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1.
J Anim Sci ; 98(1)2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31930329

RESUMO

Feeding cattle in intensified settings allows cow-calf producers to decrease their reliance on grazed forage and utilize alternative feedstuffs. During times of intense management, diet type may alter energy utilization. Fourteen pregnant MARC III heifers (405 ± 44 kg BW) were used in a 180 d experiment to determine effects of diet type on nutrient and energy utilization. Heifers were randomly assigned to one of two treatments, a forage diet (FOR; 2.10 Mcal metabolizable energy [ME]/kg; 95.75% forage) or a concentrate diet (CONC; 2.94 Mcal ME/kg; 71% concentrate), and individually fed to meet maintenance energy requirements (0.135 Mcal ME/kg BW0.75). The CONC diet contained dry-rolled corn, corn stalks (10.16 cm grind size), soybean meal, corn silage (approximately 45% corn grain; stored in a plastic bag), dicalcium phosphate, urea, and a premix pellet; FOR contained alfalfa hay (harvested at mid-bloom), corn silage, dicalcium phosphate, and a premix pellet. Measurements of energy intake and digestibility were measured over a 4-d period on days 116, 172, and 235 of gestation. Using portable headbox calorimeters, measurements of O2, CO2, and CH4 gases were collected over a period of 24 h. Data were analyzed in a completely randomized design with diet as fixed effect. Dry matter and organic matter digestibility were greater for CONC than FOR (P < 0.01). Intake of gross energy (GE) and digestible energy (DE) were greater for FOR (P < 0.01), but by design, ME intake was not different between treatments (P = 0.26). Energy lost as methane (% of GE intake) was not different between treatments (P = 0.49). The ratio of ME to DE was greater for CONC (86.8 vs. 82.8; P = 0.01) than FOR. Heat production relative to ME was not different between treatments (P = 0.85). Maternal tissue energy did not differ and was 1.2 Mcal/d for CONC and 0.9 Mcal/d for FOR (P = 0.73). Greater nitrogen (N) consumption was observed for FOR (192.2 g/d) than CONC (134.0 g/d; P < 0.01), and retained N was greater for FOR than CONC (P < 0.01) on days 116 and 235 of gestation. Neither concentrate-based or forage-based diets affected body condition score (P = 0.26). Heifers fed concentrate-based diets retained more energy in part because they had larger calves, but this energy was not recovered in maternal tissue.


Assuntos
Bovinos/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Metabolismo Energético , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Calorimetria Indireta/veterinária , Dieta/classificação , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Ingestão de Energia , Fezes/química , Feminino , Metano/biossíntese , Nitrogênio/farmacologia , Gravidez , Silagem/análise , Soja , Urina/química , Zea mays
2.
J Anim Sci ; 98(1)2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31950191

RESUMO

An experiment was carried out to determine energy values of high-protein sunflower meal (HP-SFM) and to compare the energy values of HP-SFM determined using either a phosphorus (P)-deficient basal diet or a P-adequate basal diet. Twenty-four growing barrows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments with 6 replicates per treatment. Four experimental diets including 2 basal diets containing 2 levels of standardized total tract digestible P (i.e., P-deficient and P-adequate) and the other 2 diets containing 30% HP-SFM with each basal diet (i.e., HP-SFM 1 diet and HP-SFM 2 diet) were formulated to determine the energy values of HP-SFM and to compare energy values of HP-SFM determined by the difference method using 2 basal diets. Pigs were fed diets for 15 d including 10 d for adaptation and 5 d for total collections. Pigs were then moved to indirect calorimetry chambers to determine total heat production (THP) and fasting heat production (FHP). A reduced (P < 0.01) amount of nitrogen was retained in pigs fed the P-deficient basal diet compared with those fed the other diets. The THP of pigs fed the HP-SFM 1 and 2 diets was greater (P < 0.01) than those fed the P-deficient basal diet with the intermediate value for pigs fed the P-adequate basal diet. The retained energy (RE) as protein of pigs fed the P-deficient basal diet was less (P < 0.01) but RE as lipid was greater (P < 0.01) than those fed the P-adequate basal, or HP-SFM 1 and 2 diets. However, there was no difference in FHP of pigs among the dietary treatments. The NE of HP-SFM determined using the P-deficient basal diet was 2,062 kcal/kg, as-fed basis, whereas the value determined using the P-adequate basal diet was 2,151 kcal/kg. Although no differences were observed in energy values, the amount of P in basal diet might affect energy balance by modifying N utilization, thus, a diet containing adequate amount of P is a more suitable basal diet when the difference method is used for calculation of NE in a feed ingredient.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Metabolismo Energético , Helianthus/química , Fósforo na Dieta/metabolismo , Suínos/fisiologia , Animais , Calorimetria Indireta , Dieta/veterinária , Jejum , Feminino , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Masculino , Termogênese
3.
J Sports Sci ; 38(5): 503-510, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31865845

