Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 10.035
Filtrar
1.
AIDS Educ Prev ; 33(5): 377-394, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596426

RESUMO

The CDC recommends that everyone have at least one HIV test in their lifetime. However, analyses of California Health Interview Survey data showed that in 2017 only half of Californians had ever received an HIV test. Non-Hispanic Black (64.8%) and Hispanic adults (54.7%) had higher lifetime testing rates than non-Hispanic White adults (48.8%). In multivariable analyses non-Hispanic African American adults had twice and Hispanic adults 1.2 times the odds of lifetime HIV testing as non-Hispanic White adults. The CDC recommends annual HIV testing for higher-risk individuals. Independent of race/ethnicity, heterosexual men with multiple sex partners had lower annual testing rates than other high-risk individuals. Annual testing was unrelated to education level and poverty, but was related to number of doctor visits. HIV screening rates among heterosexual men with multiple partners could be increased by targeting HIV screening to non-medical settings in California's eight Ending the HIV Epidemic counties.


Assuntos
Epidemias , Infecções por HIV , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , California/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Masculino , Parceiros Sexuais
2.
Ann Clin Lab Sci ; 51(5): 694-697, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34686512

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The conjunction of the coronavirus disease lockdown and the use of illicit drugs suggests the potential increase in drug usage and opioid deaths. Because of other studies, we felt the need to examine if the lockdown has caused a change in the drug intake of our population of substance abuse and pain management patients. MATERIALS: Urine drug testing is a strategy to reduce harm to patients in pain management and substance abuse treatment programs. We analyzed trends in the clinical drug testing patterns of urine specimens sent by substance abuse and pain clinics to monitor their patients. These specimens were tested by a national clinical laboratory using LC-MS/MS definitive methods. The time frame of these comparative observations was the past five years, including the time of the pandemic. RESULTS: The only decrease was a 30% reduction in test requests during the second quarter of 2020. Among the patients tested, positivity decreased greatly for the illicit drugs heroin and cocaine but increased for methamphetamine and fentanyl. Use of the antidepressant and anxiolytic drugs remained consistent or declined for some drugs, relative to pre-pandemic patterns. The percent of patients prescribed the opiates morphine and oxycodone decreased, while the use of hydrocodone increased. Positivity for the drug gabapentin increased greatly. The use of alcohol did not increase significantly during the lockdown period. CONCLUSION: In summary, these findings demonstrate relatively consistent drug use, with decreased positivity for high-risk drugs and dangerous drug combinations. We speculate that monitoring of these patients mitigates the possibility of drug misuse and potential overdose and is in concordance with the goals of these monitoring programs.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , COVID-19/psicologia , Manejo da Dor/psicologia , Isolamento Social , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Antidepressivos , California/epidemiologia , Cocaína , Fentanila , Heroína , Humanos , Drogas Ilícitas , Metanfetamina , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Alcaloides de Triptamina e Secologanina , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias/métodos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(43)2021 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34686604

RESUMO

Contact tracing is a pillar of COVID-19 response, but language access and equity have posed major obstacles. COVID-19 has disproportionately affected minority communities with many non-English-speaking members. Language discordance can increase processing times and hamper the trust building necessary for effective contact tracing. We demonstrate how matching predicted patient language with contact tracer language can enhance contact tracing. First, we show how to use machine learning to combine information from sparse laboratory reports with richer census data to predict the language of an incoming case. Second, we embed this method in the highly demanding environment of actual contact tracing with high volumes of cases in Santa Clara County, CA. Third, we evaluate this language-matching intervention in a randomized controlled trial. We show that this low-touch intervention results in 1) significant time savings, shortening the time from opening of cases to completion of the initial interview by nearly 14 h and increasing same-day completion by 12%, and 2) improved engagement, reducing the refusal to interview by 4%. These findings have important implications for reducing social disparities in COVID-19; improving equity in healthcare access; and, more broadly, leveling language differences in public services.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/transmissão , Busca de Comunicante/métodos , Idioma , SARS-CoV-2 , Algoritmos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , California/epidemiologia , Barreiras de Comunicação , Busca de Comunicante/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Masculino , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários , Confiança
4.
BMJ Open ; 11(10): e049604, 2021 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610937

