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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34064311

RESUMO

Dephosphorylation of target proteins at serine/threonine residues is one of the most crucial mechanisms regulating their activity and, consequently, the cellular functions. The role of phosphatases in synaptic plasticity, especially in long-term depression or depotentiation, has been reported. We studied serine/threonine phosphatase activity during the protein synthesis blocker (PSB)-induced impairment of long-term potentiation (LTP). Established protein phosphatase 2B (PP2B, calcineurin) inhibitor cyclosporin A prevented the LTP early phase (E-LTP) decline produced by pretreatment of hippocampal slices with cycloheximide or anisomycin. For the first time, we directly measured serine/threonine phosphatase activity during E-LTP, and its significant increase in PSB-treated slices was demonstrated. Nitric oxide (NO) donor SNAP also heightened phosphatase activity in the same manner as PSB, and simultaneous application of anisomycin + SNAP had no synergistic effect. Direct measurement of the NO production in hippocampal slices by the NO-specific fluorescent probe DAF-FM revealed that PSBs strongly stimulate the NO concentration in all studied brain areas: CA1, CA3, and dentate gyrus (DG). Cyclosporin A fully abolished the PSB-induced NO production in the hippocampus, suggesting a close relationship between nNOS and PP2B activity. Surprisingly, cyclosporin A alone impaired short-term plasticity in CA1 by decreasing paired-pulse facilitation, which suggests bi-directionality of the influences of PP2B in the hippocampus. In conclusion, we proposed a minimal model of signaling events that occur during LTP induction in normal conditions and the PSB-treated slices.


Assuntos
Região CA1 Hipocampal/metabolismo , Região CA3 Hipocampal/metabolismo , Calcineurina/genética , Potenciação de Longa Duração/genética , Potenciais Sinápticos/genética , Animais , Anisomicina/farmacologia , Região CA1 Hipocampal/citologia , Região CA1 Hipocampal/efeitos dos fármacos , Região CA3 Hipocampal/citologia , Região CA3 Hipocampal/efeitos dos fármacos , Calcineurina/metabolismo , Inibidores de Calcineurina/farmacologia , Cicloeximida/farmacologia , Ciclosporina/farmacologia , Giro Denteado/citologia , Giro Denteado/efeitos dos fármacos , Giro Denteado/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Potenciação de Longa Duração/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Microtomia , Plasticidade Neuronal/efeitos dos fármacos , Plasticidade Neuronal/genética , Óxido Nítrico/química , Óxido Nítrico/farmacologia , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo I/genética , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo I/metabolismo , Biossíntese de Proteínas/efeitos dos fármacos , Biossíntese de Proteínas/genética , Inibidores da Síntese de Proteínas/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , S-Nitroso-N-Acetilpenicilamina/química , S-Nitroso-N-Acetilpenicilamina/farmacologia , Potenciais Sinápticos/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos
2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2699, 2021 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33976188

RESUMO

Resistance to Herceptin represents a significant challenge for successful treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer. Here, we show that in Herceptin-sensitive cells, FOXO3a regulates specific miRNAs to control IGF2 and IRS1 expression, retaining basic IGF2/IGF-1R/IRS1 signaling. The basic activity maintains expression of PPP3CB, a subunit of the serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 2B, to restrict FOXO3a phosphorylation (p-FOXO3a), inducing IGF2- and IRS1-targeting miRNAs. However, in Herceptin-resistant cells, p-FOXO3a levels are elevated due to transcriptional suppression of PPP3CB, disrupting the negative feedback inhibition loop formed by FOXO3a and the miRNAs, thereby upregulating IGF2 and IRS1. Moreover, we detect significantly increased IGF2 in blood and IRS1 in the tumors of breast cancer patients with poor response to Herceptin-containing regimens. Collectively, we demonstrate that the IGF2/IGF-1R/IRS1 signaling is aberrantly activated in Herceptin-resistant breast cancer via disruption of the FOXO3a-miRNA negative feedback inhibition. Such insights provide avenues to identify predictive biomarkers and effective strategies overcoming Herceptin resistance.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Proteína Forkhead Box O3/genética , Proteínas Substratos do Receptor de Insulina/genética , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like II/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Receptor ErbB-2/genética , Receptor IGF Tipo 1/genética , Animais , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Calcineurina/genética , Calcineurina/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Retroalimentação Fisiológica , Feminino , Proteína Forkhead Box O3/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Proteínas Substratos do Receptor de Insulina/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like II/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Receptor IGF Tipo 1/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Análise de Sobrevida , Trastuzumab/farmacologia , Carga Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33924991

