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1.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e929913, 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33556045

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Two diagnostic models of prostate cancer (PCa) and clinically significant prostate cancer (CS-PCa) were established using clinical data of among patients whose prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels are in the gray area (4.0-10.0 ng/ml). MATERIAL AND METHODS Data from 181 patients whose PSA levels were in the gray area were retrospectively analyzed, and the following data were collected: age, digital rectal examination, total PSA, PSA density (PSAD), free/total PSA (f/t PSA), transrectal ultrasound, multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI), and pathological reports. Patients were diagnosed with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and PCa by pathology reports, and PCa patients were separated into non-clinically significant PCa (NCS-PCa) and CS-PCa by Gleason score. Afterward, predictor models constructed by above parameters were researched to diagnose PCa and CS-PCa, respectively. RESULTS According to the analysis of included clinical data, there were 109 patients with BPH, 44 patients with NCS-PCa, and 28 patients with CS-PCa. Regression analysis showed PCa was correlated with f/t PSA, PSAD, and mpMRI (P<0.01), and CS-PCa was correlated with PSAD and mpMRI (P<0.01). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curves of 2 models for PCa (sensitivity=73.64%, specificity=64.23%) and for CS-PCa (sensitivity=71.41%, specificity=81.82%) were 0.79 and 0.87, respectively. CONCLUSIONS The prediction models had satisfactory diagnostic value for PCa and CS-PCa among patients with PSA in the gray area, and use of these models may help reduce overdiagnosis.


Assuntos
Calicreínas/sangue , Modelos Estatísticos , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Hiperplasia Prostática/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Biópsia/estatística & dados numéricos , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Exame Retal Digital/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Sobremedicalização/prevenção & controle , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética Multiparamétrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Gradação de Tumores , Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Próstata/patologia , Hiperplasia Prostática/sangue , Hiperplasia Prostática/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Curva ROC , Valores de Referência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Ultrassonografia/estatística & dados numéricos
2.
Cancer Imaging ; 21(1): 3, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407861

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The utility of multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) in detecting suspected local recurrence post radical prostatectomy (RP) may be associated with PSA and Gleason grade. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the likelihood of detecting locally recurrent prostate cancer utilizing mpMRI in patients with suspected recurrence following radical prostatectomy (RP) parsed by PSA and Gleason grade. METHODS: One hundred ninety five patients with suspected local recurrence were imaged on a 1.5 T MRI with torso array and endorectal coil in this retrospective study. mpMRI interpretations were stratified by PSA and lower (Gleason < 7) vs. higher grade tumors (Gleason 8-10). Recursive partitioning was used to determine whether mpMRI interpretations could be classified as positive or negative. RESULTS: The majority of mpMRI interpretations in patients with lower Gleason grade tumors and PSA < 0.5 ng/mL were negative (68/78, 87.2%, p = 0.004). The majority of mpMRI interpretations in patients with higher Gleason grade tumors and PSA > 1.5 ng/mL were positive (8/9, 88.9%, p = 0.003). Findings were corroborated by recursive partitioning, which identified a PSA = 0.5 ng/ml in patients with lower grade tumors and a PSA = 1.5 ng/mL in patients with higher grade tumors as differentiating negative and positive mpMRIs. CONCLUSION: In the setting of suspected recurrence after RP, mpMRI results are associated with PSA and Gleason grade, both of which can help guide when mpMRI may find utility. mpMRI is likely to be low diagnostic yield and negative for recurrence (87%) in the setting of lower Gleason grade tumors and PSA < 0.5 ng/mL. mpMRI is likely to be of low diagnostic value and positive for recurrence (89%) in the setting of PSA > 1.5 ng/mL and higher grade tumors; in this case, mpMRI findings may be more useful for directing biopsy and local therapy. Between these extremes, PSA > 0.5 ng/mL and lower grade tumors or PSA < 1.5 ng/mL and higher grade tumors, mpMRI results are less predictable, suggesting greater diagnostic value for detecting recurrence post prostatectomy.


Assuntos
Calicreínas/sangue , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética Multiparamétrica/métodos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/diagnóstico por imagem , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Biópsia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/sangue , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Prostatectomia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos
3.
J Urol ; 205(1): 109-114, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33198555

