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1.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(1): 394-400, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637726

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present study examined the potential for 'Smart Food' with respect to contributing to the Sustainable Development Goal 2 of ending malnutrition by 2030, using a small-scale capacity building case study in Oe Be Village, Myingyan district, Mandalay region, Myanmar. Within the study site, refined white rice is the major staple, followed by vegetables and animal source food in inadequate quantities. The protein intake in this particular dry zone community meets only 50% of the daily requirement and even less for those children aged less than 23 months. Therefore, to determine the acceptance and opportunity for legumes and millets which are produced locally, nutritious formulations were introduced for various age groups. In addition, a sensory evaluation of the recipes was conducted to test the acceptance of the nutritious products. RESULTS: Two weeks of the inclusion of millets and pigeonpea in the diets of children aged 6-23 months had a positive impact on wasting, stunting and underweight (P = 0.002, 0.014 and 0.023, respectively). Moreover, the acceptability of these new food products by the children was found to be high. These results indicate an unexplored opportunity for specific millets rich in iron, zinc and calcium, as well as for pigeonpea rich in protein, if prepared in a culturally acceptable way. CONCLUSION: The impact and acceptability of this small scale and short-term intervention indicate the potential for Smart Food products in filling the nutrition gap arising from the traditional food consumption habits in the dry zones of Myanmar. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Cajanus/metabolismo , Milhetes/metabolismo , Cajanus/química , Cálcio na Dieta/análise , Cálcio na Dieta/metabolismo , Pré-Escolar , Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Ferro/análise , Ferro/metabolismo , Masculino , Milhetes/química , Mianmar , Estado Nutricional , População Rural
2.
Chin J Nat Med ; 17(5): 381-386, 2019 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31171273

RESUMO

Three new prenylated stilbenes, named as cajanusins A-C (1-3), and one new natural product cajanusin D (4), along with six known derivatives (5-10) were isolated from the leaves of Cajanus cajan. Their structures were fully elucidated by means of extensive spectroscopic methods and comparison with data in the reported literatures. The new compounds of 1 and 2 were evaluated for in vitro cytotoxic activities against a panel of human cancer cell lines.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Cajanus/química , Flavonoides/química , Estilbenos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/toxicidade , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Estilbenos/isolamento & purificação , Estilbenos/toxicidade
3.
Food Funct ; 10(5): 2710-2719, 2019 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31032823

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to utilize the protein from pigeon pea milling waste by-product for the preparation of protein isolate (PPI). The PPI was exposed to pepsin hydrolysis to reveal functional aspects like increased antioxidant capacity along with gelling ability. Complexation study demonstrated the use of PPI as an encapsulating material for water insoluble bioactive compounds (curcumin). Fluorescence spectroscopy revealed the formation of a complex through hydrophobic interaction. Ex vivo digestibility of the major proteins of PPI resulted in many peptides after digestion with human gastrointestinal enzymes. The peptide sequences identified may have potential biological activities, as revealed by bioinformatic data analysis. The presence of bioactive peptides and essential amino acids in the ex vivo digest suggests the role of PPI as a nutraceutical protein. The study provides a new value addition to pigeon pea milling waste by-product, a novel nutraceutical protein that can be used in functional food formulations.


Assuntos
Cajanus/química , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Resíduos/análise , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Digestão , Manipulação de Alimentos , Alimento Funcional/análise , Mapeamento de Peptídeos , Peptídeos/química , Peptídeos/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Plantas/isolamento & purificação
4.
Molecules ; 24(3)2019 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30704067

