylic acid, indaziflam-triazine indanone, indaziflam-hydroxyethyl, and indaziflam-olefin) in pitaya samples (including roots, plants, flowers, peels, pulp, and whole fruit). The analytes were extracted with acetonitrile, and the extracts were purified using multiwalled carbon nanotubes. The method was validated using pitaya samples spiked at 0.5, 5, and 50 µg/kg, and the average recoveries varied from 61.1 to 103.7% with relative standard deviations lower than 12.7% (n = 5). This method exhibited sufficient linearity within the concentration range of 0.1-100 µg/L. The limits of detection and quantification were in the ranges of 0.001-0.1 and 0.003-0.3 µg/kg, respectively. The method was successfully applied to analyze pitaya samples in Nanning, and no indaziflam or its metabolites were detected in the samples analyzed.


Assuntos
Cactaceae/química , Indenos/análise , Extração em Fase Sólida , Triazinas/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Indenos/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Triazinas/metabolismo
8.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(14): 6241-6247, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250452

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of spineless cactus in finishing diets for lambs improves the carcass quality. However, data about its influence on meat traits is very scarce. The effects of spineless cactus inclusion in the finishing diet of lambs at four levels (0, 150, 300 and 450 g kg-1 of dry matter, DM) in replacement of Tifton hay on the physicochemical and sensory properties of meat were studied. RESULTS: The spineless cactus modified the chemical composition increasing the protein (P < 0.001) and the fat (P < 0.01) contents of meat, presenting the greatest values in lambs fed diets with 150 and 300 g kg-1 (DM) replacing levels, respectively. However, the spineless cactus did not influence the growth performance from 23.7 to 37.3 kg of body weight (on average). In addition, colour parameters of the meat were not affected by the inclusion of spineless cactus in the finishing diet of lambs, resulting in mean values of 37.55, 14.96 and 8.49 for lightness, redness and yellowness, respectively. There were no statistical differences among treatments for cooking loss and shear force, with mean values of 34.8% and 14.8 N, respectively. Finally, the sensorial properties were not affected by the inclusion of spineless cactus in the finishing diet of lambs. CONCLUSION: Spineless cactus could be included up to the level of 300 g kg-1 DM in the finishing diets of lambs to increase the fat content of meat without compromising its sensorial properties. However, further studies about the fatty acid composition of meat from lambs fed diets containing spineless cactus are necessary. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Cactaceae/metabolismo , Carne/análise , Ovinos/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Peso Corporal , Cactaceae/química , Cactaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Humanos , Ovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Paladar
9.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 134: 361-367, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31059740

RESUMO

In the present study, high-methoxyl pectin (HMP) was extracted from Hylocereus polyrhizus peel's using physico-chemical process. In addition, the hypolipidemic activity of HMP was investigated at different concentration and time corresponding to its adsorption ability. FTIR and contact angle analysis were used to determine the sorbent characterization. A high degree of esterification (63.8%) and the contact angle (95.5°) confirmed hydrophobic nature and resulting bad wetting of the HMP extract, respectively. The methoxyl content in the pectin acted as an affinity-precursor of the pectin towards cholesterol due to its increased hydrophobicity. The maximum equilibrium uptake capacity of cholesterol of 370.5mg/g (0.96mmol/g) was observed by HMP. The experimental data showed good fitting for Freundlich isotherm equation and followed pseudo-first-order kinetic model with a correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.89-0.97 due to physisorption mechanism. Intra-particle model confirmed that the cholesterol sorption rate by HMP was significantly influenced by external mass transfer (surface diffusion) and intra-particle diffusion (diffusion control). It was also revealed that the HMP extracted from Hylocereus polyrhizus peels possess a high affinity towards cholesterol, making it an ideal hypolipidemic agent.


