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1.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(1): 394-400, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637726

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present study examined the potential for 'Smart Food' with respect to contributing to the Sustainable Development Goal 2 of ending malnutrition by 2030, using a small-scale capacity building case study in Oe Be Village, Myingyan district, Mandalay region, Myanmar. Within the study site, refined white rice is the major staple, followed by vegetables and animal source food in inadequate quantities. The protein intake in this particular dry zone community meets only 50% of the daily requirement and even less for those children aged less than 23 months. Therefore, to determine the acceptance and opportunity for legumes and millets which are produced locally, nutritious formulations were introduced for various age groups. In addition, a sensory evaluation of the recipes was conducted to test the acceptance of the nutritious products. RESULTS: Two weeks of the inclusion of millets and pigeonpea in the diets of children aged 6-23 months had a positive impact on wasting, stunting and underweight (P = 0.002, 0.014 and 0.023, respectively). Moreover, the acceptability of these new food products by the children was found to be high. These results indicate an unexplored opportunity for specific millets rich in iron, zinc and calcium, as well as for pigeonpea rich in protein, if prepared in a culturally acceptable way. CONCLUSION: The impact and acceptability of this small scale and short-term intervention indicate the potential for Smart Food products in filling the nutrition gap arising from the traditional food consumption habits in the dry zones of Myanmar. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Cajanus/metabolismo , Milhetes/metabolismo , Cajanus/química , Cálcio na Dieta/análise , Cálcio na Dieta/metabolismo , Pré-Escolar , Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Ferro/análise , Ferro/metabolismo , Masculino , Milhetes/química , Mianmar , Estado Nutricional , População Rural
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(5)2019 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30832430

RESUMO

Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millspaugh) is cultivated widely in semiarid agricultural regions in over 90 countries around the world. This important legume can enter into symbiotic associations with a wide range of rhizobia including Bradyrhizobium and fast-growing rhizobia. In comparison with other major legumes such as soybean and common bean, only limited information is available on the symbiotic interaction of pigeon pea with rhizobia. In this study, we investigated the ability of two classical soybean symbionts-S. fredii USDA191 and B. diazoefficiens USDA110-and their type 3 secretion system (T3SS) mutants, to nodulate pigeon pea. Both S. fredii USDA191 and a T3SS mutant S. fredii RCB26 formed nitrogen-fixing nodules on pigeon pea. Inoculation of pigeon pea roots with B. diazoefficiens USDA110 and B. diazoefficiens Δ136 (a T3SS mutant) resulted in the formation of Fix- and Fix+ nodules, respectively. Light and transmission electron microscopy of Fix- nodules initiated by B. diazoefficiens USDA110 revealed the complete absence of rhizobia within these nodules. In contrast, Fix+ nodules formed by B. diazoefficiens Δ136 revealed a central region that was completely filled with rhizobia. Ultrastructural investigation revealed the presence of numerous bacteroids surrounded by peribacteroid membranes in the infected cells. Analysis of nodule proteins by one- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis revealed that leghemoglobin was absent in B. diazoefficiens USDA110 nodules, while it was abundantly present in B. diazoefficiens Δ136 nodules. Results of competitive nodulation assays indicated that B. diazoefficiens Δ136 had greater competitiveness for nodulation on pigeon pea than did the wild type strain. Our results suggest that this T3SS mutant of B. diazoefficiens, due to its greater competitiveness and ability to form Fix+ nodules, could be exploited as a potential inoculant to boost pigeon pea productivity.