RESUMO

Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.) is a legume crop consumed as an indigenous vegetable in the human diet and a traditional medicinal plant with therapeutic properties. The current study highlights the cholesterol-modulating effect and underlying mechanisms of the methanol extract of Cajanus cajan L. leaves (MECC) in HepG2 cells. We found that MECC increased the LDLR expression, the cell-surface LDLR levels and the LDL uptake activity in HepG2 cells. We further demonstrated that MECC suppressed the proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) mRNA and protein expression, but not affected the expression of other cholesterol or lipid metabolism-related genes including inducible degrader of LDLR (IDOL), HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR), fatty acid synthase (FASN), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC1), and liver X receptor-α (LXR-α) in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated that MECC down-regulated the PCSK9 gene expression through reducing the amount of nuclear hepatocyte nuclear factor-1α (HNF-1α), a major transcriptional regulator for activation of PCSK9 promoter, but not that of nuclear sterol-responsive element binding protein-2 (SREBP-2) in HepG2 cells. Finally, we identified the cajaninstilbene acid, a main bioactive stilbene component in MECC, which significantly modulated the LDLR and PCSK9 expression in HepG2 cells. Our current data suggest that the cajaninstilbene acid may contribute to the hypocholesterolemic activity of Cajanus cajan L. leaves. Our findings support that the extract of Cajanus cajan L. leaves may serve as a cholesterol-lowering agent.


Assuntos
Cajanus/química , Colesterol/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/genética , Receptores de LDL/genética , Biomarcadores , Genes Reporter , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Lipogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/química , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Receptores de LDL/metabolismo , Ativação Transcricional
5.
Molecules ; 24(2)2019 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30642055

RESUMO

Cajanolactone A (CLA) is a stilbenoid discovered by us from Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp. In our study, CLA was found to promote osteoblast differentiation in human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs), as judged by increased cellular alkaline phosphatase activity and extracellular calcium deposits, and elevated protein expression of Runx2, collagen-1, bone morphogenetic protein-2, and osteopontin. Mechanistic studies revealed that hBMSCs undergoing osteoblast differentiation expressed upregulated mRNA levels of Wnt3a, Wnt10b, LRP5/6, Frizzled 4, ß-catenin, Runx2, and Osterix from the early stage of differentiation, indicating the role of activated Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway in osteoblast differentiation. Addition of CLA to the differentiation medium further increased the mRNA level of Wnt3a, Wnt10b, Frizzled 4, LRP5, and ß-catenin, inferring that CLA worked by stimulating Wnt/LRP5/ß-catenin signaling. Wnt inhibitor dickkopf-1 antagonized CLA-promoted osteoblastogenesis, indicating that CLA did not target the downstream of canonical Wnt signaling pathway. Treatment with CLA caused no changes in mRNA expression level, as well as protein secretion of osteoprotegerin (OPG) and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL), indicating that CLA did not affect the OPG/RANKL axis. Our results showed that CLA, which promoted osteoblast differentiation in hBMSCs, through activating Wnt/LRP5/ß-catenin signaling transduction, is a promising anti-osteoporotic drug candidate.


Assuntos
Cajanus/química , Lactonas/farmacologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Osteoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Via de Sinalização Wnt/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Lactonas/química , Proteína-5 Relacionada a Receptor de Lipoproteína de Baixa Densidade/metabolismo , Estrutura Molecular , Osteoblastos/citologia , Proteínas Wnt/metabolismo , beta Catenina/metabolismo
6.
Adv Clin Exp Med ; 28(1): 45-50, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30141283

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Seed cells - mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) - appear to be an attractive tool in the context of tissue engineering. Bone marrow represents the main source of MSCs for both experimental and clinical studies. However, the number limitation of bone marrow MSCs (BMSCs) and decreased function caused by proliferation make the search for adequate alternative sources of these cells for autologous and allogenic transplant necessary. OBJECTIVES: This study was aimed to investigate the roles of cajanine isolated from the extracts of Cajanus cajan L. Millsp. in the proliferation and differentiation of BMSCs, and to discover the mechanism of proliferation of BMSCs promoted by cajanine. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were cultured in high-glucose Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM) and osteogenic differentiation was induced by adding dexamethasone, ascorbic acid and ß-glycerophosphate supplements. Bone marrow MSCs were cultured in medium without cajanine or supplemented with cajanine. The information about the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs was collated. The osteogenic differentiation potential of BMSCs was also assessed at the 3rd passage by Von Kossa staining. To observe cell signal transduction changes of BMSCs after culturing them with cajanine for 24 h, the western blot analysis was performed to detect phosphorylated cell cycle proteins and activated cyclins. RESULTS: After osteogenic induction, the differentiation of BMSCs was accelerated by cajanine treatment. Osteogenesis markers were upregulated by cajanine treatment at both protein and mRNA levels. Cajanine obviously promoted the proliferation of BMSCs. After BMSCs were cultured with cajanine for 24 h, the cell cycle regulator proteins were phosphorylated or upregulated. CONCLUSIONS: Cajanine can promote the expansion efficiency of BMSCs, at the same time keeping their multi-differentiation potential. Cajanine can activate the cell cycle signal transduction pathway, thus inducing cells to enter the G1/S phase and accelerating cells entering the G2/M phase. This study can contribute to the development of cajanine-based drugs in tissue engineering.


