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1.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 28(4): 1326-1331, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32798421

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical characteristics, laboratorial and bone marrow pathological features of primary thrombocytopenia (ET) patients with different mutations of CALR, JAK2 and MPL genes. METHODS: The chinical data of 120 cases of ET in Jiangsu provincial people's hospital/ The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University from January 2015 to December 2017 were collected and analyzed, including 76 cases with JAK2 gene mutation, 40 cases with CALR gene mutation, 2 cases with MPL gene mutations, 2 cases without gene mutation. RESULTS: Among the ET patients, compared with the JAK2 gene mutation, CALR gene mutation showed statistically significant deareament of white blood cells and hemoglobin (P=0.001, P=0.01) and the male platelets in CALR group showed significant increament (P=0.04). Fourthermore, the average number of megakaryocytes and its cluster numbers in each hight power field of vision showed statistically significant decreament in CALR group as compared with JAK2 group (P=0.001, P=0.001), and thrombotic events in CALR group were signicantly lower than those in JAK2 group (7.5% vs 18.4%) (P=0.03). CONCLUSION: Mutations of CALR, JAK2 have different clinical characteristics and blood pathological changes of Chinese ET patients, and their clinical significance is worth to explore.


Assuntos
Trombocitemia Essencial , Medula Óssea , Calreticulina/genética , China , Humanos , Janus Quinase 2/genética , Masculino , Mutação , Receptores de Trombopoetina/genética
2.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 28(4): 1321-1325, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32798420

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical characteristics of essential thrombocytopenia (ET) patients with positive mutations including JAK2, CALR, MPL, or negative mutations. METHODS: A total of 66 newly diagnosed ET cases from January 2016 to December 2018 in Department of Hematology, Huaian No.1 People's Hospital affiliated to Nanjing Medical University were analyzed. Statistical analysis data included the patient's sex, age, symptoms, thrombosis and embolism events, spleen omegaly, platelet count (Plt), leukocyte (WBC) count, hemoglobin (Hb), fibrinogen (FIB), thrombus elastic diagram (TEG), serum potassium, blood glucose (GLU), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), JAK2, CALR and MPL mutations, treatment options, and efficacy. RESULTS: All the patients were not MPL-positive, and divided in three groups: JAK2 mutation (46 cases, 69.7%), CALR mutation (9 cases, 13.6%) and gene negative mutation (11 cases, 16.7%) group. The average age of patients in the JAK2 mutation group was 63.2 years old, and significantly higher than that in the CALR mutation group (51.8 year) and gene negative group (50.2 year) (P<0.05). Compared with the JAK2 mutation group and gene negative group, the CALR mutation group had lower WBC count (6.3×109/L vs 13.79×109/L) (P=0.003) (6.3×109/L vs 9.70×109/L) (P=0.009). Also the Hb level of patients in CALR mutation group was lower than the JAK2 mutation group (121.22 g/L vs 136.2 g/L) (P=0.036). However, there was higher tumor burden in the CALR mutation group, compared with the gene negative mutation group (300.11 U/L vs 227.4 U/L) (P=0. 033). There was no significant difference among the three groups, such as the Plt counts, serum potassium level, GLU level and FIB level (P>0.05). In addition, thrombus and embolism appeared in 30.3% (20/66) cases. 18.2% (12/66) cases were complicated with hyperkalemia, which significantly correlated with Plt counts (r=0.518). TEG was performed in 34 patients, of which 41.2% (14/34) had abnormal TEG and 55.9% (19/34) were accompanied by Plt count > 1 000 ×109/L, but there was no significant correlation between them (r=0.134). After routine clinical treatment, all the 66 cases achieved partial or complete hematological remission, but the disease usually repeated. Until now 4.5% (3/66) cases had been converted to myelofibrosis (MF) all with JAK2 mutation, but without advancing to acute myeloid leukemia. CONCLUSION: ET patients with JAK2 mutation have higher incidence, moreover were in older age. However, the patients with CALR mutations display lower WBC count and Hb level, but higher tumor burden. In short, the multiple gene mutations of ET showed different clinical features closely relates with the prognosis, thus providing guidance for the clinical diagnosis and treatment.