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In February 2020, the US Food and Drug Administration issued a guidance restricting the sales and distribution of cartridge-based e-cigarettes with flavours other than tobacco and menthol. Disposable devices were exempt from this guidance. This study examined the prevalence of disposable pod use and flavour preference compared with refillable pod and other e-cigarette users among vape shop customers. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: In July 2019-March 2020, trained data collectors visited 44 vape shops in California with permission to recruit customers from shop owners. PARTICIPANTS: Intercept interviews with 276 customers were conducted. OUTCOMES AND PROCEDURES: Customers were grouped based on self-reported device type used most often (disposable pod, refillable pod and other e-cigarettes). Groups were compared on self-reported demographics, flavours preferred, daily e-cigarette use, preferred nicotine concentration levels and cigarette use. RESULTS: Of the 276 customers surveyed, 11.2% used disposable pods in the past 30 days. Among disposable pod users, fruit/candy (80.7%), mint (77.4%) and menthol (67.7%) were common preferred flavours, while tobacco flavours were less commonly preferred (19.4%). When compared with refillable pod and other non-pod e-cigarette device users, disposable pod users were younger, used higher nicotine concentration levels, were more likely to prefer mint and menthol flavours and use e-cigarettes as their first product, while less likely to ever use cigarettes and use e-cigarettes daily. DISCUSSION: Despite using higher nicotine levels and preferred menthol/mint flavours more often than users of other devices, disposable pod users reported lower prevalence of lifetime smoking and daily vaping and were younger. Given the current findings, regulations addressing non-tobacco flavours and nicotine concentration in disposable pod devices merit consideration in efforts to reduce vaping in younger adult never smokers.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Produtos do Tabaco , Vaping , Adulto , California/epidemiologia , Comportamento do Consumidor , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Prevalência
5.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(40): 1415-1419, 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34618801

RESUMO

Data from observational studies demonstrate that variants of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, have evolved rapidly across many countries (1,2). The SARS-CoV-2 B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant of concern is more transmissible than previously identified variants,* and as of September 2021, is the predominant variant in the United States.† Studies characterizing the distribution and severity of illness caused by SARS-CoV-2 variants, particularly the Delta variant, are limited in the United States (3), and are subject to limitations related to study setting, specimen collection, study population, or study period (4-7). This study used whole genome sequencing (WGS) data on SARS-CoV-2-positive specimens collected across Kaiser Permanente Southern California (KPSC), a large integrated health care system, to describe the distribution and risk of hospitalization associated with SARS-CoV-2 variants during March 4-July 21, 2021, by patient vaccination status. Among 13,039 SARS-CoV-2-positive specimens identified from KPSC patients during this period, 6,798 (52%) were sequenced and included in this report. Of these, 5,994 (88%) were collected from unvaccinated persons, 648 (10%) from fully vaccinated persons, and 156 (2%) from partially vaccinated persons. Among all sequenced specimens, the weekly percentage of B.1.1.7 (Alpha) variant infections increased from 20% to 67% during March 4-May 19, 2021. During April 15-July 21, 2021, the weekly percentage of Delta variant infections increased from 0% to 95%. During March 4-July 21, 2021, the weekly percentage of variants was similar among fully vaccinated and unvaccinated persons, but the Delta variant was more commonly identified among vaccinated persons then unvaccinated persons overall, relative to other variants. The Delta variant was more prevalent among younger persons, with the highest percentage (55%) identified among persons aged 18-44 years. Infections attributed to the Delta variant were also more commonly identified among non-Hispanic Black persons, relative to other variants. These findings reinforce the importance of continued monitoring of SARS-CoV-2 variants and implementing multiple COVID-19 prevention strategies, particularly during the current period in which Delta is the predominant variant circulating in the United States.


