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1.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 126: 112117, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34082934

RESUMO

Controlled pulmonary drug delivery systems employing non-spherical particles as drug carriers attract considerable attention nowadays. Such anisotropic morphologies may travel deeper into the lung airways, thus enabling the efficient accumulation of therapeutic compounds at the point of interest and subsequently their sustained release. This study focuses on the fabrication of electrospun superparamagnetic polymer-based biodegradable microrods consisting of poly(l-lactide) (PLLA), polyethylene oxide (PEO) and oleic acid-coated magnetite nanoparticles (OA·Fe3O4). The production of magnetite-free (0% wt. OA·Fe3O4) and magnetite-loaded (50% and 70% wt. Fe3O4) microrods was realized upon subjecting the as-prepared electrospun fibers to UV irradiation, followed by sonication. Moreover, drug-loaded microrods were fabricated incorporating methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate (MHB) as a model pharmaceutical compound and the drug release profile from both, the drug-loaded membranes and the corresponding microrods was investigated in aqueous media. In addition, the magnetic properties of the produced materials were exploited for remote induction of hyperthermia under AC magnetic field, while the possibility to reduce transport losses and enhance the targeted delivery to lower airways by manipulation of the airborne microrods by DC magnetic field was also demonstrated.


Assuntos
Calefação , Nanopartículas de Magnetita , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Pulmão , Fenômenos Magnéticos , Magnetismo
2.
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue ; 33(5): 618-602, 2021 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34112305

RESUMO

Hypothermia can have adverse effects on various systems of trauma patients, and significantly increase the mortality. All of the current rewarming equipments are contact rewarming equipment, which have the shortcomings of single function and poor effect. The medical staff of the First People's Hospital of Chenzhou designed a multi-functional infrared heating medical rewarming equipment, and obtained the National Utility Model Patent of China (ZL 2018 2 1705172.9). By integrating the infrared heating lamp tube and the air heating device and controlling them independently, the equipment can not only treat the wound by infrared alone, but also keep the wound warm by using the air heating function at low room temperature. In addition, it can also warm the patients with hypothermia separately. The device's dual functions of promoting wound healing and rewarming by infrared therapy and wind-heating are accurate. It is easy to operate with good controllability, and contributes to individualized precision treatment, which is worthy of transformation and promotion.


Assuntos
Hipotermia , Reaquecimento , Temperatura Corporal , China , Calefação , Humanos , Hipotermia/terapia , Vento
3.
Food Chem ; 358: 129903, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933971

RESUMO

Historically, asparagus is a vegetable with abundant phytochemicals (polyphenols, saponins, asparagusic acid, and alkaloids) and crucial bioactivities (neuroprotective, antianxiety, antityrosinase, antioxidant, antibacterial, and antiasthma effects). Numerous investigations indicated that processing technologies have a significant influence on the physicochemical, functional, and microstructural characteristics of asparagus. This review presents an updated overview of novel applications of processing technologies, including ultrasound treatments (in terms of extraction, purification, and preservation), heating treatments (hydrothermal treatments, thermal treatments, and combination heating treatments), high-pressure processing, representative shelf-life extension technologies, and green extraction technologies. These physical technologies enhance the yields of bioactive substances, bioactivities and product quality. In addition, utilizing the novel technologies (ohmic heating, cold plasma, pulsed electric fields, membrane processing) and conventional technologies with novel effects to fully develop the potential of asparagus should also be taken into consideration in the future.


