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1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(10): e2024191, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026453

RESUMO

Importance: In late December 2019, an outbreak of a novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in Wuhan, China. Data on the routes of transmission to Los Angeles, California, the US West Coast epicenter for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and subsequent community spread are limited. Objective: To determine the transmission routes of SARS-CoV-2 to Southern California and elucidate local community spread within the Los Angeles metropolitan area. Design, Setting, and Participants: This case series included 192 consecutive patients with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test results positive for SARS-CoV-2 who were evaluated at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles, California, from March 22 to April 15, 2020. Data analysis was performed from April to May 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: SARS-CoV-2 viral genomes were sequenced. Los Angeles isolates were compared with genomes from global subsampling and from New York, New York; Washington state; and China to determine potential sources of viral dissemination. Demographic data and outcomes were collected. Results: The cohort included 192 patients (median [interquartile range] age, 59.5 [43-75] years; 110 [57.3%] men). The genetic characterization of SARS-CoV-2 isolates in the Los Angeles population pinpointed community transmission of 13 patients within a 3.81 km2 radius. Variation landscapes of this case series also revealed a cluster of 10 patients that contained 5 residents at a skilled nursing facility, 1 resident of a nearby skilled nursing facility, 3 health care workers, and a family member of a resident of one of the skilled nursing facilities. Person-to-person transmission was detected in a cluster of 5 patients who shared the same single-nucleotide variation in their SARS-CoV-2 genomes. High viral genomic diversity was identified: 20 Los Angeles isolates (15.0%) resembled SARS-CoV-2 genomes from Asia, while 109 Los Angeles isolates (82.0%) were similar to isolates originating from Europe. Analysis of other common respiratory viral pathogens did not reveal coinfection in the cohort. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings highlight the precision of detecting person-to-person transmission and accurate contact tracing directly through SARS-CoV-2 genome isolation and sequencing. Development and application of phylogenetic analyses from the Los Angeles population established connections between COVID-19 clusters locally and throughout the US.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Genoma Viral/genética , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Adulto , Idoso , Ásia , California/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Los Angeles/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cidade de Nova Iorque , Pandemias , Filogenia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética , Washington
2.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(42): 1512-1516, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33090980

RESUMO

Valley fever (coccidioidomycosis) is endemic in the southwestern United States and caused by inhalation of Coccidioides spp. fungal spores from soil or dust; 97% of U.S. Valley fever cases are reported from Arizona and California (1). In California, Valley fever incidence increased 213% from 2014 to 2018 (2). In 2016, the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) added three questions to the adult California Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey to better understand whether Californians had heard of Valley fever, knew the environmental risk where they live, and knew who is at risk for severe disease. A total of 2,893 BRFSS respondents aged ≥18 years answered at least one Valley fever question. Using the weighted California population, 42.4% of respondents reported general awareness of Valley fever; awareness was lowest among adults aged 18-44 years (32.9%) and Hispanic persons (26.4%). In addition, despite higher percentages reporting awareness of Valley fever, only 25.0% of persons living in a high-incidence region and 3.0% of persons living in a moderate-incidence region were aware that they lived in areas where Coccidioides spp. exist. Among persons with one or more risk factors for severe disease, 50.8% reported having heard about Valley fever, but only 3.5% knew they were at increased risk for severe disease. The findings from this survey helped to inform a statewide Valley fever awareness campaign implemented during 2019-2020 and to guide outreach to persons living in high- and moderate-incidence regions in California and potentially other southwestern states or who are at risk for severe disease.


Assuntos
Coccidioidomicose , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Sistema de Vigilância de Fator de Risco Comportamental , California/epidemiologia , Coccidioidomicose/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Water Health ; 18(5): 766-775, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33095199

RESUMO

Coliforms are important bacterial contamination indicators in recreational waters. Little is known about the antibiotic resistance of coliforms from Southern California beaches. This study examined the numbers of coliforms as well as the incidence of antibiotic-resistant coliforms in beaches with restricted and non-restricted wave action by sampling from the shores of both types of beaches following dry and wet weather. Total coliforms were selected by membrane filtration onto mEndo agar and then enumerated. Randomly selected isolates from each location were screened for resistance to nine classes of antibiotics by disk diffusion, and the multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) index was calculated. Numbers of total coliforms were significantly higher following rain compared to dry weather. Total coliform numbers were not significantly elevated at non-restricted wave action sites. Restricted wave action sites had a 78.5% increase in MAR index following wet weather compared to dry weather. Resistance to ampicillin was observed in almost 50% of isolates and was not significantly impacted by wave action or weather. Minimum inhibitory concentration testing revealed that many isolates were highly resistant to ampicillin. This study is the first to report on the antibiotic resistance of coliforms found in Southern California beaches and highlights the prevalence of ampicillin resistance.