Assuntos
COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/virologia , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , California/epidemiologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
6.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(21): 14710-14719, 2021 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34648281

RESUMO

Exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2), black carbon (BC), and ultrafine particles (UFPs) during pregnancy may increase the risk of preeclampsia, but previous studies have not assessed hyperlocalized differences in pollutant levels, which may cause exposure misclassification. We used data from Google Street View cars with mobile air monitors that repeatedly sampled NO2, BC, and UFPs every 30 m in Downtown and West Oakland neighborhoods during 2015-2017. Data were linked to electronic health records of pregnant women in the 2014-2016 Sutter Health population, who resided within 120 m of monitoring data (N = 1095), to identify preeclampsia cases. We used G-computation with log-binomial regression to estimate risk differences (RDs) associated with a hypothetical intervention reducing pollutant levels to the 25th percentile observed in our sample on preeclampsia risk, overall and stratified by race/ethnicity. Prevalence of preeclampsia was 6.8%. Median (interquartile range) levels of NO2, BC, and UFPs were 10.8 ppb (9.0, 13.0), 0.34 µg/m3 (0.27, 0.42), and 29.2 # × 103/cm3 (26.6, 32.6), respectively. Changes in the risk of preeclampsia achievable by limiting each pollutant to the 25th percentile were NO2 RD = -1.5 per 100 women (95% confidence interval (CI): -2.5, -0.5); BC RD = -1.0 (95% CI: -2.2, 0.02); and UFP RD = -0.5 (95% CI: -1.8, 0.7). Estimated effects were the largest for non-Latina Black mothers: NO2 RD = -2.8 (95% CI: -5.2, -0.3) and BC RD = -3.0 (95% CI: -6.4, 0.4).


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Pré-Eclâmpsia , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , California/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Pré-Eclâmpsia/epidemiologia , Gravidez
8.
Prev Med ; 153: 106845, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34653501

RESUMO

As overdose mortality is spiking during the COVID-19 pandemic, few race/ethnicity-stratified trends are available. This is of particular concern as overdose mortality was increasing most rapidly in Black and Latinx communities prior to the pandemic. We used quarterly, age-standardized overdose mortality rates from California to assess trends by race/ethnicity and drug involved over time. Rates from 2020 Q2-Q4 were compared to expected trends based on ARIMA forecasting models fit using data from 2006 to 2020 Q1. In 2020 Q2-Q4 overdose death rates rose by 49.8% from 2019, exceeding an expected increase of 11.5% (95%CI: 0.5%-22.5%). Rates significantly exceeded forecasted trends for all racial/ethnic groups. Black/African American individuals saw an increase of 52.4% from 2019, compared to 42.6% among their White counterparts. The absolute Black-White overdose mortality gap rose from 0.7 higher per 100,000 for Black individuals in 2018 to 4.8 in 2019, and further increased to 9.9 during the pandemic. Black overdose mortality in California was therefore 34.3% higher than that of White individuals in 2020 Q2-Q4. This reflects growing methamphetamine-, cocaine-, and fentanyl-involved deaths among Black communities. Growing racial disparities in overdose must be understood in the context of the unequal social and economic fallout from the COVID-19 pandemic, during which time Black communities have been subjected to the dual burden of disproportionate COVID-19 deaths and rising overdose mortality. Increased investments are required to ameliorate racial/ethnic disparities in substance use treatment, harm reduction, and the structural drivers of overdose, as part of the COVID-19 response and post-pandemic recovery efforts.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Grupos Étnicos , California/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(43): e27664, 2021 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34713861

