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1.
Life Sci ; 246: 117420, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32050085

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We intend to assess the effect of the conditioned medium of Caffeine pulsed MSCS in the amelioration of rheumatoid arthritis (RA)-afflicted rats. METHODS: MSCs were incubated with 0, 0.1, 0.5 or 1 mM Caffeine for 2 weeks. RA was induced by the injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) into the base of the tail of Wistar rats. According to in vitro studies, RA rats were intraperitoneally treated with MSCs, Caffeine (0.5 mM) pulsed MSCs or vehicle on day 14 when all rats had shown signs of RA. RESULTS: Our results suggest that the least effective dose concentration of Caffeine that can induce potent anti-inflammatory property in the MSC population is 0.5 mM. Without any significant impact on the vitality or MScs' marker, Caffeine at this concentration could induce lower levels of IFN-γ, IL-6, and IL-1ß and a higher level of IDO, TGF-ß, and IL-10 compared to other groups. Therefore, MSCs pulsed with Caffeine at 0.5 mM concentration was selected for in vitro studies. Caffeine pulsed MSCs could reduce the severity of the disease and improve weight-gaining more profoundly than treatment with MSCs alone. Furthermore, Caffeine pulsed MSCs caused a significant reduction in the serum levels C-reactive protein, Nitric oxide, Myeloperoxidase, TNF-α and conversely led a significant increase in the levels of IL-10 more prominent than the similar findings brought about by MSCs alone. CONCLUSION: In general, caffeine-treated MSCs may be a promising strategy for cell-based therapy of RA.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/terapia , Cafeína/farmacologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/métodos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Artrite Experimental/imunologia , Artrite Experimental/terapia , Artrite Reumatoide/imunologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Imunomodulação , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
2.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 16(1): 56, 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31771598

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A limited amount of research has demonstrated beneficial effects of caffeine and theanine supplementation for enhancement of mental performance. The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether the acute ingestion of a supplement containing caffeine, theanine and tyrosine improves mental and physical performance in athletes. METHODS: Twenty current or former male collegiate athletes (age: 20.5 ± 1.4 y; height: 1.82 ± 0.08 m; weight: 83.9 ± 12.6 kg; body fat: 13.8 ± 5.6%) completed this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial. After familiarization, each participant completed two identical testing sessions with provision of a proprietary dietary supplement (SUP) containing caffeine theanine and tyrosine or a placebo (PL). Within each testing session, participants completed assessments of mental and physical performance before and after provision of SUP or PL, as well as after two rounds of exercise. Assessments were performed using a performance testing device (Makoto Arena) that evaluated multiple aspects of mental and physical performance in response to auditory and visual stimuli. Testing was performed both with the body in a static position and during dynamic movement. General linear models were used to evaluate the effects of SUP and PL on performance. RESULTS: Changes in movement accuracy during performance assessment were greater following SUP ingestion as compared to PL for both static and dynamic testing (SUP: + 0.4 to 7.5%; PL: - 1.4 to 1.4% on average; p < 0.05). For dynamic testing, the change in number of targets hit was higher and the change in average hit time was lower with SUP as compared to PL (p < 0.05). However, there were no differences between conditions for the changes in number of targets hit or average hit time during static testing. There were no differences in changes of subjective variables during either condition, and performance measures during the two rounds of exercise did not differ between conditions (p > 0.05). DISCUSSION: The present results indicate that a combination of a low-dose of caffeine with theanine and tyrosine may improve athletes' movement accuracy surrounding bouts of exhaustive exercise without altering subjective variables. Based on this finding, supplementation with caffeine, theanine and tyrosine could potentially hold ergogenic value for athletes in sports requiring rapid and accurate movements. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT03019523. Registered 24 January 2017.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Cafeína/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Glutamatos/farmacologia , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/farmacologia , Tirosina/farmacologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
3.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(12): 183, 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31728740

RESUMO

Caffeine is a naturally occurring alkaloid, where its major consumption occurs with beverages such as coffee, soft drinks and tea. Despite a variety of reports on the effects of caffeine on diverse organisms including yeast, the complex molecular basis of caffeine resistance and response has yet to be understood. In this study, a caffeine-hyperresistant and genetically stable Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant was obtained for the first time by evolutionary engineering, using batch selection in the presence of gradually increased caffeine stress levels and without any mutagenesis of the initial population prior to selection. The selected mutant could resist up to 50 mM caffeine, a level, to our knowledge, that has not been reported for S. cerevisiae so far. The mutant was also resistant to the cell wall-damaging agent lyticase, and it showed cross-resistance against various compounds such as rapamycin, antimycin, coniferyl aldehyde and cycloheximide. Comparative transcriptomic analysis results revealed that the genes involved in the energy conservation and production pathways, and pleiotropic drug resistance were overexpressed. Whole genome re-sequencing identified single nucleotide polymorphisms in only three genes of the caffeine-hyperresistant mutant; PDR1, PDR5 and RIM8, which may play a potential role in caffeine-hyperresistance.