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Men with low risk prostate cancer on active surveillance undergo multiple biopsies over time. The long-term clinical significance of consecutively negative biopsies is not known. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Men with low risk prostate cancer prospectively enrolled in an active surveillance database with at least 4 biopsies were included in the study. Exposure variables were 0, 1 or 2 consecutively negative biopsies after diagnosis. Other variables included age, prostate specific antigen, prostate specific antigen density, Gleason grade group, percent positive cores and magnetic resonance imaging findings. Outcome variables were the detection of any cancer at fourth biopsy and active treatment. RESULTS: A total of 514 men were included, with 112 (22%) men having 1 negative biopsy and 78 (15%) with 2 consecutively negative biopsies. Median prostate specific antigen density was lower for men with 1 negative biopsy (0.11) and consecutively negative biopsies (0.10) compared to men who never had a negative biopsy (0.13, p <0.01). On univariable logistic regression higher prostate specific antigen density (OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.16-2.45) and suspicious magnetic resonance imaging lesions (OR 2.00, 95% CI 1.16-3.42) were associated with a higher likelihood of detecting cancer on fourth biopsy. On multivariable logistic regression 1 negative biopsy (OR 0.22, 95% CI 0.12-0.41) and consecutively negative biopsies (OR 0.12, 95% CI 0.06-0.24) were associated with a lower likelihood of detecting cancer at outcome biopsy. Unadjusted 10-year treatment-free survival was highest for patients with consecutively negative biopsies (84%) and 1 negative biopsy (74%) than those who had none (66%) (log rank p=0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Consecutively negative surveillance biopsies are correlated with favorable clinical risk factors and independently associated with subsequent negative biopsy and lower risk of active treatment.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Conduta Expectante/métodos , Idoso , Antagonistas de Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Biópsia Guiada por Imagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Calicreínas/sangue , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Estudos Prospectivos , Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Próstata/patologia , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Prostatectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia , Radioterapia/estatística & dados numéricos , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Conduta Expectante/estatística & dados numéricos
4.
J Urol ; 205(1): 115-121, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658588

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Optimal treatment of intermediate risk prostate cancer remains unclear. National Comprehensive Cancer Network® guidelines recommend active surveillance, prostatectomy or radiotherapy. Recent trials demonstrated no difference in prostate cancer specific mortality for men undergoing active surveillance for low risk prostate cancer compared to prostatectomy or radiotherapy. The use of active surveillance for intermediate risk prostate cancer is less clear. In this study we characterize U.S. national trends for demographic, clinical and socioeconomic factors associated with active surveillance for men with intermediate risk prostate cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective cohort study examined 176,122 men diagnosed with intermediate risk prostate cancer from 2010 to 2016 in the National Cancer Database. Temporal trends in demographic, clinical and socioeconomic factors among men with intermediate risk prostate cancer and association with the use of active surveillance were characterized. The analysis was performed in April 2020. RESULTS: In total, 176,122 men were identified with intermediate risk prostate cancer from 2010 to 2016. Of these men 57.3% underwent prostatectomy, 36.4% underwent radiotherapy and 3.2% underwent active surveillance. Active surveillance nearly tripled from 1.6% in 2010 to 4.6% in 2016 (p <0.001). On multivariate analysis use of active surveillance was associated with older age, diagnosis in recent years, lower Gleason score and tumor stage, type of insurance, treatment at an academic center and proximity to facility, and attaining higher education (p <0.05). Race and comorbidities were not associated with active surveillance. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlight increasing active surveillance use for men with intermediate risk prostate cancer demonstrating clinical and socioeconomic disparities. Prospective data and improved risk stratification are needed to guide optimal treatment for men with intermediate risk prostate cancer.


Assuntos
Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia , Conduta Expectante/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/economia , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro/economia , Cobertura do Seguro/estatística & dados numéricos , Seguro Saúde/economia , Seguro Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Calicreínas/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Próstata/patologia , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Prostatectomia/economia , Prostatectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Radioterapia/economia , Radioterapia/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Conduta Expectante/economia
5.
J Urol ; 205(1): 122-128, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32718204

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Evidence suggests that visceral fat quantity may be associated with post-prostatectomy outcomes and risk of prostate cancer related death. We evaluated whether increased fat volume, normalized to prostate size, is associated with decreased risk of disease progression. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients enrolled on a prospective active surveillance trial for at least 6 months who had magnetic resonance imaging within 2 years of enrollment were eligible. The surveillance protocol included a standardized followup regimen consisting of biennial prostate specific antigen and examination and yearly biopsy. Clinicopathological characteristics were collected at baseline. Three fat measurements were taken using prostate magnetic resonance imaging, including subcutaneous, linear periprostatic (pubic symphysis to prostate) and volumetrically defined periprostatic. Progression was defined as increase in Gleason grade group. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate fat volumes normalized by prostate size (stratified into tertiles). RESULTS: A total of 175 patients were included in the study. Average age was 62.5 years (SD 7.4) and average prostate specific antigen was 5.4 ng/dl (SD 3.9). Median followup was 42 months (IQR 18-60) and 50 patients (28.6%) had progression. Compared to the lowest tertile, the highest tertile of volumetric periprostatic fat measurement (HR 2.63, 95% CI 1.23-5.60, p=0.01) and linear periprostatic fat measurement (HR 2.30, 95% CI 1.01-5.22, p=0.05) were associated with worsened progression-free survival, while subcutaneous fat measurement (p=0.97) was not. Importantly, the model did not substantively change when accounting for patient body mass index and other factors. CONCLUSIONS: Increased periprostatic fat volume, normalized to prostate size, may be associated with shortened progression-free survival in men with prostate cancer on active surveillance.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/fisiologia , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/fisiopatologia , Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/mortalidade , Conduta Expectante/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Biópsia/estatística & dados numéricos , Progressão da Doença , Seguimentos , Humanos , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Calicreínas/sangue , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Tamanho do Órgão , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Prospectivos , Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Gordura Subcutânea/diagnóstico por imagem , Gordura Subcutânea/fisiopatologia
6.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(12)2020 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33334759