Assuntos
Cactaceae/química , Hipolipemiantes/química , Hipolipemiantes/farmacologia , Pectinas/química , Pectinas/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Adsorção , Colesterol/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Esterificação , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Cinética , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
10.
Food Chem ; 294: 302-308, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31126467

RESUMO

Pereskia aculeata Miller, known worldwide as ora-pro-nobis, is a highly nutritive species of the Cactaceae family from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. In this work, we report inedited information on the phenolic profile of P. aculeata leaves, besides a broad study of their antioxidant potential using a set of five different methods. A total of ten phenolic compounds were identified, such as two phenolic acids (caffeic acid derivatives) and eight flavonoids (quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin glycoside derivatives). Caftaric acid was the extract's major phenolic constituent, accounting for more than 49% of the phenolic content, followed by quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (14.99%) and isorhamnetin-O-pentoside-O-rutinoside (9.56%). Overall, the ora-pro-nobis leaf extract showed relevant values of antioxidant capacity, with higher activities than the Trolox in the DPPH and ABTS trials. The antimicrobial activity exhibited by the extract against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria suggests the presence of a broad spectrum of phytochemicals with antibiotic activity.


Assuntos
Cactaceae/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Brasil , Cactaceae/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Florestas , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/citologia , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Fenóis/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo
11.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 51(6): 1531-1538, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30963404

RESUMO

Plant phytophenols especially condensed tannins (CT) and saponins (SP) have been demonstrated to impact on rumen fermentation. Dragon fruit (Hylocereus undatus) peel powder (DFPP) contains both CT and SP. The current study aimed to investigate the influence of DFPP and varying levels of concentrate and roughage ratios on gas production kinetics, nutrient degradability, and methane production "using in vitro gas production technique." The dietary treatments were arranged according to a 3 × 5 Factorial arrangement in a completely randomized design. The two experimental factors consisted of the roughage to concentrate (R:C) ratio (100:0, 70:30, and 30:70) and the levels of DFPP supplementation (0, 1, 2, 3, and 4% of the substrate) on DM basis. The results revealed that the R:C ratio at 30:70 had the highest cumulative gas production when compared to other ratios (P < 0.01). The in vitro true dry matter degradability at 12 and 24 h was affected by R:C ratio (P < 0.01). Furthermore, volatile fatty acids (VFA) and propionate (C3) were significantly increased by the levels of DFPP, while acetate (C2) and C2:C3 ratios were decreased (P < 0.05). The rumen protozoal population was significantly decreased by DFPP supplementation (P < 0.05). Rumen methane production was significantly impacted by R:C ratios and decreased when the level of DFPP increased (P < 0.01), while NH3-N and ruminal pH were not influenced by the DFPP supplement. It could be summarized that supplementation of DFPP resulted in improved rumen fermentation kinetics and could be used as a dietary source to mitigate rumen methane production, hence reducing greenhouse gas production.


Assuntos
Cactaceae/química , Digestão/fisiologia , Frutas/química , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fermentação , Masculino , Propionatos/metabolismo , Rúmen/metabolismo , Saponinas/metabolismo
12.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 51(7): 1975-1980, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31025303

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional value of different roughage sources as an exclusive feed for goats and sheep from the determination of nutrient intake and digestibility. Five goats and five sheep were used and arranged in a double 5 × 5 Latin square design. Treatments consisted of cactus Nopalea cochenillifera (L.) Salm-Dyck cladodes (Nopalea) + urea + sugarcane bagasse (NUB), cactus Opuntia stricta (Haw.) Haw cladodes (Opuntia) + urea + sugarcane bagasse (OUB), Tifton hay (TH), maize silage (MS), and forage sorghum silage (SS). Dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) intakes of NUB were greater than SS (0.620 and 0.058 versus 0.416 and 0.040 kg/day). Metabolizable energy (ME) intake was higher for NUB (1.52 Mcal/day). The DM digestibility did not change between the roughages (59%). The NUB, OUB, and MS organic matter digestibility (OMD; 62.4%) were greater than that of SS (57.4%). The roughage consisting of cactus cladodes associated with urea and sugarcane bagasse presented a greater nutritional value, similar to MS and TH, and higher than SS. Cactus cladodes associated with urea and sugarcane bagasse are recommended as an alternative to conserved feed.