Assuntos
Mielofibrose Primária , Trombocitemia Essencial , Trombocitopenia , Idoso , Calreticulina/genética , Humanos , Janus Quinase 2/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação
3.
Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 41(7): 576-582, 2020 Jul 14.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810965

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the genetic mutations and clinical features of the subtypes of classical BCR-ABL-negative myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) . Methods: Mutations of 108 newly diagnosed BCR-ABL-negative MPN patients [including 55 patients with essential thrombocytopenia (ET) , 24 with polycythemia vera (PV) , and 29 with primary myelofibrosis (PMF) ] were identified using next-generation sequencing with 127-gene panel, and the relationship between gene mutations and clinical features were analyzed. Results: Total 211 mutations in 32 genes were detected in 100 MPN patients (92.59% ) , per capita carried (1.96±1.32) mutations. 85.19% (92/108) patients carried the driver gene (JAK2, CALR, MPL) mutations, 69.56% (64/92) of these patients carried at least 1 additional gene mutation. In descending order of mutation frequency, the highest frequency was for activation signaling pathway genes (42.2% , 89/211) , methylation genes (17.6% , 36/211) , and chromatin-modified genes (16.1% , 34/211) . There was a significant difference in the number of mutations in the activation signaling pathway genes, epigenetic regulatory genes, spliceosomes, and RNA metabolism genes among the three MPN subgroups. The average number of additional mutations in PMF patients was higher than that in ET and PV patients (1.69±1.39, 0.67±0.70, 0.87±1.22, χ(2)=13.445, P=0.001) . MPN-SAF-TSS (MPN 10 score) (P=0.006) and myelofibrosis level (P=0.015) in patients with ≥ 3 mutant genes were higher and the HGB level (P=0.002) was lower than in those with<3 mutations. Twenty-six patients (24.1% ) carried high-risk mutation (HMR) , and patients with HMR had lower PLT (P=0.017) , HGB levels (P<0.001) , and higher myelofibrosis level (P=0.010) and MPN10 score (P<0.001) . The frequency of ASXL1 mutations was higher in PMF than in PV patients (34.5% vs. 4.2% , P=0.005) . PMF patients with ASXL1 had lower levels of PLT and HGB (P=0.029 and 0.019) . Conclusion: 69.56% of MPN patients carry at least one additional mutation, and 24.1% patients had HMR. Each subgroup had different mutation patterns. PMF patients had a higher average number of additional gene mutations, especially a higher frequency of ASXL1 mutation; PLT and HGB levels were lower in ASXL1 mutation PMF patients.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mieloproliferativos , Policitemia Vera , Calreticulina , Humanos , Janus Quinase 2 , Mutação , Transtornos Mieloproliferativos/genética
4.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236457, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790682

RESUMO

Transgenic mice with selective induction of calreticulin transgene expression in cardiomyocytes (CardiacCRT+) were analyzed. CardiacCRT+ cardiomyocytes showed increased contractility and Ca2+ transients. Yet, in vivo assessment of cardiac performance, and ischemic tolerance of CardiacCRT+ mice demonstrated right ventricle dilation and reduced cardiac output, increased QT interval and decreased P amplitude. Paradoxically, ex vivo working hearts from CardiacCRT+ mice showed enhanced ischemic cardio-protection and cardiac efficiency. Under aerobic conditions, CardiacCRT+ hearts showed less efficient cardiac function than sham control hearts due to an increased ATP production from glycolysis relative to glucose oxidation. During reperfusion, this inefficiency was reversed, with CardiacCRT+ hearts exhibiting better functional recovery and increased cardiac efficiency compared to sham control hearts. On the other hand, mechanical stretching of isolated cardiac fibroblasts activated the IRE1α branch of the unfolded protein response pathway as well as induction of Col1A2 and TGFß gene expression ex vivo, which were all suppressed by tauroursodeoxycholic acid.