Assuntos
Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Microbiologia da Água , California/epidemiologia , Incidência , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
4.
Am J Public Health ; 110(S3): S312-S318, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001718

RESUMO

Objectives. To understand changes in how Facebook pages frame vaccine opposition.Methods. We categorized 204 Facebook pages expressing vaccine opposition, extracting public posts through November 20, 2019. We analyzed posts from October 2009 through October 2019 to examine if pages' content was coalescing.Results. Activity in pages promoting vaccine choice as a civil liberty increased in January 2015, April 2016, and January 2019 (t[76] = 11.33 [P < .001]; t[46] = 7.88 [P < .001]; and t[41] = 17.27 [P < .001], respectively). The 2019 increase was strongest in pages mentioning US states (t[41] = 19.06; P < .001). Discussion about vaccine safety decreased (rs[119] = -0.61; P < .001) while discussion about civil liberties increased (rs[119] = 0.33; Py < .001]). Page categories increasingly resembled one another (civil liberties: rs[119] = -0.50 [P < .001]; alternative medicine: rs[84] = -0.77 [P < .001]; conspiracy theories: rs[119] = -0.46 [P < .001]; morality: rs[106] = -0.65 [P < .001]; safety and efficacy: rs[119] = -0.46 [P < .001]).Conclusions. The "Disneyland" measles outbreak drew vaccine opposition into the political mainstream, followed by promotional campaigns conducted in pages framing vaccine refusal as a civil right. Political mobilization in state-focused pages followed in 2019.Public Health Implications. Policymakers should expect increasing attempts to alter state legislation associated with vaccine exemptions, potentially accompanied by fiercer lobbying from specific celebrities.


Assuntos
Movimento contra Vacinação , Direitos Civis , Surtos de Doenças , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Mídias Sociais , Recusa de Vacinação , California/epidemiologia , Humanos , Vacina contra Sarampo/administração & dosagem , Saúde Pública , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
5.
Pediatrics ; 146(4)2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994177

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: New guidelines support using interferon-γ release assays (IGRAs) in children ≥2 years for diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). However, lack of experience in young children and concern that IGRAs are less sensitive than tuberculin skin tests (TSTs) limit their use. Our aim was to identify active tuberculosis (TB) cases among high risk children <5 years and tested for LTBI with an IGRA. METHODS: . Retrospective review of domestic TB screening data from California's Refugee Health Electronic Information System for children <5 years old who resettled in California between October, 2013 and December, 2016. Children were crossmatched with the California TB registry to identify cases of TB disease between October 2013 and December 2018. RESULTS: A total of 3371 children <5 years were identified; the majority were born in countries with high TB incidence (>150 cases per 100 000). Half received IGRAs (n = 1878; 56%), a quarter received TSTs (n = 811; 24%); 1.4% of children were IGRA-positive (n = 26) and 13% were TST-positive (n = 106). Twenty-two IGRA results were indeterminate (1.2%). Sixteen children had both tests; 9 were discrepant (positive TST with negative IGRA). No cases of TB disease were identified during 10 797 person-years of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: IGRA positivity was less than TST positivity in high risk children <5 years old. Despite fewer LTBI diagnoses in the IGRA-tested population, no cases of TB disease among children who tested negative were identified, suggesting IGRA is valuable tool for identifying LTBI in this population.