RESUMO

A 67-year-old man presented to his general practitioner with intermittent episodes of unilateral sciatica over a 2-month period for which he was referred for an outpatient MRI of his spine. This evidenced a significant lumbar vertebral mass that showed tight canal stenosis and compression of the cauda equina. The patient was sent to the emergency department for management by orthopaedic surgeons. He was mobilising independently, pain free on arrival and without neurological deficit on assessment. Clinically, this patient presented with no red flag symptoms of cauda equina syndrome or reason to suspect malignancy. In these circumstances, National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines do not support radiological investigation of the spine outside of specialist services. However, in this case, investigation helped deliver urgent care for cancer that otherwise may have been delayed. This leads to the question, do the current guidelines meet clinical requirements?


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico , Síndrome da Cauda Equina/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Coluna Vertebral/complicações , Estenose Espinal/diagnóstico , Adenocarcinoma/complicações , Adenocarcinoma/secundário , Adenocarcinoma/terapia , Idoso , Cauda Equina/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome da Cauda Equina/sangue , Síndrome da Cauda Equina/etiologia , Síndrome da Cauda Equina/terapia , Quimiorradioterapia/métodos , Humanos , Biópsia Guiada por Imagem , Calicreínas/sangue , Vértebras Lombares/diagnóstico por imagem , Vértebras Lombares/patologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Cuidados Paliativos/métodos , Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Próstata/patologia , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia , Neoplasias da Coluna Vertebral/sangue , Neoplasias da Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Coluna Vertebral/secundário , Estenose Espinal/etiologia , Estenose Espinal/terapia , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção
7.
J Urol ; 204(6): 1222-1228, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33157570

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We assessd the long-term outcomes from a large prospective cohort of men diagnosed with prostate cancer managed with active surveillance and determined the clinical prognostic factors that may predict the risk of metastases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed data of men enrolled on active surveillance at our institution between 1990 and 2018 with low or intermediate risk disease (stage cT1-2, prostate specific antigen less than 20 ng/ml, and biopsy Grade Group [GG]1-2). Patients were classified into 3 groups by diagnostic GG and prostate specific antigen density. Primary outcome was metastatic prostate cancer detected on imaging or at prostatectomy. In addition, upgrade at surveillance biopsy, active treatment, and overall and prostate cancer specific survival outcomes were assessed. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used. RESULTS: A total of 1,450 men met the inclusion criteria. Median followup was 77 months (IQR 49-114). The 7-year metastasis-free survival rate was 99%. Metastases developed in 15 men at a median of 62 months (IQR 29-104), of which 69% were confined to lymph nodes. Men with GG2 had a lower metastasis-free survival rate compared to those with GG1 disease. GG2, prostate specific antigen velocity and PI-RADS® 4-5 lesions on multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging were associated with a higher risk of metastases. The 7-year prostate cancer specific survival was greater than 99%. CONCLUSIONS: Active surveillance seems to preserve favorable long-term prognosis, as metastases and prostate cancer specific death are rare. However, the higher risk of metastases associated with higher Gleason grade, prostate specific antigen velocity, and characteristics on multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging should be considered when selecting and counseling patients for active surveillance.


Assuntos
Calicreínas/sangue , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Conduta Expectante/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Biópsia com Agulha de Grande Calibre/estatística & dados numéricos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Seguimentos , Humanos , Biópsia Guiada por Imagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética Intervencionista , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética Multiparamétrica , Gradação de Tumores/estatística & dados numéricos , Metástase Neoplásica , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Próstata/cirurgia , Prostatectomia , Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
9.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0236458, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33125383