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Arterial hypertension (AH) is associated with heart and chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, the precise mechanisms of myocardial remodeling (MR) in the settings of CKD remain elusive. We hypothesized that TRPC6, calcineurin/NFAT, and Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathways are involved in the development of MR in the background of CKD and AH. METHODS: Early CKD was induced by performing a 5/6 nephrectomy (5/6NE) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR-NE). Sham-operated (SO) SHR (SHR-SO) and Wistar Kyoto (WKY-SO) rats served as controls. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), heart rate, myocardial mass index (MMI), serum creatinine, cardiomyocyte diameter (dCM), myocardial fibrosis (MF), serum and kidney α-Klotho levels, myocardial expression of calcineurin (CaN), TRPC6, and ß-catenin were measured two months after 5/6NE or SO. RESULTS: NE-induced kidney dysfunction corresponded to mild-to-moderate human CKD and was associated with an increase in FGF23 and a decrease in renal α-Klotho. The levels of SBP, MMI, dCM, and MF were higher in SHRs compared to WKY-SO as well as in SHR-NE vs. SHR-SO. The MR was associated with increased cardiomyocyte expression of CaN/NFAT and ß-catenin along with its intracellular re-distribution. TRPC6 protein levels were substantially elevated in both SHR groups with higher Trpc6 mRNA expression in SHR-NE. CONCLUSIONS: The Wnt/ß-catenin and TRPC6/CaN/NFAT hypertrophic signaling pathways seem to be involved in myocardial remodeling in the settings of AH and CKD and might be mediated by FGF23 and α-Klotho axis.


Assuntos
Cardiomegalia/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Canais de Cátion TRPC/metabolismo , Via de Sinalização Wnt , beta Catenina/metabolismo , Animais , Calcineurina/metabolismo , Cardiomegalia/etiologia , Hipertensão/complicações , Masculino , Fatores de Transcrição NFATC/metabolismo , Nefrectomia , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR , Ratos Endogâmicos WKY , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Remodelação Ventricular
4.
Am J Physiol Renal Physiol ; 320(5): F789-F798, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33615888

RESUMO

Calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) are vital immunosuppressive therapies in the management of inflammatory conditions. A long-term consequence is nephrotoxicity. In the kidneys, the primary, catalytic calcineurin (CnA) isoforms are CnAα and CnAß. Although the renal phenotype of CnAα-/- mice substantially mirrors CNI-induced nephrotoxicity, the mechanisms downstream of CnAα are poorly understood. Since NADPH oxidase-2 (Nox2)-derived oxidative damage has been implicated in CNI-induced nephrotoxicity, we hypothesized that CnAα inhibition drives Nox2 upregulation and promotes oxidative stress. To test the hypothesis, Nox2 regulation was investigated in kidneys from CnAα-/-, CnAß-/-, and wild-type (WT) littermate mice. To identify the downstream mediator of CnAα, nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) and NF-κB regulation was examined. To test if Nox2 is transcriptionally regulated via a NF-κB pathway, CnAα-/- and WT renal fibroblasts were treated with the NF-κB inhibitor caffeic acid phenethyl ester. Our findings showed that cyclosporine A treatment induced Nox2 upregulation and oxidative stress. Furthermore, Nox2 upregulation and elevated ROS generation occurred only in CnAα-/- mice. In these mice, NF-κB but not NFAT activity was increased. In CnAα-/- renal fibroblasts, NF-κB inhibition prevented Nox2 upregulation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. In conclusion, these findings indicate that 1) CnAα loss stimulates Nox2 upregulation, 2) NF-κB is a novel CnAα-regulated transcription factor, and 3) NF-κB mediates CnAα-induced Nox2 and ROS regulation. Our results demonstrate that CnAα plays a key role in Nox2 and ROS generation. Furthermore, these novel findings provide evidence of divergent CnA isoform signaling pathways. Finally, this study advocates for CnAα-sparing CNIs, ultimately circumventing the CNI nephrotoxicity.NEW & NOTEWORTHY A long-term consequence of calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) is oxidative damage and nephrotoxicity. This study indicates that NF-κB is a novel calcineurin-regulated transcription factor that is activated with calcineurin inhibition, thereby driving oxidative damage in CNI nephropathy. These findings provide additional evidence of divergent calcineurin signaling pathways and suggest that selective CNIs could improve the long-term outcomes of patients by mitigating renal side effects.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Calcineurina/toxicidade , Calcineurina/metabolismo , Ciclosporina/toxicidade , Imunossupressores/toxicidade , Nefropatias/induzido quimicamente , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , NADPH Oxidase 2/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Animais , Calcineurina/deficiência , Calcineurina/genética , Linhagem Celular , Fibrose , Rim/enzimologia , Rim/patologia , Nefropatias/enzimologia , Nefropatias/genética , Nefropatias/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , NADPH Oxidase 2/genética , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(3)2021 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33530471