Assuntos
Cafeína/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Fúngica/genética , Engenharia de Proteínas/métodos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/efeitos dos fármacos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Acroleína/análogos & derivados , Acroleína/farmacologia , Antimicina A/análogos & derivados , Antimicina A/farmacologia , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Cicloeximida/farmacologia , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Mutagênese , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Sirolimo/farmacologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Transcriptoma , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
4.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 16(1): 47, 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31660991

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: TeaCrine® is the synthetic version to naturally occurring theacrine (1, 3, 7, 9-tetramethyluric acid) found in the leaves of Camellia kucha tea plants. A few studies have examined the effects of TeaCrine® on cognitive perception, but no research exists examining its effects on resistance exercise performance. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of TeaCrine®, a caffeine-like compound, on maximal muscular strength, endurance, and power performance in resistance-trained men. METHODS: Twelve resistance-trained men participated in a randomized, double-blind, cross-over designed study. Each participant performed one-repetition maximum (1RM) bench press, 1RM squat, bench press repetitions to failure (RTF) at 70% 1RM, squat RTF at 70% 1RM, and 2-km rowing time trial 90 min after consumption of: (1) Caffeine 300 mg (CAFF300); (2) TeaCrine® 300 mg (TEA300); (3) TeaCrine® + Caffeine (COMBO; 150 mg/150 mg); (4) Placebo 300 mg (PLA). Power and velocity were measured using a TENDO Power Analyzer. Visual analogue scales for energy, focus, motivation to exercise, and fatigue were administered at baseline and 90 min post-treatment ingestion (pre-workout). Rating of perceived exertion was assessed after bench press RTF and squat RTF. RESULTS: There were no differences between groups for 1RM, RTF, and power in the bench press and squat exercises. Only CAFF300 resulted in significant increases in perceived energy and motivation to exercise vs. TEA300 and PLA (Energy: + 9.8%, 95% confidence interval [3.3-16.4%], p < 0.01; + 15.3%, 95% CI [2.2-28.5%], p < 0.02; Motivation to exercise: + 8.9%, 95% CI [0.2-17.6%], p = 0.04, + 14.8%, 95% CI [4.7-24.8%], p < 0.01, respectively) and increased focus (+ 9.6%, 95% CI [2.1-17.1%], p = 0.01) vs. TEA300, but there were no significant differences between CAFF300 and COMBO (Energy + 3.9% [- 6.9-14.7%], Focus + 2.5% [- 6.3-11.3%], Motivation to exercise + 0.5% [- 11.6-12.6%]; p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Neither TEA300, CAFF300, COMBO, or PLA (when consumed 90 min pre-exercise) improved muscular strength, power, or endurance performance in resistance-trained men. Only CAFF300 improved measures of focus, energy, and motivation to exercise.


Assuntos
Cafeína/farmacologia , Força Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/farmacologia , Resistência Física/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Úrico/análogos & derivados , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Masculino , Treinamento de Resistência , Ácido Úrico/farmacologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 16(1): 44, 2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ergogenic properties of acute caffeine (CAF) and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) ingestion on athletic performance have been previously investigated. However, each sport has unique physiological and technical characteristics which warrants optimizing supplementations strategies for maximizing performance. This study examined the effects of CAF and NaHCO3 ingestion on physiological responses and rate of perceived exertion during a Karate-specific aerobic test (KSAT) in competitive karatekas. METHODS: In a double-blind, crossover, randomized placebo-controlled trial, eight Karatekas underwent five experimental conditions including control (CON), placebo (PLA), CAF, NaHCO3, and CAF + NaHCO3 before completing KSAT. Capsules containing 6 mg/kg BW CAF were consumed 50 min prior to a KSAT whilst 0.3 g/kg BW NaHCO3 was consumed for 3 days leading to and 120, 90, and 60 min prior to a KSAT. Time to exhaustion (TTE), rate of perceived exertion (RPE), and blood lactate (BL) were measured before, immediately after and 3 min following KSAT. RESULTS: TTE was significantly greater following CAF, NaHCO3, and CAF + NaHCO3 consumption compared to PLA and CON. However, the differences between CAF, NaHCO3, and CAF + NaHCO3 were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). BL increased significantly from baseline to immediately after and 3 min following KSAT in all conditions (p < 0.01), while RPE at the end of KSAT was not significantly different between conditions (p = 0.11). CONCLUSIONS: Karate practitioners may benefit from the ergogenic effects of CAF and NaHCO3 when consumed separately or together.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Cafeína/farmacologia , Artes Marciais/fisiologia , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/farmacologia , Bicarbonato de Sódio/farmacologia , Adolescente , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
6.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 134: 110809, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499124