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer among men in Uganda, with over 2086 incident cases in 2018. This study's objective was to report the clinical characteristics and primary management of men diagnosed with prostate cancer at the Uganda Cancer Institute from 1st January 2015 to 31st December 2019. METHODS: Records from all men diagnosed with Prostate cancer at the Uganda Cancer Institute from 1st January 2015 to 31st December 2019 were reviewed. Clinical characteristics and primary treatment were recorded. Risk categorization was done using the European Society for Medical Oncology prostate cancer risk group classification. RESULTS: A total of 874 medical records for men diagnosed with prostate cancer was retrieved. The median age was 70 years (interquartile range 64-77). In this study, 501 (57.32%) patients had localized disease. Among patients with localized disease, 2 (0.23%) were classified as low-risk, 5 (0.53%) as intermediate-risk, and 494 (56.52%) as high-risk. Three hundred seventy-three (373) patients had metastatic disease at diagnosis. Among patients with distant metastases, the most common site of metastases was bone 143 (16.36%), followed by spinal cord 54 (6.18%), abdomen 22 (2.52%), and lungs 14 (1.60%). Regarding the primary treatment options majority of the patients were on chemotherapy 384(43.94%) followed by hormonal therapy 336 (38.44%) and radiotherapy 127 (14.53%). CONCLUSION: The majority of the patients diagnosed with prostate cancer at the Uganda Cancer Institute presented with advanced disease. The primary treatments were mostly chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, and radiotherapy. There is a need to improve prostate cancer screening in regional health care facilities and the communities to enhance early detection and management of prostate cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Calicreínas/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Uganda/epidemiologia
10.
J Urol ; 204(5): 941-949, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32985924

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Contemporary biopsy methods were used to determine the success rate of hemigland cryoablation as a primary treatment for prostate cancer. Previous studies, often including men at low risk, have used magnetic resonance imaging guided biopsy to a variable extent. Here, we uniformly used the new diagnostic modality to study all men, each with clinically significant cancer, at baseline and at short and intermediate-term followup. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In an open label trial (NCT03503643) 61 men with unilateral cancer (all clinically significant, ie Grade Group 2 or greater) underwent primary hemigland cryoablation. Subjects were 80% Caucasian, average age 69 years, prostate specific antigen 6.6 ng/ml and prostate volume 38 cc. Biopsy was performed using magnetic resonance imaging/ultrasound fusion prior to treatment and at the followup intervals of near-term (6 months, in 61) and intermediate-term (18 months, in 27). All utilities of fusion biopsy, ie targeting of magnetic resonance imaging visible lesions, template systematic sampling, and in followup, tracking of prior positive sites, were used throughout the study to detect clinically significant cancer, the primary end point. RESULTS: Following treatment 82% of men (50 of 61) had no biopsy detectable clinically significant prostate cancer at 6-month near-term followup and 82% of men (22 of 27) reaching the 18-month intermediate-term remained biopsy negative. Combination of the 3 sampling methods provided maximal cancer detection. During followup a new focus of cancer was found in the contralateral prostate in only 1 of 27 men. No adverse events above Clavien-Dindo grade 2 were encountered. CONCLUSIONS: Hemigland cryoablation, when rigorously evaluated by all utilities of magnetic resonance imaging guided biopsy, appears to eliminate clinically significant cancer in 82% of men, a success rate that endures for at least 18 months.


Assuntos
Assistência ao Convalescente/métodos , Criocirurgia/métodos , Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Assistência ao Convalescente/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Seguimentos , Humanos , Biópsia Guiada por Imagem/efeitos adversos , Biópsia Guiada por Imagem/métodos , Biópsia Guiada por Imagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Calicreínas/sangue , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética Intervencionista , Masculino , Gradação de Tumores , Estudos Prospectivos , Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Próstata/cirurgia , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD013641, 2020 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813279