Assuntos
Testes de Liberação de Interferon-gama/estatística & dados numéricos , Tuberculose Latente/diagnóstico , Refugiados/estatística & dados numéricos , Teste Tuberculínico/estatística & dados numéricos , California/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Tuberculose Latente/epidemiologia , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(9): e21562, 2020 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791492

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accurately assessing the regional activity of diseases such as COVID-19 is important in guiding public health interventions. Leveraging electronic health records (EHRs) to monitor outpatient clinical encounters may lead to the identification of emerging outbreaks. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to investigate whether excess visits where the word "cough" was present in the EHR reason for visit, and hospitalizations with acute respiratory failure were more frequent from December 2019 to February 2020 compared with the preceding 5 years. METHODS: A retrospective observational cohort was identified from a large US health system with 3 hospitals, over 180 clinics, and 2.5 million patient encounters annually. Data from patient encounters from July 1, 2014, to February 29, 2020, were included. Seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) time-series models were used to evaluate if the observed winter 2019/2020 rates were higher than the forecast 95% prediction intervals. The estimated excess number of visits and hospitalizations in winter 2019/2020 were calculated compared to previous seasons. RESULTS: The percentage of patients presenting with an EHR reason for visit containing the word "cough" to clinics exceeded the 95% prediction interval the week of December 22, 2019, and was consistently above the 95% prediction interval all 10 weeks through the end of February 2020. Similar trends were noted for emergency department visits and hospitalizations starting December 22, 2019, where observed data exceeded the 95% prediction interval in 6 and 7 of the 10 weeks, respectively. The estimated excess over the 3-month 2019/2020 winter season, obtained by either subtracting the maximum or subtracting the average of the five previous seasons from the current season, was 1.6 or 2.0 excess visits for cough per 1000 outpatient visits, 11.0 or 19.2 excess visits for cough per 1000 emergency department visits, and 21.4 or 39.1 excess visits per 1000 hospitalizations with acute respiratory failure, respectively. The total numbers of excess cases above the 95% predicted forecast interval were 168 cases in the outpatient clinics, 56 cases for the emergency department, and 18 hospitalized with acute respiratory failure. CONCLUSIONS: A significantly higher number of patients with respiratory complaints and diseases starting in late December 2019 and continuing through February 2020 suggests community spread of SARS-CoV-2 prior to established clinical awareness and testing capabilities. This provides a case example of how health system analytics combined with EHR data can provide powerful and agile tools for identifying when future trends in patient populations are outside of the expected ranges.


Assuntos
Tosse/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/epidemiologia , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Betacoronavirus , California/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estações do Ano
7.
Public Health Rep ; 135(1_suppl): 57S-64S, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735188

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: California is experiencing a syphilis and congenital syphilis epidemic, and many persons diagnosed with syphilis report a history of recent incarceration or sexual contact with a person who has recently been incarcerated. Fresno County's local health department and jail collaborated to implement a routine syphilis screening policy for male adults aged 18-30 and female adults aged 18-35 booked into the facility. We evaluated syphilis screening, case finding, and treatment rates after implementation of the new policy. METHODS: We linked jail census and laboratory data to syphilis surveillance data to assess screening coverage, positivity, and treatment rates for age-eligible persons who were booked into Fresno County Jail from April 1, 2016, through December 31, 2017. RESULTS: Of 24 045 age-eligible persons who were booked into the jail during the study period, 5897 (24.5%) were female and 18 148 (75.5%) were male. Of 7144 (29.7%) persons who were screened for syphilis, 611 (8.6%) had a reactive rapid plasma reagin blood test result (16.4% [253 of 1546] of female adults; 6.4% [358 of 5598] of male adults) and 238 (3.3%) were newly diagnosed with syphilis, as confirmed by matching to the surveillance system (6.9% [106 of 1546] of female adults; 2.4% [132 of 5598] of male adults). Of persons identified with syphilis, 51.7% (n = 123 of 238) received adequate recommended treatment (59.4% [63 of 106] of female adults; 45.5% [60 of 132] of male adults). CONCLUSIONS: The age-based syphilis screening policy adopted in this jail yielded high positivity, including newly identified syphilis infections among female adults of childbearing age. The targeted screening policy was formalized in the county-negotiated contract with the jail's private correctional health care company in 2018-a strategy that can be replicated.