Assuntos
Calreticulina/metabolismo , Contração Miocárdica , Isquemia Miocárdica/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Animais , Calreticulina/genética , Células Cultivadas , Metabolismo Energético , Frequência Cardíaca , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Isquemia Miocárdica/genética , Isquemia Miocárdica/fisiopatologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/patologia , Regulação para Cima
5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3637, 2020 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32686685

RESUMO

We report a strategy to boost Fenton reaction triggered by an exogenous circularly polarized magnetic field (MF) to enhance ferroptosis-like cell-death mediated immune response, as well as endow a responsive MRI capability by using a hybrid core-shell vesicles (HCSVs). HCSVs are prepared by loading ascorbic acid (AA) in the core and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) shell incorporating iron oxide nanocubes (IONCs). MF triggers the release of AA, resulting in the increase of ferrous ions through the redox reaction between AA and IONCs. A significant tumor suppression is achieved by Fenton reaction-mediated ferroptosis-like cell-death. The oxidative stress induced by the Fenton reaction leads to the exposure of calreticulin on tumor cells, which leads to dendritic cells maturation and the infiltration of cytotoxic T lymphocytes in tumor. Furthermore, the depletion of ferric ions during treatment enables monitoring of the Fe reaction in MRI-R2* signal change. This strategy provides a perspective on ferroptosis-based immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Ferroptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Campos Magnéticos , Nanopartículas de Magnetita , Neoplasias/terapia , Animais , Ácido Ascórbico/farmacologia , Calreticulina/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Compostos Férricos/química , Imunoterapia/métodos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/química , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/uso terapêutico , Camundongos , Nanomedicina/métodos , Nanopartículas/química , Nanopartículas/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias/imunologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/metabolismo
6.
Mol Immunol ; 124: 51-60, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32526557

RESUMO

American Trypanosomiasis, a parasitic disease produced by Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi), endemic in Latin America, infects about 6 million people. During the chronic stage of the infection, approximately 30% of infected people will develop Chagas Disease, the clinical manifestation. Few decades ago it was reported that, during the chronic stage, the parasite interferes with the development of solid tumors. However, the identification of parasite molecules responsible for such effects remained elusive. Years later, we described T.cruzi Calreticulin (TcCalr), an endoplasmic reticulum resident chaperone that infective trypomastigotes translocate to the parasite exterior, where it displays anticomplement activities. Most likely, at least some of these activities are related with the antitumor properties of TcCalr, as shown in in vitro, ex vivo, in ovum, and in vivo models. In this context we, we have seen that in vivo subcutaneous peritumoral inoculation of rTcCalr enhances local infiltration of T cells and slows tumor development. Based on these precedents, we propose that in vitro treatment of a mammary adenocarcinoma (TA3 cell line) with rTcCalr, will enhance tumor immunogenicity. In agreement with this proposal, we have shown that: i). rTcCalr binds to TA3 cells in a concentration-dependent fashion, ii). C1q binds to TA3 cells in an rTcCalr-dependent fashion, confirmed by the reversion attained using anti-TcS (a central TcCalr domain that binds C1) F(ab')2 antibody fragments, iii). incubation of TA3 cells with rTcCalr, promotes cell phagocytosis by murine macrophages and, iv). rTcCalr decreases the membrane expression of MHC class II, m-Dectin-1, Galectin-9 and PD-L1, while increasing the expression of Rae-1γ. In synthesis, herein we show that in vitro treatment of a murine mammary adenocarcinoma with rTcCalr enhances phagocytosis and modulates the expression of a variety of membrane molecules that correlates with increased tumor immunogenicity.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/imunologia , Antígenos de Protozoários/imunologia , Calreticulina/imunologia , Neoplasias Mamárias Experimentais/imunologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Camundongos , Fagocitose/imunologia , Trypanosoma cruzi
8.
Chemosphere ; 251: 126466, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443253