Assuntos
Células da Medula Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Cajanus/química , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Dietilestilbestrol/análogos & derivados , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular , Células Cultivadas , Dietilestilbestrol/isolamento & purificação , Dietilestilbestrol/farmacologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/isolamento & purificação , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais , Plantas Medicinais/química
7.
PLoS One ; 13(12): e0208201, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30521546

RESUMO

Development of antifilarial drug from the natural sources is considered as one of the most efficacious, safe, and affordable approaches. In this study, we report the antifilarial activity of a leguminous plant Cajanus scarabaeoides (L.) Thouars. The polyphenol-rich ethanolic extract obtained from the stem part of the plant C. scarabaeoides (EECs) was found to be efficient in killing the filarial nematode Setaria cervi in all the three developmental stages viz. oocytes, microfilariae (Mf) and adults with LD50 values of 2.5, 10 and 35 µg/ml, respectively. While studying the molecular mechanism of action, we found that induction of oxidative stress plays the key role in inducing the mortality in S. cervi. The redox imbalance finally results in activation of the nematode CED pathway that executes the death of the parasite. Intriguingly, EECs was found to be selectively active against the worm and absolutely non-toxic to the mammalian cells and tissues. Taken together, our experimental data demonstrate that C. scarabaeoides can be chosen as an affordable natural therapeutic for treating filarial infection in the future with high efficacy and less toxicity.


Assuntos
Cajanus/química , Filaricidas/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Setaria (Nematoide)/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Bovinos , Etanol/química , Feminino , Filaricidas/química , Filaricidas/isolamento & purificação , Filaricidas/uso terapêutico , Dose Letal Mediana , Modelos Animais , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Caules de Planta/química , Polifenóis/isolamento & purificação , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Setaríase/tratamento farmacológico
8.
Int J Mol Med ; 42(5): 2329-2342, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30226559

RESUMO

The present study investigated the effects of cajanonic acid A (CAA), extracted from the leaves of Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp with a purity of 98.22%, on the regulatory mechanisms of glucose and lipid metabolism. HepG2 cells transfected with a protein­tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) overexpression plasmid were established. The cells, induced with insulin resistance by dexamethasone (Dex) treatment, together with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) model rats and ob/ob mice, were used in the present study. The effects of CAA treatment on the differentiation of 3T3­L1 adipocytes were determined using Oil Red O. The expression levels of insulin signaling factors were detected via reverse transcription­quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses. The results revealed that the overexpression of PTP1B contributed to insulin resistance, which was reversed by CAA treatment via inhibiting the activity of PTP1B and by regulating the expression of associated insulin signaling factors. The treatment of cell lines with Dex led to increased expression of PTP1B but decreased glucose consumption, and decreased tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor, insulin receptor substrate 1, and phosphoinositide 3­kinase. Treatment with CAA not only reduced the fasting blood glucose levels and protected organs from damage, but also reduced the serum fasting levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides and low­density lipoprotein cholesterol in the T2DM rats. CAA treatment also inhibited adipocyte differentiation and decreased the mRNA levels of various adipogenic genes. Furthermore, CAA treatment restored the transduction of insulin signaling by regulating the expression of PTP1B and associated insulin signaling factors. Treatment with CAA also reduced the problems associated with hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. In conclusion, CAA may be used to cure T2DM via restoring insulin resistance and preventing obesity.


