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1.
Micron ; 77: 1-8, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26070169

RESUMO

Mineral inclusions in plant cells are genetically regulated, have an ecological function and are used as taxonomic characters. In Cactaceae, crystals in epidermal and cortical tissues have been reported; however, few studies have conducted chemical and morphological analyses on these crystals, and even fewer have reported non-mineral calcium to determine its systematic value. Cephalocereus apicicephalium, C. totolapensis and C. nizandensis are Cactaceae species endemic to the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Mexico with abundant epidermal prismatic crystals. In the present study, we characterize the mineral cell inclusions, including their chemical composition and their morphology, for three species of Cephalocereus. Crystals of healthy branches of the three species were isolated and studied. The crystals were identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD), their morphology was described using a petrographic and scanning electron microscope (SEM), and their elemental composition was measured with Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDXAR). The three species synthesized weddellite with different degrees of hydration depending on the species. The optical properties of calcium oxalate crystals were different from the core, which was calcium carbonate. We observed a large diversity of predominantly spherical forms with SEM. EDXAR analysis detected different concentrations of Ca and significant amounts of elements, such as Si, Mg, Na, K, Cl, and Fe, which may be related to the edaphic environment of these cacti. The occurrence of weddellite is novel for the genus according to previous reports. The morphological diversity of the crystals may be related to their elemental composition and may be a source of phylogenetic characters.


Assuntos
Cactaceae/química , Cactaceae/citologia , Oxalato de Cálcio/análise , Corpos de Inclusão/química , Cactaceae/ultraestrutura , Cristalização , Corpos de Inclusão/ultraestrutura , México , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Espectrometria por Raios X
2.
Ann Bot ; 115(1): 19-26, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25399023

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In Cactaceae, the areole is the organ that forms the leaves, spines and buds. Apparently, the genus Echinocereus develops enclosed buds that break through the epidermis of the stem adjacent to the areole; this trait most likely represents a synapomorphy of Echinocereus. The development of the areole is investigated here in order to understand the anatomical modifications that lead to internal bud development and to supplement anatomical knowledge of plants that do not behave according to classical shoot theory. METHODS: The external morphology of the areole was documented and the anatomy was studied using tissue clearing, scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy for 50 species that represent the recognized clades and sections of the traditional classification of the genus, including Morangaya pensilis (Echinocereus pensilis). KEY RESULTS: In Echinocereus, the areole is sealed by the periderm, and the areole meristem is moved and enclosed by the differential growth of the epidermis and surrounding cortex. The enclosed areole meristem is differentiated in a vegetative or floral bud, which develops internally and breaks through the epidermis of the stem. In Morangaya pensilis, the areole is not sealed by the periderm and the areole meristem is not enclosed. CONCLUSIONS: The enclosed areole meristem and internal bud development are understood to be an adaptation to protect the meristem and the bud from low temperatures. The anatomical evidence supports the hypothesis that the enclosed bud represents one synapomorphy for Echinocereus and also supports the exclusion of Morangaya from Echinocereus.


Assuntos
Cactaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Meristema/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Adaptação Fisiológica , Cactaceae/anatomia & histologia , Cactaceae/classificação , Cactaceae/ultraestrutura , Meristema/anatomia & histologia , Meristema/ultraestrutura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Morfogênese , Especificidade da Espécie
3.
J Nat Med ; 65(1): 103-10, 2011 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20890669

RESUMO

Genus Lophophora (Cactaceae) has two species: Lophophora williamsii Coulter, which is called peyote, and L. diffusa Bravo. Although it was reported that L. williamsii contained mescaline and L. diffusa did not, we found L. williamsii specimens that did not contain mescaline. This finding indicated that the two species could not be differentiated in terms of mescaline content. Moreover, the relationship between mescaline content and morphology of the two species is also unknown. In this study, we attempted to clarify the difference in morphology, mescaline content, and DNA alignment of the chloroplast trnL/trnF region between L. williamsii and L. diffusa. As a result, L. williamsii specimens were classified into two groups. Group 1 had small protuberances on the epidermis, contained mescaline, and the analyzed region on the trnL/trnF sequence was 881 base pairs (bp) long in all except one (877 bp). Group 2 had large protuberances on the epidermis, did not contain mescaline, and the analyzed region was 893 bp long. On the other hand, L. diffusa had medium-sized protuberances on the epidermis, did not contain mescaline, and the analyzed region was 903 bp long. Also investigated was the potential application of the PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method as a means of identification based on the trnL/trnF sequence. By applying the PCR-RFLP method, the two species could be distinguished and L. williamsii specimens could be differentiated into group 1 and group 2.