RESUMO

Accelerometer cut points are an important consideration for distinguishing the intensity of activity into categories such as moderate and vigorous. It is well-established in the literature that these cut points depend on a variety of factors, including age group, device, and wear location. The Actigraph GT9X is a newer model accelerometer that is used for physical activity research, but existing cut points for this device are limited since it is a newer device. Furthermore, there is not existing data on cut points for the GT9X at the ankle or foot locations, which offers some potential benefit for activities that do not involve arm and/or core motion. A total of N = 44 adults completed a four-stage treadmill protocol while wearing Actigraph GT9X sensors at four different locations: foot, ankle, wrist, and hip. Metabolic Equivalent of Task (MET) levels assessed by indirect calorimetry along with Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves were used to establish cut points for moderate and vigorous intensity for each wear location of the GT9X. Area under the ROC curves indicated high discrimination accuracy for each case.


Assuntos
Actigrafia/instrumentação , Actigrafia/estatística & dados numéricos , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Monitores de Aptidão Física/estatística & dados numéricos , Acelerometria/instrumentação , Acelerometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Tornozelo , Calorimetria Indireta , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , , Quadril , Humanos , Masculino , Curva ROC , Valores de Referência , Punho
4.
Scand J Med Sci Sports ; 30(1): 135-147, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593622

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Competing in aesthetic sports increases the risk of low energy availability and associated health impairments. Fitness physique sport is a popular, but understudied aesthetic sport. We evaluated health and symptoms of relative energy deficiency in sport (RED-s) in female fitness athletes (FA) and female references (FR) during a competitive season. METHODS: Totally, 25 FA and 26 FR, mean (SD) age of 28.9 (5.7), were included. Assessments were at baseline (T1), 2-weeks pre-competition (T2), and 1-month post-competition (T3), by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan, indirect calorimetry, diet registration, The Low Energy Availability in Females Questionnaire, The Beck Depression Inventory, and Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q). RESULTS: A history of eating disorders was reported by 35% FA and 12% FR. There were no between-group differences at T1, besides less mean (99% CI) fat mass (FM) of 3.1 kg (-0.4, 6.5) in FA (P = .02). At T2, FA had lower BW of 6.7 kg (-12.0, -1.3), fat mass of -9.0 kg (-12.5, -5.5), and resting heart rate of -8.0 beats per minute (-14.5, -1.5) compared to FR (P ≤ .006). FA reduced resting metabolic rate by -191 kcal (-11, -371) and increased symptoms of gastrointestinal dysfunction (GD) by 1.4 points (0.3, 2.5) and prevalence of amenorrhea from 8% to 24%, (P < .003). At T3, there was a between-group difference in fat mass, and a high number of FA with amenorrhea and GD. CONCLUSION: Manifestation of symptoms of RED-s, some with persistence one-month post-competition, raises concern for the health of FA and those complying with the fit body ideal.


Assuntos
Deficiência Energética Relativa no Esporte/diagnóstico , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adulto , Amenorreia , Atletas , Metabolismo Basal , Composição Corporal , Peso Corporal , Calorimetria Indireta , Comportamento Competitivo , Dieta , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Noruega , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
5.
Ups J Med Sci ; 124(4): 254-259, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31847792

RESUMO

Background: Patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage often have impaired consciousness and cannot regulate nutritional intakes themselves. Previous studies have demonstrated elevated energy expenditure in the acute phase, but it is not known whether the energy demand is constant during the first week after onset of the disease. In this study, we performed daily measurements of energy expenditure with indirect calorimetry during the first 7 days after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in mechanically ventilated patients.Methods: Metabolic measurements were performed daily with indirect calorimetry in 26 patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. All patients were intubated and mechanically ventilated. The measured value was compared to the predicted values from the Harris-Benedict equation and the Penn State University 1998 equation. Urinary nitrogen excretion was measured daily.Results: There was a significant increase in energy expenditure during days 2-3 compared to days 5-6. The Harris-Benedict equation underestimated metabolic demand. The Penn State 1998 equation was closer to the measured values, but still underestimated caloric need. Urinary nitrogen excretion increased throughout the first week from initially low values.Conclusions: There is a dynamic course in energy expenditure in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, with increasing metabolic demand during the first week of the disease. Indirect calorimetry could be used more often to help provide an adequate amount of energy.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Calorimetria Indireta , Feminino , Humanos , Intubação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nitrogênio/urina , Respiração Artificial , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/terapia
6.
Isotopes Environ Health Stud ; 55(6): 588-606, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648560