Assuntos
Asparagus (Planta)/química , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos/métodos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Alcaloides/química , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Embalagem de Alimentos/instrumentação , Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos , Calefação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Gases em Plasma , Polifenóis/química , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Saponinas/química , Saponinas/farmacologia , Ultrassom/métodos
4.
J Chromatogr A ; 1648: 462179, 2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33992995

RESUMO

A new hyper-fast gas chromatography method with less than 90 s runtime including the column cool down was developed for the analysis of four gases and 16 residual solvents, combining a CO2 cryofocusing with a flow-field thermal gradient gas chromatograph (FF-TG-GC) and ToF-MS. The extremely low analysis time can be achieved by combining the new FF-TG-GC and a very short Rxi-624 Sil MS separation column with a small inner diameter and small film thickness (2.05 m × 0.1 mm × 1.0 µm). The column is inserted into a low thermal mass, resistively heated stainless steel capillary. This enables fast temperature programs with heating rates up to 3000 °C/min and a column cool down within a few seconds. In addition to temporal temperature gradients, the FF-TG-GC can generate a spatial temperature gradient that leads to an improved peak shape. Further, an external liquid CO2 cryo-trap was designed in order to reduce the injection bandwidths of analytes and to take full advantage of the resolving power of the separation column. No modifications are required to the FF-TG-GC for the use of the cryogenic trap, as the cooled spot is heated by the resistively heated stainless steel capillary during the temperature program. With cryofocusing, analyzed residual solvents are baseline separated. R2 values over 0.99 for calibration curves and low relative standard deviations (mainly < 3%) for repeatability tests were obtained.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Solventes/química , Calefação , Aço Inoxidável , Temperatura
5.
Food Chem ; 358: 129882, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33940294

RESUMO

Thermal analyses were used to determine thermal properties and transitions in model dough and gluten network induced by five oil pomaces obtained from seeds of black seed, pumpkin, hemp, milk thistle and primrose. The model dough was supplemented with 3%, 6% and 9% of the pomaces. Analysis of TGA parameters of supplemented model dough and gluten showed that both objects were thermally stable. However, analysis of difference TGA thermograms indicated that samples supplemented with pomaces differ in thermal behaviour. The differences were confirmed by DSC results. In the case of model dough, supplementation caused appearance of two endothermic peaks at ca. 295 and 340 °C and significant increase in transition enthalpy. Modified gluten thermograms showed one exothermic peak at 280 °C which enthalpy changed slightly with increase in pomace content. The present results indicated that model dough is characterized by more ordered structure comparing to control and gluten samples.


Assuntos
Pão , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria/métodos , Glutens/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Termogravimetria/métodos , Farinha , Calefação , Sementes/química , Termodinâmica
6.
Water Res ; 198: 117170, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33945948

RESUMO

Hydrothermal treatment (HT) is a promising method to convert sewage sludge to hydrochar biofuel. The heating value is directly correlated to the carbon content in hydrochar; however, the release of organic matter from sludge to hydrolysate and the transfer of the Maillard reaction products generated in the hydrolysate to the solid phase alter the carbon content in hydrochar. In this study, the relationship between hydrolysate and heating value of sludge-based hydrochar was presented, aiming to explain how the calorific value of hydrochar was affected by HT conditions. We adopted a direct combustion test to verify its clean combustion features. Hydrochar derived at 260 °C and residence time of 4 h (HC 260-4) exhibited the highest calorific value (HHVdaf = 26.23 MJ/kg) with an energy density of 1.43, and its fuel characteristics were similar to those of lignite. The increase in the HT temperature and residence time up to 260 °C and 4 h, respectively, was beneficial for enhancing HHVdaf. Conversely, further increase of the HT temperature to 300 °C and HT time to 6 h yielded a decrease in HHVdaf. Investigation of the underlying mechanism revealed that the protein and polysaccharide releasing from sludge to hydrolysate occurred the Maillard reaction (MR). The generated humic-like Maillard reaction product (MRP) was transferred to hydrochar, inducing an increase in the carbon content and calorific value and a decrease in the organic content of hydrolysate. As the carbohydrate content in the hydrolysate decreased, the MR was terminated, so no more MRP was transferred to hydrochar. At the same time, the protein was still continuously released at higher temperatures and longer residence times, yielding a decline in the HHVdaf. Moreover, clean energy utilization was verified from the reduced nitrogen content in hydrochar and lower CO and NOx emission of HC 260-4 in the combustion test. After the HT, increased hydrophobicity and a lower fraction of bound water improved the dewaterability, which is of great significance for applying hydrochar as biofuel. The findings of this study provided a new perspective to explain the heating value generation of hydrochar and more direct evidence to assess its clean combustion properties, with promising perspectives for practical applications.