RESUMO

The role of caffeinated beverages on efficiency of acute inflammatory responses is not yet fully understood. This study analyzed the effect of five hot water extracts, coffee (CO), black/green tea (BT/GT), yerba mate (YM), and guarana (GU) on inflammatory modulation of non-activated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), yeast-activated human neutrophils, and granulocytic coelomocytes from Eisenia fetida earthworm. Based on preliminary tests, a concentration of 10 µg/mL was chosen for subsequent assays, as at this concentration, the extracts exhibited antioxidant, genoprotective, and non-cytotoxic properties. Immunoassays using 24-h PBMC supernatant showed that all extracts decreased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ), and increased levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10. Further, these extracts induced overexpression of cytokine genes in 24-h cultures. These results suggest that an increase in the levels of mRNAs and/or inactive cytokines in the cytoplasm improves the "immune cytokine response. Analysis of the yeast encapsulation processes, and production of human neutrophils and coelomocyte extracellular DNA traps suggests that extracts also improve the immune response in humans and earthworms. However, for E. fetida, the intensity of these results varied from extract. Overall, our results suggest that caffeinated beverages may improve an organism's efficiency against acute inflammatory processes.


Assuntos
Bebidas , Cafeína/farmacologia , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Citocinas/imunologia , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/imunologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Oligoquetos
7.
Nutrients ; 11(9)2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31480553

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Caffeine ingestion improves athletic performance, but impairs sleep quality. We aimed to analyze the effect of caffeine intake on 800-m running performance, sleep quality (SQ), and nocturnal cardiac autonomic activity (CAA) in trained runners. METHODS: Fifteen male middle-distance runners participated in the study (aged 23.7 ± 8.2 years). In a randomized and comparative crossover study design, the athletes ingested a placebo (PL) or caffeine supplement (CAF; 6 mg∙kg-1) one hour before an 800-m running time-trial test in the evening. During the night, CAA and SQ were assessed using actigraphy and a sleep questionnaire. A second 800-m running test was performed 24 h after the first. Time, heart rate, rating of perceived exertion, and blood lactate concentration were analyzed for each running test. RESULTS: No significant differences in CAA and performance variables were found between the two conditions. However, CAF impaired sleep efficiency (p = 0.003), actual wake time (p = 0.001), and the number of awakenings (p = 0.005), as measured by actigraphy. Also, CAF impaired the questionnaire variables of SQ (p = 0.005), calm sleep (p = 0.005), ease of falling asleep (p = 0.003), and feeling refreshed after waking (p = 0.006). CONCLUSION: The supplementation with caffeine (6 mg∙kg-1) did not improve the 800-m running performance, but did impair the SQ of trained runners.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Cafeína/farmacologia , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/farmacologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Sono/efeitos dos fármacos , Actigrafia , Adulto , Atletas , Estudos Cross-Over , Suplementos Nutricionais , Teste de Esforço , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 16(1): 38, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488190