Assuntos
Cajanus/química , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Resistência à Insulina , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Estilbenos/uso terapêutico , Células 3T3-L1 , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Masculino , Camundongos , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 1/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Estilbenos/química
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29412864

RESUMO

Cajanus cajan (L.) is a Pigeon pea cultivated in tropical and subtropical areas. It contains many bioactive components. The present study aimed to assess the antimutagenic efficacy of a flavonoid fraction of Cajanus cajan (FFCC) to reduce cytotoxicity and genotoxicity induced by cyclophosphamide (CP). We assessed genotoxic and cytotoxic effects using chromosome aberration, in mouse bone-marrow cells and spermatocytes, cell viability and DNA damage, in mouse bone-marrow cells. Animals received FFCC at concentrations 50,100 and 200 mg/kg b wt by oral gavage, and injected simultaneously with CP (20 mg/kg b wt) for 24 h. The results revealed that FFCC was safe and its effect was normal compared to control group. Moreover, we observed significant inhibition of CP-induced chromosome abnormalities in both, somatic and germ, cells (p ≪ 0.05) after concurrent administration of different concentrations of FFCC and CP. FFCC reduced chromosome aberrations by 14.29%, 25.21% and 28.57% in somatic cells, and 25.35%, 35.21% and 49.29% in germ cells after simultaneous treatment with CP respectively. Additionally, FFCC improved the cell viability of bone-marrow cells in a concentration-dependent manner when administered concurrently with CP. Similarly, FFCC diminished DNA damage (p ≪ 0.05) in CP-treated animals. The inhibitory index of tail DNA (%) reached 90.6% at the highest concentration of FFCC when administered simultaneously with CP. In conclusion, the flavonoid extract improved cell viability and protected animal cells from the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects exhibited by CP. Cajanus cajan flavonoids might contain the antioxidant bioactivity that effectively lessened chromosome aberrations and DNA damage induced by mutagenic agents.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/toxicidade , Cajanus/química , Ciclofosfamida/toxicidade , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Flavonoides/administração & dosagem , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Células da Medula Óssea/citologia , Células da Medula Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular , Aberrações Cromossômicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/genética , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Espermatócitos/citologia , Espermatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
J Diet Suppl ; 15(6): 939-950, 2018 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29345972

RESUMO

Protease inhibitors are one of the most promising and investigated subjects for their role in pharmacognostic and pharmacological studies. This study aimed to investigate antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities of trypsin inhibitors (TIs) from two plant sources (Cajanus cajan and Phaseolus limensis). TI was purified from C. cajan (PUSA-992) by ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by ion exchange chromatography. TI from Phaseolus limensis (lima bean trypsin inhibitor; LBTI) was procured from Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, Missouri, United States. The antioxidant activity was analyzed by ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The anti-inflammatory property of TIs was determined by inhibition of albumin denaturation assay. Ascorbic acid and aspirin were used as standards for antioxidant and anti-inflammatory assays, respectively. These TIs were tested against various bacterial and fungal strains. The TIs showed DPPH radical-scavenging activity in a concentration-dependent manner with IC50 values comparable to ascorbic acid. The FRAP values were also observed comparable to ascorbic acid and followed the trend of dose-dependent manner. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of CCTI and LBTI in anti-inflammatory test showed that LBTI is more potent than CCTI. The TIs showed potent antibacterial activity, but apparently no action against fungi. This study has reported the biological properties of CCTI and LBTI for the first time. The results show that TIs possess the ability to inhibit diseases caused by oxidative stress, inflammation, and bacterial infestation.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cajanus/química , Phaseolus/química , Inibidores da Tripsina/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sementes/química , Inibidores da Tripsina/isolamento & purificação
11.
Environ Res ; 161: 512-523, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29223776