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: This study examined changes in psychotropic medication use associated with the early months of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Using Kaiser Permanente Northern California electronic health records, the authors identified adult patients with fills for psychotropic medications and a non-psychotropic comparator (statins) in the 13 weeks before and after the first-known COVID-19-related death in California (March 4, 2020). Generalized estimating equations were used to derive relative risk ratios (RRR) for medication fills compared with the prior year. Analyses were stratified by new and continued fills and patient characteristics. Among 2,405,824 patients, the mean (SD) age was 49.8 (17.9) years; 52.9% were female; 47.9% identified as White; 8.0% and 7.9% had anxiety and depression disorder diagnoses, respectively. Accounting for secular trends, in the 13 weeks following March 4, 2020, there were increased fills for trazodone (RRR = 1.03, 95% CI = 1.02, 1.04), decreased fills for benzodiazepines (RRR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.94, 0.96) and hypnotics (RRR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.96, 0.99), and stable fills for antidepressants (RRR = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.99, 1.00). Relative rates of new fills decreased across most medication classes and continued fills either remained stable or demonstrated non-clinically significant decreases. Patients aged ≥65 years demonstrated decreased fills for most medication classes. In the first 13 weeks of the COVID-19 pandemic, fills for most psychotropic medications remained constant or showed small changes relative to the previous year. Continued (compared with new) fills accounted for observed increases in some medication classes. Older adults demonstrated decreased fills of most medications.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Fármacos do Sistema Nervoso Central/administração & dosagem , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , California/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos
10.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256891, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478463

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research on COVID-19 during pregnancy has mainly focused on women hospitalized for COVID-19 or other reasons during their pregnancy. Little is known about COVID-19 in the general population of pregnant women. OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of COVID-19, symptoms, consequent healthcare use, and possible sources of COVID-19 exposure among a population-based sample of pregnant women residing in Northern California. METHODS: We analyzed data from 19,458 members of Kaiser Permanente Northern California who were pregnant between January 2020 and April 2021 and responded to an online survey about COVID-19 testing, diagnosis, symptoms, and their experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic. Medical diagnosis of COVID-19 during pregnancy was defined separately by self-report and by documentation in electronic health records (EHR). We examined relationships of COVID-19 with sociodemographic factors, underlying comorbidities, and survey measures of COVID-19-like symptoms, consequent healthcare utilization, and possible COVID-19 exposures. RESULTS: Among 19,458 respondents, the crude prevalence of COVID-19 was 2.5% (n = 494) according to self-report and 1.4% (n = 276) according to EHR. After adjustment, the prevalence of self-reported COVID-19 was higher among women aged <25 years compared with women aged ≥35 years (prevalence ratio [PR], 1.75, 95% CI: 1.23, 2.49) and among Hispanic women compared with White women (PR, 1.91, 95% CI: 1.53, 2.37). Prevalence of self-reported COVID-19 was higher among women affected by personal or partner job loss during the pandemic (PR, 1.23, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.47) and among women living in areas of high vs. low neighborhood deprivation (PR, 1.74, 95% CI: 1.33, 2.27). We did not observe differences in self-reported COVID-19 between women with and without underlying comorbidities. Results were similar for EHR-documented COVID-19. Loss of smell or taste was a unique and common symptom reported among women with COVID-19 (42.3% in self-reported; 54.0% in EHR-documented). Among women with symptomatic COVID-19, approximately 2% were hospitalized, 71% had a telehealth visit, and 75% quarantined at home. Over a third of women with COVID-19 reported no known exposure to someone with COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Observed COVID-19 prevalence differences by sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors underscore social and health inequities among reproductive-aged women. Women with COVID-19 reported unique symptoms and low frequency of hospitalization. Many were not aware of an exposure to someone with COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Adolescente , Adulto , COVID-19/patologia , COVID-19/virologia , Teste para COVID-19 , California/epidemiologia , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Gravidez , Gestantes , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Autorrelato , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34574407

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between public protests and county-level, novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) hospitalization rates across California. Publicly available data were included in the analysis from 55 of 58 California state counties (29 March-14 October 2020). Mixed-effects negative binomial regression models were used to examine the relationship between daily county-level COVID-19 hospitalizations and two main exposure variables: any vs. no protests and 1 or >1 protest vs. no protests on a given county-day. COVID-19 hospitalizations were used as a proxy for viral transmission since such rates are less sensitive to temporal changes in testing access/availability. Models included covariates for daily county mobility, county-level characteristics, and time trends. Models also included a county-population offset and a two-week lag for the association between exposure and outcome. No significant associations were observed between protest exposures and COVID-19 hospitalization rates among the 55 counties. We did not find evidence to suggest that public protests were associated with COVID-19 hospitalization within California counties. These findings support the notion that protesting during a pandemic may be safe, ostensibly, so long as evidence-based precautionary measures are taken.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , California/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Pandemias
12.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(37): 1274-1277, 2021 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34529639