Assuntos
Bradyrhizobium/patogenicidade , Cajanus/microbiologia , Fenótipo , Sinorhizobium fredii/patogenicidade , Simbiose , Bradyrhizobium/genética , Bradyrhizobium/metabolismo , Cajanus/metabolismo , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Fixação de Nitrogênio , Nódulos Radiculares de Plantas/metabolismo , Nódulos Radiculares de Plantas/microbiologia , Nódulos Radiculares de Plantas/ultraestrutura , Sinorhizobium fredii/genética , Sinorhizobium fredii/metabolismo , Soja/microbiologia , Sistemas de Secreção Tipo III/genética
3.
Photosynth Res ; 139(1-3): 425-439, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30244353

RESUMO

In the current study, pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.), a promising legume food crop was assessed for its photosynthetic physiology, antioxidative system as well as C and N metabolism under elevated CO2 and combined drought stress (DS). Pigeonpea was grown in open top chambers under elevated CO2 (600 µmol mol-1) and ambient CO2 (390 ± 20 µmol mol-1) concentrations, later subjected to DS by complete water withholding. The DS plants were re-watered and recovered (R) to gain normal physiological growth and assessed the recoverable capacity in both elevated and ambient CO2 concentrations. The elevated CO2 grown pigeonpea showed greater gas exchange physiology, nodule mass and total dry biomass over ambient CO2 grown plants under well-watered (WW) and DS conditions albeit a decrease in leaf relative water content (LRWC). Glucose, fructose and sucrose levels were measured to understand the role of hexose to sucrose ratios (H:S) in mediating the drought responses. Free amino acid levels as indicative of N assimilation provided insights into C and N balance under DS and CO2 interactions. The enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants showed significant upregulation in elevated CO2 grown plants under DS thereby protecting the plant from oxidative damage caused by the reactive oxygen species. Our results clearly demonstrated the protective role of elevated CO2 under DS at lower LRWC and gained comparative advantage of mitigating the DS-induced damage over ambient CO2 grown pigeonpea.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Cajanus/metabolismo , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Carbono/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Secas
4.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 294(1): 57-68, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30173295

RESUMO

Pigeonpea is an important source of dietary protein to over a billion people globally, but genetic enhancement of seed protein content (SPC) in the crop has received limited attention for a long time. Use of genomics-assisted breeding would facilitate accelerating genetic gain for SPC. However, neither genetic markers nor genes associated with this important trait have been identified in this crop. Therefore, the present study exploited whole genome re-sequencing (WGRS) data of four pigeonpea genotypes (~ 12X coverage) to identify sequence-based markers and associated candidate genes for SPC. By combining a common variant filtering strategy on available WGRS data with knowledge of gene functions in relation to SPC, 108 sequence variants from 57 genes were identified. These genes were assigned to 19 GO molecular function categories with 56% belonging to only two categories. Furthermore, Sanger sequencing confirmed presence of 75.4% of the variants in 37 genes. Out of 30 sequence variants converted into CAPS/dCAPS markers, 17 showed high level of polymorphism between low and high SPC genotypes. Assay of 16 of the polymorphic CAPS/dCAPS markers on an F2 population of the cross ICP 5529 (high SPC) × ICP 11605 (low SPC), resulted in four of the CAPS/dCAPS markers significantly (P < 0.05) co-segregated with SPC. In summary, four markers derived from mutations in four genes will be useful for enhancing/regulating SPC in pigeonpea crop improvement programs.


Assuntos
Cajanus/genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Sementes/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos , Cajanus/metabolismo , Mapeamento Cromossômico , DNA de Plantas/genética , Genótipo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Mutação , Fenótipo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo
5.
Plant Signal Behav ; 13(7): e1489670, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29995565

RESUMO

Soil salinity has become a major concern for agriculture. Such constraints not only reinforce the urgent need to understand the underlying mechanisms by which plants cope during salt stress but also to develop cost-effective and farmer friendly halopriming technique to alleviate the adverse effects of salinity to some extent. Metabolomics approach was used to explore different responses to physiological metabolites and pathway variations that occur during salt stress responses in Cajanus cajan L. var. Rabi and to understand the role of halopriming in ameliorating stress at the level of metabolite. Seedlings raised from non-primed and haloprimed seeds, grown in hydroponic solution, were subjected to different concentrations of NaCl. After 21 days, metabolites were extracted, derivatized and analyzed by GC-MS. The data were analysed by different multivariate analyses. Chemometric study of the identified metabolites indicated that the leaves responded most to NaCl induced stress than the stem and root with production of beta-cyano-L-alanine and also increased level of different compatible solutes. O-Acetylsalicylic was also found to increase in all the parts upon facing stress but, such upregulated metabolite production was downregulated in the leaves when the seeds were haloprimed before germination, although many of the metabolites, including beta-cyanoalanine, showed a trend of increase with increase in salt concentrations. Important metabolites produced by C. cajan seedlings in response to salinity were unravelled. Pre-germination haloprimimg of seeds resulted in amelioration of NaCl induced stress, as the levels of stress induced metabolites were lowered.