RESUMO

Carlinoside is a unique compound well-known for its excellent curative potential in hepatitis. There is a substantial research gap regarding the medicinal use of carlinoside, as its concentrations are greatly variable (depending on locality). We cultivated Cajanus cajan using vermicompost as a major organic amendment at two locations (Sonitpur and Birbhum) with different soil types, but identical climate conditions. Sonitpur soils were richer in soil organic C (SOC), enzyme activation, and N/P content than Birbhum. However, vermi-treatment improved many soil properties (bulk density, water retention, pH, N/P/K, and enzyme activity) to narrow the locational gap in soil quality by 15-28%. We also recorded a many-fold increment in SOC storage capacities in both locations, which was significantly correlated with carlinoside, total phenol, and flavonoid contents in Cajanus leaves. This significantly up-regulated the carlinoside induced expression of the bilirubin-solubilizing UGT1A1enzyme in HepG2 cell and rat liver. Leaf extracts of vermicompost-aided plants could cure hepatitis in affected rat livers and in the HepG2 cell line. Accordingly, vermi-treatment is an effective route for the growth of Cajanus as a cash crop for biomedical applications and can produce a concurrent improvement in soil quality.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Cajanus , Flavonas , Glicosídeos , Hepatite , Animais , Cajanus/química , Flavonas/análise , Glicosídeos/análise , Hepatite/tratamento farmacológico , Fígado/metabolismo , Nutrientes , Organelas , Ervilhas , Ratos , Solo
12.
J Diet Suppl ; 15(4): 410-418, 2018 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28837379

RESUMO

The hypolipidemic effect of red gram prebiotics of raffinose family oligosaccharides was studied in Wistar National Institute of Nutrition male rat strain. The study consisted of 36 rats randomly divided into three groups of 12 rats each. For 16 weeks, Group I was fed with the control diet; Group II was fed with a diet containing 3% standard raffinose as the reference group; Group III received the diet containing 3% red gram prebiotics. The results showed that the gain in body weight was low in the red gram prebiotics-supplemented group followed by the control group; highest increase of body weight was seen in the raffinose standard-fed group. Serum glucose levels of the red gram prebiotic-fed group decreased 14.92% compared to the control group and increased 2.07% compared to the reference group. The decrease in serum triglycerides (TG) levels of the red gram prebiotic-fed groups was 32.76% compared to the control group and 33.64% compared to the reference group. Decrease in the serum TC of the red gram-fed animals was 18.51% and 4.63% compared to the control group and the reference group, respectively. Increase in the level of serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in the red gram-fed animals was 18.51% compared to the control group and 4.63% compared to the reference group. The present study can be a proof for the use of prebiotics as a preventive measure for overweight and obesity in humans, and legume prebiotics can be explored as a novel prebiotic product in the consumer market.


Assuntos
Cajanus/química , Hipolipemiantes , Oligossacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Prebióticos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Glicemia/análise , Colesterol/sangue , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Dieta , Masculino , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Rafinose/administração & dosagem , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
J Nat Med ; 72(1): 304-309, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29027085

RESUMO

Two new stilbenoid dimers, cajanstilbenoids A (1) and B (2), were isolated from the leaves of Cajanus cajan. Planar structures of these compounds were verified by NMR (1D and 2D) and high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy (HR-ESI-MS). Absolute configurations were assigned by comparing experimental and calculated electronic CD values. The cytotoxicity of 1 and 2 against human hepatoma (HepG2), human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), and human lung cancer (A549) cells were evaluated in vitro. Compound 1 showed strong cytotoxicity against all the tested cell lines (IC50 values: 2.14-2.56 µM), whereas compound 2 showed strong toxicity only against HepG2 (IC50 value: 5.99 µM) and A549 cells (IC50 value: 6.18 µM).


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Cajanus/química , Estilbenos/química , Células A549 , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Células MCF-7 , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Folhas de Planta/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Estilbenos/isolamento & purificação , Estilbenos/farmacologia
14.
Phytomedicine ; 36: 1-7, 2017 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29157802