RESUMO

Regulation of calcineurin, a Ca2+/calmodulin-regulated phosphatase, is important for the nervous system, and its abnormal activity is associated with various pathologies, including neurodegenerative disorders. In yeast cells lacking the VPS13 gene (vps13Δ), a model of VPS13-linked neurological diseases, we recently demonstrated that calcineurin is activated, and its downregulation reduces the negative effects associated with vps13Δ mutation. Here, we show that overexpression of the RCN2 gene, which encodes a negative regulator of calcineurin, is beneficial for vps13Δ cells. We studied the molecular mechanism underlying this effect through site-directed mutagenesis of RCN2. The interaction of the resulting Rcn2 variants with a MAPK kinase, Slt2, and subunits of calcineurin was tested. We show that Rcn2 binds preferentially to Cmp2, one of two alternative catalytic subunits of calcineurin, and partially inhibits calcineurin. Rcn2 ability to bind to and reduce the activity of calcineurin was important for the suppression. The binding of Rcn2 to Cmp2 requires two motifs in Rcn2: the previously characterized C-terminal motif and a new N-terminal motif that was discovered in this study. Altogether, our findings can help to better understand calcineurin regulation and to develop new therapeutic strategies against neurodegenerative diseases based on modulation of the activity of selected calcineurin isoforms.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Calcineurina/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/deficiência , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Sítios de Ligação , Dosagem de Genes , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Mutação , Ligação Proteica , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas
6.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 320(4): H1321-H1336, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33481702

RESUMO

Arsenic exposure though drinking water is widespread and well associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes, yet the pathophysiological mechanisms by which iAS induces these effects are largely unknown. Recently, an epidemiological study in an American population with a low burden of cardiovascular risk factors found that iAS exposure was associated with altered left ventricular geometry. Considering the possibility that iAS directly induces cardiac remodeling independently of hypertension, we investigated the impact of an environmentally relevant iAS exposure on the structure and function of male and female hearts. Adult male and female C56BL/6J mice were exposed to 615 µg/L iAS for 8 wk. Males exhibited increased systolic blood pressure via tail cuff photoplethysmography, left ventricular wall thickening via transthoracic echocardiography, and increased plasma atrial natriuretic peptide via enzyme immunoassay. RT-qPCR revealed increased myocardial RNA transcripts of Acta1, Myh7, and Nppa and decreased Myh6, providing evidence of pathological hypertrophy in the male heart. Similar changes were not detected in females, and nitric oxide-dependent mechanisms of cardioprotection in the heart appeared to remain intact. Further investigation found that Rcan1 was upregulated in male hearts and that iAS activated NFAT in HEK-293 cells via luciferase assay. Interestingly, iAS induced similar hypertrophic gene expression changes in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes, which were blocked by calcineurin inhibition, suggesting that iAS may induce pathological cardiac hypertrophy in part by targeting the calcineurin-NFAT pathway. As such, these results highlight iAS exposure as an independent cardiovascular risk factor and provide biological impetus for its removal from human consumption.NEW & NOTEWORTHY This investigation provides the first mechanistic link between an environmentally relevant dose of inorganic arsenic (iAS) and pathological hypertrophy in the heart. By demonstrating that iAS exposure may cause pathological cardiac hypertrophy not only by increasing systolic blood pressure but also by potentially activating calcineurin-nuclear factor of activated T cells and inducing fetal gene expression, these results provide novel mechanistic insight into the theat of iAS exposure to the heart, which is necessary to identify targets for medical and public health intervention.