RESUMO

Arsenic is a naturally occurring environmental toxicant. Chronic exposure to arsenic is linked with neurological damage. Although the mechanisms remain to be elucidated, it is currently believed that neural cell apoptosis is one of the underlying mechanisms of arsenic-induced neurotoxicity. Calreticulin (CRT) is a quality control chaperone located in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), which participates in many signaling pathways including apoptosis. However, the role of CRT in apoptosis is controversial. Whether CRT plays a role in arsenite-induced apoptosis and the relationship between CRT and ER stress-mediated apoptosis have not been mentioned before. In this study, we found that CRT expression as well as the cell apoptosis levels increased in a dose dependent manner upon arsenite exposure in HT-22 cells, a mouse hippocampal neural cell line. In addition, arsenite exposure resulted in the up-regulation of ER stress indicator GRP78 and ER stress-related proteins including p-PERK, ATF4, CHOP, calpain2 and cleaved caspases-12, accompanied by the down-regulation of Bcl-2 and up-regulation of Bax and cleaved caspase-3. Silence of CRT remarkably alleviated arsenite-induced apoptosis and reversed the expression of the proteins above. Our findings confirmed the role of CRT in the induction of apoptosis upon arsenite exposure and suggested that CRT mediated the intrinsic apoptotic cell death including both mitochondria-dependent (PERK/ATF4/CHOP/Bcl-2) and independent (calpain2/caspases-12) pathways initiated by ER stress, which we believed to be a previously undocumented property of arsenite-induced apoptosis.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Arsenitos/toxicidade , Calreticulina/metabolismo , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Regulação para Baixo , Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Camundongos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Regulação para Cima
9.
Nat Neurosci ; 23(5): 625-637, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32284608

RESUMO

Decades of research support the idea that associations between a conditioned stimulus (CS) and an unconditioned stimulus (US) are encoded in the lateral amygdala (LA) during fear learning. However, direct proof for the sources of CS and US information is lacking. Definitive evidence of the LA as the primary site for cue association is also missing. Here, we show that calretinin (Calr)-expressing neurons of the lateral thalamus (Calr+LT neurons) convey the association of fast CS (tone) and US (foot shock) signals upstream from the LA in mice. Calr+LT input shapes a short-latency sensory-evoked activation pattern of the amygdala via both feedforward excitation and inhibition. Optogenetic silencing of Calr+LT input to the LA prevents auditory fear conditioning. Notably, fear conditioning drives plasticity in Calr+LT neurons, which is required for appropriate cue and contextual fear memory retrieval. Collectively, our results demonstrate that Calr+LT neurons provide integrated CS-US representations to the LA that support the formation of aversive memories.


Assuntos
Condicionamento Clássico/fisiologia , Medo/fisiologia , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Animais , Complexo Nuclear Basolateral da Amígdala/fisiologia , Calreticulina/metabolismo , Sinais (Psicologia) , Memória/fisiologia , Camundongos , Neurônios/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Tálamo/fisiologia
10.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 67(5): e28183, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32124556

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Essential thrombocythemia (ET) is rare in children, and pediatric guidelines are lacking. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate ET diagnosis and treatment in a pediatric cohort. PROCEDURE: Data of patients with ET from three hospitals were reviewed. Molecular diagnosis included JAK2V617F, CALR, and MPL mutations. Patients were evaluated for acquired von Willebrand syndrome (AVWS). Follow-up included clinical symptoms, adverse events, and treatment. RESULTS: Twelve children (median age: 8 years, range 1-14.5) were included. Mean lag period between the first documentation of thrombocytosis until ET diagnosis was 36 months. Six patients were positive for JAK2V617F and two for CALR mutations. In six of nine patients, AVWS was diagnosed. At diagnosis, only 33% of patients started therapy with aspirin (n = 4) and hydroxyurea (n = 2). In three of eight untreated patients, therapy was added during follow-up. The cohort was followed for a median of 32.5 months (range: 4-108 months). Clinical follow-up disclosed vascular complications in 4 of 12 patients (deep vein thrombosis, n = 1; transient ischemic attack, n = 3). Two females experienced excessive bleeding; both were diagnosed with AVWS. Neither leukemia nor myelofibrosis evolved in our cohort. CONCLUSION: Increased awareness to pediatric ET is warranted, as delayed diagnosis is common. Compared to adults, AVWS may be more prevalent among children with ET.


Assuntos
Calreticulina/genética , Janus Quinase 2/genética , Mutação , Receptores de Trombopoetina/genética , Trombocitemia Essencial/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Trombocitemia Essencial/terapia
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32196361