Assuntos
Programas de Rastreamento/organização & administração , Prisões/organização & administração , Sífilis/diagnóstico , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , California/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
8.
Public Health Rep ; 135(1_suppl): 50S-56S, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735197

RESUMO

In 2014, California passed Assembly Bill 966, which required condom access for persons incarcerated in all 35 California state prisons (33 men's and 2 women's prisons). The California Correctional Health Care Services and the Sexually Transmitted Disease Control Branch and the Office of AIDS of the California Department of Public Health collaborated in a prison administration-led multidisciplinary implementation workgroup. Our workgroup, representing public health, correctional health, legal and legislative affairs, labor relations, and prison staff members, participated in 4 planning meetings during May-September 2015. We surveyed prison staff members and incarcerated men to identify and address potential challenges; conceptualized a tamper-resistant condom dispenser; developed educational materials, frequently asked questions for staff members, and fact sheets for the public; and conducted forums for custody and medical staff members at each prison. Key lessons learned included the need for high-level custody support, engagement of labor unions early in the decision-making process, and flexibility within defined parameters for sites to determine best practices given their unique institutional population, culture, and physical layout. Condom access was initiated at 4 prisons in July 2015 and expanded incrementally to the remaining 29 men's prisons through July 2016. A total of 243 563 condoms were accessed in the men's prisons, for an average of 354 condoms per 1000 population per month. The start-up dispenser cost was $69 825 (735 dispensers at $95 each). We estimated an annual condom cost of $0.60 per person. Although staff members and incarcerated men expressed concern that this legislation would condone sex and provide repositories for contraband, no serious adverse incidents involving condoms were reported. California demonstrated that condom access is a safe, low-cost intervention with high uptake for a large correctional system and provided a replicable implementation model for other states. Prison condom programs have the potential to decrease transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among incarcerated persons and their communities, which are often disproportionately affected by STIs, HIV, and other chronic diseases.


Assuntos
Preservativos/provisão & distribução , Prisões/organização & administração , Saúde Pública , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , California/epidemiologia , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Educação em Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Capacitação em Serviço/organização & administração , Sindicatos/organização & administração , Masculino , Prisões/economia , Prisões/normas , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia
10.
PLoS Med ; 17(8): e1003238, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810149

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is estimated that vaccinating 50%-70% of school-aged children for influenza can produce population-wide indirect effects. We evaluated a city-wide school-located influenza vaccination (SLIV) intervention that aimed to increase influenza vaccination coverage. The intervention was implemented in ≥95 preschools and elementary schools in northern California from 2014 to 2018. Using a matched cohort design, we estimated intervention impacts on student influenza vaccination coverage, school absenteeism, and community-wide indirect effects on laboratory-confirmed influenza hospitalizations. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used a multivariate matching algorithm to identify a nearby comparison school district with pre-intervention characteristics similar to those of the intervention school district and matched schools in each district. To measure student influenza vaccination, we conducted cross-sectional surveys of student caregivers in 22 school pairs (2017 survey, N = 6,070; 2018 survey, N = 6,507). We estimated the incidence of laboratory-confirmed influenza hospitalization from 2011 to 2018 using surveillance data from school district zip codes. We analyzed student absenteeism data from 2011 to 2018 from each district (N = 42,487,816 student-days). To account for pre-intervention differences between districts, we estimated difference-in-differences (DID) in influenza hospitalization incidence and absenteeism rates using generalized linear and log-linear models with a population offset for incidence outcomes. Prior to the SLIV intervention, the median household income was $51,849 in the intervention site and $61,596 in the comparison site. The population in each site was predominately white (41% in the intervention site, 48% in the comparison site) and/or of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity (26% in the intervention site, 33% in the comparison site). The number of students vaccinated by the SLIV intervention ranged from 7,502 to 10,106 (22%-28% of eligible students) each year. During the intervention, influenza vaccination coverage among elementary students was 53%-66% in the comparison district. Coverage was similar between the intervention and comparison districts in influenza seasons 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 and was significantly higher in the intervention site in seasons 2016-2017 (7%; 95% CI 4, 11; p < 0.001) and 2017-2018 (11%; 95% CI 7, 15; p < 0.001). During seasons when vaccination coverage was higher among intervention schools and the vaccine was moderately effective, there was evidence of statistically significant indirect effects: The DID in the incidence of influenza hospitalization per 100,000 in the intervention versus comparison site was -17 (95% CI -30, -4; p = 0.008) in 2016-2017 and -37 (95% CI -54, -19; p < 0.001) in 2017-2018 among non-elementary-school-aged individuals and -73 (95% CI -147, 1; p = 0.054) in 2016-2017 and -160 (95% CI -267, -53; p = 0.004) in 2017-2018 among adults 65 years or older. The DID in illness-related school absences per 100 school days during the influenza season was -0.63 (95% CI -1.14, -0.13; p = 0.014) in 2016-2017 and -0.80 (95% CI -1.28, -0.31; p = 0.001) in 2017-2018. Limitations of this study include the use of an observational design, which may be subject to unmeasured confounding, and caregiver-reported vaccination status, which is subject to poor recall and low response rates. CONCLUSIONS: A city-wide SLIV intervention in a large, diverse urban population was associated with a decrease in the incidence of laboratory-confirmed influenza hospitalization in all age groups and a decrease in illness-specific school absence rate among students in 2016-2017 and 2017-2018, seasons when the vaccine was moderately effective, suggesting that the intervention produced indirect effects. Our findings suggest that in populations with moderately high background levels of influenza vaccination coverage, SLIV programs are associated with further increases in coverage and reduced influenza across the community.