Assuntos
Arsenitos/toxicidade , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/induzido quimicamente , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos de Sódio/toxicidade , Função Ventricular Esquerda/efeitos dos fármacos , Remodelação Ventricular/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Calcineurina/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/metabolismo , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/patologia , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia , Preparação de Coração Isolado , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/patologia , Fatores de Transcrição NFATC/metabolismo , Fatores Sexuais , Transdução de Sinais , Fatores de Tempo
7.
J Plant Physiol ; 256: 153331, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310529

RESUMO

Calcineurin B-like protein-interacting protein kinases (CIPKs) are key elements of plant abiotic stress signaling pathways. CIPKs are SOS2 (Salt Overly Sensitive 2)-like proteins (protein kinase S [PKS] proteins) which all contain a putative FISL motif. It seems that the FISL motif is found only in the SOS2 subfamily of protein kinases. In this study, the full-length cDNA of a soybean CIPK gene (GmPKS4) was isolated and was revealed to have an important role in abiotic stress responses. A qRT-PCR analysis indicated that GmPKS4 expression is upregulated under saline conditions or when exposed to alkali, salt-alkali, drought, or abscisic acid (ABA). A subcellular localization assay revealed the presence of GmPKS4 in the nucleus and cytoplasm. Further studies on the GmPKS4 promoter suggested it affects soybean resistance to various stresses. Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana and soybean hairy roots overexpressing GmPKS4 had increased proline content as well as high antioxidant enzyme activities but decreased malondialdehyde levels following salt and salt-alkali stress treatments. Additionally, GmPKS4 overexpression activated reactive oxygen species scavenging systems, thereby minimizing damages due to oxidative and osmotic stresses. Moreover, upregulated stress-related gene expression levels were detected in lines overexpressing GmPKS4 under stress conditions. In conclusion, GmPKS4 improves soybean tolerance to salt and salt-alkali stresses. The overexpression of GmPKS4 enhances the scavenging of reactive oxygen species, osmolyte synthesis, and the transcriptional regulation of stress-related genes.


Assuntos
Álcalis/efeitos adversos , Calcineurina/genética , Pressão Osmótica/fisiologia , Estresse Salino/genética , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Soja/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Calcineurina/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Estresse Salino/fisiologia , Tolerância ao Sal/fisiologia , Soja/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia
8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(2)2021 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33376206

RESUMO

Planarian flatworms regenerate their heads and tails from anterior or posterior wounds and this regenerative blastema polarity is controlled by Wnt/ß-catenin signaling. It is well known that a regeneration blastema of appendages of vertebrates such as fish and amphibians grows distally. However, it remains unclear whether a regeneration blastema in vertebrate appendages can grow proximally. Here, we show that a regeneration blastema in zebrafish fins can grow proximally along the proximodistal axis by calcineurin inhibition. We used fin excavation in adult zebrafish to observe unidirectional regeneration from the anterior cut edge (ACE) to the posterior cut edge (PCE) of the cavity and this unidirectional regeneration polarity occurs as the PCE fails to build blastemas. Furthermore, we found that calcineurin activities in the ACE were greater than in the PCE. Calcineurin inhibition induced PCE blastemas, and calcineurin hyperactivation suppressed fin regeneration. Collectively, these findings identify calcineurin as a molecular switch to specify the PCE blastema of the proximodistal axis and regeneration polarity in zebrafish fin.


Assuntos
Nadadeiras de Animais/fisiologia , Calcineurina/metabolismo , Regeneração/fisiologia , Animais , Polaridade Celular/fisiologia , Extremidades/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais , Cicatrização/fisiologia , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra
9.
Dev Biol ; 469: 86-95, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058830

RESUMO

During digit development, the correct balance of chondrogenic signals ensures the recruitment of undifferentiated cells into the cartilage lineage or the maintenance of cells at the undifferentiated stage. WNT/ß catenin maintains the pool of progenitor cells, whereas TGFß signalling promotes cartilage differentiation by inducing Sox9 expression. Moreover, WNT5A promotes the degradation of ß catenin during mouse limb development. Although these mechanisms are well established, it is still unknown whether the signalling pathway downstream WNT5A is also involved in early chondrogenesis during digit formation. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the role of WNT5A during the recruitment of progenitor cells during digit development. Our results showed that WNT5A activated calcium (Ca2+) release in the undifferentiated region during digit development. Further, the blockade of Ca2+ release or calcineurin (CaN) or nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) functions resulted in an inhibition of cartilage differentiation. Together, our results demonstrate that non canonical WNT5A-Ca2+-CaN-NFAT signalling plays a key role during embryonic digit development in vivo promoting the competence for chondrogenic signals and also acts as a permissive factor for chondrogenesis independently of cell death mechanisms.