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Robotic-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP) is widely used to surgically treat clinically localized prostate cancer. It is typically performed using an approach (standard RALP) that mimics open retropubic prostatectomy by dissecting the so-called space of Retzius anterior to the bladder. An alternative, Retzius-sparing (or posterior approach) RALP (RS-RALP) has been described, which is reported to have better continence outcomes but may be associated with a higher risk of incomplete resection and positive surgical margins (PSM). OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of RS-RALP compared to standard RALP for the treatment of clinically localized prostate cancer. SEARCH METHODS: We performed a comprehensive search of the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, Embase, three other databases, trials registries, other sources of the grey literature, and conference proceedings, up to June 2020. We applied no restrictions on publication language or status. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included trials where participants were randomized to RS-RALP or standard RALP for clinically localized prostate cancer. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently classified and abstracted data from the included studies. Primary outcomes were: urinary continence recovery within one week after catheter removal, at three months after surgery, and serious adverse events. Secondary outcomes were: urinary continence recovery six and 12 months after surgery, potency recovery 12 months after surgery, positive surgical margins (PSM), biochemical recurrence-free survival (BCRFS), and urinary and sexual function quality of life. We performed statistical analyses using a random-effects model. We rated the certainty of evidence using the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS: Our search identified six records of five unique randomized controlled trials, of which two were published studies, one was in press, and two were abstract proceedings. There were 571 randomized participants, of whom 502 completed the trials. Mean age of participants was 64.6 years and mean prostate-specific antigen was 6.9 ng/mL. About 54.2% of participants had cT1c disease, 38.6% had cT2a-b disease, and 7.1 % had cT2c disease. Primary outcomes RS-RALP probably improves continence within one week after catheter removal (risk ratio (RR) 1.74, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.41 to 2.14; I2 = 0%; studies = 4; participants = 410; moderate-certainty evidence). Assuming 335 per 1000 men undergoing standard RALP are continent at this time point, this corresponds to 248 more men per 1000 (137 more to 382 more) reporting continence recovery. RS-RALP may increase continence at three months after surgery compared to standard RALP (RR 1.33, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.68; I2 = 86%; studies = 5; participants = 526; low-certainty evidence). Assuming 750 per 1000 men undergoing standard RALP are continent at this time point, this corresponds to 224 more men per 1000 (41 more to 462 more) reporting continence recovery. We are very uncertain about the effects of RS-RALP on serious adverse events compared to standard RALP (RR 1.40, 95% CI 0.47 to 4.17; studies = 2; participants = 230; very low-certainty evidence). Secondary outcomes There is probably little to no difference in continence recovery at 12 months after surgery (RR 1.01, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.04; I2 = 0%; studies = 2; participants = 222; moderate-certainty evidence). Assuming 982 per 1000 men undergoing standard RALP are continent at this time point, this corresponds to 10 more men per 1000 (29 fewer to 39 more) reporting continence recovery.  We are very uncertain about the effect of RS-RALP on potency recovery 12 months after surgery (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.54 to 1.80; studies = 1; participants = 55; very low-certainty evidence).  RS-RALP may increase PSMs (RR 1.95, 95% CI 1.19 to 3.20; I2 = 0%; studies = 3; participants = 308; low-certainty evidence) indicating a higher risk for prostate cancer recurrence. Assuming 129 per 1000 men undergoing standard RALP have positive margins, this corresponds to 123 more men per 1000 (25 more to 284 more) with PSMs. We are very uncertain about the effect of RS-RALP on BCRFS compared to standard RALP (hazard ratio (HR) 0.45, 95% CI 0.13 to 1.60; I2 = 32%; studies = 2; participants = 218; very low-certainty evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Findings of this review indicate that RS-RALP may result in better continence outcomes than standard RALP up to six months after surgery. Continence outcomes at 12 months may be similar. Downsides of RS-RALP may be higher positive margin rates. We are very uncertain about the effect on BCRFS and potency outcomes. Longer-term oncologic and functional outcomes are lacking, and no preplanned subgroup analyses could be performed to explore the observed heterogeneity. Surgeons should discuss these trade-offs and the limitations of the evidence with their patients when considering this approach.


Assuntos
Tratamentos com Preservação do Órgão/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Prostatectomia/métodos , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/métodos , Incontinência Urinária/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Humanos , Calicreínas/sangue , Laparoscopia/efeitos adversos , Laparoscopia/métodos , Masculino , Margens de Excisão , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tratamentos com Preservação do Órgão/efeitos adversos , Ereção Peniana , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Prostatectomia/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Incontinência Urinária/epidemiologia
12.
J Urol ; 204(6): 1229-1235, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32716685

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We identified baseline imaging and clinical characteristics of patients that may improve risk stratification among patients being evaluated for active surveillance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From July 2007 to January 2020 patients referred to our institution for prostate cancer were evaluated and those who remained on active surveillance were identified. Men underwent multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging upon entry into our active surveillance protocol during which baseline demographic and imaging data were documented. Patients were then followed and outcomes, specifically progression to Gleason Grade Group (GG)3 or greater disease, were recorded. RESULTS: Of the men placed on active surveillance 344 had at least 1 PI-RADS score documented. For those with an index lesion PI-RADS category of 5, 33% (17/51) had progression to GG3 or greater on active surveillance with a median time to progression of 31 months. When comparing the progression-free survival times and progression rates in each category, PI-RADS category was found to be associated with progression to GG3 or greater on active surveillance (p <0.01). On univariable analysis factors associated with progression included an index lesion PI-RADS category of 5, prostate specific antigen density and the size of the largest lesion. On multivariable analysis only PI-RADS category of 5 and prostate specific antigen density were associated with progression on active surveillance. CONCLUSIONS: PI-RADS lesion categories at baseline multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging during active surveillance enrollment can be used to predict cancer progression to GG3 or greater on active surveillance. This information, along with other clinical data, can better assist urologists in identifying and managing patients appropriate for active surveillance.