Assuntos
Cactaceae/química , Cactaceae/genética , Mescalina/química , Cactaceae/ultraestrutura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição
4.
Rev. colomb. biotecnol ; 12(2): 223-229, dic. 2010.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-590788

RESUMO

Pilosocereus sp es una especie en peligro crítico de extinción, la única población conocida se encuentra en una mina de mármol verde, hoy abandonada, en la que su explotación produjo la disminución del 80% de la población en 3 años; en la actualidad quedan 28 ejemplares, de ellos unos pocos son adultos, de los cuales solo dos producen frutos. Una de las etapas necesaria para su recuperación es la producción de plántulas para realizar el reforzamiento de la población natural. Como las plantas obtenidas serán plantadas en condiciones naturales, donde se enfrentarán a diversas situaciones ambientales, es conveniente realizar un estudio de diversidad genética. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estimar la variabilidad genética de plántulas de Pilosocereus sp empleando la técnica Inverse Sequence Tagged Repeat (ISTR). Se realizó la germinación in vitro de semillas y se determinó la variabilidad genética de las plántulas obtenidas. Con el análisis molecular se detectaron un total de 97 bandas, de ellas el 62,8% fueron polimórficas. El mayor porcentaje de bandas polimórficas (85,7%) se obtuvo con la combinación de oligonucleótidos F6/B6. Con las combinaciones de oligonucleótidos empleados se detectaron de 4 a 6 patrones de banda diferentes. La heterocigosidad media esperada fue de 0,39.


Pilosocereus sp is a species in critical extinction danger, the only known population is in a mine of green marble, abandoned today, but it exploitation produced the decrease of the population's 80% in 3 years, at the present time they are 28 individuals, of them some few ones are mature, of those which alone two produce fruits. One of the necessary stages for their recovery is the seedlings production to carry out the natural population's reinforcement. As the obtained plants they will be planted under natural conditions, where they will face diverse environmental situations, it is convenient to carry out a study of genetic diversity. The objective of this work was to estimate the genetic variability using the technical Inverse Sequence Tagged Repeat (ISTR). In vitro germination of seeds of Pilosocereus sp and the genetic variability of the obtained seedlings was determined. With the molecular analysis a total of 97 bands were detected, of them 62.8% were polymorphic. The biggest percentage of polymorphism (85.7%) was obtained with the primer combination F6/B6. With the primer combinations employed were detected from 4 to 6 different band patterns. The heterocigocity hoped was 0.39.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , Cactaceae/classificação , Cactaceae/efeitos adversos , Cactaceae/imunologia , Cactaceae/microbiologia , Cactaceae/química , Cactaceae/ultraestrutura
5.
J Microsc ; 239(1): 78-86, 2010 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20579272

RESUMO

Artificial conditions of tissue culture affect growth and physiology of crassulacean acid metabolism plants which often results in formation of hyperhydric shoots. In in vitro conditions Mammillaria gracilis Pfeiff. (Cactaceae) growth switches from organized to unorganized way, producing a habituated organogenic callus which simultaneously regenerates morphologically normal as well as altered hyperhydric shoots. In this study, influence of tissue culture conditions on morphology of cactus spines of normal and hyperhydric shoots was investigated. Spines of pot-grown Mammillaria plants and of in vitro regenerated shoots were examined with stereo microscope and scanning electron microscope. The pot-grown plants had 16-17 spines per areole. In vitro grown normal shoots, even though they kept typical shoot morphology, had lower number of spines (11-12) and altered spine morphology. This difference was even more pronounced in spine number (six to seven) and morphology of the hyperhydric shoots. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed remarkable differences in micromorphology of spine surface between pot-grown and in vitro grown shoots. Spines of in vitro grown normal shoots showed numerous long trichomes, which were more elongated on spines of the hyperhydric shoots; the corresponding structures on spine surface of pot-grown plants were noticed only as small protrusions. Scanning electron microscopy morphometric studies showed that the spines of pot-grown plants were significantly longer compared to the spines of shoots grown in tissue culture. Moreover, transverse section shape varies from elliptical in pot-grown plants to circular in normal and hyperhydric shoots grown in vitro. Cluster and correspondence analyses performed on the scanning electron microscope obtained results suggest great variability among spines of pot-grown plants. Spines of in vitro grown normal and hyperhydric shoots showed low level of morphological variation among themselves despite the significant difference in shoot morphology.