RESUMO

Discrete calcium signals within the vascular endothelium decrease with age and contribute to impaired endothelial-dependent vasodilation. Calreticulin (Calr), a multifunctional calcium binding protein and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone, can mediate calcium signals and vascular function within the endothelial cells (ECs) of small resistance arteries. We found Calr protein expression significantly decreases with age in mesenteric arteries and examined the functional role of EC Calr in vasodilation and calcium mobilization in the context of aging. Third-order mesenteric arteries from mice with or without EC Calr knockdown were examined for calcium signals and constriction to phenylephrine (PE) or vasodilation to carbachol (CCh) after 75 wk of age. PE constriction in aged mice with or without EC Calr was unchanged. However, calcium signals and vasodilation to endothelial-dependent agonist carbachol were significantly impaired in aged EC Calr knockdown mice. Ex vivo incubation of arteries with the ER stress inhibitor tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) significantly improved vasodilation in mice lacking EC Calr. Our data suggests diminished vascular Calr expression with age can contribute to the detrimental effects of aging on endothelial calcium regulation and vasodilation.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Calreticulin (Calr) is responsible for key physiological processes in endoplasmic reticulum, especially in aging tissue. In particular, endothelial Calr is crucial to vascular function. In this study, we deleted Calr from the endothelium and aged the mice up to 75 wk to examine changes in vascular function. We found two key differences: 1) calcium events in endothelium were severely diminished after muscarinic stimulation, which 2) corresponded with a dramatic decrease in muscarinic vasodilation. Remarkably, we were able to rescue the effect of Calr deletion on endothelial-dependent vasodilatory function using tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), an inhibitor of endoplasmic reticulum stress that is currently in clinical trials.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Calreticulina/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Animais , Sinalização do Cálcio , Calreticulina/genética , Carbacol/farmacologia , Endotélio Vascular/fisiologia , Deleção de Genes , Masculino , Artérias Mesentéricas/efeitos dos fármacos , Artérias Mesentéricas/metabolismo , Artérias Mesentéricas/fisiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fenilefrina/farmacologia , Ácido Tauroquenodesoxicólico/farmacologia , Vasoconstritores/farmacologia , Vasodilatação
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(5): e18811, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000382

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Concurrent calreticulin (CALR) mutation and BCR-ABL1 fusion are extremely rare in chronic myelogenous leukemia; to date, only 12 cases have been reported. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 57-year-old male who had an 11-year history of essential thrombocytosis presented to our hospital with leukocytosis and marked splenomegaly for 3 months. DIAGNOSES: Chronic myelogenous leukemia with myeloid fibrosis arising on the background of essential thrombocytosis harboring both BCR-ABL1 fusion and type-1 like CALR mutation. INTERVENTIONS: Imatinib was started at 300 mg daily and increased to 400 mg daily after 3 months; interferon was added after 12 months. OUTCOMES: Partial cytogenetic response was achieved after 3 months of imatinib therapy and complete cytogenetic response was achieved after 1 year of treatment. However, CALR mutation was still present with a stable mutational allele burden. LESSONS: In this case report and review of additional 12 cases with simultaneous presence of CALR-mutation and BCR-ABL1 fusion, we highlighted the importance of integrating clinical, morphological, and molecular genetic data for classifying atypical myeloid neoplasms.


Assuntos
Calreticulina/genética , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/genética , Genes abl , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/genética , Trombocitemia Essencial/genética , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Mesilato de Imatinib/farmacologia , Mesilato de Imatinib/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Trombocitemia Essencial/complicações
14.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(1): 182-185, Feb. 2020. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056418

RESUMO

La proteína chaperona Calreticulina (CRT), ha sido identificada en retículo endoplásmico (RE) y últimamente en la matriz extracelular (MEC) de predentina y arterias, atribuyéndole diferentes funciones extracelulares entre las que destacan la adhesión celular, regulación de la MEC y prevención en la formación de trombos. El objetivo del estudio fue identificar la presencia de CRT en MEC de vena safena parva. Se extrajo una muestra de vena safena parva de un espécimen masculino y luego fue procesada por medios histológicos e inmunohistoquímicos para identificar su presencia. Mediante técnicas de inmunohistoquímica se pudo evidenciar la presencia de CRT en la MEC de la adventicia de vena safena parva. La presencia de CRT en MEC de safena parva orienta a que CRT tienen funciones de tipo extracelular en esta localización, pero es necesario realizar estudios más precisos para dilucidar sus principales funciones en la zona.