RESUMO

A novel doubly [1-13C, α-15NH2]-labelled amino acid method (DLAAM) is presented for the determination of the CO2 production (RCO2) and energy expenditure in humans. This method is based on the simultaneous administration of [1-13C]glycine and [15N]glycine followed by the measurement of excretion kinetics of breath 13CO2 and urinary 15N. The basic idea of the DLAAM is that the unknown 13C recovery RF(13C) of the 1-13C amino acid, essential for the calculation of the net CO2 production, can be approximated by the easily measureable 15N recovery RF(15N) of the α-15NH2 labelled amino acid. In four healthy adult men (76-97 kg) the DLAAM was tested parallel to the IC and in one man (74 kg) parallel to the DLWM. Using the approximation RF(13C) ≈ RF(15N) the RCO2 (in l CO2 d-1) was calculated to 387.0 ± 30.3 (DLAAM) vs. 382.8 ± 22.6. (IC). The Bland-Altman plot shows that the difference between the DLAAM and IC of individual RCO2 is within the 95 % confidence interval (mean ± 2 SD): +4.3 ± 37.5 l CO2 d-1. We conclude that the DLAAM and IC may be used interchangeably. The physical activity level (PAL) was calculated based on the DLAAM vs. DLWM to about 1.5.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/química , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , Proteínas/metabolismo , Adulto , Testes Respiratórios , Calorimetria Indireta , Humanos , Cinética , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31658628

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to examine agreement in energy expenditure between the Apple Series 1 Watch, LifeTrak Core C200, and Fitbit Charge HR with indirect calorimetry during various treadmill speeds in young adults. Participants were a sample of college-aged students (mean age = 20.1 (1.7) years; 13 females, 17 males). Participants completed six structured 10-minute exercise sessions on a treadmill with speeds ranging from 53.6 m·min-1 to 187.7 m·min-1. Indirect calorimetry was used as the criterion. Participants wore the Apple Watch, LifeTrak, and Fitbit activity monitors on their wrists. Group-level agreement was examined using equivalence testing, relative agreement was examined using Spearman's rho, and individual-level agreement was examined using Mean Absolute Percent Error (MAPE) and Bland-Altman Plots. Activity monitor agreement with indirect calorimetry was supported using the Apple Watch at 160.9 m·min-1 (Mean difference = -2.7 kcals, 90% C.I.: -8.3 kcals, 2.8 kcals; MAPE = 11.9%; rs = 0.64) and 187.7 m·min-1 (Mean difference = 3.7 kcals, 90% C.I.: -2.2 kcals, 9.7 kcals; MAPE = 10.7%; rs = 0.72) and the Fitbit at 187.7 m·min-1 (Mean difference = -0.2 kcals, 90% C.I.: -8.8 kcals, 8.5 kcals; MAPE = 20.1%; rs = 0.44). No evidence for statistical equivalence was seen for the LifeTrak at any speed. Bland-Altman Plot Limits of Agreement were narrower for the Apple Series 1 Watch compared to other monitors, especially at slower treadmill speeds. The results support the utility of the Apple Series 1 Watch and Fitbit Charge HR for assessing energy expenditure during specific treadmill running speeds in young adults.