Assuntos
Cactaceae/anatomia & histologia , Cactaceae/ultraestrutura , Brotos de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Brotos de Planta/ultraestrutura , Microscopia , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura
6.
Naturwissenschaften ; 93(3): 114-8, 2006 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16453105

RESUMO

Cacti contain large quantities of Ca-oxalate biominerals, with C derived from atmospheric CO(2). Their death releases these biominerals into the environment, which subsequently transform to calcite via a monohydrocalcite intermediate. Here, the fate of Ca-oxalates released by plants in arid environments is investigated. This novel and widespread form of biomineralization has unexpected consequences on C cycling and calcite accumulation in areas with large numbers of cacti. The magnitude of this mineralization is revealed by studying the large columnar cactus Carnegiea gigantea (Engelm.) Britton and Rose in southwestern Arizona (locally called the saguaro). A large C. gigantea contains on the order of 1 x 10(5) g of the Ca-oxalate weddellite-CaC(2)O(4) x 2H(2)O. In areas with high C. gigantea density, there is an estimated 40 g C(atm) m(-2) sequestered in Ca-oxalates. Following the death of the plant, the weddellite transforms to calcite on the order to 10-20 years. In areas with high saguaro density, there is an estimated release of up to 2.4 g calcite m(-2) year(-1) onto the desert soil. Similar transformation mechanisms occur with the Ca-oxalates that are abundant in the majority of cacti. Thus, the total atmospheric C returned to the soil of areas with a high number density of cacti is large, suggesting that there may be a significant long-term accumulation of atmospheric C in these soils derived from Ca-oxalate biominerals. These findings demonstrate that plant decay in arid environments may have locally significant impacts on the Ca and inorganic C cycles.


Assuntos
Cactaceae/fisiologia , Carbono/metabolismo , Arizona , Cactaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cactaceae/ultraestrutura , Carbonato de Cálcio/análise , Clima , Clima Desértico , Geografia
7.
J Plant Res ; 117(4): 277-89, 2004 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15338428

RESUMO

Seeds of 13 Pachycereus species and two Stenocereus species that have been suggested as closely related were examined with the scanning electron microscope. Quantitative features were evaluated using multivariate analysis in order to identify characters that distinguish them. Several species groups were recognized on the basis of 16 qualitative characters. All species studied are keeled. Stenocereus aragonii and S. eichlamii share with most Pachycereus species large size, glossy appearance, and a flat relief on periclinal cells in the lateral region. Pachycereus gatesii and P. schottii are unique in having the smallest seeds and a deeply impressed hilum-micropylar region. P. hollianus does not exhibit micro-relief on periclinal walls in the lateral region, and P. fulviceps has no expanded testa border. Multivariate analysis showed that four characters, length, breadth, hilum-micropylar region length, and angle, made the greatest contribution to distinguishing among species groups. More than 80% of P. fulviceps, P. hollianus, P. tepamo, P. weberi, and S. eichlamii seeds could be classified correctly using four seed features and the percentage was even higher using just two or three features for P. gatesii, P. grandis, P. militaris, P. pringlei, and P. schottii. Testa appearance, testa cell-pattern, and position relative to the rim of the hilum-micropylar region were found to be potentially informative and should be combined with other sources of data in future phylogenetic analyses.


Assuntos
Cactaceae/anatomia & histologia , Cactaceae/classificação , Cactaceae/ultraestrutura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Análise Multivariada , Filogenia , Sementes/anatomia & histologia , Sementes/ultraestrutura , Especificidade da Espécie
8.
Ann Bot ; 94(1): 145-53, 2004 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15145794

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Shoot apical meristems (SAMs) in most seed plants are quite uniform in size and zonation, and molecular genetic studies of Arabidopsis and other model plants are revealing details of SAM morphogenesis. Some cacti have SAMs much larger than those of A. thaliana and other seed plants. This study examined how SAM size affects leaf primordium (LP) size, phyllotaxy and shoot diameter. METHODS: Apices from 183 species of cacti were fixed, microtomed and studied by light microscopy. KEY RESULTS: Cactus SAM diameter varies from 93 to 2565 microm, the latter being 36 times wider than SAMs of A. thaliana and having a volume 45 thousand times larger. Phyllotaxy ranges from distichous to having 56 rows of leaves and is not restricted to Fibonacci numbers. Leaf primordium diameter ranges from 44 to 402 microm, each encompassing many more cells than do LP of other plants. Species with high phyllotaxy have smaller LP, although the correlation is weak. There is almost no correlation between SAM diameter and LP size, but SAM diameter is strongly correlated with shoot diameter, with shoots being about 189.5 times wider than SAMs. CONCLUSIONS: Presumably, genes such as SHOOT-MERISTEMLESS, WUSCHEL and CLAVATA must control much larger volumes of SAM tissue in cacti than they do in A. thaliana, and genes such as PERIANTHIA might establish much more extensive fields of inhibition around LP. These giant SAMs should make it possible to more accurately map gene expression patterns relative to SAM zonation and LP sites.