Assuntos
Sinalização do Cálcio , Condrogênese , Fatores de Transcrição NFATC/metabolismo , Dedos do Pé/embriologia , Proteína Wnt-5a/fisiologia , Animais , Calcineurina/metabolismo , Cálcio/metabolismo , Embrião de Galinha , Extremidades/embriologia , Fatores de Transcrição SOX9/metabolismo
10.
Autophagy ; 16(11): 2114-2116, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960686

RESUMO

Proteasome inhibition (PSMI) is known to activate macroautophagy (autophagy hereafter), but the underlying mechanisms remain to be fully delineated. Here we discuss our recent work identifying an important PPP3/calcineurin-TFEB-SQSTM1/p62 pathway in mediating activation of autophagy by PSMI, a compensatory process for the heart with proteasome malfunction. Through increasing PPP3/calcineurin activity and inhibiting MTOR signaling, PSMI promotes the dephosphorylation and thereby nuclear translocation of TFEB, resulting in transactivation of genes in the autophagic-lysosomal pathway (ALP) such as Mcoln1 and Sqstm1. We have discovered that SQSTM1 is required for not only induction of autophagy but also cardiac activation of TFEB by PSMI, unveiling a novel feedforward role for SQSTM1 in TFEB activation.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina e Hélice-Alça-Hélix Básicos/metabolismo , Calcineurina/metabolismo , Macroautofagia , Proteína Sequestossoma-1/metabolismo
11.
Nat Cell Biol ; 22(8): 973-985, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753672

RESUMO

Autophagy is a homeostatic process with multiple functions in mammalian cells. Here, we show that mammalian Atg8 proteins (mAtg8s) and the autophagy regulator IRGM control TFEB, a transcriptional activator of the lysosomal system. IRGM directly interacted with TFEB and promoted the nuclear translocation of TFEB. An mAtg8 partner of IRGM, GABARAP, interacted with TFEB. Deletion of all mAtg8s or GABARAPs affected the global transcriptional response to starvation and downregulated subsets of TFEB targets. IRGM and GABARAPs countered the action of mTOR as a negative regulator of TFEB. This was suppressed by constitutively active RagB, an activator of mTOR. Infection of macrophages with the membrane-permeabilizing microbe Mycobacterium tuberculosis or infection of target cells by HIV elicited TFEB activation in an IRGM-dependent manner. Thus, IRGM and its interactors mAtg8s close a loop between the autophagosomal pathway and the control of lysosomal biogenesis by TFEB, thus ensuring coordinated activation of the two systems that eventually merge during autophagy.


Assuntos
Família da Proteína 8 Relacionada à Autofagia/fisiologia , Autofagia/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina e Hélice-Alça-Hélix Básicos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/fisiologia , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Calcineurina/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Células HeLa , Humanos , Lisossomos/fisiologia , Transporte Proteico , Proteínas Qa-SNARE/metabolismo
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(29): 17195-17203, 2020 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32606248

RESUMO

The vast majority of intracellular protein targets are refractory toward small-molecule therapeutic engagement, and additional therapeutic modalities are needed to overcome this deficiency. Here, the identification and characterization of a natural product, WDB002, reveals a therapeutic modality that dramatically expands the currently accepted limits of druggability. WDB002, in complex with the FK506-binding protein (FKBP12), potently and selectively binds the human centrosomal protein 250 (CEP250), resulting in disruption of CEP250 function in cells. The recognition mode is unprecedented in that the targeted domain of CEP250 is a coiled coil and is topologically featureless, embodying both a structural motif and surface topology previously considered on the extreme limits of "undruggability" for an intracellular target. Structural studies reveal extensive protein-WDB002 and protein-protein contacts, with the latter being distinct from those seen in FKBP12 ternary complexes formed by FK506 and rapamycin. Outward-facing structural changes in a bound small molecule can thus reprogram FKBP12 to engage diverse, otherwise "undruggable" targets. The flat-targeting modality demonstrated here has the potential to expand the druggable target range of small-molecule therapeutics. As CEP250 was recently found to be an interaction partner with the Nsp13 protein of the SARS-CoV-2 virus that causes COVID-19 disease, it is possible that WDB002 or an analog may exert useful antiviral activity through its ability to form high-affinity ternary complexes containing CEP250 and FKBP12.