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plants are important sources of bioactive peptides. Among these, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides have a major focus on their ability to prevent hypertension. Inhibition of ACE has been established as an effective approach for the treatment of ACE associated diseases. HYPOTHESIS/PURPOSE: Some synthetic ACE inhibitory drugs cause side effects and hence there is a constant interest in natural compounds as alternatives. STUDY DESIGN: The study was designed to identify and characterize a peptide molecule from pigeon pea which has the biological property to inhibit ACE and can be developed as a therapeutic approach towards hypertension. METHODS: Seeds of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.) was fermented with Aspergillus niger, a proteolytic fungus isolated from spoiled milk sweet. The extract was purified by size exclusion chromatography by FPLC system. The fractions that showed ACE inhibition was subjected to LC-MS/MS for sequence identification. The stability of the peptide was analyzed by molecular dynamic simulations and the interaction sites with ACE were identified by molecular docking. RESULTS: The study report a novel ACE inhibitory octapeptide Val-Val-Ser-Leu-Ser-Ile-Pro-Arg with a molecular mass of 869.53 Da. The Lineweaver-Burk plot indicated that the inhibition of ACE by this peptide is in competitive mode. Also, molecular docking and simulation studies showed a strong and stable interaction of the peptide with ACE. CONCLUSION: The results clearly show the inhibitory property of the peptide against ACE and hence it can be explored as a therapeutic strategy towards hypertension and other ACE associated diseases.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/química , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Cajanus/química , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/química , Aspergillus niger/metabolismo , Cajanus/metabolismo , Domínio Catalítico , Cromatografia em Gel , Simulação por Computador , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Peso Molecular , Peptídeos/química , Peptídeos/isolamento & purificação , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
15.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 30(4): 1321-1325, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29039332

RESUMO

The present work was carried out to study bacterial pathogens isolated from wheat field water and also effect of some plant extracts on these bacterial pathogens. Five bacterial strains were isolated from wheat field water. Different morphological and biochemical tests were performed to identify and characterize bacterial pathogens. Among isolated strains two belonged to genus Staphylococcus sp., other two were Pseudomonas spp. and one strain belonged to genus Salmonella sp. Effect of various parameters such as temperature, pH, antibiotics and heavy metals of these pathogens were also studied. Optimum temperature for all bacterial strains was 37oC and optimum pH was 7 except strain 3 which had pH 6. Different antibiotics with different potency were applied to check the resistance of bacterial strains against them. Among these antibiotics Cloxacillin and Teicoplanin were most potent while Oxacillin was as less potent antibiotic because three bacterial strains were resistant against it. While remaining antibiotics proved as potent. Seven heavy metals which were zinc (Zn+2), copper (Cu+2), Ferrous (Fe+2), mercury (Hg+2), Nickel (Ni+2), chromium (Cr+2) and cobalt (Co+2) with different concentrations were applied to bacterial strains. Minimum inhibitory concentration of heavy metals for all bacterial was different. Different plant extracts (Artemezia incise, Colebrookia oppositifolia, Rhynchosia pseudocajan) checked for their antibacterial activity against these pathogens. These plant extracts showed antibacterial activity against antibiotic and metal resistant bacterial isolates.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Pseudomonas/isolamento & purificação , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação , Microbiologia da Água , Artemisia/química , Cajanus/química , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/efeitos dos fármacos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Lamiaceae/química , Metais Pesados/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Extratos Vegetais/química , Temperatura Ambiente , Triticum
16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 65(23): 4572-4581, 2017 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28532149

RESUMO

Pigeonpea is one of the major sources of dietary protein for more than a billion people living in South Asia. This hardy legume is often grown in low-input and risk-prone marginal environments. Considerable research effort has been devoted by a global research consortium to develop genomic resources for the improvement of this legume crop. These efforts have resulted in the elucidation of the complete genome sequence of pigeonpea. Despite these developments, little is known about the seed proteome of this important crop. Here, we report the proteome of pigeonpea seed. To enable the isolation of maximum number of seed proteins, including those that are present in very low amounts, three different protein fractions were obtained by employing different extraction media. High-resolution two-dimensional (2-D) electrophoresis followed by MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS/MS analysis of these protein fractions resulted in the identification of 373 pigeonpea seed proteins. Consistent with the reported high degree of synteny between the pigeonpea and soybean genomes, a large number of pigeonpea seed proteins exhibited significant amino acid homology with soybean seed proteins. Our proteomic analysis identified a large number of stress-related proteins, presumably due to its adaptation to drought-prone environments. The availability of a pigeonpea seed proteome reference map should shed light on the roles of these identified proteins in various biological processes and facilitate the improvement of seed composition.