Calreticulin (CRT) protein, has been identified in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and lately in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of predentine and arteries. It is responsible for different extracellular functions, such as cell adhesion, ECM regulation, and the prevention of thrombosis. The aim was to identify the presence of CRT in ECM of small saphenous vein. A sample of small saphenous vein from a male specimen was extracted and then processed by histological and immunohistochemical assays to identify its presence. The presence of CRT in the ECM of the small saphenous vein was observed by immunohistochemical techniques. The presence of CRT in the small saphenous vein ECM, indicates that CRT have extracellular functions in this area, however, more precise studies are necessary to determine its main functions.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Veia Safena/metabolismo , Calreticulina/metabolismo , Imuno-Histoquímica
15.
Arch Med Res ; 51(1): 65-75, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32097797

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Calreticulin is a chaperone and master regulator of intracellular calcium homeostasis. Several additional functions have been discovered. Human and parasite calreticulin have been shown to suppress mammary tumor growth in vivo. Here, we explored the capacity of recombinant Taenia solium calreticulin (rTsCRT) to modulate cancer cell growth in vitro. METHODS: We used different concentrations of rTsCRT to treat cancer cell lines and analyzed viability and colony formation capacity. We also tested the combination of the IC20 or IC50 doses of rTsCRT and of the chemotherapeutic drug 5-fluorouracil on MCF7 and SKOV3 cell lines. As a control, the non-tumorigenic cell line MCF10-A was employed. The effect of the drug combinations was also assessed in cancer stem-like cells. Additionally, scavenger receptor ligands were employed to identify the role of this receptor in the rTsCRT anti-tumoral effect. RESULTS: rTsCRT has a dose-dependent in vitro anti-tumoral effect, being SKOV3 the most sensitive cell line followed by MCF7. When rTsCRT/5-fluorouracil were used, MCF7 and SKOV3 showed a 60% reduction in cell viability; colony formation capacity was also diminished. Treatment of cancer stem-like cells from MCF7 showed a higher reduction in cell viability, while those from SKOV3 were more sensitive to colony disaggregation. Finally, pharmacological inhibition of the scavenger receptor, abrogated the reduction in viability induced by rTsCRT in both the parental and stem-like cells. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that rTsCRT alone or in combination with 5-fluorouracil inhibits the growth of breast and ovarian cancer cell lines through its interaction with scavenger receptors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Calreticulina/uso terapêutico , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Recombinantes/uso terapêutico , Animais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Calreticulina/genética , Calreticulina/farmacologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Feminino , Fluoruracila/administração & dosagem , Fluoruracila/farmacologia , Células HeLa , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/farmacologia , Taenia solium/genética
16.
Mol Cell ; 77(4): 683-685, 2020 02 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32084350

RESUMO

In the current issue of Molecular Cell, Liu et al. (2020) show that the secretion of cancer-linked forms of mutant calreticulin allow cancer cells to escape protective immune responses induced by chemotherapeutic and immunotherapeutic drugs, thereby promoting tumor growth.


Assuntos
Calreticulina , Neoplasias , Humanos , Fagocitose
17.
BMC Biol ; 18(1): 19, 2020 02 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32101139

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) acts as a cellular Ca2+ store and a site for oxidative protein folding, which is controlled by the reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione-disulfide (GSSG) redox pair. Although depletion of luminal Ca2+ from the ER provokes a rapid and reversible shift towards a more reducing poise in the ER, the underlying molecular basis remains unclear. RESULTS: We found that Ca2+ mobilization-dependent ER luminal reduction was sensitive to inhibition of GSH synthesis or dilution of cytosolic GSH by selective permeabilization of the plasma membrane. A glutathione-centered mechanism was further indicated by increased ER luminal glutathione levels in response to Ca2+ efflux. Inducible reduction of the ER lumen by GSH flux was independent of the Ca2+-binding chaperone calreticulin, which has previously been implicated in this process. However, opening the translocon channel by puromycin or addition of cyclosporine A mimicked the GSH-related effect of Ca2+ mobilization. While the action of puromycin was ascribable to Ca2+ leakage from the ER, the mechanism of cyclosporine A-induced GSH flux was independent of calcineurin and cyclophilins A and B and remained unclear. CONCLUSIONS: Our data strongly suggest that ER influx of cytosolic GSH, rather than inhibition of local oxidoreductases, is responsible for the reductive shift upon Ca2+ mobilization. We postulate the existence of a Ca2+- and cyclosporine A-sensitive GSH transporter in the ER membrane. These findings have important implications for ER redox homeostasis under normal physiology and ER stress.