Assuntos
Cajanus/metabolismo , Metabolômica/métodos , Plântula/metabolismo , Cajanus/efeitos dos fármacos , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
J Hazard Mater ; 353: 44-52, 2018 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29631046

RESUMO

Application of engineered nanomaterials has increased these days due to their beneficial impacts on several sectors of the economy, including agriculture. Silver nanoparticles (AgNP) are commonly used to improve rate of seed germination, and growth and development of plants. The present study was aimed to monitor the role of engineered AgNP (non-dialysed) in the amelioration of fluoride (F)-induced oxidative injuries in Cajanus cajan L. Experimental results revealed that F-exposure inhibited growth and membrane stability index, while were enhanced with the augmentation of AgNP. The results also demonstrated that F treatment enhanced the accumulations of reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde and oxidized glutathione, gene expression of NADPH oxidase, and activity of lipoxygenase, but were decreased by the addition of AgNP. The results indicated that exogenous application of AgNP provided tolerance against F-toxicity via enhancing the levels of proline, total and reduced glutathione, glyoxalase I and II activities, and expression of pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase gene. Conducted study uniquely suggested potential role of AgNP in the remediation of F-toxicity, at least in the Cajanus cajan L. radicles. Further research would be intended to unravel the molecular mechanism(s) involved precisely in the AgNP mediated alleviation of F-toxicity.


Assuntos
Cajanus/efeitos dos fármacos , Fluoretos/toxicidade , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/administração & dosagem , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Prata/administração & dosagem , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Cajanus/genética , Cajanus/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Lactoilglutationa Liase/metabolismo , Lipoxigenase/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , NADPH Oxidases/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Tioléster Hidrolases/metabolismo
7.
Phytomedicine ; 36: 1-7, 2017 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29157802

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plants are important sources of bioactive peptides. Among these, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides have a major focus on their ability to prevent hypertension. Inhibition of ACE has been established as an effective approach for the treatment of ACE associated diseases. HYPOTHESIS/PURPOSE: Some synthetic ACE inhibitory drugs cause side effects and hence there is a constant interest in natural compounds as alternatives. STUDY DESIGN: The study was designed to identify and characterize a peptide molecule from pigeon pea which has the biological property to inhibit ACE and can be developed as a therapeutic approach towards hypertension. METHODS: Seeds of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.) was fermented with Aspergillus niger, a proteolytic fungus isolated from spoiled milk sweet. The extract was purified by size exclusion chromatography by FPLC system. The fractions that showed ACE inhibition was subjected to LC-MS/MS for sequence identification. The stability of the peptide was analyzed by molecular dynamic simulations and the interaction sites with ACE were identified by molecular docking. RESULTS: The study report a novel ACE inhibitory octapeptide Val-Val-Ser-Leu-Ser-Ile-Pro-Arg with a molecular mass of 869.53 Da. The Lineweaver-Burk plot indicated that the inhibition of ACE by this peptide is in competitive mode. Also, molecular docking and simulation studies showed a strong and stable interaction of the peptide with ACE. CONCLUSION: The results clearly show the inhibitory property of the peptide against ACE and hence it can be explored as a therapeutic strategy towards hypertension and other ACE associated diseases.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/química , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Cajanus/química , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/química , Aspergillus niger/metabolismo , Cajanus/metabolismo , Domínio Catalítico , Cromatografia em Gel , Simulação por Computador , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Peso Molecular , Peptídeos/química , Peptídeos/isolamento & purificação , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
8.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 11831, 2017 09 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28928453