Assuntos
Imagem por Ressonância Magnética Intervencionista/estatística & dados numéricos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética Multiparamétrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Conduta Expectante/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Biópsia com Agulha de Grande Calibre/estatística & dados numéricos , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Biópsia Guiada por Imagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Calicreínas/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores/estatística & dados numéricos , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Prospectivos , Próstata/patologia , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/mortalidade , Medição de Risco/métodos , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
13.
J Urol ; 204(6): 1202-1208, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32716686

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In this study we determined the optimal number of transperineal magnetic resonance imaging ultrasound fusion targeted biopsy cores per lesion needed for the detection of clinically significant prostate cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 101 patients with at least 1 lesion with a PI-RADS® (Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System) score of 3 or greater were recruited prospectively. At least 4 transperineal magnetic resonance imaging ultrasound fusion targeted biopsy cores per lesion were performed, followed by systematic biopsy. The Kappa test was used to evaluate the consistency of the clinically significant prostate cancer detection rate between different targeted biopsy cores and 4 or more cores, which was regarded as reference standard. RESULTS: In the total cohort of 101 patients 49 (48.5%), 55 (54.5%) and 57 (56.4%) were diagnosed with clinically significant prostate cancer by systematic biopsy, targeted biopsy or targeted biopsy plus systematic biopsy, respectively. As for the total of 161 lesions, the clinically significant prostate cancer detection rate based on 1, 2, 3, or 4 or more targeted biopsy cores was made in 27.3%, 32.9%, 37.3% and 39.1%, respectively. Three cores showed great consistency with 4 or more cores in clinically significant prostate cancer detection rate (Kappa coefficient of 0.961, p <0.001) with a sensitivity of 95.2% (95% CI 85.8-98.8), and only missed 3 lesions harboring clinically significant prostate cancer. Similar results were obtained in cases with PI-RADS 3 or 4 or maximal diameter of less than 1.5 cm. CONCLUSIONS: Three targeted biopsies per lesion were suitable during transperineal magnetic resonance imaging ultrasound fusion biopsy, especially for lesions of PI-RADS 3 or 4, or small lesions (maximal diameter less than 1.5 cm), which may help to tailor targeted prostate biopsy procedures.


Assuntos
Biópsia com Agulha de Grande Calibre/normas , Biópsia Guiada por Imagem/normas , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Idoso , Biópsia com Agulha de Grande Calibre/métodos , Biópsia com Agulha de Grande Calibre/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Biópsia Guiada por Imagem/métodos , Biópsia Guiada por Imagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Calicreínas/sangue , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética Intervencionista , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Imagem Multimodal/métodos , Períneo/cirurgia , Estudos Prospectivos , Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção
15.
J Urol ; 204(5): 950-955, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32602770

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Men in whom external beam radiotherapy fails are usually placed on delayed hormone therapy. Some of these men have localized recurrence that might be suitable for further local therapy. We describe patterns of recurrence and suitability for focal ablative therapy in those undergoing transperineal template prostate mapping biopsies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 145 consecutive patients (December 2007 to May 2014) referred with suspicion of recurrence due to rising prostate specific antigen after external beam radiotherapy or brachytherapy who underwent transperineal template prostate mapping biopsies. Suitability for focal ablative therapy required the cancer to be unifocal or unilateral, or bilateral/multifocal with 1 dominant index lesion and secondary lesions with Gleason score 3+3=6 with no more than 3 mm cancer core involvement. RESULTS: Mean patient age was 70.7 (SD 5.8) years. Median prostate specific antigen at time of transperineal template prostate mapping biopsy was 4.5 ng/ml (IQR 2.5-7.7). Overall 75.9% (110) were suitable for a form of focal salvage treatment, 40.7% (59) were suitable for quadrant ablation, 14.5% (21) hemiablation, 14.5% (21) bilateral focal ablation and 6.2% (9) for index lesion ablation. CONCLUSIONS: Three-quarters of patients who have localized radiorecurrent prostate cancer may be suitable for focal ablative therapy to the prostate based on transperineal template prostate mapping biopsies.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Ablação/métodos , Calicreínas/sangue , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/terapia , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia , Terapia de Salvação/métodos , Técnicas de Ablação/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Humanos , Biópsia Guiada por Imagem/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/sangue , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/diagnóstico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Seleção de Pacientes , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Próstata/patologia , Próstata/efeitos da radiação , Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Medição de Risco , Terapia de Salvação/efeitos adversos
16.
J Urol ; 204(5): 909-917, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32698712

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to assess the prognostic impact of intraductal carcinoma of the prostate in patients with prostate cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic search was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis statement. We searched PubMed®, Web of Science™, the Cochrane Library and Scopus® up to October 2019. The end points were biochemical recurrence-free, cancer specific and overall survival. RESULTS: We identified 32 studies with 179,766 patients. A total of 31 studies containing 179,721 patients with localized and advanced prostate cancer were eligible for meta-analysis. In localized prostate cancer intraductal disease was associated with adverse outcomes including lower biochemical recurrence-free survival (pooled HR 2.09, 95% CI 1.75-2.50) and cancer specific survival (pooled HR 2.93, 95% CI 2.25-3.81). In advanced prostate cancer overall survival was lower in patients with vs without intraductal disease (pooled HR 1.75, 95% CI 1.43-2.14). Subgroup analysis by specimen type revealed that intraductal carcinoma of the prostate is a significant negative prognostic factor in both biopsies and prostatectomy specimens. Moreover, subgroup analyses based on the histopathological definitions of intraductal carcinoma of the prostate indicated that intraductal disease was significantly associated with lower biochemical recurrence-free, cancer specific and overall survival for almost all definitions. CONCLUSIONS: Intraductal disease is a histopathological feature of biologically and clinically aggressive prostate cancer. It confers worse oncologic outcomes in both localized and advanced prostate cancer, whether assessed in biopsy or prostatectomy specimen. The pathologist should assess for and report on the presence of intraductal disease in all prostate specimens. The urologist and radiation oncologist should consider this adverse feature in their clinical decision making.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante/mortalidade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/epidemiologia , Próstata/patologia , Prostatectomia , Neoplasias da Próstata/mortalidade , Biópsia , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante/sangue , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante/terapia , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Humanos , Calicreínas/sangue , Masculino , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/sangue , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/prevenção & controle , Prognóstico , Próstata/cirurgia , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia
17.
Med Oncol ; 37(7): 60, 2020 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32524295