RESUMO

Post-acute sequelae of COVID-19, also known as "long COVID," is used to describe the long-term symptoms that might be experienced weeks to months after primary infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. Among persons with a previous COVID-19 diagnosis, estimates of the prevalence of sequelae range from 5% among nonhospitalized persons to 80% among hospitalized persons (1,2). Studies have analyzed the aftereffects of COVID-19, but few have assessed the demographic characteristics associated with long COVID (3,4). Health disparities resulting from pervasive structural and socioeconomic barriers in the U.S. health care system might contribute to differences in these effects and might continue to exacerbate existing inequities (5). To identify trends in post-acute sequelae, the Long Beach Department of Health and Human Services (LBDHHS) interviewed a random sample of 366 persons aged ≥18 years who received a positive SARS-CoV-2 test result during April 1-December 10, 2020. One third of the persons interviewed reported having at least one symptom 2 months after their positive test result, with higher odds of sequelae among persons aged 40-54 years, females, and those with preexisting conditions. Black or African American (Black) participants had higher odds of reporting dyspnea and myalgia/arthralgia compared with other racial/ethnic groups. Persons who were aged ≥40 years, female, Black, or who reported known preexisting conditions also reported higher numbers of distinct sequelae. As the number of recovered COVID-19 patients increases, monitoring the prevalence of post-acute sequelae among larger cohorts in diverse populations will be necessary to understand and manage this condition. Identification of groups disproportionately affected by post-acute COVID-19 sequelae can help develop efforts to prioritize preventions and treatment strategies, including vaccination of groups at higher risk for these long-term sequelae, and access to testing and care for post-acute sequelae.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/terapia , California/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
13.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(9): e2124116, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34524438

RESUMO

Importance: Essential workers in agriculture and food production have been severely affected by the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Objective: To identify risk factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection among farmworkers in California. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study invited farmworkers in California's Salinas Valley (Monterey County) receiving transcription-mediated amplification (TMA) tests for SARS-CoV-2 infection at federally qualified community clinics and community sites to participate. Individuals were eligible if they were not pregnant, were 18 years or older, had conducted farmwork since the pandemic started, and were proficient in English or Spanish. Survey data were collected and SARS-CoV-2 tests were conducted among participants from July 16 to November 30, 2020. Exposures: Sociodemographic, household, community, and workplace characteristics. Main Outcomes and Measures: TMA- and immunoglobulin G (IgG)-positive SARS-CoV-2 infection. Results: A total of 1107 farmworkers (581 [52.5%] women; mean [SD] age, 39.7 [12.6] years) were included in these analyses. Most participants were born in Mexico (922 [83.3%]), were married or living with a partner (697 [63.0%]), and worked in the fields (825 [74.5%]). Overall, 118 of 911 (13.0%) had a positive result on their TMA test for SARS-CoV-2 infection, whereas 201 of 1058 (19.0%) had antibody evidence of infection. In multivariable analyses accounting for recruitment venue and enrollment period, the incidence of TMA-positive SARS-CoV-2 infection was higher among those with lower than primary school-level education (adjusted relative risk [aRR], 1.32; 95% CI, 0.99-1.76; non-statistically significant finding), who spoke an Indigenous language at home (aRR, 1.30; 95% CI, 0.97-1.73; non-statistically significant finding), who worked in the fields (aRR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.03-2.50), and who were exposed to a known or suspected COVID-19 case at home (aRR, 2.98; 95% CI, 2.06-4.32) or in the workplace (aRR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.18-2.14). Positive results on IgG tests for SARS-CoV-2 infection were more common among those who lived in crowded housing (aRR, 1.23; 95% CI, 0.98-1.53; non-statistically significant finding), with children aged 5 years or younger (aRR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.11-1.76), with unrelated roommates (aRR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.19-1.64), and with an individual with known or suspected COVID-19 (aRR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.13-2.24). The risk of IgG positivity was also higher among those with body mass index of 30 or greater (aRR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.01-2.70) or diabetes (aRR, 1.31; 95% CI, 0.98-1.75; non-statistically significant finding). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional study of farmworkers in California, both residential and workplace exposures were associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Urgent distribution of COVID-19 vaccines and intervention on modifiable risk factors are warranted given this population's increased risk of infection and the essential nature of their work.