RESUMO

Sterility Mosaic Disease (SMD) of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millspaugh) is a complex disease due to various factors including the presence of a mixed infection. Comparison of dsRNA profile and small RNA (sRNA) deep sequencing analysis of samples from three locations revealed the presence of Pigeonpea sterility mosaic virus-I and II (PPSMV-I and II) from Chevella and only PPSMV-II from Bengaluru and Coimbatore. PPSMV-I genome consisted of four while PPSMV-II encompassed six RNAs. The two viruses have modest sequence homology between their corresponding RNA 1-4 encoding RdRp, glycoprotein precursor, nucleocapsid and movement proteins and the corresponding orthologs of other emaraviruses. However, PPSMV-II is more related to Fig mosaic virus (FMV) than to PPSMV-I. ELISA based detection methodology was standardized to identify these two viruses, uniquely. Mite inoculation of sub-isolate Chevella sometimes resulted in few- to- many pigeonpea plants containing PPSMV-I alone. The study shows that (i) the N-terminal region of RdRp (SRD-1) of both the viruses contain "cap-snatching" endonuclease domain and a 13 AA cap binding site at the C-terminal, essential for viral cap-dependent transcription similar to the members of Bunyaviridae family and (ii) P4 is the movement protein and may belong to '30 K superfamily' of MPs.


Assuntos
Cajanus , Doenças das Plantas , Vírus de Plantas , RNA de Cadeia Dupla , RNA Viral , Proteínas Virais , Cajanus/genética , Cajanus/metabolismo , Cajanus/virologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Vírus de Plantas/genética , Vírus de Plantas/metabolismo , Domínios Proteicos , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/genética , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/metabolismo , RNA Viral/genética , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo
9.
PLoS One ; 12(6): e0179736, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28651001

RESUMO

Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.), a diploid legume crop, is a member of the tribe Phaseoleae. This tribe is descended from the millettioid (tropical) clade of the subfamily Papilionoideae, which includes many important legume crop species such as soybean (Glycine max), mung bean (Vigna radiata), cowpea (Vigna ungiculata), and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). It plays major role in food and nutritional security, being rich source of proteins, minerals and vitamins. We have developed a comprehensive Pigeonpea Transcription Factors Database (PpTFDB) that encompasses information about 1829 putative transcription factors (TFs) and their 55 TF families. PpTFDB provides a comprehensive information about each of the identified TFs that includes chromosomal location, protein physicochemical properties, sequence data, protein functional annotation, simple sequence repeats (SSRs) with primers derived from their motifs, orthology with related legume crops, and gene ontology (GO) assignment to respective TFs. (PpTFDB: http://14.139.229.199/PpTFDB/Home.aspx) is a freely available and user friendly web resource that facilitates users to retrieve the information of individual members of a TF family through a set of query interfaces including TF ID or protein functional annotation. In addition, users can also get the information by browsing interfaces, which include browsing by TF Categories and by, GO Categories. This PpTFDB will serve as a promising central resource for researchers as well as breeders who are working towards crop improvement of legume crops.


Assuntos
Cajanus/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Cajanus/metabolismo , DNA de Plantas/genética , Ontologia Genética , Genoma de Planta , Repetições de Microssatélites , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
10.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 24(22): 18520-18535, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28646312

RESUMO

Arsenic (As) gets accumulated in plants via phosphorous transporters and water channels and interferes with nutrient and water uptake, adversely affecting growth and productivity. Although, Si and AM have been reported to combat arsenic stress, their comparative and interactive roles in ameliorating As V and As III toxicities have not been reported. Study evaluated effects of Si and Rhizophagus irregularis on growth, As uptake and yield under arsenate and arsenite stress in two pigeonpea genotypes (metal tolerant-Pusa 2002 and metal sensitive-Pusa 991). Higher As accumulation and translocation was observed in As III treated roots of Pusa 991 than those of Pusa 2002 when compared with As V. Roots were more negatively affected than shoots which led to a significant decline in nutrient uptake, leaf chlorophylls, and yield, with As III inducing more negative effects. Pusa 2002 established more effective mycorrhizal symbiosis and had higher biomass than Pusa 991. Si was more effective in inducing shoot biomass while AM inoculation significantly improved root biomass. AM enhanced Si uptake in roots and leaves in a genotype dependent manner. Combined application of Si and AM were highly beneficial in improving leaf water status, chlorophyll pigments, biomass, and productivity. Complete amelioration of negative impacts of both concentrations of As V and lower concentration of As III were recorded under +Si +AM in Pusa 2002. Results highlighted great potential of Si in improving growth and productivity of pigeonpea through R. irregularis under As V and As III stresses.