Assuntos
Absenteísmo , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/normas , População Urbana , Cobertura Vacinal/normas , Vacinação/normas , Adolescente , California/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas/normas , Estudantes , Vacinação/métodos , Cobertura Vacinal/métodos
11.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236877, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760136

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify current maternal and infant predictors of infant mortality, including maternal sociodemographic and economic status, maternal perinatal smoking and obesity, mode of delivery, and infant birthweight and gestational age. METHODS: This retrospective study analyzed data from the linked birth and infant death files (birth cohort) and live births from the Birth Statistical Master files (BSMF) in California compiled by the California Department of Public Health for 2007-2015. The birth cohort study comprised 4,503,197 singleton births including 19,301 infant deaths during the nine-year study period. A subpopulation to study fetal growth consisted of 4,448,300 birth cohort records including 13,891 infant deaths. RESULTS: The infant mortality rate (IMR) for singleton births decreased linearly (p <0.001) from 4.68 in 2007 to 3.90 (per 1,000 live births) in 2015. However, significant disparities in IMR were uncovered in different population groups depending upon maternal sociodemographic and economic characteristics and maternal characteristics during pregnancy. Children of African American women had almost twice the risk of infant mortality when compared with children of White women (AOR 2.12; 95% CI, 1.98-2.27; p<0.001). Infants of women with Bachelor's degrees or higher were 89% less likely to die (AOR 1.89; 95% CI, 1.76-2.04; p<0.001) when compared to infants of women with education less than high school. Infants of maternal smokers were 75% more likely to die (AOR 1.75; 95% CI, 1.58-1.93; p<0.001) than infants of nonsmokers. Infants of women who were overweight and obese during pregnancy accounted for 55% of IMR over all women in the study. More than half of the infant deaths were to children of women with lower socioeconomic status; infants of WIC participants were 59% more likely to die (AOR 1.59; 95% CI, 1.52-1.67; p<0.001) than infants of non-WIC participants. With respect to infant predictors, infants born with LBW or PTB were more than six times (AOR 6.29; 95% CI, 5.90-6.70; p<0.001) and almost four times (AOR 3.95; 95% CI, 3.73-4.19; p<0.001) more likely to die than infants who had normal births, respectively. SGA and LGA infants were more than two times (AOR 2.03; 95% CI, 1.92-2.15; p<0.001) and 41% (AOR 1.41; 95% CI, 1.32-1.52; p<0.001) more likely to die than AGA infants, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: While the overall IMR in California is declining, wide disparities in death rates persist in different groups, and these disparities are increasing. Our data indicate that maternal sociodemographic and economic factors, as well as maternal prepregnancy obesity and smoking during pregnancy, have a prominent effect on IMR though no causality can be inferred with the current data. These predictors are not typically addressed by direct medical care. Infant factors with a major effect on IMR are birthweight and gestational age-predictors that are addressed by active medical services. The highest value interventions to reduce IMR may be social and public health initiatives that mitigate disparities in sociodemographic, economic and behavioral risks for mothers.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Infantil , Mães , Adulto , Análise de Variância , California/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Escolaridade , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
12.
Stroke ; 51(10): 2918-2924, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32762619