Assuntos
Actinobacteria/genética , Antivirais/farmacologia , Genoma Bacteriano , Macrolídeos/farmacologia , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Proteína 1A de Ligação a Tacrolimo/química , Proteína 1A de Ligação a Tacrolimo/metabolismo , Actinobacteria/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/metabolismo , Autoantígenos/genética , Autoantígenos/metabolismo , Calcineurina/genética , Calcineurina/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Evolução Molecular , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Macrolídeos/química , Macrolídeos/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Proteica , Homologia de Sequência , Sirolimo/química , Sirolimo/metabolismo , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/genética , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
13.
Mol Cell ; 79(2): 342-358.e12, 2020 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645368

RESUMO

Short linear motifs (SLiMs) drive dynamic protein-protein interactions essential for signaling, but sequence degeneracy and low binding affinities make them difficult to identify. We harnessed unbiased systematic approaches for SLiM discovery to elucidate the regulatory network of calcineurin (CN)/PP2B, the Ca2+-activated phosphatase that recognizes LxVP and PxIxIT motifs. In vitro proteome-wide detection of CN-binding peptides, in vivo SLiM-dependent proximity labeling, and in silico modeling of motif determinants uncovered unanticipated CN interactors, including NOTCH1, which we establish as a CN substrate. Unexpectedly, CN shows SLiM-dependent proximity to centrosomal and nuclear pore complex (NPC) proteins-structures where Ca2+ signaling is largely uncharacterized. CN dephosphorylates human and yeast NPC proteins and promotes accumulation of a nuclear transport reporter, suggesting conserved NPC regulation by CN. The CN network assembled here provides a resource to investigate Ca2+ and CN signaling and demonstrates synergy between experimental and computational methods, establishing a blueprint for examining SLiM-based networks.


Assuntos
Calcineurina/metabolismo , Complexo de Proteínas Formadoras de Poros Nucleares/metabolismo , Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolases/metabolismo , Transporte Ativo do Núcleo Celular , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Biotinilação , Centrossomo/metabolismo , Simulação por Computador , Células HEK293 , Células HeLa , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas , Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolases/química , Fosforilação , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Proteoma/metabolismo , Receptor Notch1/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
14.
PLoS Genet ; 16(6): e1008865, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603360

RESUMO

Fpr1 (FK506-sensitive proline rotamase 1), a protein of the FKBP12 (FK506-binding protein 12 kDa) family in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is a primary target for the immunosuppressive agents FK506 and rapamycin. Fpr1 inhibits calcineurin and TORC1 (target of rapamycin complex 1) when bound to FK506 and rapamycin, respectively. Although Fpr1 is recognised to play a crucial role in the efficacy of these drugs, its physiological functions remain unclear. In a hmo1Δ (high mobility group family 1-deleted) yeast strain, deletion of FPR1 induced severe growth defects, which could be alleviated by increasing the copy number of RPL25 (ribosome protein of the large subunit 25), suggesting that RPL25 expression was affected in hmo1Δfpr1Δ cells. In the current study, extensive chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and ChIP-sequencing analyses revealed that Fpr1 associates specifically with the upstream activating sequences of nearly all RPG (ribosomal protein gene) promoters, presumably in a manner dependent on Rap1 (repressor/activator site binding protein 1). Intriguingly, Fpr1 promotes the binding of Fhl1/Ifh1 (forkhead-like 1/interacts with forkhead 1), two key regulators of RPG transcription, to certain RPG promoters independently of and/or cooperatively with Hmo1. Furthermore, mutation analyses of Fpr1 indicated that for transcriptional function on RPG promoters, Fpr1 requires its N-terminal domain and the binding surface for rapamycin, but not peptidyl-prolyl isomerase activity. Notably, Fpr1 orthologues from other species also inhibit TORC1 when bound to rapamycin, but do not regulate transcription in yeast, which suggests that these two functions of Fpr1 are independent of each other.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Grupo de Alta Mobilidade/metabolismo , Peptidilprolil Isomerase/metabolismo , Proteínas Ribossômicas/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Calcineurina/metabolismo , Sequenciamento de Cromatina por Imunoprecipitação , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Genes Fúngicos , Proteínas de Grupo de Alta Mobilidade/genética , Peptidilprolil Isomerase/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Ligação Proteica/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Sirolimo/farmacologia , Tacrolimo/farmacologia , Fatores de Transcrição/antagonistas & inibidores , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Transcrição Genética
15.
Nat Cell Biol ; 22(7): 815-827, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32601373