Assuntos
Arseniatos/toxicidade , Arsenitos/toxicidade , Cajanus/efeitos dos fármacos , Glomeromycota/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Micorrizas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Silício/química , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Biomassa , Cajanus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cajanus/metabolismo , Cajanus/microbiologia , Modelos Teóricos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Solo/química , Simbiose
11.
Mycorrhiza ; 27(7): 669-682, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28593465

RESUMO

Salinity stress leads to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which can cause oxidative damage in plants. A correlation between antioxidant capacity and salt tolerance has been demonstrated in several plant species, which may be enhanced by inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). However, plant responses to mycorrhization may differ depending on the host plant as well as AMF isolate. It has been proposed that AMF sourced from stressed environments may be better suited as stress ameliorators than non-native/exotic ones. The present study compared the effectiveness of a native inoculum from saline soil and two exotic single isolates, Funneliformis mossseae and Rhizophagus irregularis (single or dual mix), and associated their effectiveness with modulation of antioxidant defence, in two Cajanus cajan (pigeonpea) genotypes (salt sensitive-Paras, salt tolerant-Pusa 2002) under NaCl stress. Plants subjected to NaCl (0-100 mM) recorded a substantial build-up of ROS, more in Paras than Pusa 2002. Although mycorrhization with all AMF improved plant biomass and reduced oxidative burst by strengthening antioxidant enzymatic activities, inoculation with R. irregularis (alone or in combination with F. mosseae) resulted in higher biomass accumulation which correlated with its higher root colonization and improved redox stability through rapid recycling of reduced ascorbate and glutathione. The study thus suggested that mitigation of salt-induced oxidative burden by increased activation of scavenging antioxidants is an important mechanism that determined the higher effectiveness of R. irregularis over the native saline mix in pigeonpea plants.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Cajanus/metabolismo , Glomeromycota/fisiologia , Micorrizas/fisiologia , Tolerância ao Sal , Cajanus/genética , Cajanus/microbiologia , Genótipo , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia
12.
J Agric Food Chem ; 65(23): 4572-4581, 2017 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28532149

RESUMO

Pigeonpea is one of the major sources of dietary protein for more than a billion people living in South Asia. This hardy legume is often grown in low-input and risk-prone marginal environments. Considerable research effort has been devoted by a global research consortium to develop genomic resources for the improvement of this legume crop. These efforts have resulted in the elucidation of the complete genome sequence of pigeonpea. Despite these developments, little is known about the seed proteome of this important crop. Here, we report the proteome of pigeonpea seed. To enable the isolation of maximum number of seed proteins, including those that are present in very low amounts, three different protein fractions were obtained by employing different extraction media. High-resolution two-dimensional (2-D) electrophoresis followed by MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS/MS analysis of these protein fractions resulted in the identification of 373 pigeonpea seed proteins. Consistent with the reported high degree of synteny between the pigeonpea and soybean genomes, a large number of pigeonpea seed proteins exhibited significant amino acid homology with soybean seed proteins. Our proteomic analysis identified a large number of stress-related proteins, presumably due to its adaptation to drought-prone environments. The availability of a pigeonpea seed proteome reference map should shed light on the roles of these identified proteins in various biological processes and facilitate the improvement of seed composition.