Assuntos
Calefação , Esgotos , Carbono , Nitrogênio , Temperatura
7.
Magn Reson Med ; 86(3): 1560-1572, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33961301

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Patients with active implants such as deep brain stimulation (DBS) devices are often denied access to MRI due to safety concerns associated with the radiofrequency (RF) heating of their electrodes. The majority of studies on RF heating of conductive implants have been performed in horizontal close-bore MRI scanners. Vertical MRI scanners which have a 90° rotated transmit coil generate fundamentally different electric and magnetic field distributions, yet very little is known about RF heating of implants in this class of scanners. We performed numerical simulations as well as phantom experiments to compare RF heating of DBS implants in a 1.2T vertical scanner (OASIS, Hitachi) compared to a 1.5T horizontal scanner (Aera, Siemens). METHODS: Simulations were performed on 90 lead models created from post-operative CT images of patients with DBS implants. Experiments were performed with wires and commercial DBS devices implanted in an anthropomorphic phantom. RESULTS: We found significant reduction of 0.1 g-averaged specific absorption rate (30-fold, P < 1 × 10-5 ) and RF heating (9-fold, P < .026) in the 1.2T vertical scanner compared to the 1.5T conventional scanner. CONCLUSION: Vertical MRI scanners appear to generate lower RF heating around DBS leads, providing potentially heightened safety or the flexibility to use sequences with higher power levels than on conventional systems.


Assuntos
Estimulação Encefálica Profunda , Calefação , Eletrodos Implantados , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Imagens de Fantasmas , Pirróis , Ondas de Rádio , Compostos de Vinila
8.
Waste Manag ; 128: 243-250, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34004468

RESUMO

We investigated the exploitation of horse manure for energy recovery by combustion. First, the impact of the waste origin and management (storage conditions) was evaluated in terms of elemental analysis, moisture content, heating value, and ash melting temperature. Besides some carbon loss over the time, horse manure origin and management policy do not impact its profitable exploitation by combustion. More relevant, the ignition tests disproved the current industrial opinion that combustion of manure alone is difficult, without the addition of auxiliary fuel, like wood shavings. It has been demonstrated through ignition tests that the major limitation in manure combustion is just the high moisture content (approx. 60% w.b.). The study focused on overcoming the detrimental effect of the large moisture content, and specifically its removal efficiency. The latter requires the understanding of manure permeability which is determined by the bedding material and the stable management. Here we provide indications of the impact of the manure composition and its sample size on the efficiency of moisture removal, whose energy impact must be minimized for an effective energy recovery. The energy balance confirms that the total removal of 62% w.b. moisture reduces by 23% the potential energy content of the manure; this drying penalty on energy is largely offset by the dramatic improvement in reactivity of the residual solid fuel.


Assuntos
Esterco , Madeira , Animais , Carbono , Calefação , Cavalos , Temperatura
9.
Water Res ; 199: 117186, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34010736