Assuntos
Calorimetria Indireta , Metabolismo Energético , Monitores de Aptidão Física , Adulto , Coleta de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374849

RESUMO

Accurate measurement of the resting metabolic rate (RMR) is necessary when we make energy requirements and nutrition suggestions in clinical. However, indirect calorimetry is not always available. The objectives of this study were to make a comparison between RMR measured by indirect calorimetry and RMR predicted by different kinds of equations, and to develop new predictive equations for Chinese mainland adults. In this study, 315 Chinese mainland adults from different provinces all over China were recruited. Subjects underwent half a day of testing, which consisted of anthropometric assessment and RMR measurement. Measured and predicted RMR were compared; new optimal equations for Chinese mainland adults were developed and tested by splitting the subjects into a development and validation group. The measured RMR was in the range of 831-2776 kcal/day (mean 1651 ± 339 kcal/day). Our findings indicated that, except for the Harris-Benedict and Schofield equations, three Chinese equations and two fat-free mass (FFM) modeling equations all significantly underestimated RMR compared to the measured value (all p < 0.01). There were no significant differences between predicted and measured RMR using the new equations for females and males. Of the pre-existing equations, Schofield's is the most suitable for Chinese mainland adults. However, the two new equations developed in this study seem to be more effective for predicting the RMR of Chinese mainland adults, and need to be validated by a larger independent sample with different physiological and anthropometric characteristics.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Basal , Calorimetria Indireta/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antropometria , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , China , Coleta de Dados , Metabolismo Energético , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
11.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394881

RESUMO

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common condition in Western countries. However, their metabolic characteristics are poorly known even though they could be important. Therefore, the objective of this study was to measure resting metabolic parameters in overweight/obese adults with hepatic steatosis compared to controls, matched for age, sex, and obesity level. Hepatic steatosis was diagnosed with liver ultrasound. Energy metabolism was measured with indirect calorimetry: energy expenditure (REE), predicted REE, the ratio between REE and the predicted REE, and the respiratory quotient (RQ) were reported. We measured some anthropometric, body composition, and bio-humoral parameters; 301 participants with NAFLD were matched for age, sex, and obesity level with 301 participants without NAFLD. People with NAFLD showed significantly higher REE (1523 ± 238 vs. 1464 ± 212 kcal, p = 0.005), REE/REE predicted ratio (98.2 ± 9.4 vs. 95.7 ± 8.1, p = 0.002), and RQ (0.88 ± 0.08 vs. 0.85 ± 0.07, p = 0.03). Moreover, the NAFLD group had significantly higher inflammatory and insulin-resistance parameters compared to controls. In conclusion, NAFLD is associated with a significantly higher metabolic expenditure, as measured with indirect calorimetry, compared to a similar cohort of individuals without this condition. Higher inflammatory levels in patients with NAFLD can probably explain our findings, even if other research is needed on this issue.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Sobrepeso/metabolismo , Adulto , Composição Corporal , Calorimetria Indireta , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/complicações , Obesidade/complicações , Sobrepeso/complicações
12.
J Anim Sci ; 97(8): 3274-3285, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31363781

RESUMO

Tryptophan (Trp) is an indispensable amino acid (AA) for dogs of all life stages; however, although Trp requirements for growing dogs are derived from 3 dose-response studies, there are no empirical data on Trp requirements for adult dogs at maintenance. The study objective was to determine Trp requirements of adult dogs of 3 different breeds using the indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) technique. Four spayed or neutered Miniature Dachshunds (5.28 ± 0.29 kg BW), 4 spayed Beagles (9.32 ± 0.41 kg BW), and 5 neutered Labrador Retrievers (30.51 ± 2.09 kg BW) were used. After a 14-d adaptation to a Trp-adequate basal diet (Trp = 0.482% dry matter), all dogs were fed a mildly Trp-deficient diet for 2 d (Trp = 0.092% dry matter) before being randomly allocated to receiving 1 of 7 concentrations of Trp supplementation (final Trp content in experimental diets was 0.092, 0.126, 0.148, 0.182, 0.216, 0.249, and 0.283% dry matter) and all dogs received all Trp treatments. After 2-d adaptation to the experimental diets, dogs underwent individual IAAO studies. Total feed was divided in 13 equal meals; at the sixth meal, dogs were fed a bolus of L-[1-13C]-Phenylalanine (Phe) (9.40 mg/kg BW), and thereafter, L-[1-13C]-Phe was supplied (2.4 mg/kg BW) with every meal. Total production of 13CO2 during isotopic steady state was determined by enrichment of 13CO2 in breath samples and total production of CO2 measured using indirect calorimetry. The maintenance requirement for Trp and the 95% confidence interval (CI) were determined using a 2-phase linear regression model. Mean Trp requirements were estimated at 0.154, 0.218, and 0.157% (dry-matter) for Dachshunds, Beagles, and Labradors, respectively. The upper 95% CI were 0.187, 0.269, and 0.204% (dry-matter) for Dachshunds, Beagles, and Labradors. In conclusion, estimated Trp requirements are higher for Beagles compared with Labradors or Dachshunds, and all estimated requirements are higher than those currently recommended by the NRC and AAFCO.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Cães/fisiologia , Necessidades Nutricionais , Triptofano/metabolismo , Aminoácidos Essenciais/metabolismo , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Peso Corporal , Calorimetria Indireta/veterinária , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Masculino , Oxirredução , Fenilalanina/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Especificidade da Espécie
13.
J Anim Sci ; 97(11): 4579-4587, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408879