Assuntos
Cajanus/química , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Sementes/química , Cajanus/genética , Cajanus/metabolismo , Eletroforese em Gel Bidimensional , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteômica , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo , Soja/genética , Soja/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
17.
J Agric Food Chem ; 65(20): 4066-4073, 2017 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28485147

RESUMO

As a major active stilbene from the leaves of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan), cajaninstilbene acid (CSA) exerts various pharmacological activities. The present study aimed to investigate the pharmacokinetics of CSA and one of its main metabolites (M1) to explore their fate in the body and provide a pharmacokinetic foundation for their in vivo biological activities and functional food or complementary medicine application. M1 was characterized as CSA-3-O-glucuronide using the multiple reaction monitoring-information-dependent acquisition-enhanced product ion technique. After oral and intravenous administration, plasma, urine, and bile were collected and analyzed to estimate pharmacokinetic properties of CSA and M1 and to explore the main excretion route. The oral bioavailability of CSA was estimated to be 44.36%. This study first reported that CSA is mainly metabolized to CSA-3-O-glucuronide via the first-pass effect to limit its oral bioavailability and excreted predominantly through the biliary route, while the enterohepatic circulation, extravascular distribution, and renal reabsorption characteristics of CSA might delay its elimination.


Assuntos
Cajanus/química , Glucuronídeos/farmacocinética , Extratos Vegetais/farmacocinética , Salicilatos/farmacocinética , Estilbenos/farmacocinética , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Glucuronídeos/química , Glucuronídeos/metabolismo , Masculino , Estrutura Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Salicilatos/química , Salicilatos/metabolismo , Estilbenos/química , Estilbenos/metabolismo , Distribuição Tecidual
18.
Pharm Biol ; 55(1): 1740-1746, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28494681

RESUMO

CONTEXT: The leaves of Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp. (Fabaceae) have diverse bioactivities, but little safety data are reported. OBJECTIVE: This study examines the toxicological profiles of C. cajan leaf extracts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The leaves were extracted by water or 90% ethanol to obtain water or ethanol extract (WEC or EEC). EEC was suspended in water and successively fractionated into dichloroform and n-butanol extracts (DEC and BEC). Marker compounds of the extracts were monitored by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Kunming mice were administered with a single maximum acceptable oral dose (15.0 g/kg for WEC, EEC and BEC and 11.3 g/kg for DEC) to determine death rate or maximal tolerated doses (MTDs). In sub-chronic toxicity investigation, Sprague-Dawley rats were orally given WEC or EEC at 1.5, 3.0 or 6.0 g/kg doses for four weeks and observed for two weeks after dosing to determine toxicological symptoms, histopathology, biochemistry and haematology. RESULTS: Flavonoids and stilbenes in the extracts were assayed. In acute toxicity test, no mortality and noted alterations in weight and behavioural abnormality were observed, and the maximum oral doses were estimated as MTDs. In sub-chronic toxicity study, no mortality and significant variances in haematological and biochemical parameters or organ histopathology were observed, but increased kidney weight in 3.0 g/kg WEC- or 3.0 and 6.0 g/kg EEC-treated female rats, and reduced testes and epididymis weight in EEC-treated male rats were recorded. These changes returned to the level of control after recovery period. CONCLUSION: Acute and sub-chronic toxicity of Cajanus cajan leaf extracts was not observed.


Assuntos
Cajanus/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Folhas de Planta/toxicidade , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda , Testes de Toxicidade Subcrônica , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Cajanus/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Masculino , Dose Máxima Tolerável , Camundongos , Modelos Animais , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Folhas de Planta/química , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Medição de Risco , Solventes/química , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Mycotoxin Res ; 33(2): 129-137, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28247323