Assuntos
Cactaceae/química , Fibras na Dieta , Cabras/fisiologia , Valor Nutritivo , Saccharum/química , Ovinos/fisiologia , Ureia/química , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Brasil , Celulose/química , Clima Desértico , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Masculino
13.
Microb Pathog ; 130: 71-80, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30844473

RESUMO

Mandacaru (Cereus jamacaru DC.), is a cactaceous symbol of caatinga vegetation at Brazilian Northeast region, however, there are no much studies about biochemical properties of this species. Here, the pioneering study brings very relevant data to highlight the importance of research with endemic plants of the caatinga. Afterward, the presence of enzymes such as peroxidase, protease, chitinase, ß-1,3-glucanase, and serine (trypsin) and cysteine (papain) protease inhibitors were evaluated. The peroxidase activity was higher in roots than other tissues. The ß-1,3-glucanase and proteolytic activity were prominent in stem and roots. The chitinase activity and protease inhibitor for both classes analyzed were detected in the stem and fruit peel. Antifungal activity against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides showed the root extract has a promising inhibitory activity on this economical important phytopathogenic fungus. After the contact of the hyphae with root extract increase in membrane permeability, based on Propidium Iodide (PI) uptake, and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were detected, compared to negative control. In addition, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis showed morphological damage on hyphae structure indicating that the treatment debilitates either cell membrane or cell wall leading to the cell death C. gloeosporioides.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Cactaceae/química , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Membrana Celular/patologia , Colletotrichum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Cactaceae/enzimologia , Colletotrichum/efeitos dos fármacos , Colletotrichum/enzimologia , Colletotrichum/ultraestrutura , Enzimas/análise , Frutas/química , Frutas/enzimologia , Hifas/ultraestrutura , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos dos fármacos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Permeabilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Raízes de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas/enzimologia , Caules de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/enzimologia
14.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 103(6): 2583-2595, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30706117

RESUMO

Cacti are an important source of metabolites but present limitations for their commercial exploitation, like slow growth and a decrease of wild populations. An alternative to obtain their biocompounds without affecting the natural environment are the in vitro culture techniques. We established in vitro cultures from Mammillaria candida Scheidweiler and Turbinicarpus laui Glass and Foster and used different stresses to increase metabolites and antioxidant activity. The cultures were exposed to 1.25% polyethylene glycol to induce a moderate drought stress, 50 g L-1 sucrose to generate an osmotic stress, chitosan (1.25 to 5 mg mL-1) to simulate a biotic attack, or to UV light. Chitosan was the best elicitor improving 1.5 times the concentration of phenolics, 9 to 10 times the content of flavonoids and betalains, and 16% the antioxidant activity in M. candida suspensions. In T. laui suspensions, this elicitor duplicates the flavonoids content and antioxidant activity. The antioxidant levels in elicited suspensions increased 5 to 10 times in relation to plant tubercles. Eleven compounds were identified in M. candida suspensions being digalloyl rhamnoside and epicatequin gallate the most abundant; in the T. laui suspensions, 16 compounds were detected and the most abundant were 17-decarboxi neobetanin and derivatives of luteolin. Thus, cacti in vitro culture is an efficient system to obtain high level of metabolites of biological interest.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Cactaceae/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Betalaínas/biossíntese , Cactaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Quitosana , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Meios de Cultura , Flavonoides/biossíntese , Luteolina/biossíntese , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Polietilenoglicóis
15.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 234: 96-105, 2019 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30703489