RESUMO

The maintenance requirements of net energy and net protein were assumed to represent the most accurate and important values totally for the animal's utilization. The objective of this experiment was to determine the net energy and net protein requirements for maintenance of growing arctic foxes. The experiments was evaluated using regression models estimated from data collected by means of indirect calorimetry, nitrogen balance trials, and digestion and metabolism experiments. Thirty-six growing arctic foxes (3 487 ± 261.7 g) at the age of 85 days were randomly assigned to four groups with 9 animals in each group. Arctic foxes were fed a complete formula diet at four intake levels (100%, or 80%, 60%, and 40% of feed requirements) from 24 July 2017 to 23 September 2017. Arctic foxes in each treatment were kept individually in respiration chambers after 1-d adaptation at day 2 for a 3-d balance trial and then at day 5 followed by a 3-d fasting period. The metabolizable energy intake (MEI), heat production in the fed state (HP), and retained energy (RE) of arctic foxes significantly decreased (P < 0.01) as the feed intake level decreased. Fasting heat production (FHP) of arctic foxes was not influenced by feed intake level (P > 0.05). The metabolizable energy maintenance requirement (MEm) and net energy maintenance requirement (NEm) estimated from the linear relationship between RE and MEI were 230 and 217 kJ/kg of body weight BW0.75/d, respectively. The MEm and NEm estimated by logarithmic regression of HP on MEI were 225 and 209 kJ/kg BW0.75/d, respectively. The net N maintenance requirement (NNm) and net protein maintenance requirement (NPm) estimated from the linear relationship between retained nitrogen (RN) and daily nitrogen intake (NI) were 179.6 mg/kg BW0.75/d and 1.123 g/kg BW0.75/d, respectively. It is concluded that NEm and NPm values obtained fill the net energy and protein requirements shortage, and provide the basic data for establishing the standard of nutrition demand of breeding arctic foxes in China.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Metabolismo Energético , Raposas/fisiologia , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Proteínas/metabolismo , Animais , Peso Corporal , Cruzamento , Calorimetria Indireta/veterinária , China , Dieta/veterinária , Jejum , Raposas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Necessidades Nutricionais , Termogênese
14.
Res Q Exerc Sport ; 90(4): 629-640, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441713

RESUMO

Purpose: To compare children's energy expenditure (EE) levels during object projection skill performance (OPSP; e.g., kicking, throwing, striking) as assessed by hip- and wrist-worn accelerometers. Method: Forty-two children (female n = 20, Mage = 8.1 ± 0.8 years) performed three, nine-minute sessions of kicking, over-arm throwing, and striking at performance intervals of 6, 12, and 30 seconds. EE was estimated using indirect calorimetry (COSMED k4b2) and accelerometers (ActiGraph GT3X+) worn on three different locations (hip, dominant-wrist, and non-dominant-wrist) using four commonly used cut-points. Bland-Altman plots were used to analyze the agreement in EE estimations between accelerometry and indirect calorimetry (METS). Chi-square goodness of fit tests were used to examine the agreement between accelerometry and indirect calorimetry. Results: Hip- and wrist-worn accelerometers underestimated EE, compared to indirect calorimetry, during all performance conditions. Skill practice at a rate of two trials per minute resulted in the equivalent of moderate PA and five trials per minute resulted in vigorous PA (as measured by indirect calorimetry), yet was only categorized as light and/or moderate activity by all measured forms of accelerometry. Conclusion: This is one of the first studies to evaluate the ability of hip- and wrist-worn accelerometers to predict PA intensity levels during OPSP in children. These data may significantly impact PA intervention measurement strategies by revealing the lack of validity in accelerometers to accurately predict PA levels during OPSP in children.