RESUMO

To evaluate the outcomes of total eradication therapy (TET), designed to eradicate all sites of visible cancer and micrometastases, in men with newly diagnosed oligometastatic prostate cancer (OMPCa). Men with ≤ 5 sites of metastases were enrolled in a prospective registry study, underwent neoadjuvant chemohormonal therapy, followed by radical prostatectomy, adjuvant radiation (RT) to prostate bed/pelvis, stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) to oligometastases, and adjuvant hormonal therapy (HT). When possible, the prostate-specific membrane antigen targeted 18F-DCFPyL PET/CT (18F-DCFPyL) scan was obtained, and abiraterone was added to neoadjuvant HT. Twelve men, median 55 years, ECOG 0, median PSA 14.7 ng/dL, clinical stages M0-1/12 (8%), M1a-3/12 (25%) and M1b-8/12 (67%), were treated. 18F-DCFPyL scan was utilized in 58% of cases. Therapies included prostatectomy 12/12 (100%), neoadjuvant [docetaxel 11/12 (92%), LHRH agonist 12/12 (100%), abiraterone + prednisone 6/12 (50%)], adjuvant radiation [RT 2/12 (17%), RT + SBRT 4/12 (33%), SBRT 6/12 (50%)], and LHRH agonist 12/12 (100%)]. 2/5 (40%) initial patients developed neutropenic fever (NF), while 0/6 (0%) subsequent patients given modified docetaxel dosing developed NF. Otherwise, TET resulted in no additive toxicities. Median follow-up was 48.8 months. Overall survival was 12/12 (100%). 1-, 2-, and 3-year undetectable PSA's were 12/12 (100%), 10/12 (83%) and 8/12 (67%), respectively. Median time to biochemical recurrence was not reached. The outcomes suggest TET in men with newly diagnosed OMPCa is safe, does not appear to cause additive toxicities, and may result in an extended interval of undetectable PSA.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia , Anilidas/administração & dosagem , Antígenos de Superfície/sangue , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Terapia Combinada , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Docetaxel/administração & dosagem , Glutamato Carboxipeptidase II/sangue , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/antagonistas & inibidores , Humanos , Calicreínas/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Metástase Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Nitrilos/administração & dosagem , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Estudos Prospectivos , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Prostatectomia , Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Radiocirurgia , Radioterapia Adjuvante , Taxa de Sobrevida , Compostos de Tosil/administração & dosagem
18.
J Urol ; 204(6): 1216-1221, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32519915

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Few validated clinical tools currently exist to standardize the frequency of biopsies for men on active surveillance for low risk prostate cancer. We determined predictors of biopsy reclassification at specific time points after enrollment on active surveillance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We identified men with clinically low risk prostate cancer prospectively enrolled on active surveillance at the University of California, San Francisco between 2000 and 2016. Biopsy reclassification was defined as Gleason Grade Group 2 or greater on subsequent biopsy. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to identify factors associated with risk of biopsy reclassification at first surveillance biopsy and 1 to 3, 3 to 5 and 5 to 10 years after enrollment, adjusting for clinicodemographic factors, PI-RADS® (Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System) score and genomic testing. RESULTS: A total of 1,031 men were included in the study. On multivariable analysis biopsy reclassification was associated with prostate specific antigen density 0.15 or greater (HR 3.37, 95% CI 1.83-6.21), percentage biopsy cores positive (HR 1.27, 95% CI 1.05-1.54) and high genomic score (HR 2.81, 95% CI 1.21-6.52) at first surveillance biopsy and also at 1 to 3 years, after adjustment. Prostate specific antigen density 0.15 or greater (HR 2.36, 95% CI 1.56-3.56) and prostate specific antigen kinetics (HR 2.19, 95% CI 1.43-3.34) were associated with reclassification at 3 to 5 years. A PI-RADS 4-5 score was not associated with biopsy reclassification at any time point. CONCLUSIONS: High genomic score, prostate specific antigen kinetics and prostate specific antigen density 0.15 or greater were associated with reclassification within 3 years of commencing active surveillance, and prostate specific antigen kinetics and prostate specific antigen density 0.15 or greater remained associated with reclassification at 5 years after diagnosis.