RESUMO

Aflatoxin contamination and biodeterioration were examined in 302 samples of dry cowpeas and pigeon peas that were randomly purchased from 9 districts of the Southern Region of Malawi during July and November 2015. Further, the impact of flotation/washing on aflatoxin levels on the pulses was elucidated. Aflatoxin analyses involved immunoaffinity column (IAC) clean-up and HPLC quantification with fluorescence detection (FLD) while legume biodeterioration assessments were done by visual inspection. Aflatoxins were frequently detected in cowpea (24%, max., 66 µg/kg) and pigeon pea (22%, max., 80 µg/kg) samples that were collected in the month of July. Lower aflatoxin incidence of 15% in cowpeas (max., 470 µg/kg) and 14% in pigeon peas (max., 377 µg/kg) was recorded in the November collection. Overall, aflatoxin levels were significantly higher in the pulses that were collected in November. However, there were no significant differences in the total aflatoxin (aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) + AFB2 + AFG1 + AFG2) levels between the two types of pulses. Remarkably, in 76.2% of the aflatoxin positive cowpea and in 41.7% of the aflatoxin positive pigeon pea samples, aflatoxin G1 concentration exceeded aflatoxin B1. Insect damage percentage averaged at 18.1 ± 18.2% (mean ± SD) in the cowpeas and 16.1 ± 19.4% in pigeon peas. Mean discolouration percentage (number of pulses) of the cowpeas and pigeon peas was found to be at 6.7 ± 4.9 and 8.7 ± 6.2%, respectively. Washing and discarding the buoyant fraction was highly efficient in reducing aflatoxin levels; only 5.2 ± 11.1% of the initial aflatoxin level was found in the cleaned samples. In conclusion, cowpeas and pigeon peas sold on the local market in Malawi may constitute a hazard especially if floatation/washing step is skipped.


Assuntos
Aflatoxinas/análise , Cajanus/química , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Micotoxinas/análise , Vigna/química , Aflatoxinas/isolamento & purificação , Cajanus/anatomia & histologia , Cromatografia de Afinidade , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Fluorometria , Malaui , Micotoxinas/isolamento & purificação , Estações do Ano , Vigna/anatomia & histologia
20.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 24(8): 7285-7297, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28102497

RESUMO

Soil salinity is a major constraint that limits legume productivity. Pigeonpea is a salt sensitive crop. Seed gamma irradiation at a very low dose (2.5 Gy) is known to enhance seedling establishment, plant growth and yield of cereals and other crops. The present study conducted using two genetically diverse varieties of pigeonpea viz., Pusa-991 and Pusa-992 aimed at establishing the role of pre-sowing seed gamma irradiation at 0, 0.0025, 0.005, 0.01, 0.02, 0.05 and 0.1 kGy on plant growth, seed yield and seed quality under salt stress at 0, 80 and 100 mM NaCl (soil solution EC equivalent 1.92, 5.86 and 8.02 dS/m, respectively) imposed right from the beginning of the experiment. Changes in carbon flow dynamics between shoot and root and concentration of osmolyte, glycine betaine, plant uptake and shoot and root partitioning of Na+ and K+ and activity of protein degrading enzyme protease were measured under the combined effect of gamma irradiation and salt stress. Positive affect of pre-sowing exposure of seed to low dose of gamma irradiation (<0.01 kGy) under salt stress was evident in pigeonpea. Pigeonpea variety, Pusa-992 showed a better salt tolerance response than Pusa-991 and that the radiated plants performed better than the unirradiated plants even at increasing salinity level. Seed yield and seed protein and iron content were also positively affected by the low dose gamma irradiation under NaCl stress. Multiple factors interacted to determine physiological salt tolerance response of pigeonpea varieties. Gamma irradiation caused a favourable alteration in the source-sink (shoot-root) partitioning of recently fixed carbon (14C) under salt stress in pigeonpea. Gamma irradiation of seeds prior to sowing enhanced glycine betaine content and reduced protease activity at 60-day stage under various salt stress regimes. Lower partitioning of Na+and relatively higher accumulation of K+ under irradiation treatment was the other important determinants that differentiated between salt-tolerant and salt-susceptible variety of pigeonpea. The study provides evidence and physiological basis for exploring exploitation of pre-sowing exposure of seeds with low-dose gamma ray for enhancing the salt tolerance response of crop plants.


Assuntos
Betaína , Cajanus , Carbono , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal , Sementes , Betaína/análise , Betaína/isolamento & purificação , Cajanus/química , Cajanus/efeitos da radiação , Carbono/análise , Carbono/isolamento & purificação , Raios gama , Potássio/análise , Potássio/isolamento & purificação , Salinidade , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal/química , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal/efeitos da radiação , Sementes/química , Sementes/efeitos da radiação , Sódio/análise , Sódio/isolamento & purificação
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