Assuntos
Acelerometria/instrumentação , Calorimetria Indireta , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Monitores de Aptidão Física , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Criança , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
15.
J Sports Sci ; 37(22): 2613-2624, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31423908

RESUMO

Foot orthoses and insoles are prescribed to runners, however their impact on running economy and performance is uncertain. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine the effect of foot orthoses and insoles on running economy and performance in distance runners. Seven electronic databases were searched from inception until June 2018. Eligible studies investigated the effect of foot orthoses or insoles on running economy (using indirect calorimetry) or running performance. Standardised mean differences (SMDs) were computed and meta-analyses were conducted using random effects models. Methodological quality was assessed using the Quality Index. Nine studies met the criteria and were included: five studies investigated the effect of foot orthoses on running economy and four investigated insoles. Foot orthoses were associated with small negative effects on running economy compared to no orthoses (SMD 0.42 [95% CI 0.17,0.72] p = 0.007). Shock absorbing insoles were also associated with negative effects on running economy, but an imprecise estimate (SMD 0.26 [95% CI -0.33,0.84] p = 0.83). Quality Index scores ranged from 4 to 15 out of 17. Foot orthoses and shock absorbing insoles may adversely affect running economy in distance runners. Future research should consider their potential effects on running performance.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Órtoses do Pé , Corrida/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Calorimetria Indireta , Humanos , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia
16.
Scand J Med Sci Sports ; 29(11): 1677-1690, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31309617

RESUMO

Peak fat oxidation rate (PFO) and the intensity that elicits PFO (Fatmax ) are commonly determined by a validated graded exercise test (GE) on a cycling ergometer with indirect calorimetry. However, for upper body exercise fat oxidation rates are not well elucidated and no protocol has been validated. Thus, our aim was to test validity and inter-method reliability for determination of PFO and Fatmax in trained men using a GE protocol applying double poling on a ski-ergometer. PFO and Fatmax were assessed during two identical GE tests (GE1 and GE2) and validated against separated short continuous exercise bouts (SCE) at 35%, 50%, and 65% of V̇O2peak on the ski-ergometer in 10 endurance-trained men (V̇O2peak : 65.1 ± 1.0 mL·min-1 ·kg-1 , mean ± SEM). Between GE tests no differences were found in PFO (GE1: 0.42 ± 0.03; GE2: 0.45 ± 0.03 g·min-1 , P = .256) or Fatmax (GE1: 41 ± 2%; GE2: 43 ± 3% of V̇O2peak , P = .457) and the intra-individual coefficient of variation (CV) was 8 ± 2% and 11 ± 2% for PFO and Fatmax , respectively. Between GE and SCE tests, PFO (GEavg : 0.44 ± 0.03; SCE; 0.47 ± 0.06 g·min-1 , P = .510) was not different, whereas a difference in Fatmax (GEavg : 42 ± 2%; SCE: 52 ± 4% of V̇O2peak , P = .030) was observed with a CV of 17 ± 4% and 15 ± 4% for PFO and Fatmax , respectively. In conclusion, GE has a high day-to-day reliability in determination of PFO and Fatmax in trained men, whereas it is unclear if PFO and Fatmax determined by GE reflect continuous exercise in general.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Teste de Esforço , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Adulto , Calorimetria Indireta , Humanos , Masculino , Oxirredução , Consumo de Oxigênio , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
17.
Pediatr Rheumatol Online J ; 17(1): 47, 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331342

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) have impaired physical abilities. TNF-α plays a crucial role in this pathogenesis, but it is also involved in the use of lipids and muscle health. Objective of this study was to explore substrate oxidation and impact of TNF blockade on energy metabolism in children with JIA as compared to healthy children. METHODS: Fifteen non-TNF-blockaded and 15 TNF-blockaded children with JIA and 15 healthy controls were matched by sex, age, and Tanner stage. Participants completed a submaximal incremental exercise test on ergocycle to determine fat and carbohydrate oxidation rates by indirect calorimetry. RESULTS: The maximal fat oxidation rate during exercise was lower in JIA children untreated by TNF blockade (134.3 ± 45.2 mg.min- 1) when compared to the controls (225.3 ± 92.9 mg.min- 1, p = 0.007); but was higher in JIA children under TNF blockade (163.2 ± 59.0 mg.min- 1, p = 0.31) when compared to JIA children untreated by TNF blockade. At the same relative exercise intensities, there was no difference in carbohydrate oxidation rate between three groups. CONCLUSIONS: Lipid metabolism during exercise was found to be impaired in children with JIA. However, TNF treatment seems to improve the fat oxidation rate in this population. TRIAL REGISTRATION: In ClinicalTrials.gov, reference number NCT02977416 , registered on 30 November 2016.