Assuntos
Cajanus/química , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Sementes/química , Cajanus/genética , Cajanus/metabolismo , Eletroforese em Gel Bidimensional , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteômica , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo , Soja/genética , Soja/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
13.
Plant Cell Rep ; 36(7): 1037-1051, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28352969

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Independent transgenic pigeonpea events were developed using two cry genes. Transgenic Cry2Aa-pigeonpea was established for the first time. Selected transgenic events demonstrated 100% mortality of Helicoverpa armigera in successive generations. Lepidopteran insect Helicoverpa armigera is the major yield constraint of food legume pigeonpea. The present study was aimed to develop H. armigera-resistant transgenic pigeonpea, selected on the basis of transgene expression and phenotyping. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of embryonic axis explants of pigeonpea cv UPAS 120 was performed using two separate binary vectors carrying synthetic Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal crystal protein genes, cry1Ac and cry2Aa. T0 transformants were selected on the basis of PCR and protein expression profile. T1 events were exclusively selected on the basis of expression and monogenic character for cry, validated through Western and Southern blot analyses, respectively. Independently transformed 12 Cry1Ac and 11 Cry2Aa single-copy events were developed. The level of Cry-protein expression in T1 transgenic events was 0.140-0.175% of total soluble protein. Expressed Cry1Ac and Cry2Aa proteins in transgenic pigeonpea exhibited significant weight loss of second-fourth instar larvae of H. armigera and ultimately 80-100% mortality in detached leaf bioassay. Selected Cry-transgenic pigeonpea events, established at T2 generation, inherited insect-resistant phenotype. Immunohistofluorescence localization in T3 plants demonstrated constitutive accumulation of Cry1Ac and Cry2Aa in leaf tissues of respective transgenic events. This study is the first report of transgenic pigeonpea development, where stable integration, effective expression and biological activity of two Cry proteins were demonstrated in subsequent three generations (T0, T1, and T2). These studies will contribute to biotechnological breeding programmes of pigeonpea for its genetic improvement.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Cajanus/metabolismo , Cajanus/parasitologia , Endotoxinas/metabolismo , Proteínas Hemolisinas/metabolismo , Mariposas/patogenicidade , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Cajanus/genética , Endotoxinas/genética , Proteínas Hemolisinas/genética , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos
14.
Planta ; 245(6): 1137-1148, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28275855

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Transgenic rice expressing pigeonpea Cc CDR conferred high-level tolerance to different abiotic stresses. The multiple stress tolerance observed in CcCDR -transgenic lines is attributed to the modulation of ABA-dependent and-independent signalling-pathway genes. Stable transgenic plants expressing Cajanus cajan cold and drought regulatory protein encoding gene (CcCDR), under the control of CaMV35S and rd29A promoters, have been generated in indica rice. Different transgenic lines of CcCDR, when subjected to drought, salt, and cold stresses, exhibited higher seed germination, seedling survival rates, shoot length, root length, and enhanced plant biomass when compared with the untransformed control plants. Furthermore, transgenic plants disclosed higher leaf chlorophyll content, proline, reducing sugars, SOD, and catalase activities, besides lower levels of MDA. Localization studies revealed that the CcCDR-GFP fusion protein was mainly present in the nucleus of transformed cells of rice. The CcCDR transgenics were found hypersensitive to abscisic acid (ABA) and showed reduced seed germination rates as compared to that of control plants. When the transgenic plants were exposed to drought and salt stresses at vegetative and reproductive stages, they revealed larger panicles and higher number of filled grains compared to the untransformed control plants. Under similar stress conditions, the expression levels of P5CS, bZIP, DREB, OsLEA3, and CIPK genes, involved in ABA-dependent and-independent signal transduction pathways, were found higher in the transgenic plants than the control plants. The overall results amply demonstrate that the transgenic rice expressing CcCDR bestows high-level tolerance to drought, salt, and cold stress conditions. Accordingly, the CcCDR might be deployed as a promising candidate gene for improving the multiple stress tolerance of diverse crop plants.