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Caffeine (CAF) supplementation could have a positive impact on physical performance and sport abilities. Nevertheless, the CAF-induced, dose-dependent influence on discipline-specific performance and combat activity in combat sports have not been sufficiently investigated. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of single ingestion of 3, 6, or 9 mg/kg body weight of CAF and placebo (PLA) on judo-specific performance and sparring combat activities. METHODS: In a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over design, acute pre-exercise supplementation with CAF (3, 6, or 9 mg/kg body weight) and placebo PLA in 22 male highly-trained judoists was examined. The study protocol involved five separate testing sessions using the Special Judo Fitness Test (SJFT) with heart rate monitoring, three judo sparring combats and evaluation of the rate of perceived exertion (RPE) using the Borg scale. RESULTS: Six and 9 mg/kg CAF improved SJFT performance, while 9 mg/kg increased combat activity. Three mg/kg CAF lacked any apparent positive ergogenic effect. Among athletes, who include CAF-containing products in their habitual diet (consumers), only 9 mg/kg CAF effectively enhanced SJFT performance, while in those who do not consume CAF-containing products at regular basis (non-consumers), the enhancing effect was achieved even at 6 mg/kg. CONCLUSIONS: Regarding combat sports, higher (6-9 mg/kg) than currently recommended CAF dosages (3-6 mg/kg) are apparently more effective in terms of judo-specific performance. However, the ergogenic CAF effect is not only dose-dependent, but it is also related to customary CAF consumption. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trials Gov, NCT03822663 . Registered 28 January 2019 - Retrospectively registered.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Cafeína/farmacologia , Artes Marciais/fisiologia , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/farmacologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Cafeína/administração & dosagem , Estudos Cross-Over , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Teste de Esforço , Humanos , Masculino , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
9.
Genetics ; 213(2): 651-663, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492806

RESUMO

GWAS and eQTL studies identified thousands of genetic variants associated with complex traits and gene expression. Despite the important role of environmental exposures in complex traits, only a limited number of environmental factors were measured in these studies. Measuring molecular phenotypes in tightly controlled cellular environments provides a more tractable setting to study gene-environment interactions in the absence of other confounding variables. We performed RNA-seq and ATAC-seq in endothelial cells exposed to retinoic acid, dexamethasone, caffeine, and selenium to model genetic and environmental effects on gene regulation in the vascular endothelium-a common site of pathology in cardiovascular disease. We found that genes near regions of differentially accessible chromatin were more likely to be differentially expressed [OR = (3.41, 6.52), [Formula: see text]]. Furthermore, we confirmed that environment-specific changes in transcription factor binding are a key mechanism for cellular response to environmental stimuli. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in these transcription response factor footprints for dexamethasone, caffeine, and retinoic acid were enriched in GTEx eQTLs from artery tissues, indicating that these environmental conditions are latently present in GTEx samples. Additionally, SNPs in footprints for response factors in caffeine are enriched in colocalized eQTLs for coronary artery disease (CAD), suggesting a role for caffeine in CAD risk. By combining GWAS, eQTLs, and response genes, we annotated environmental components that can increase or decrease disease risk through changes in gene expression in 43 genes. Interestingly, each treatment may amplify or buffer genetic risk for CAD, depending on the particular SNP or gene considered.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Cafeína/farmacologia , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Fenótipo , Fatores de Risco , Selênio/farmacologia , Tretinoína/farmacologia
10.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394740

RESUMO

Exercise has beneficial effects on our health by stimulating metabolic activation of skeletal muscle contraction. Caffeine is a powerful metabolic stimulant in the skeletal muscle that has ergogenic effects, including enhanced muscle power output and endurance capacity. In the present study, we aim to characterize the metabolic signatures of contracting muscles with or without caffeine stimulation using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and capillary electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometry. Isolated rat epitrochlearis muscle was incubated in the presence or absence or of 3 mM caffeine for 30 min. Electrical stimulation (ES) was used to induce tetanic contractions during the final 10 min of incubation. Principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis detected 184 distinct metabolites across three experimental groups-basal, ES, and ES with caffeine (ES + C). Significance Analysis of Microarray identified a total of 50 metabolites with significant changes in expression, and 23 metabolites significantly changed between the ES and ES + C groups. Changes were observed in metabolite levels of various metabolic pathways, including the pentose phosphate, nucleotide synthesis, ß-oxidation, tricarboxylic acid cycle, and amino acid metabolism. In particular, D-ribose 5-phosphate, IMP, O-acetylcarnitine, butyrylcarnitine, L-leucine, L-valine, and L-aspartate levels were higher in the ES + C group than in the ES group. These metabolic alterations induced by caffeine suggest that caffeine accelerates contraction-induced metabolic activations, thereby contributing to muscle endurance performance and exercise benefits to our health.