RESUMO

Additional options for the sustainable treatment of municipal sludge are required due to the significant amounts of sludge, high levels of nutrients (e.g., C, N, and P), and trace constituents it contains. Hydrothermal processing of municipal sludge has recently been recognized as a promising technology to efficiently reduce waste volume, recover bioenergy, destroy organic contaminants, and eliminate pathogens. However, a considerable amount of solid residue, called hydrochar, could remain after hydrothermal treatment. This hydrochar can contain abundant amounts of energy (with a higher heating value up to 24 MJ/kg, dry basis), nutrients, and trace elements, as well as surface functional groups. The valorization of sludge-derived hydrochar can facilitate the development and application of hydrothermal technologies. This review summarizes the formation pathways from municipal sludge to hydrochar, specifically, the impact of hydrothermal conditions on reaction mechanisms and product distribution. Moreover, this study comprehensively encapsulates the described characteristics of hydrochar produced under a wide range of conditions: Yield, energy density, physicochemical properties, elemental distribution, contaminants of concern, surface functionality, and morphology. More importantly, this review compares and evaluates the current state of applications of hydrochar: Energy production, agricultural application, adsorption, heterogeneous catalysis, and nutrient recovery. Ultimately, along with the identified challenges and prospects of valorization approaches for sludge-derived hydrochar, conceptual designs of sustainable municipal sludge management are proposed.


Assuntos
Carbono , Esgotos , Adsorção , Calefação , Temperatura
10.
Bioresour Technol ; 332: 125040, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33831790

RESUMO

The higher heating value (HHV) and exergy of ultrasound-assisted deep eutectic solvent pretreated watermelon rind (WMR) biomass were investigated. Thereafter, the co-pyrolysis of the WMR biomass and coal blends was studied. The pyrolysis kinetics and thermodynamic parameters of the WMR-coal blends were determined using four isoconversional models (Flynn-Wall-Ozawa, Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose, Friedman and Starink). The HHVs of the pretreated WMR ranged between 12.73 and 19.28 MJ/kg, while the exergy value for the raw and pretreated WMR were 16.08 and 21.55 MJ/kg, respectively. The lower heating value related exergy had the greatest influence on the overall exergy of the WMR. The values of the pre-exponential factor showed variations in wide range, and the change in entropy of the system displayed both negative and positive entropies. The activation energy and enthalpy varied directly with the amount of coal in the blends. Amongst the isoconversional model methods, Friedman model was the best predictor of the kinetic parameters.


Assuntos
Citrullus , Pirólise , Biomassa , Calefação , Cinética , Solventes , Termodinâmica , Termogravimetria
11.
J Biomed Nanotechnol ; 17(3): 407-415, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33875075

RESUMO

Portable nucleic acid detection (PNAD) systems are performed for sample processing, amplification and detection automatically in an individual device realizing "sample in, answer out." For this goal, numerous function modules should be integrated in a diminutive device, in which temperature controller is one of the most important modules. In a nucleic acid detection process, both sample processing and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) require fast and accurate temperature control to increase concentration and purity of the extraction product and to improve amplification efficiency. In this paper, a dual-channel temperature controller for PNAD systems is developed, which contains a printed circuit board (PCB) and an integrated control program with a fast and accurate control strategy. According to the principle of nucleic acid detection based on magnetic nanoparticles, the controller can work in different modes such as high-precision heating control for nucleic acid extraction, rapid thermal cycle control for PCR, and rate adjustable constant heating/cooling control for melting curve. Evaluatively, the average heating/cooling rate of the module can exceed about 6 C/s, while the temperature fluctuation was less than ± 0.1°C, which can meet the demands of PNAD systems very well.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas de Magnetita , Ácidos Nucleicos , Calefação , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Temperatura
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803108