Assuntos
Cajanus/metabolismo , Secas , Oryza/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Cajanus/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Oryza/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
15.
J Agric Food Chem ; 65(7): 1395-1400, 2017 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28114755

RESUMO

Safety assessment of genetically modified plants is an important aspect prior to deregulation. Demonstration of substantial equivalence of the transgenics compared to their nontransgenic counterparts can be performed using different techniques at various molecular levels. The present study is a first-ever comprehensive evaluation of pigeon pea transgenics harboring two independent cry genes, cry2Aa and cry1AcF. The absence of unintended effects in the transgenic seed components was demonstrated by proteome and nutritional composition profiling. Analysis revealed that no significant differences were found in the various nutritional compositional analyses performed. Additionally, 2-DGE-based proteome analysis of the transgenic and nontransgenic seed protein revealed that there were no major changes in the protein profile, although a minor fold change in the expression of a few proteins was observed. Furthermore, the study also demonstrated that neither the integration of T-DNA nor the expression of the cry genes resulted in the production of unintended effects in the form of new toxins or allergens.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Cajanus/química , Endotoxinas/genética , Proteínas Hemolisinas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/química , Sementes/química , Aminoácidos/análise , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Cajanus/genética , Cajanus/metabolismo , Endotoxinas/metabolismo , Proteínas Hemolisinas/metabolismo , Minerais/análise , Minerais/metabolismo , Valor Nutritivo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Proteômica , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo
16.
J Sci Food Agric ; 97(3): 956-966, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27226361

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) leaves are a good source of nutrition and health benefitting phenolic compounds. However, its importance has not yet been effectively addressed. Recently, a 2-year field experiment was attempted in an alluvial soil to understand the role of various organic and inorganic fertilisers and their combinations not only on soil quality, but also on production of foremost phenolic compounds and imparting antioxidant and antibacterial properties in C. cajan under vermicompost treatments. RESULTS: Notable enhancements in crude protein, soluble carbohydrate, ash content and total flavonoid content were recorded in Cajanus leaves under vermicompost treatments. We detected a significant rise in carlinoside content in C. cajan leaves, which is known to reduce bilirubin concentration in hepatitis affected human blood. Farmyard manure treatments resulted in a high crude fibre content coupled with a substantially high concentration of total phenols, and chlorophyll. In addition, incorporation of vermicompost with or without inorganic fertiliser in the soil had a significant impact on antioxidant and antibacterial properties of C. cajan leaves. Above and beyond, farmyard manure and vermicompost positively influenced the physico-chemical health of the soil. CONCLUSION: The present nutrient management scheme based on organic input not only induced a higher yield of C. cajan endowed with improved antioxidant and antibacterial properties, but also enhanced the production of various phenolic compounds. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Cajanus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produção Agrícola , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Esterco , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solo , Antibacterianos/análise , Antibacterianos/biossíntese , Antioxidantes/análise , Cajanus/química , Cajanus/metabolismo , Clorofila/análise , Clorofila/biossíntese , Produtos Agrícolas/química , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Flavonas/análise , Flavonas/biossíntese , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/biossíntese , Alimentos Orgânicos/análise , Alimento Funcional/análise , Glicosídeos/análise , Glicosídeos/biossíntese , Humanos , Índia , Valor Nutritivo , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima
17.
Food Chem ; 211: 763-9, 2016 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27283694

RESUMO

Antioxidants are important food additives which prolong food storage due to their protective effects against oxidative degradation of foods by free radicals. However, the synthetic antioxidants show toxic properties. Alternative economical and eco-friendly approach is screening of plant extract for natural antioxidants. Plant phenolics are potent antioxidants. Hence, in present study Cajanus cajan seeds were analyzed for antioxidant activity, Iron chelating activity and total phenolic content. The antioxidant activity using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging assay showed 71.3% inhibition and 65.8% Iron chelating activity. Total 37 compounds including some short peptides and five major abundant compounds were identified in active fraction of C. cajan seeds. This study concludes that C. cajan seeds are good source of antioxidants and Iron chelating activity. Metabolites found in C. cajan seeds which remove reactive oxygen species (ROS), may help to alleviate oxidative stress associated dreaded health problem like cancer and cardiovascular diseases.