Assuntos
Artrite Juvenil/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Metabolismo Energético , Exercício Físico , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Adolescente , Artrite Juvenil/tratamento farmacológico , Calorimetria Indireta , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Oxirredução , Consumo de Oxigênio
18.
Nutrients ; 11(6)2019 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31163622

RESUMO

Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) is a group of conditions characterized by severe fragility of the skin that causes recurring blistering. The recessive dystrophic subtype of EB (RDEB) has a strong impact on the nutritional status. We evaluated the resting energy expenditure (REE) and presence of protein catabolism in patients with RDEB. REE was assessed in 10 subjects (7 females; age range 4-33 years) by indirect calorimetry and using a predictive equation. Nitrogen balance was calculated by protein intake and 24 h urinary urea excretion estimations. An assessment of body surface area (BSA) with infected and non-infected skin lesions was applied to the nitrogen balance burn equation that was adapted to EB. The REE values predicted by the equation were consistently lower than the ones measured, except for two subjects. All subjects recorded high protein and energy intake, with protein intake being higher than 4 g protein/kg/day for five subjects. Even so, protein catabolism was observed in six subjects, three of whom had infected wounds. This study raises the hypothesis that the clinical and nutritional risks of people with RDEB are associated with an increased REE and negative nitrogen balance, which reinforces the importance of nutritional support.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Basal , Epidermólise Bolhosa/metabolismo , Proteínas/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Calorimetria Indireta , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
19.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 27(2): 135-140, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31241289

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the main part of the total body energy expenditure. The value of BMR is individual and depends on a lot of factors. The goal of the research was to discover the influence of anthropometric parameters, age and gender, on changes of the BMR values. METHODS: A total of 177 individuals of Czech Caucasian origin from South Moravia (BMI 27.3 ± 7.88 kg/m2) aged 18-55 (117 women, 60 men) were included in the study. Selected anthropometric characteristics were measured using a stadiometer (SECA 213) and bioelectrical impedance analysis (Inbody 230). BMR was measured by indirect calorimetry (Cortex Metalyzer 3B). The measured values were statistically evaluated by the regression analysis and least square method (LSM). RESULTS: From the following results that the factors that influence the BMR value statistically significantly (p < 0.05) are: age, gender, body mass index, total body water, and percent of body fat. CONCLUSION: Body fat and age have both an indirect impact on the basal metabolic rate of the Czech population in working age. However, BMI and the total body water were discovered to have a direct influence on the BMR.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Basal/fisiologia , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antropometria , Calorimetria Indireta , República Tcheca , Impedância Elétrica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
20.
Nutrients ; 11(5)2019 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31071956

RESUMO

Addressing malnutrition is important to improve health outcomes in outpatients with cirrhosis, yet assessing energy requirements in this population is challenging. Predictive equations of resting energy expenditure (REE) are thought to be unreliable, and traditional indirect calorimetry is expensive and infrequently available for clinical use. The accuracy of REE predictions using a MedGem® handheld indirect calorimeter, the Harris Benedict Equation (HBE), the Mifflin St. Jeor equation (MSJ), and the gold standard Vmax Encore® (Vmax) metabolic cart was compared. The REE of cirrhotic pre-liver transplant outpatients was analyzed using each of the four methods. Agreement between methods was calculated using Bland-Altman analysis. Fourteen patients with cirrhosis participated, and were primarily male (71%) and malnourished (subjective global assessment (SGA) B or C 64%). Lin's concordance coefficient (ρC) for MedGem® vs. Vmax demonstrated poor levels of precision and accuracy (ρC = 0.80, 95% confidence interval 0.55-0.92) between measures, as did the HBE compared to Vmax (ρC = 0.56, 95% confidence interval 0.19-0.79). Mean REE by MedGem® was similar to that measured by Vmax (-1.5%); however, only 21% of REE measures by MedGem® were within ±5% of Vmax measures. Wide variability limits the use of MedGem® at an individual level; a more accurate and feasible method for determination of REE in patients with cirrhosis and malnutrition is needed.


Assuntos
Calorimetria Indireta/instrumentação , Calorimetria Indireta/métodos , Cirrose Hepática/metabolismo , Adulto , Metabolismo Basal/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pacientes Ambulatoriais
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