Assuntos
Cafeína/farmacologia , Metabolômica , Contração Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Animais , Estimulação Elétrica , Masculino , Contração Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
11.
J Pharm Pharmacol ; 71(10): 1565-1575, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385305

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to assess the role of caffeine on fertility parameters in testicular and epididymal tissues of scopolamine-induced model of amnesia in rats. METHODS: Adult male rats were treated with scopolamine with or without caffeine. The modulatory effects of caffeine or scopolamine on fertility parameters were assessed in rats' testicular and epididymal homogenates. KEY FINDINGS: Scopolamine-induced sperm abnormalities, reduced steroidogenic enzyme 3ß-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3ß-HSD) and 17ß-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17ß-HSD) activities and serum testosterone levels in rats' testicular tissues. Treatment with caffeine increased 3ß-HSD and 17ß-HSD as well as testosterone levels. Caffeine also reversed sperm viability, sperm motility and sperm count in testicular tissues of scopolamine-treated rats. Furthermore, scopolamine-induced oxidative damage in rats' epididymal and testicular tissues via reduction of thiol and non-protein thiol content as well as increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Caffeine attenuated oxidative stress in testicular and epididymal tissues of rats treated with scopolamine via increase in non-protein and protein thiol levels with concomitant reduction in ROS and MDA levels. CONCLUSION: This study revealed that caffeine (5 and 25 mg/kg) improved sperm quality, increased steroidogenic enzyme activities and attenuated oxidative damage in testis and epididymis of rats treated with scopolamine.


Assuntos
Amnésia/tratamento farmacológico , Cafeína/farmacologia , Epididimo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Testosterona/metabolismo , 17-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenases/metabolismo , Amnésia/induzido quimicamente , Amnésia/metabolismo , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Epididimo/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Escopolamina/farmacologia , Motilidade Espermática/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/metabolismo
12.
Med Hypotheses ; 131: 109301, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443771

RESUMO

Caffeine is a well-established ergogenic aid, with its performance-enhancing effects replicated across a variety of exercise types. Caffeine exerts its performance-benefits through many mechanisms, including acting as an adenosine receptor antagonist, and serving to reduce sensations of fatigue and pain. One potential mechanism that is currently underexplored is whether caffeine's bitter taste mediates some of its ergogenic effects, which is discussed in this article. Previous research has demonstrated that bitter tastants have the ability to enhance performance, and this effect is mediated by bitter taste receptors in the mouth and gastrointestinal tract. Additionally, the ability to detect bitter tastes is subject to individual variation, raising the potential that the demonstrated inter-individual response to a standardised caffeine dose is potentially driven by differences in taste response. Finally, it appears that some of caffeine's performance-enhancing effects are driven by expectancy. As bitter taste may serve as a signal that caffeine has been ingested, it is possible that some of the expectancy effects of caffeine ingestion are driven by its bitter taste. These aspects all have potentially important implications for future research, as well as for how athletes and coaches utilise caffeine around competition, both of which are explored in depth here.


Assuntos
Cafeína/farmacologia , Modelos Biológicos , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/farmacologia , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/efeitos dos fármacos , Paladar , Antecipação Psicológica , Desempenho Atlético , Variação Biológica Individual , Cafeína/administração & dosagem , Cafeína/química , Carboidratos/administração & dosagem , Carboidratos/farmacologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Trato Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Humanos , Modelos Psicológicos , Antissépticos Bucais , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/química , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/fisiologia , Percepção Gustatória/genética
13.
Anim Reprod Sci ; 208: 106120, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405478

RESUMO

Intra-partum asphyxia is the most common non-infectious etiology limiting the performance of neonate piglets. Previous studies indicate caffeine (orally and subcutaneously) reverses the effects of intra-partum asphyxia in neonate piglets. In this study, there was investigation of whether use of a novel therapeutic protocol for administering caffeine subcutaneously to pregnant sows would improve the newborn piglets' vitality, physio-metabolic profiles and body weight gain. Sows were randomly divided into two groups (n = 10 each). Caffeine or NaCl 0.9% was administered 2 days pre-farrowing. Physio-metabolic profiles were measured using blood from the anterior vena cava. The vitality of piglets was evaluated immediately after birth. Piglets (n = 180) were weighed at birth and on days 7, 14 and 21 of lactation. Caffeine positively affected the vitality of the piglets, as indicated by greater vitality scores than that for the control group (8.72 ±â€¯0.12 compared with 7.28 ±â€¯0.16, P < 0.001). Metabolic values were similar between groups, but pO2 values were greater in the piglets with greater vitality scores treated with caffeine (19.10 ±â€¯0.82 compared with 14.49 ±â€¯1.42, P < 0.01), indicating increased respiratory rates. Body weight gain at day 21 was greater in the piglets treated with caffeine that had greater vitality scores than the control piglets having greater vitality scores (6.87 ±â€¯0.18 compared with 6.52 ±â€¯0.25 kg, P < 0.05). Caffeine administration before birth improves the vitality and respiratory capacity of piglets, increasing their adaptation to extra-uterine environment.