RESUMO

Pollution of the environment is increasing and threatens the health and wellbeing of adults and children around the globe. The impact of air pollution on pulmonary and cardiovascular disease has been well documented, but it also has a deleterious effect on reproductive health. Ulaanbaatar, the capital city of Mongolia, has one of the highest levels of air pollution in the world. During the extreme winters when temperatures routinely fall below -20 °C the level of air pollution can reach 80 times the WHO recommended safe levels. Heating mainly comes from coal, which is burned both in power stations, and in stoves in the traditional Ger housing. We studied the impact of air pollution on conception rates and birth outcomes in Ulaanbaatar using a retrospective analysis of health data collected from the Urguu Maternity hospital in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. Daily levels of SO2, NO2, PM10, and PM2.5 were collected from the government Air Quality Monitoring Stations in Ulaanbaatar for the same period as the study. In January, the month of highest pollution, there is a 3.2-fold decrease in conceptions that lead to the successfully delivered infants compared to October. The seasonal variations in conceptions resulting in live births in this study in Ulaanbaatar are shown to be 2.03 ± 0.20 (10-sigma) times greater than those in the Denmark/North America study of Wesselink et al., 2020. The two obvious differences between Ulaanbaatar and Europe/North America are pollution and temperature both of which are extreme in Ulaanbaatar. The extreme low temperature is mitigated by burning coal, which is the main source of domestic heat especially in the ger districts. This drives the level of pollution so the two are inextricably linked. Infants conceived in the months of June-October had the greatest cumulative PM2.5 pollution exposure over total gestation, yet these were also the pregnancies with the lowest PM2.5 exposure for the month of conception and three months prior to conception. The delivered-infant conception rate shows a markedly negative association with exposure to PM2.5 prior to and during the first month of pregnancy. This overall reduction in fecundity of the population of Ulaanbaatar is therefore a preventable health risk. It is of great consequence that the air pollution in Ulaanbaatar affects health over an entire lifespan including reproductive health. This could be remedied with a clean source of heating.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Criança , Carvão Mineral , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Fertilidade , Calefação , Humanos , Lactente , Mongólia , América do Norte , Material Particulado/análise , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estações do Ano
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806602

RESUMO

Recent studies on light shelves found that building energy efficiency could be maximized by applying photovoltaic (PV) modules to light shelf reflectors. Although PV modules generate a substantial amount of heat and change the consumption of indoor heating and cooling energy, performance evaluations carried out thus far have not considered these factors. This study validated the effectiveness of PV module light shelves and determined optimal specifications while considering heating and cooling energy savings. A full-scale testbed was built to evaluate performance according to light shelf variables. The uniformity ratio was found to improve according to the light shelf angle value and decreased as the PV module installation area increased. It was determined that PV modules should be considered in the design of light shelves as their daylighting and concentration efficiency change according to their angles. PV modules installed on light shelves were also found to change the indoor cooling and heating environment; the degree of such change increased as the area of the PV module increased. Lastly, light shelf specifications for reducing building energy, including heating and cooling energy, were not found to apply to PV modules since PV modules on light shelf reflectors increase building energy consumption.


Assuntos
Calefação , Temperatura Alta
14.
Environ Pollut ; 280: 116955, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33813351

RESUMO

The use of coal in Chinese households for winter heating emits harmful pollutants that severely affect indoor air quality and climate. Therefore, China has made efforts to transition into clean heating using improved heating stoves and biomass pellets. Although the economic and policy implications of such demonstration projects have been extensively investigated, little has been done to understand the real-world performance and adoption trends of such stoves. This study measured in-use emissions from nine different pellet stoves used for heating among 52 rural households in Yangxin, Shandong Province. The temperature of the stove chimney of 21 households was monitored and 56 households were surveyed to explore the stove use trend. The particulate and gaseous emission concentrations for most of the stoves exceeded the limits specified in the Chinese national standard. The measured fuel energy-based emission factors (mean ± standard deviation) for CO2, CO, NOx, and PM2.5 were 103 ± 3, 1.41 ± 1.19, 0.336 ± 0.237, and 0.146 ± 0.108 g/MJ, respectively. Between January to February, the average daily heating duration was 8.71 h, and the sustained use of heating stoves was seen among over 85% of the households. On average, the households used their heating stoves for 3.28 months and the estimated annual pellets consumption for a household was 2.7 tons. Besides inherent variabilities associated with user habits, the stove's design-related shortcomings and low-grade pellets hindered the performance and effectiveness of pellet stoves. This study provides insights into opportunities and challenges for the promotion of cleaner fuels and heating technologies. Furthermore, it will provide information on emissions from rural residential sources to build the emission inventory and inform policymaking for successful stove promotion programs.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , China , Culinária , Calefação , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(16): e25009, 2021 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33879655