RESUMO

Lysosomes serve as cellular degradation and signalling centres that coordinate metabolism in response to intracellular cues and extracellular signals. Lysosomal capacity is adapted to cellular needs by transcription factors, such as TFEB and TFE3, which activate the expression of lysosomal and autophagy genes. Nuclear translocation and activation of TFEB are induced by a variety of conditions such as starvation, lysosome stress and lysosomal storage disorders. How these various cues are integrated remains incompletely understood. Here, we describe a pathway initiated at the plasma membrane that controls lysosome biogenesis via the endocytic regulation of intracellular ion homeostasis. This pathway is based on the exo-endocytosis of NHE7, a Na+/H+ exchanger mutated in X-linked intellectual disability, and serves to control intracellular ion homeostasis and thereby Ca2+/calcineurin-mediated activation of TFEB and downstream lysosome biogenesis in response to osmotic stress to promote the turnover of toxic proteins and cell survival.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina e Hélice-Alça-Hélix Básicos/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Endocitose , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Trocadores de Sódio-Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Animais , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina e Hélice-Alça-Hélix Básicos/genética , Calcineurina/genética , Calcineurina/metabolismo , Cálcio/metabolismo , Clatrina/metabolismo , Homeostase , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Transporte Proteico , Trocadores de Sódio-Hidrogênio/genética
16.
Tumour Biol ; 42(7): 1010428320937863, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32686600

RESUMO

Maintaining intracellular pH is crucial for preserving healthy cellular behavior and, when dysregulated, results in increased proliferation, migration, and invasion. The Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 1 is a highly regulated transmembrane antiporter that maintains pH homeostasis by exporting protons in response to intra- and extracellular signals. Activation of Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 1 is exquisitely regulated by the extracellular environment and protein cofactors, including calcineurin B homologous proteins 1 and 2. While Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 1 and calcineurin B homologous protein 1 are ubiquitously expressed, calcineurin B homologous protein 2 shows tissue-specific expression and upregulation in a variety of cancer cells. In addition, calcineurin B homologous protein 2 expression is modulated by tumorigenic extracellular conditions like low nutrients. To understand the role of calcineurin B homologous protein 2 in tumorigenesis and survival in lung cancer, we surveyed existing databases and formed a comprehensive report of Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 1, calcineurin B homologous protein 1, and calcineurin B homologous protein 2 expression in diseased and non-diseased tissues. We show that calcineurin B homologous protein 2 is upregulated during oncogenesis in many adeno and squamous carcinomas. To understand the functional role of calcineurin B homologous protein 2 upregulation, we evaluated the effect of Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 1 and calcineurin B homologous protein 2 depletion on cellular function during cancer progression in situ. Here, we show that calcineurin B homologous protein 2 functions through Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 1 to effect cell proliferation, cell migration, steady-state pHi, and anchorage-independent tumor growth. Finally, we present evidence that calcineurin B homologous protein 2 depletion in vivo has potential to reduce tumor burden in a xenograft model. Together, these data support the tumor-promoting potential of aberrant calcineurin B homologous protein 2 expression and position calcineurin B homologous protein 2 as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer.


Assuntos
Calcineurina/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Trocador 1 de Sódio-Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Animais , Calcineurina/genética , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/fisiologia , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Transplante de Neoplasias , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo , Transplante Heterólogo
17.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234403, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520951

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators of gene expression, and their expression is associated with many physiological conditions. Here, we investigated potential associations between expression levels of miRNAs in human placenta and the onset of spontaneous term birth. Using RNA sequencing, we identified 54 miRNAs differentially expressed during spontaneous term labor compared to elective term births. Expression levels of 23 miRNAs were upregulated, whereas 31 were downregulated at least 1.5-fold. The upregulated miRNA miR-371a-5p putatively targets CPPED1, expression of which decreases during spontaneous birth. We used a luciferase reporter-based assay to test whether a miR-371a-5p mimic affected translation when it bound to the 3' untranslated region of CPPED1. In this setting, the miR-371a-5p mimic resulted in lower luciferase activity, which suggests that miR-371a-5p regulates levels of CPPED1. In conclusion, inversely correlated levels of miR-371a-5p and CPPED1 suggest a role for both in spontaneous delivery.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs/genética , Placentação/genética , Nascimento a Termo/genética , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas/genética , Adulto , Calcineurina/genética , Calcineurina/metabolismo , Parto Obstétrico , Feminino , Finlândia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Placenta/metabolismo , Gravidez , Transcriptoma/genética
18.
Nat Med ; 26(6): 952-963, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32514169