Assuntos
Cactaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Meristema/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Arabidopsis/ultraestrutura , Cactaceae/fisiologia , Cactaceae/ultraestrutura , Genes de Plantas , Meristema/ultraestrutura , Microscopia Eletrônica , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/ultraestrutura
9.
Planta ; 219(3): 500-6, 2004 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15064950

RESUMO

Plants have evolved various photoprotective mechanisms to mitigate photodamage. Here we report the diurnal movement of chloroplasts in the leaves of succulent crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants under combined light and water stress. In leaves of water-stressed plants, the chloroplasts became densely clumped in one or sometimes two areas in the cytoplasm under light and dispersed during darkness. The chloroplast clumping resulted in leaf optical changes, with a decrease in absorptance and an increase in transmittance. The plant stress hormone abscisic acid induced chloroplast clumping in the leaf cells under light. We suggest that the marked chloroplast movement in these CAM plants is a photoprotective strategy used by the plants subjected to severe water stress.


Assuntos
Cloroplastos/ultraestrutura , Ácido Abscísico/farmacologia , Cactaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Cactaceae/fisiologia , Cactaceae/ultraestrutura , Cloroplastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Cloroplastos/fisiologia , Crassulaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Crassulaceae/fisiologia , Crassulaceae/ultraestrutura , Microscopia Eletrônica , Movimento/efeitos da radiação , Fotobiologia , Fotoperíodo , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/ultraestrutura , Água/metabolismo
10.
J Plant Res ; 116(1): 27-35, 2003 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12605297

RESUMO

Dermal and hypodermal anatomical features of 70 species representing 21 genera of North American Cactoideae were studied. Results show that all species examined have parallelocytic stomata and anticlinal wall surface varies from straight to undulate. Cuticle thickness is mostly narrow (1-10 microm) contrary to the general opinion that cuticle is thick in most cacti; however, few species such as Ariocarpus fissuratus and several species of Pachycereus show a distinctive thick cuticle. More than 80% of the species studied have a single-layered epidermis. Papillae occur in eight species belonging to four genera. Notable papillae are a feature shared by all members of Peniocereus subg. Peniocereus. Other species show a bullate surface produced by irregular patches of secondary epidermal cell divisions. Commonly, the hypodermis is composed of more than two cell layers with distinctive collenchymatous walls as reported in many South American species. Silica bodies, prismatic crystals, druses, sphaerocrystals, and tannins are the most common cellular inclusions that distinguish several genera and appear to have taxonomic value. However, a more thorough search in species of Cephalocereus, Coryphantha, Echinocereus, Mammillaria, Neobuxbaumia, Pilosocereus, and Turbinicarpus is needed to support the previous assertion.


Assuntos
Cactaceae/ultraestrutura , Epiderme Vegetal/ultraestrutura , Cactaceae/classificação , Extensões da Superfície Celular/ultraestrutura , Corpos de Inclusão/ultraestrutura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , América do Norte , Dióxido de Silício/metabolismo , Taninos/metabolismo
11.
Scanning ; 24(6): 284-96, 2002.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12507382

RESUMO

In this paper, I present an interesting processing method of microscopic images. High-pass type filters are generally used for image focusing. They enhance the high spatial frequencies. They are, however, efficient only in cases when the picture is not sharp because of the low contrast on high frequencies (for example in a TV picture). These filters, are not appropriate if the lack of sharpness has been caused by other factors. In this case, it is not possible to construct a three-dimensional model of the observed object. Better results and a three-dimensional model can be obtained by applying the following theory. As part of this paper, an original program based on this theory is described.


Assuntos
Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Microscopia/métodos , Animais , Cactaceae/ultraestrutura , Drosophila/ultraestrutura , Aumento da Imagem , Software
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