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Briquette-based kotatsu, a traditional Japanese heating system, is still used in rural areas and has been linked to the development of acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of delayed neurologic sequelae (DNS) in patients with acute CO poisoning caused by briquette-based kotatsu.This retrospective study included 17 patients treated for acute CO poisoning due to briquette-based kotatsu, between April 2017 and March 2020. Patients were divided into either a sequelae group (3 patients) or a non-sequelae group (14 patients) based on the presence or absence, respectively, of DNS. Demographic data, kotatsu characteristics, clinical findings, and therapies were compared between the 2 groups.Significant differences were noted in patient posture during their initial discovery. Specifically, all non-sequelae patients only had their legs under the kotatsu quilt and all sequelae patients had their entire bodies under the kotatsu quilt (P = .001). There were no statistically significant differences in carbon monoxide levels in hemoglobin (CO-Hb) or the creatine-kinase myocardial band (CK-MB), between the 2 groups; however, troponin-I levels were significantly higher in the sequelae group (P = .026). Abnormal head imaging findings were noted in 2 sequelae-group patients, with a significant difference between the groups (P = .025).We speculate that acute CO poisoning, caused by briquette-based kotatsu, may lead to DNS more frequently in patients in who cover their entire body with the kotatsu quilt and are found in this position. Patients should be warned about the dangers of acute CO poisoning when using briquette-based kotatsu.


Assuntos
Roupas de Cama, Mesa e Banho/efeitos adversos , Intoxicação por Monóxido de Carbono/etiologia , Calefação/efeitos adversos , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/etiologia , Doença Aguda , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Intoxicação por Monóxido de Carbono/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Creatina Quinase Forma MB/sangue , Feminino , Calefação/métodos , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/sangue , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Troponina I/sangue
16.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 348: 109204, 2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33930838

RESUMO

The survival kinetics of Listeria monocytogenes (9 log CFU/mL) as a post-fermentation contaminant in probiotic fermented milk (Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5, 8-9 log CFU/mL) processed with milk subjected to ohmic heating (0, 4, 6, and 8 V/cm; CONV, OH4, OH6, OH8, 90-95 °C/5 min) was investigated using Weibull predictive model. Additionally, the presence of bioactive compounds (antioxidant activity, inhibition of the enzymes α-glucosidase, α-amylase, and angiotensin-converting) and sensory analysis (consumer test) of probiotic fermented milks were evaluated. Overall, OH provided a decrease in the viability of Listeria monocytogenes, suitable Lactobacillus acidophilus counts, and satisfactory results in the gastrointestinal tract survival. The Weibull model presented an excellent fit to the data of all conditions. Furthermore, lower δ values (217-298 against 665 h, CONV), and increased R2 values (0.99 against 0.98, CONV) were obtained for the OH-treated samples, emphasizing the best performance of OH data. In addition, OH improved the generation of bioactive compounds as well as the sensory acceptance. Indeed, considering functional and safety purposes, OH presented as an interesting technology to be used in milk for manufacturing probiotic fermented milk.


Assuntos
Produtos Fermentados do Leite/microbiologia , Lactobacillus acidophilus/metabolismo , Listeria monocytogenes/isolamento & purificação , Leite/microbiologia , Probióticos/metabolismo , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/análise , Animais , Antioxidantes/análise , Reatores Biológicos/microbiologia , Produtos Fermentados do Leite/análise , Fermentação , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/análise , Calefação , Cinética , Percepção Gustatória , alfa-Amilases/antagonistas & inibidores , alfa-Glucosidases/química
17.
Chemosphere ; 278: 130402, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33839387