Assuntos
Animais Recém-Nascidos/fisiologia , Cafeína/farmacologia , Suínos , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Cafeína/administração & dosagem , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/administração & dosagem , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/farmacologia , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Gravidez , Prenhez
14.
BMC Pulm Med ; 19(1): 138, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362742

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Caffeine therapy for apnea of prematurity reduces the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in premature neonates. Several mechanisms, including improvement in pulmonary mechanics underly beneficial effects of caffeine in BPD. As vascular development promotes alveologenesis, we hypothesized that caffeine might enhance angiogenesis in the lung, promoting lung growth, thereby attenuating BPD. METHODS: C57Bl/6 mice litters were randomized within 12 h of birth to room air (RA) or 95%O2 to receive caffeine (20 mg/kg/day) or placebo for 4 days and recovered in RA for 12wks. The lung mRNA and protein expression for hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF) and angiogenic genes performed on day 5. Lung morphometry and vascular remodeling assessed on inflation fixed lungs at 12wks. RESULTS: Caffeine and hyperoxia in itself upregulate HIF-2α and vascular endothelial growth factor gene expression. Protein expression of HIF-2α and VEGFR1 were higher in hyperoxia/caffeine and angiopoietin-1 lower in hyperoxia. An increase in radial alveolar count, secondary septal count, and septal length with a decrease in mean linear intercept indicate an amelioration of hyperoxic lung injury by caffeine. An increase in vessel surface area and a significant reduction in smooth muscle thickness of the pulmonary arterioles may suggest a beneficial effect of caffeine on vascular remodeling in hyperoxia, especially in male mice. CONCLUSIONS: Postnatal caffeine by modulating angiogenic gene expression early in lung development may restore the pulmonary microvasculature and alveolarization in adult lung.


Assuntos
Cafeína/farmacologia , Hiperóxia/complicações , Lesão Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Neovascularização Fisiológica , Alvéolos Pulmonares/efeitos dos fármacos , Angiopoietina-1/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Displasia Broncopulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Displasia Broncopulmonar/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Pulmão/patologia , Lesão Pulmonar/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Alvéolos Pulmonares/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Receptor 1 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31369394

RESUMO

Background Caffeinated coffee, a psycho-stimulant, is widely consumed throughout the globe. However, its chronic consumption has deleterious effects on human health. Meanwhile, decaffeinated coffee has low content of caffeine and thus can be an alternative to caffeinated coffee. Therefore, the study was undertaken to explore and compare the acute effects of decaffeinated and caffeinated coffee on reaction time, mood and skeletal muscle strength in healthy volunteers. Methods This was a prospective, interventional, comparative type of study. The study included 70 healthy adults divided into two groups (Caffeinated coffee group and Decaffeinated coffee group). The following parameters were assessed: reaction time was assessed by digital display multiple-choice apparatus, mood by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Profile of Mood States revised version (POMS) and skeletal muscle strength by hand dynamometer. All parameters in both groups were assessed pre-intervention (baseline) and 30 min post-intervention. Results In both groups (decaffeinated and caffeinated coffee) post-intervention, there was a statistically significant (p < 0.05) improvement in the reaction time (VRT) and mood (VAS, POMS) from the baseline. However, both groups did not show any significant effects on the skeletal muscle strength. Upon comparing the two groups, we found that caffeinated coffee showed higher and significant improvement of mood than decaffeinated coffee. Conclusions Decaffeinated coffee exerts an acute significant stimulatory effect on the reaction time and mood. However, these effects in comparison to caffeinated coffee are low. Further randomized control clinical trials are thus needed to validate these interesting findings.