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Pilosocereus gounellei is a plant found in the Brazilian Caatinga and is popular due to its traditional uses in the treatment of inflammation. The present study was conducted to investigate the sub-acute toxicity of the saline extract from the stem of P. gounellei. AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the 28-day oral toxicity (through behavioral, biochemical, hematological, and morphological analysis) and the antipyretic activity of the extract in mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A single oral dose (250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg) was administered daily over 28 consecutive days to male and female mice. Body weight, food and water intake, blood biochemical and hematological parameters, and urine composition were recorded. Histopathological examinations of the liver, kidney, spleen, lungs, and heart were performed and oxidative stress in the organs was evaluated by lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and nitrite analysis. The antipyretic effect of the 500 mg/kg dose was assessed using a yeast-induced pyrexia model. RESULTS: Oral administration of the extract over 28 days did not affect body weight gain, food and water consumption, body temperature, and hematological parameters in male and female mice. Blood glucose, total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels in male and female mice were reduced. Protein in the urine and histological alterations in both the liver and lungs were detected in male and female mice treated with the highest dose of the extract. SOD levels in the liver and the spleen increased significantly in both sexes, whereas lipid peroxidation decreased in the spleen of male mice. The extract also exerted an antipyretic effect after the first 60 min of the evaluation until the end of the observation duration (180 min). CONCLUSION: The saline extract from the stem of P. gounellei did not present significant toxic effects over 28 consecutive days and demonstrated antipyretic activity when administered orally. Moreover, the results suggest that the extract has potential hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects. Future studies are needed to investigate its pharmacological potential.


Assuntos
Antipiréticos/farmacologia , Cactaceae/química , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Administração Oral , Animais , Antipiréticos/administração & dosagem , Antipiréticos/isolamento & purificação , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Febre/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Hipoglicemiantes/isolamento & purificação , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Hipolipemiantes/administração & dosagem , Hipolipemiantes/isolamento & purificação , Hipolipemiantes/farmacologia , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo , Testes de Toxicidade Subcrônica
16.
Food Chem ; 283: 588-595, 2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30722915

RESUMO

Pitaya fruit is susceptible to fungal attack and shrivelling during storage. This study investigated the individual and combined effect of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) and carvacrol (CVR) on red pitaya. Fruits were treated with 1 µL L-1 1-MCP, 20 µL L-1 CVR or their combination (1-MCP + CVR), and then storage at 7 °C for 30 days. 1-MCP + CVR was more effective in suppressing decay and maintaining quality during storage than individual treatment of 1-MCP or CVR. In addition, 1-MCP + CVR treatment led to decreased levels of O2-, H2O2, and lipid peroxidation, concomitant with increased activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and ascorbate peroxidase, and elevated total phenolic content, as compared to the individual application. Moreover, transmission electron microscopy observation showed that the combined treatment protected cell ultrastructure from oxidative damage. This study suggests 1-MCP combined with CVR may be a useful method for the preservation of pitaya fruit.


Assuntos
Ciclopropanos/farmacologia , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Cactaceae/química , Cactaceae/metabolismo , Cimenos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Fenóis/análise , Espectrofotometria , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Molecules ; 24(4)2019 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30781375

RESUMO

Chromatographic separation combined with mass spectrometry is a powerful tool for the characterization of plant metabolites because of its high sensitivity and selectivity. In this work, the phytochemical profile of aerial and radicular parts of Coryphantha macromeris (Engelm.) Britton & Rose growing under greenhouse conditions was qualitatively investigated for the first time by means of modern ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography⁻tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-PDA-HESI-Orbitrap-MS/MS). The UHPLC-PDA-HESI-Orbitrap-MS/MS analysis indicated a high complexity in phenolic metabolites. In our investigation, 69 compounds were detected and 60 of them were identified. Among detected compounds, several phenolic acids, phenolic glycosides, and organic acids were found. Within this diversity, 26 metabolites were exclusively detected in the aerial part, and 19 in the roots. Twenty-four metabolites occurred in both plant parts. According to the relative abundance of peaks in the chromatogram, ferulic and piscidic acids and their derivatives may correspond to one of the main phenolic compounds of C. macromeris. Our results contribute to the phytochemical knowledge regarding C. macromeris and its potential applications in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Besides, some metabolites and their fragmentation patterns are reported here for the first time for cacti species.