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Shelter-in-place (SIP) orders implemented to mitigate severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 spread may inadvertently discourage patient care-seeking behavior for critical conditions like acute ischemic stroke. We aimed to compare temporal trends in volume of acute stroke alerts, patient characteristics, telestroke care, and short-term outcomes pre- and post-SIP orders. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study in 21 stroke centers of an integrated healthcare system serving 4.4+ million members across Northern California. We included adult patients who presented with suspected acute stroke and were evaluated by telestroke between January 1, 2019, and May 9, 2020. SIP orders announced the week of March 15, 2020, created pre (January 1, 2019, to March 14, 2020) and post (March 15, 2020, to May 9, 2020) cohort for comparison. Main outcomes were stroke alert volumes and inpatient mortality for stroke. RESULTS: Stroke alert weekly volume post-SIP (mean, 98 [95% CI, 92-104]) decreased significantly compared with pre-SIP (mean, 132 [95% CI, 130-136]; P<0.001). Stroke discharges also dropped, in concordance with acute stroke alerts decrease. In total, 9120 patients were included: 8337 in pre- and 783 in post-SIP cohorts. There were no differences in patient demographics. Compared with pre-SIP, post-SIP patients had higher National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores (P=0.003), lower comorbidity score (P<0.001), and arrived more often by ambulance (P<0.001). Post-SIP, more patients had large vessel occlusions (P=0.03), and there were fewer stroke mimics (P=0.001). Discharge outcomes were similar for post-SIP and pre-SIP cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort study, regional stroke alert and ischemic stroke discharge volumes decreased significantly in the early COVID-19 pandemic. Compared with pre-SIP, the post-SIP population showed no significant demographic differences but had lower comorbidity scores, more severe strokes, and more large vessel occlusions. The inpatient mortality was similar in both cohorts. Further studies are needed to understand the causes and implications of care avoidance to patients and healthcare systems.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitais Comunitários , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Telemedicina , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ambulâncias , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , California/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Alta do Paciente , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 746: 140915, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745847

RESUMO

Growing evidence suggests air pollutants may harm the central nervous system, potentially impacting mental health. However, such impacts of air pollutants on mental health and the sub-populations most affected remain poorly understood, especially in California. We examined the relationship between short-term ambient carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and mental health-related emergency department (ED) visits in California from 2005 to 2013. Daily mean concentrations of the pollutants were acquired from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Air Quality System Data Mart ground monitoring data. Moving averages of pollutant concentrations were linked to counts of ED visits obtained from the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development. Seven mental health outcomes, defined by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes, were studied: all mental disorders, bipolar disorder, depression, schizophrenia, substance abuse, homicide/inflicted injury, and suicide/self-harm. Monitor-level associations were estimated with quasi-Poisson regression models and combined using random-effects meta-analysis. CO and NO2 were found to be positively associated with ED visits due to homicide/inflicted injury, with the warm season (May-October) driving the CO association. An interquartile range (IQR) (0.28 ppm) increase in two-day average CO during the warm season was associated with a 3.13% (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.43, 4.84) elevation in risk of an ED visit due to homicide/inflicted injury (n = 122,749 ED visits). An IQR (10.79 ppb) increase in two-day average NO2 was associated with a 2.60% (95% CI: 1.17, 4.05) elevation in risk of an ED visit due to homicide/inflicted injury (n = 206,919 ED visits). Subgroup analyses indicated children, Hispanics, and males were particularly vulnerable. Except for an inverse relationship between NO2 and substance abuse, neither pollutant was robustly associated with visits due to other mental health morbidities. Our results suggest short-term elevations in CO and NO2 may promote violent behavior. Further investigation in other populations and ranges of air pollution exposure is warranted.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , California/epidemiologia , Monóxido de Carbono/análise , Criança , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Óxido Nítrico , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Estados Unidos
14.
Am J Cardiol ; 132: 44-51, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32762964