Assuntos
COVID-19/transmissão , Fazendeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , California/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Local de Trabalho/normas , Local de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos
14.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(35): 1214-1219, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473683

RESUMO

On May 25, 2021, the Marin County Department of Public Health (MCPH) was notified by an elementary school that on May 23, an unvaccinated teacher had reported receiving a positive test result for SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. The teacher reported becoming symptomatic on May 19, but continued to work for 2 days before receiving a test on May 21. On occasion during this time, the teacher read aloud unmasked to the class despite school requirements to mask while indoors. Beginning May 23, additional cases of COVID-19 were reported among other staff members, students, parents, and siblings connected to the school. To characterize the outbreak, on May 26, MCPH initiated case investigation and contact tracing that included whole genome sequencing (WGS) of available specimens. A total of 27 cases were identified, including that of the teacher. During May 23-26, among the teacher's 24 students, 22 students, all ineligible for vaccination because of age, received testing for SARS-CoV-2; 12 received positive test results. The attack rate in the two rows seated closest to the teacher's desk was 80% (eight of 10) and was 28% (four of 14) in the three back rows (Fisher's exact test; p = 0.036). During May 24-June 1, six of 18 students in a separate grade at the school, all also too young for vaccination, received positive SARS-CoV-2 test results. Eight additional cases were also identified, all in parents and siblings of students in these two grades. Among these additional cases, three were in persons fully vaccinated in accordance with CDC recommendations (1). Among the 27 total cases, 22 (81%) persons reported symptoms; the most frequently reported symptoms were fever (41%), cough (33%), headache (26%), and sore throat (26%). WGS of all 18 available specimens identified the B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant. Vaccines are effective against the Delta variant (2), but risk of transmission remains elevated among unvaccinated persons in schools without strict adherence to prevention strategies. In addition to vaccination for eligible persons, strict adherence to nonpharmaceutical prevention strategies, including masking, routine testing, facility ventilation, and staying home when symptomatic, are important to ensure safe in-person learning in schools (3).


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Surtos de Doenças , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Instituições Acadêmicas , Adulto , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/transmissão , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , California/epidemiologia , Criança , Busca de Comunicante , Humanos , Máscaras/estatística & dados numéricos , Professores Escolares/estatística & dados numéricos
15.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(10): 2604-2618, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34545792

RESUMO

We conducted a detailed analysis of coronavirus disease in a large population center in southern California, USA (Orange County, population 3.2 million), to determine heterogeneity in risks for infection, test positivity, and death. We used a combination of datasets, including a population-representative seroprevalence survey, to assess the actual burden of disease and testing intensity, test positivity, and mortality. In the first month of the local epidemic (March 2020), case incidence clustered in high-income areas. This pattern quickly shifted, and cases next clustered in much higher rates in the north-central area of the county, which has a lower socioeconomic status. Beginning in April 2020, a concentration of reported cases, test positivity, testing intensity, and seropositivity in a north-central area persisted. At the individual level, several factors (e.g., age, race or ethnicity, and ZIP codes with low educational attainment) strongly affected risk for seropositivity and death.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Epidemias , California/epidemiologia , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
16.
Environ Int ; 157: 106862, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507232