Assuntos
Afeto/efeitos dos fármacos , Cafeína/farmacologia , Café/química , Força Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Adulto , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Dinamômetro de Força Muscular , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Cells ; 8(7)2019 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319624

RESUMO

DNA damage is a ubiquitous threat endangering DNA integrity in all living organisms. Responses to DNA damage include, among others, induction of DNA repair and blocking of cell cycle progression in order to prevent transmission of damaged DNA to daughter cells. Here, we tested the effect of the antibiotic zeocin, inducing double stranded DNA breaks, on the cell cycle of synchronized cultures of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. After zeocin application, DNA replication partially occurred but nuclear and cellular divisions were completely blocked. Application of zeocin combined with caffeine, known to alleviate DNA checkpoints, decreased cell viability significantly. This was probably caused by a partial overcoming of the cell cycle progression block in such cells, leading to aberrant cell divisions. The cell cycle block was accompanied by high steady state levels of mitotic cyclin-dependent kinase activity. The data indicate that DNA damage response in C. reinhardtii is connected to the cell cycle block, accompanied by increased and stabilized mitotic cyclin-dependent kinase activity.


Assuntos
Bleomicina/toxicidade , Chlamydomonas reinhardtii/efeitos dos fármacos , Citostáticos/toxicidade , Mutagênicos/toxicidade , Cafeína/farmacologia , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular , Chlamydomonas reinhardtii/genética , Quinases Ciclina-Dependentes/metabolismo , Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla , Replicação do DNA , DNA de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Microb Pathog ; 135: 103637, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326563

RESUMO

The indiscriminate use of antibiotics is a major concern for the aquaculture industry because of the increasing prevalence of bacterial resistance, including the emergence of multi-resistant strains of Aeromonas hydrophila. Therefore, alternative ecofriendly therapeutic or prophylactic approaches such as natural products have been suggested, including caffeine, a methylxanthine with potent bactericidal and antioxidant properties. The aims of this study were to evaluate whether dietary supplementation with caffeine exerted bactericidal effects against A. hydrophila, and to determine whether caffeine protected the liver of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) against A. hydrophila-induced oxidative damage. Experiment I evaluated the antimicrobial properties of caffeine dietary supplementation linked to longevity and mortality rates during aeromonosis. Fish infected with A. hydrophila that were fed diets containing 5% and 8% caffeine lived significantly longer than those fed with control diets. Experiment II evaluated hepatic oxidative stress-related parameters and microbial loads on day 7 post-infection. Levels of hepatic reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation (LOOH) and protein carbonylation (PC) levels were significantly higher in infected fish fed with control diet than in uninfected fish, and hepatic antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals (ACAP) levels, and superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities were significantly inhibited. Dietary supplementation with 5% and 8% caffeine prevented the increase on hepatic ROS, LOOH and PC levels (except 5% caffeine) elicited by infection. Caffeine supplementation reduced or prevented the inhibition of hepatic SOD, GPx and GST activities. Finally, both caffeine concentrations reduced the hepatic microbial load compared to fish fed with control diets that were infected with A. hydrophila. Taken together, the data suggest that dietary supplementation with 8% caffeine may be considered a compelling prophylactic approach to aeromonosis caused by A. hydrophila.


Assuntos
Carga Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Cafeína/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Doenças dos Peixes/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatopatias/prevenção & controle , Aeromonas hydrophila , Ração Animal , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Carpas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Doenças dos Peixes/microbiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/mortalidade , Proteínas de Peixes , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/microbiologia , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Fígado/lesões , Fígado/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Peróxidos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Taxa de Sobrevida
18.
Nutrients ; 11(7)2019 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31330804

RESUMO

The aim was to evaluate the effect of caffeine (CAF) and extra virgin coconut oil (CO), isolated or combined, on running performance in runners. Methods: A randomized, placebo-controlled, and crossover study was conducted with thirteen recreational runners aged 18-40. All volunteers performed a 1600 m time trial at a 400 m track, each ingesting four different substances: (1) placebo (water), (2) decaffeinated coffee plus isolated CAF (DECAF + CAF), (3) decaffeinated coffee plus isolated CAF plus soy oil (DECAF + CAF + SO), and (4) decaffeinated coffee plus isolated CAF plus extra virgin coconut oil (DECAF + CAF + CO). The substances were ingested 60 min before the trials, the order of the situations was randomized, and there were one-week intervals between them. At the end of the trials, the Borg scale was applied to evaluate the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and the time was measured. Results: Our data did not show differences in running time among the trials (placebo: 7.64 ± 0.80, DECAF + CAF: 7.61 ± 1.02, DECAF + CAF + SO: 7.66 ± 0.89, and DECAF + CAF + CO: 7.58 ± 0.74 min; p = 0.93), nor RPE (placebo: 6.15 ± 2.03, DECAF + CAF: 6.00 ± 2.27, DECAF + CAF + SO: 6.54 ± 2.73, and DECAF + CAF + CO: 6.00 ± 2.45 score; p = 0.99). Lactate concentrations (placebo: 6.23 ± 2.72, DECAF + CAF: 4.43 ± 3.77, DECAF + CAF + SO: 5.29 ± 3.77, and DECAF + CAF + CO: 6.17 ± 4.18 mmol/L; p = 0.55) also was not modified. Conclusion: Our study shows that ingestion of decaffeinated coffee with the addition of isolated CAF and extra virgin CO, either isolated or combined, does not improve 1600 m running times, nor influence RPE and lactate concentrations in recreational runners. Thus, combination of coffee with CO as a pre-workout supplement seems to be unsubstantiated for a short-distance race.