RESUMO

In Alzheimer's disease, amyloid deposits along the brain vasculature lead to a condition known as cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), which impairs blood-brain barrier (BBB) function and accelerates cognitive degeneration. Apolipoprotein (APOE4) is the strongest risk factor for CAA, yet the mechanisms underlying this genetic susceptibility are unknown. Here we developed an induced pluripotent stem cell-based three-dimensional model that recapitulates anatomical and physiological properties of the human BBB in vitro. Similarly to CAA, our in vitro BBB displayed significantly more amyloid accumulation in APOE4 compared to APOE3. Combinatorial experiments revealed that dysregulation of calcineurin-nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) signaling and APOE in pericyte-like mural cells induces APOE4-associated CAA pathology. In the human brain, APOE and NFAT are selectively dysregulated in pericytes of APOE4 carriers, and inhibition of calcineurin-NFAT signaling reduces APOE4-associated CAA pathology in vitro and in vivo. Our study reveals the role of pericytes in APOE4-mediated CAA and highlights calcineurin-NFAT signaling as a therapeutic target in CAA and Alzheimer's disease.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteína E4/genética , Barreira Hematoencefálica/metabolismo , Calcineurina/metabolismo , Angiopatia Amiloide Cerebral/genética , Fatores de Transcrição NFATC/genética , Pericitos/metabolismo , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Apolipoproteína E3/genética , Apolipoproteína E3/metabolismo , Apolipoproteína E4/metabolismo , Barreira Hematoencefálica/citologia , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas , Fatores de Transcrição NFATC/metabolismo , Permeabilidade , RNA-Seq , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
19.
Nature ; 582(7811): 271-276, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32499640

RESUMO

A major factor in the progression to heart failure in humans is the inability of the adult heart to repair itself after injury. We recently demonstrated that the early postnatal mammalian heart is capable of regeneration following injury through proliferation of preexisting cardiomyocytes1,2 and that Meis1, a three amino acid loop extension (TALE) family homeodomain transcription factor, translocates to cardiomyocyte nuclei shortly after birth and mediates postnatal cell cycle arrest3. Here we report that Hoxb13 acts as a cofactor of Meis1 in postnatal cardiomyocytes. Cardiomyocyte-specific deletion of Hoxb13 can extend the postnatal window of cardiomyocyte proliferation and reactivate the cardiomyocyte cell cycle in the adult heart. Moreover, adult Meis1-Hoxb13 double-knockout hearts display widespread cardiomyocyte mitosis, sarcomere disassembly and improved left ventricular systolic function following myocardial infarction, as demonstrated by echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging. Chromatin immunoprecipitation with sequencing demonstrates that Meis1 and Hoxb13 act cooperatively to regulate cardiomyocyte maturation and cell cycle. Finally, we show that the calcium-activated protein phosphatase calcineurin dephosphorylates Hoxb13 at serine-204, resulting in its nuclear localization and cell cycle arrest. These results demonstrate that Meis1 and Hoxb13 act cooperatively to regulate cardiomyocyte maturation and proliferation and provide mechanistic insights into the link between hyperplastic and hypertrophic growth of cardiomyocytes.


Assuntos
Calcineurina/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Proteína Meis1/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/citologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Feminino , Deleção de Genes , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Coração/fisiologia , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Miocárdio/citologia , Ligação Proteica , Regeneração
20.
Environ Toxicol ; 35(10): 1043-1049, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32415908

RESUMO

In this study, we used ICI 182 780 (ICI), an estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist, to investigate the estrogenic activity of Danshen, and to further explored whether Danshen extract can block Leu27IGF-II-induced hypertrophy in H9c2 cardiomyoblast cells. We first used an IGF-II analog Leu27IGF-II, which specifically activates IGF2R signaling cascades and induces H9c2 cardiomyoblast cell hypertrophy. However, Danshen extract completely inhibited Leu27IGF-II-induced cell size increase, ANP and BNP hypertrophic marker expression, and IGF2R induction. We also observed that Danshen extract inhibited calcineurin protein expression and NFAT3 nuclear translocation, leading to suppression of Leu27IGF-II-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Moreover, the anti-Leu27IGF-II-IGF2R signaling effect of Danshen was totally reversed by ICI, which suggest the cardio protective effect of Danshen is mediated through estrogen receptors. Our study suggests that, Danshen exerts estrogenic activity, and thus, it could be used as a selective ER modulator in IGFIIR induced hypertrophy model.


Assuntos
Crescimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like II/análogos & derivados , Mioblastos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor IGF Tipo 2/metabolismo , Salvia miltiorrhiza/química , Animais , Calcineurina/metabolismo , Cardiomegalia/prevenção & controle , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/isolamento & purificação , Antagonistas do Receptor de Estrogênio/farmacologia , Fulvestranto/farmacologia , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like II/farmacologia , Mioblastos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Mioblastos Cardíacos/patologia , Transporte Proteico , Ratos , Receptores de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
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