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Air pollution exposure has been associated with increased risk of COVID-19 incidence and mortality by ecological analyses. Few studies have investigated the specific effect of traffic-related air pollution on COVID-19 severity. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations of near-roadway air pollution (NRAP) exposure with COVID-19 severity and mortality using individual-level exposure and outcome data. METHODS: The retrospective cohort includes 75,010 individuals (mean age 42.5 years, 54% female, 66% Hispanic) diagnosed with COVID-19 at Kaiser Permanente Southern California between 3/1/2020-8/31/2020. NRAP exposures from both freeways and non-freeways during 1-year prior to the COVID-19 diagnosis date were estimated based on residential address history using the CALINE4 line source dispersion model. Primary outcomes include COVID-19 severity defined as COVID-19-related hospitalizations, intensive respiratory support (IRS), intensive care unit (ICU) admissions within 30 days, and mortality within 60 days after COVID-19 diagnosis. Covariates including socio-characteristics and comorbidities were adjusted for in the analysis. RESULT: One standard deviation (SD) increase in 1-year-averaged non-freeway NRAP (0.5 ppb NOx) was associated with increased odds of COVID-19-related IRS and ICU admission [OR (95% CI): 1.07 (1.01, 1.13) and 1.11 (1.04, 1.19) respectively] and increased risk of mortality (HR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.03, 1.18). The associations of non-freeway NRAP with COVID-19 outcomes were largely independent of the effect of regional fine particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide exposures. These associations were generally consistent across age, sex, and race/ethnicity subgroups. The associations of freeway and total NRAP with COVID-19 severity and mortality were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Data from this multiethnic cohort suggested that NRAP, particularly non-freeway exposure in Southern California, may be associated with increased risk of COVID-19 severity and mortality among COVID-19 infected patients. Future studies are needed to assess the impact of emerging COVID-19 variants and chemical components from freeway and non-freeway NRAP.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , COVID-19 , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Teste para COVID-19 , California/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
18.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 938, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507546

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus pandemic has had a differential impact on communities of color across the US. The University of California hospital system serves a large population of people who are often underrepresented elsewhere. Data from hospital stays can provide much-needed localized information on risk factors for severe cases and/or death. METHODS: Patient-level retrospective case series of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 hospital admissions at five UC hospitals (N = 4730). Odds ratios of ICU admission, death, and a composite of both outcomes were calculated with univariate and multivariate logistic regression based on patient characteristics, including sex, race/ethnicity, and select comorbidities. Associations between comorbidities were quantified and visualized with a correlation network. RESULTS: Overall mortality rate was 7.0% (329/4,730). ICU mortality rate was 18.8% (225/1,194). The rate of the composite outcome (ICU admission and/or death) was 27.4% (1298/4730). Comorbidity-controlled odds of a composite outcome were increased for age 75-84 (OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.11-1.93) and 85-59 (OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.04-1.87) compared to 18-34 year-olds, males (OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.21-1.59) vs. females, and patients identifying as Hispanic/Latino (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.14-1.61) or Asian (OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.23-1.82) compared to White. Patients with 5 or more comorbidities were exceedingly likely to experience a composite outcome (OR 2.74, 95% CI 2.32-3.25). CONCLUSIONS: Males, older patients, those with multiple pre-existing comorbidities, and those identifying as Hispanic/Latino or Asian experienced an increased risk of ICU admission and/or death. These results are consistent with reported risks among the Hispanic/Latino population elsewhere in the United States, and confirm multiple concerns about heightened risk among the Asian population in California.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , California/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitalização , Hospitais , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos
19.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(11): 2761-2767, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469287

RESUMO

The Abbott BinaxNOW rapid antigen test is cheaper and faster than real-time reverse transcription PCR (rRT-PCR) for detecting severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. We compared BinaxNOW with rRT-PCR in 769 paired specimens from 342 persons during a coronavirus disease outbreak among horse racetrack workers in California, USA. We found positive percent agreement was 43.3% (95% CI 34.6%-52.4%), negative percent agreement 100% (95% CI 99.4%-100%), positive predictive value 100% (95% CI 93.5%-100%), and negative predictive value 89.9% (95% CI 87.5%-92.0%). Among 127 rRT-PCR-positive specimens, the 55 with paired BinaxNOW-positive results had a lower mean cycle threshold than the 72 with paired BinaxNOW-negative results (17.8 vs. 28.5; p<0.001). Of 100 specimens with cycle threshold <30, a total of 51 resulted in positive virus isolation; 45 (88.2%) of those were BinaxNOW-positive. Our comparison supports immediate isolation for BinaxNOW-positive persons and confirmatory testing for negative persons.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Animais , Antígenos Virais , California/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Cavalos , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...