Assuntos
Cactaceae/química , Flavonoides/análise , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Cactaceae/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Metaboloma , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Metabolismo Secundário , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
18.
Molecules ; 24(2)2019 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30634411

RESUMO

The market trend for pitaya is increasing, although the preservation of the quality of this fruit after the harvest is challenging due to microbial decay, dehydration, and oxidation. In this work, the application of antimicrobial chitosan-based coatings achieved successful postharvest preservation of pitaya (Stenocereus pruinosus) during storage at 10 ± 2 °C with a relative humidity of 80 ± 5%. The solution of cross-linked chitosan with hydroxypropylmethylcellulose with entrapped Neem oil (16 g·L-1) displayed the best postharvest fruit characteristics. The reduction of physiological weight loss and fungal contamination, with an increased redness index and release of azadirachtin from the microencapsulated oil, resulted in up to a 15 day shelf life for this fruit. This postharvest procedure has the potential to increase commercial exploitation of fresh pitaya, owing to its good taste and high content of antioxidants.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Quitosana/farmacologia , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Derivados da Hipromelose/química , Antifúngicos/química , Cactaceae/química , Cactaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Cactaceae/microbiologia , Quitosana/química , Reagentes para Ligações Cruzadas/química , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Frutas/química , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/microbiologia , Glicerídeos/química , Limoninas/análise , Terpenos/química
19.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(5): 2267-2274, 2019 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30328118

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To reduce postharvest losses, substandard fruit and agricultural surpluses can productively be used as raw material for vinegar production. The present study aimed to prepare vinegars from surpluses of physalis (Physalis pubescens L.) and red pitahaya (Hylocereus monacanthus) and then evaluate their sensorial characteristics, antimicrobial activities, total phenolic content (TPC) and total antioxidant capacity by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzo thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) methods. RESULTS: Two vinegars were produced by submerged fermentation using physalis and red pitahaya fruits surpluses. Physalis and red pitahaya vinegars had 47 and 45 g L-1 acetic acid, respectively, and both vinegars contained approximately 1 g L-1 ethanol. Both vinegars displayed antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella enteritidis. The TPC of physalis and red pitahaya vinegar was 0.5638 and 0.3656 g L-1 g gallic acid L-1 for physalis and red pitahaya, respectively. A similar antioxidant activity was detected in both the wines and vinegars. The sensorial analysis revealed that the consumers 'like moderately' each vinegar, and citric aroma was noted in the physalis vinegar. CONCLUSION: In the present study, vinegars with sensorial characteristics approved by consumers were developed using fruit surpluses, adding value through a new product making use of a simple methodology that is both inexpensive and demonstrates a good yield. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Ácido Acético/metabolismo , Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Antibacterianos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Cactaceae/química , Physalis/química , Ácido Acético/análise , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cactaceae/metabolismo , Cactaceae/microbiologia , Fermentação , Humanos , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/metabolismo , Fenóis/farmacologia , Physalis/metabolismo , Physalis/microbiologia , Paladar
20.
Curr Med Chem ; 26(24): 4573-4584, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30259803

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The exploration of the plant biodiversity as a natural source to obtain sustainable food products and new bioactive pharmaceutical compounds has been growing significantly due to their abundance, safety and economy. Natural pharmaceutical and edible compounds present some advantages when compared to synthetic ones, such as being chemically inert and widely available. In this sense, plants of the genus Pereskia belonging to the Cactaceae family, have been studied. It is an unconventional wild edible plant that contains a large amount of protein and minerals. Studies have demonstrated their biological activities and potential application in different areas such as pharmaceutical, medicinal and food. OBJECTIVE: This review is focused on the chemical composition, functional properties, applications on pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and food areas and formulation techniques to enhance the stability and bioavailability of bioactive compounds from the underutilized wild edible plant known as ora-pro-nobis (Pereskia aculeata or Pereskia grandifolia). CONCLUSION: The latest studies involving ora-pro-nobis demonstrated its great potential due to its biological activities, which could stimulate further investigations. The utilization of this plant as a natural source to supplement the diet, or to prepare new food products and pharmaceutical formulations is an attractive approach to explore and fully realize the potential of the rich biodiversity found in Brazil and in other countries.


Assuntos
Cactaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Cactaceae/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo
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