Assuntos
Calicreínas/sangue , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Conduta Expectante/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Biópsia com Agulha de Grande Calibre/estatística & dados numéricos , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Biópsia Guiada por Imagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética Intervencionista , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética Multiparamétrica , Gradação de Tumores/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Prospectivos , Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
19.
J Urol ; 204(6): 1195-1201, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516029

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The added value of nontargeted systematic prostate biopsies when performed alongside magnetic resonance imaging targeted biopsies in men referred with a suspicion of prostate cancer is unclear. We aimed to determine the clinical utility of transperineal nontargeted systematic prostate biopsies, when performed alongside targeted systematic prostate biopsies, using pre-biopsy multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Consecutive patients referred with a suspicion of prostate cancer (April 2017 to October 2019) underwent pre-biopsy multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging. A transperineal biopsy was advised if multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging PI-RADS® (v.2.0) score was 4 or 5, and score 3 required a prostate specific antigen density 0.12 ng/ml or greater. Primary threshold for clinically significant prostate cancer was defined as any Gleason 3+4 or greater. Multivariable logistic regression analysis identified pre-biopsy predictors of clinically significant prostate cancer in nontargeted systematic prostate biopsies, regardless of targeted pathology (p <0.05, R, version 3.5.1). RESULTS: A total of 1,719 men underwent a pre-biopsy multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging, with 679 (39.5%) proceeding to combined targeted systematic prostate biopsies and nontargeted systematic prostate biopsies. In these men clinically significant prostate cancer was detected in 333 (49%) and 139 (20.5%) with targeted systematic prostate biopsies and nontargeted systematic prostate biopsies, respectively. In those men with clinically significant prostate cancer in targeted systematic prostate biopsies, clinically significant prostate cancer was also present in nontargeted systematic prostate biopsies in 117 (17.2%); Gleason 3+3 was present in 50 (7.4%). In 287 men without any cancer in the targeted systematic prostate biopsies, 13 (1.9%) had clinically significant prostate cancer in nontargeted systematic prostate biopsies. In addition 18/679 (2.7%) had Gleason 3+3 disease and no Gleason greater than 4+3 was detected. Predictors associated with clinically significant prostate cancer in nontargeted systematic prostate biopsies were prostate specific antigen 5 ng/ml or greater (OR 2.05, 95% CI 1.13-3.73, p=0.02), PI-RADS score 5 (OR 2.26, 95% CI 1.51-3.38, p <0.001) and prostate volume less than 50 cc (OR 2.47, 95% CI 1.57-3.87, p <0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Detection of clinically significant prostate cancer in exclusively nontargeted transperineal systematic biopsies in a pre-biopsy multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging pathway was low (1.9%).


Assuntos
Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética Multiparamétrica , Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Idoso , Biópsia com Agulha de Grande Calibre/métodos , Biópsia com Agulha de Grande Calibre/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Biópsia Guiada por Imagem/métodos , Biópsia Guiada por Imagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Calicreínas/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Períneo/cirurgia , Estudos Prospectivos , Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia
20.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234391, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525914

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pathological and clinical stage are associated with prostate cancer-specific survival after prostatectomy. With PSA screening, the post-surgery prognostic utility of clinical stage is debatable in studies seeking to identify new biomarkers. Few studies have investigated clinical stage and lethal prostate cancer association after accounting for pathological stage. We hypothesize that clinical stage provides prognostic information beyond pathological stage in the PSA era. METHODS: Cox regression models tested associations between clinical and pathological stage and lethal prostate cancer among 3,064 participants from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study and Physicians' Health Study (HPFS/PHS) who underwent prostatectomy. Likelihood ratio tests and c-statistics were used to assess the models' prognostic utility. Equivalent analyses were performed in 16,134 men who underwent prostatectomy at Johns Hopkins. RESULTS: Independently, clinical and pathological stage were associated (p<0.0001 for both) with rate of lethal prostate cancer in HPFS/PHS. The model with clinical and pathological stage fit significantly better than the model with only pathological stage in all men (p = 0.01) and in men diagnosed during the PSA era (p = 0.04). The mutually adjusted model also improved discriminatory ability. In the Johns Hopkins cohort, the model with clinical and pathological stage improved discriminatory ability and fit significantly better overall (p<0.0001) and in the PSA era (p<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Despite stage migration resulting from widespread PSA screening, clinical stage remains associated with progression to lethal prostate cancer independent of pathological stage. Future studies evaluating associations between new factors and poor outcome following prostatectomy should consider including both clinical and pathological stages since the data is already available.


Assuntos
Calicreínas/sangue , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Prostatectomia , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Estados Unidos
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