Assuntos
Cajanus/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Antioxidantes/análise , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Cajanus/química , Quelantes de Ferro/análise , Picratos/química , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo
18.
Int J Phytoremediation ; 18(11): 1122-7, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27196815

RESUMO

Landfill leachates containing heavy metals are important contaminants and a matter of great concern due to the effect that they might have on ecosystems. We evaluated the use of Cajanus cajan to remove chromium and lead from landfill leachates. Eight-week-old plants were submitted to varied tests to select the experimental conditions. Water assays with a solution (pH 6) containing leachate (25% v/v) were selected; the metals were added as potassium dichromate and lead (II) nitrate salts. Soil matrices that contained leachate (30% v/v) up to field capacity were used. For both water and soil assays, the metal concentrations were 10 mg kg(-1). C. cajan proved able to remove 49% of chromium and 36% of lead, both from dilute leachate. The plants also removed 34.7% of chromium from irrigated soil, but were unable to decrease the lead content. Removal of nitrogen from landfill leachate was also tested, resulting in elimination of 85% of ammonia and 70% of combined nitrite/nitrate species. The results indicate that C. cajan might be an effective candidate for the rhizofiltration of leachates containing chromium and lead, and nitrogen in large concentrations.


Assuntos
Cajanus/metabolismo , Cromo/metabolismo , Chumbo/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Costa Rica
19.
Plant Sci ; 242: 98-107, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26566828

RESUMO

Legume crops such as chickpea, pigeonpea and groundnut, mostly grown in marginal environments, are the major source of nutrition and protein to the human population in Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. These crops, however, have a low productivity, mainly due to their exposure to several biotic and abiotic stresses in the marginal environments. Until 2005, these crops had limited genomics resources and molecular breeding was very challenging. During the last decade (2005-2015), ICRISAT led demand-driven innovations in genome science and translated the massive genome information in breeding. For instance, large-scale genomic resources including draft genome assemblies, comprehensive genetic and physical maps, thousands of SSR markers, millions of SNPs, several high-throughput as well as low cost marker genotyping platforms have been developed in these crops. After mapping several breeding related traits, several success stories of translational genomics have become available in these legumes. These include development of superior lines with enhanced drought tolerance in chickpea, enhanced and pyramided resistance to Fusarium wilt and Ascochyta blight in chickpea, enhanced resistance to leaf rust in groundnut, improved oil quality in groundnut and utilization of markers for assessing purity of hybrids/parental lines in pigeonpea. Some of these stories together with future prospects have been discussed.


Assuntos
Arachis/genética , Cajanus/genética , Cicer/genética , Genoma de Planta/genética , Genômica/métodos , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Arachis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arachis/metabolismo , Biomassa , Cajanus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cajanus/metabolismo , Cicer/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cicer/metabolismo , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
20.
Plant Sci ; 231: 82-93, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25575994

RESUMO

In the present study, we investigated the likely consequences of future atmospheric CO2 concentrations [CO2] on growth, physiology and reproductive phenology of Pigeonpea. A short duration Pigeonpea cultivar (ICPL 15011) was grown without N fertilizer from emergence to final harvest in CO2 enriched atmosphere (open top chambers; 550µmolmol(-1)) for two seasons. CO2 enrichment improved both net photosynthetic rates (Asat) and foliar carbohydrate content by 36 and 43%, respectively, which further reflected in dry biomass after harvest, showing an increment of 29% over the control plants. Greater carboxylation rates of Rubisco (Vcmax) and photosynthetic electron transport rates (Jmax) in elevated CO2 grown plants measured during different growth periods, clearly demonstrated lack of photosynthetic acclimation. Further, chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements as indicated by Fv/Fm and ΔF/Fm' ratios justified enhanced photosystem II efficiency. Mass and number of root nodules were significantly high in elevated CO2 grown plants showing 58% increase in nodule mass ratio (NMR) which directly correlated with Pn. Growth under high CO2 showed significant ontogenic changes including delayed flowering. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that the lack of photosynthetic acclimation and increased carbohydrate-nitrogen reserves modulate the vegetative and reproductive growth patterns in Pigeonpea grown under elevated CO2.


Assuntos
Cajanus/metabolismo , Cajanus/fisiologia , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Flores/metabolismo , Flores/fisiologia , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Aclimatação
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