RESUMO

The optimal duration of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) after treatment of chronic total occlusions (CTO) with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is unknown. We aimed to determine if extended (> 12 months) DAPT was associated with a net clinical benefit. The study population included patients who underwent successful CTO PCI within Kaiser Permanente Northern California between 2009 and 2016. Baseline demographic, clinical, and procedural characteristics were compared for patients on DAPT ≤ versus > 12 months. Clinical outcomes (death, myocardial infarction (MI), and ≥ Academic Research Consortium type 3a bleeding) were compared beginning 12 months after PCI using Cox proportional hazards models. We also adjudicated individual causes of death. 1,069 patients were followed for a median of 3.6 years (Interquartile Range = 2.2 to 5.5) following CTO PCI. Patients on DAPT ≤ 12 months (n = 597, 56%) were more likely to have anemia, end stage renal disease, and previous MI. After adjustment for between group differences, > 12 months of DAPT was associated with lower death or MI (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.66; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.47 to 0.93) and lower death (HR: 0.54; 95% CI: 0.36 to 0.82). There were no associations with MI (HR: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.55 to 1.5) or bleeding (HR 1.1; 95% CI: 0.50 to 2.4), but a numerically higher proportion of patients on shorter v. longer DAPT died of a cardiovascular cause (37% vs 20%, p = 0.10). In conclusion, > 12 months of DAPT was associated with lower death or MI, without an increase in bleeding. Prospective studies are needed to evaluate the optimal duration of DAPT in this unique subgroup.


Assuntos
Oclusão Coronária/terapia , Terapia Antiplaquetária Dupla/métodos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , California/epidemiologia , Doença Crônica , Angiografia Coronária , Oclusão Coronária/diagnóstico , Oclusão Coronária/mortalidade , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Pós-Operatório , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Am J Perinatol ; 37(11): 1110-1114, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620022

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has created a need for data regarding the prevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in pregnant women. After implementing universal screening for COVID-19 in women admitted for delivery, we sought to describe the characteristics of COVID-19 in this large cohort of women. STUDY DESIGN: An observational study of women admitted to labor and delivery units in Kaiser Permanente Southern California (KPSC) hospitals between April 6 and May 11, 2020 who were universally offered testing for SARS-CoV-2 infection (n = 3,963). Hospital inpatient and outpatient physician encounter, and laboratory records were used to ascertain universal testing levels, test results, and medical and obstetrical histories. The prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection was estimated from the number of women who tested positive during labor per 100 women delivered. RESULTS: Of women delivered during the study period, 3,923 (99.0%) underwent SARS-CoV-2 testing. A total of 17 (0.43%; 95% confidence interval: 0.23-0.63%) women tested positive, and none of them were symptomatic on admission. There was no difference in terms of characteristics between SARS-CoV-2 positive and negative tested women. One woman developed a headache attributed to COVID-19 3 days postpartum. No neonates had a positive test at 24 hours of life. CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that in pregnant women admitted for delivery between April 6 and May 11, 2020 in this large integrated health care system in Southern California, prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 test positive was very low and all patients were asymptomatic on admission. KEY POINTS: · The prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in a large diverse cohort of term pregnant women was 0.43%.. · 99% of women accepted SARS-CoV-2 screening on admission to labor and delivery.. · All women with positive test results were asymptomatic at the time of testing..


Assuntos
Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus , Parto Obstétrico , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Adulto , Infecções Assintomáticas , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , California/epidemiologia , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Resultado da Gravidez , Prevalência
17.
Am J Public Health ; 110(9): 1386-1392, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673115

RESUMO

Objectives. To determine the impact of California's recreational marijuana legalization on marijuana use among justice system-involved (JSI) adolescents and young adults, and to distinguish whether any changes resulted from legalization (passing the law) or from implementation of the law.Methods. We compared changes in JSI youths' marijuana use in 2 states: California (n = 504), where recreational marijuana use was recently legalized, and Pennsylvania (n = 478), where recreational use is still prohibited. Furthermore, we examined changes in marijuana use across 3 key time periods (October 2015-June 2018): before legalization, after legalization but before implementation, and after implementation.Results. California JSI youths did not demonstrate a significant increase in marijuana use after legalization (b = -0.010; P = .950) or implementation (b = -0.046; P = .846). However, in Pennsylvania, rates of marijuana use increased significantly after legalization (b = 0.602; P = .001) but not after implementation (b = 0.174; P = .533).Conclusions. Although recreational marijuana legalization was not associated with changes in marijuana use among youths in California, we observed increased rates of use in Pennsylvania after legalization in California. Recreational marijuana laws may be indirectly related to youths' marijuana use by supporting more permissive national attitudes toward marijuana.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Uso da Maconha/legislação & jurisprudência , Adolescente , California/epidemiologia , Criminosos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Legislação de Medicamentos , Masculino , Pennsylvania/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(10): 2416-2419, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614768

RESUMO

Our analysis of coronavirus disease prevalence in 9 long-term care facilities demonstrated a high proportion (40.7%) of asymptomatic infections among residents and staff members. Infection control measures in congregate settings should include mass testing-based strategies in concert with symptom screening for greater effectiveness in preventing the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2.