Assuntos
Cafeína/administração & dosagem , Cafeína/farmacologia , Óleo de Coco/administração & dosagem , Óleo de Coco/farmacologia , Recreação , Corrida , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
19.
Life Sci ; 233: 116684, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31351083

RESUMO

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a devastating condition that often triggers a sequel of neurological disorders that can last throughout lifespan. From a metabolic viewpoint, the compromising of the energy metabolism of the brain has produced evidence linking the severity of brain injury to the extent of disturbances in the cerebral metabolism. The cerebral metabolic crisis, however, displays that regional heterogeneity varies temporally post-injury. It is important to note that energy generation and mitochondrial function are closely related and interconnected with delayed secondary manifestations of brain injury, including early neuromotor dysfunction, cognitive impairment, and post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE). Given the extent of post-traumatic changes in neuronal function and the possibility of amplifying secondary cascades, different therapies designed to minimize damage and retain/restore cellular function after TBI are currently being studied. One of the possible strategies may be the inclusion of ergogenic compounds, which is a class of supplements that typically includes ingredients used by athletes to enhance their performance. The combination of these compounds offers specific physiological advantages, which include enhanced energy availability/metabolism and improved buffering capacity. However, the literature on their effects in certain biological systems and neurological diseases, such as TBI, has yet to be determined. Thus, the present review aims to discuss the role of ergogenic compounds popularly used in secondary damage induced by this neurological injury. In this narrative review, we also discuss how the results from animal studies can be applied to TBI clinical settings.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/complicações , Disfunção Cognitiva/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsia Pós-Traumática/tratamento farmacológico , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Neuromusculares/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Arginina/farmacologia , Cafeína/farmacologia , Carnitina/farmacologia , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/farmacologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Creatina/farmacologia , Metabolismo Energético , Epilepsia Pós-Traumática/etiologia , Epilepsia Pós-Traumática/fisiopatologia , Glutamina/farmacologia , Humanos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Doenças Neuromusculares/etiologia , Doenças Neuromusculares/fisiopatologia , Taurina/farmacologia
20.
G3 (Bethesda) ; 9(9): 3035-3043, 2019 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352406

RESUMO

Candida orthopsilosis is diploid asexual yeast that causes human disease. Most C. orthopsilosis isolates arose from at least four separate hybridizations between related, but not identical, parents. Here, we used population genomics data to correlate genotypic and phenotypic variation in 28 C. orthopsilosis isolates. We used cosine similarity scores to identify 65 variants with potential high-impact (deleterious effects) that correlated with specific phenotypes. Of these, 19 were Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) that changed stop or start codons, or splice sites. One variant resulted in a premature stop codon in both alleles of the gene ZCF29 in C. orthopsilosis isolate 185, which correlated with sensitivity to nystatin and caffeine. We used CRISPR-Cas9 editing to introduce this polymorphism into two resistant C. orthopsilosis isolates. Introducing the stop codon resulted in sensitivity to caffeine and to ketoconazole, but not to nystatin. Our analysis shows that it is possible to associate genomic variants with phenotype in asexual Candida species, but that only a small amount of genomic variation can be easily explored.


Assuntos
Cafeína/farmacologia , Candida parapsilosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida parapsilosis/fisiologia , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Animais , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Candida parapsilosis/genética , Candida parapsilosis/patogenicidade , Códon de Terminação , Genótipo , Cetoconazol/farmacologia , Lepidópteros/microbiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Microrganismos Geneticamente Modificados , Nistatina/farmacologia , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Virulência/genética
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