RESUMO

The study describes gaseous and particulate emissions from the combustion of two types of coal (hard and brown) in three types of boilers (one modern-type and two old-type boilers) used for residential heating. The importance of the heat outputs (nominal and two reduced outputs) for the emission of pollutants was also studied. Three outputs (95-108%, 58-73% and 26-50%) covered the expected operation of these boilers in real households under different outdoor air temperatures in the winter. Gaseous components (NOx, SO2, CO, CO2, OGC) and particulate organic compounds (n-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, hopanes) were determined in the emissions. In general, the emission factors (EFs) of the products of incomplete combustion were higher from the combustion of coal in old-type boilers than from that in the modern-type boilers. The EFs of particulate matter varied between 11.6 and 17.0 g kg-1 (hard coal, the oldest-type boiler), and 0.290 and 0.544 g kg-1 (brown coal, the modern-type boiler). The trends between the EFs of particulate organic compounds and the outputs of boilers were observed only with the automatic boiler (modern-type boiler). Similar trends for old-type boilers were not observed, probably due to the high instability of the combustion process as a result of the old construction of these boilers. Diagnostic ratios of the PAHs and the homohopane index, used for source apportionment of particulate matter in ambient air, were calculated. While the calculated homohopane indexes were similar to those reported in the literature, the calculated diagnostic ratios for PAHs related to coal combustion were different.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , China , Carvão Mineral/análise , Gases , Calefação , Material Particulado/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33916698

RESUMO

In China, research on winter heating and energy saving for residential buildings mainly focuses on urban residences rather than rural ones. According to the 2018 China Building Energy Consumption Research Report, rural residential buildings emit about 423 million tons of carbon, accounting for 21% of the country's total carbon emissions. According to the research on China's greenhouse gas inventory, the main sources of carbon emissions in rural areas are from cooking and the burning of fuelwood and biomass for heating in winter. In this study, the southern Shaanxi area, which is hot in summer and cold in winter, was selected as the research site, and a fire wall system was planned that combines cooking and heating facilities in residential buildings. The system uses the heat generated by cooking and the heat storage capacity of the wall, as well as the principle of thermal radiation and heat convection, to increase the indoor temperature. The advantage is that the hot air generated is mainly concentrated in the inside of the wall, which reduces the direct contact with the cold outdoor air and avoids excess heat loss. In this study, in addition to considering the influence of the cooking fire wall system on the indoor temperature, the difference in the outer wall with or without solar thermal radiation was also considered. The research results show that the use of a cooking fire wall heating system reduces the annual heat load of the building to 440.8318 KW·h, which is a reduction rate of 7.91%. When there is solar radiation on the outer wall, the annual thermal load of the building is reduced by 1104.723 kW·h, and the reduction rate is 19.84%.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , China , Culinária , Calefação , Temperatura Alta , Material Particulado/análise , Estações do Ano
20.
Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi ; 62(2): 44-50, 2021.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33883335

RESUMO

In Japan, the import quarantine procedure for dairy products was newly introduced in November 2017. The treatment such as 15 sec heating at 72℃ is required for virus inactivation when importing milk or dairy products from the area which is not free from foot and mouth disease. Moreover, the heating history of imported items is also inspected as import quality procedures. The IDF 63 method is known as one of the methods to confirm the heating history of milk by checking the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. However, this procedure is complicated for daily quarantine inspection. Therefore, we attempted the ALP activity measurement based on the amount of fluorescent substance produced by the enzymatic reaction. Milk and dairy products derived from cow, sheep, and goat were tested after various heat treatment conditions. The ALP of heat-treated milk and dairy products derived from these species above were confirmed to be inactivated under substantially the same heat treatment for 15 sec at 72℃. The measurement method established in this study is simpler, faster, and requires smaller amount of sample compared to other methods. Additionally, the method was also applicable to confirm the heating history of various dairy products by making them into suspension.


Assuntos
Calefação , Leite , Animais , Bovinos , Laticínios , Feminino , Cabras , Temperatura Alta , Japão , Ovinos
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