Assuntos
Moradias Assistidas/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Instituições de Cuidados Especializados de Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , California/epidemiologia , Cidades/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Feminino , Serviço de Limpeza/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Manutenção/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Prevalência
19.
Ann Intern Med ; 173(7): 527-535, 2020 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628536

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic spurred health systems across the world to quickly shift from in-person visits to safer video visits. OBJECTIVE: To seek stakeholder perspectives on video visits' acceptability and effect 3 weeks after near-total transition to video visits. DESIGN: Semistructured qualitative interviews. SETTING: 6 Stanford general primary care and express care clinics at 6 northern California sites, with 81 providers, 123 staff, and 97 614 patient visits in 2019. PARTICIPANTS: 53 program participants (overlapping roles as medical providers [n = 20], medical assistants [n = 16], nurses [n = 4], technologists [n = 4], and administrators [n = 13]) were interviewed about video visit transition and challenges. INTERVENTION: In 3 weeks, express care and primary care video visits increased from less than 10% to greater than 80% and from less than 10% to greater than 75%, respectively. New video visit providers received video visit training and care quality feedback. New system workflows were created to accommodate the new visit method. MEASUREMENTS: 9 faculty, trained in qualitative research methods, conducted 53 stakeholder interviews in 4 days using purposeful (administrators and technologists) and convenience (medical assistant, nurses, and providers) sampling. A rapid qualitative analytic approach for thematic analysis was used. RESULTS: The analysis revealed 12 themes, including Pandemic as Catalyst; Joy in Medicine; Safety in Medicine; Slipping Through the Cracks; My Role, Redefined; and The New Normal. Themes were analyzed using the RE-AIM (reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance) framework to identify critical issues for continued program utilization. LIMITATIONS: Evaluation was done immediately after deployment. Although viewpoints may have evolved later, immediate evaluation allowed for prompt program changes and identified broader issues to address for program sustainability. CONCLUSION: After pandemic-related systems transformation at Stanford, critical issues to sustain video visit long-term viability were identified. Specifically, technology ease of use must improve and support multiparty videoconferencing. Providers should be able to care for their patients, regardless of geography. Providers need decision-making support with virtual examination training and home-based patient diagnostics. Finally, ongoing video visit reimbursement should be commensurate with value to the patients' health and well-being. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: Stanford Department of Medicine and Stanford Health Care.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Telemedicina/métodos , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , California/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Pesquisa Qualitativa
20.
Biodemography Soc Biol ; 65(3): 257-267, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727275

RESUMO

In the United States, obesity has increased in prevalence over time and is strongly associated with subsequent outcomes such as diabetes mellitus (DM) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). It is unclear, however, as to how the magnitude of NAFLD risk from obesity and DM is increased in safety-net health system settings. Among the San Francisco Health Network (SFHN) patients (N = 47,211), we examined the association between Body Mass Index (BMI) and elevated liver enzyme levels, including interaction by DM status. Our findings revealed that 32.2 percent of SFHN patients were obese, and Pacific Islanders in the safety-net had the highest rates of obesity compared to other racial groups, even after using higher race-specific BMI cutoffs. In SFHN, obesity was associated with elevated liver enzymes, with the relationship stronger among those without DM. Our findings highlight how obesity is a stronger factor of NAFLD in the absence of DM, suggesting that practitioners consider screening for NAFLD among safety-net patients with obesity even if DM has not developed. These results highlight the importance of directing efforts to reduce obesity in safety-net health systems and encourage researchers to further examine effect modification between health outcomes in such populations.


Assuntos
Obesidade/terapia , Provedores de Redes de Segurança/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , California/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/etiologia , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Insuficiência Hepática/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Hepática/etiologia , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Provedores de Redes de Segurança/organização & administração , Provedores de Redes de Segurança/estatística & dados numéricos
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