Assuntos
Cálcio/metabolismo , Citosol/metabolismo , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Calreticulina/metabolismo , Humanos , Ligação Proteica
18.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 69(2): 315-324, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915854

RESUMO

There is mounting evidence that the immune system can spontaneously clear malignant lesions before they manifest as overt cancer, albeit this activity has been difficult to demonstrate in humans. The calreticulin (CALR) exon 9 mutations are driver mutations in patients with chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN), which are chronic blood cancers. The CALR mutations generate a neo-antigen that is recognized by patient T cells, and T cells isolated from a patient with a CALR-mutation can recognize and kill autologous CALR-mutant cells. Surprisingly, healthy individuals display frequent and strong T cell responses to the CALR neo-antigens too. Furthermore, healthy individuals display immune responses to all parts of the mutant CALR epitope, and the CALR neo-epitope specific responses are memory T cell responses. These data suggest that although healthy individuals might acquire a CALR mutation, the mutant cells can be eliminated by the immune system. Additionally, a small fraction of healthy individuals harbor a CALR exon 9 mutation. Four healthy individuals carrying CALR mutations underwent a full medical examination including a bone marrow biopsy after a median follow up of 6.2 years. None of these patients displayed any signs of CALR-mutant MPN. Additionally, all healthy individuals displayed strong CALR neo-epitope specific T cell responses suggesting that these healthy individuals retained their CALR-mutant cells in the editing stage for several years. Thus, we suggest that CALR-mutant MPN could be a disease model of cancer immuno-editing, as we have demonstrated that CALR-mutant MPN displays all three stages described in the theory of cancer immuno-editing.


Assuntos
Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Neoplasias Hematológicas/etiologia , Imunomodulação , Evasão Tumoral , Animais , Antígenos de Neoplasias/imunologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Calreticulina/genética , Calreticulina/metabolismo , Transformação Celular Neoplásica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Epitopos/imunologia , Neoplasias Hematológicas/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunomodulação/genética , Mutação , Evasão Tumoral/genética
20.
Cancer Res ; 80(5): 1102-1117, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31911557

RESUMO

Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) promote triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) progression. Here, we report BRCA1-IRIS-overexpressing (IRISOE) TNBC cells secrete high levels of GM-CSF in a hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF1α)- and a NF-κB-dependent manner to recruit macrophages to IRISOE cells and polarize them to protumor M2 TAMs. GM-CSF triggered TGFß1 expression by M2 TAMs by activating STAT5, NF-κB, and/or ERK signaling. Despite expressing high levels of TGFß1 receptors on their surface, IRISOE TNBC cells channeled TGFß1/TßRI/II signaling toward AKT, not SMAD, which activated stemness/EMT phenotypes. In orthotopic and syngeneic mouse models, silencing or inactivating IRIS in TNBC cells lowered the levels of circulating GM-CSF, suppressed TAM recruitment, and decreased the levels of circulating TGFß1. Coinjecting macrophages with IRISOE TNBC cells induced earlier metastasis in athymic mice accompanied by high levels of circulating GM-CSF and TGFß1. IRISOE TNBC cells expressed low levels of calreticulin (the "eat me" signal for macrophages) and high levels of CD47 (the "do not eat me" signal for macrophages) and PD-L1 (a T-cell inactivator) on their surface. Accordingly, IRISOE TNBC tumors had significantly few CD8+/PD-1+ cytotoxic T cells and more CD25+/FOXP3+ regulatory T cells. These data show that the bidirectional interaction between IRISOE cells and macrophages triggers an immunosuppressive microenvironment within TNBC tumors that is favorable for the generation of immune-evading/stem-like/IRISOE TNBC metastatic precursors. Inhibiting this interaction may inhibit disease progression and enhance patients' overall survival. SIGNIFICANCE: The BRCA1-IRIS oncogene promotes breast cancer aggressiveness by recruiting macrophages and promoting their M2 polarization.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/metabolismo , Macrófagos/imunologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/imunologia , Evasão Tumoral/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Animais , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Calreticulina/imunologia , Calreticulina/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/metabolismo , Humanos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/imunologia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/mortalidade , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia , Microambiente Tumoral/genética , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
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