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1.
Eur J Paediatr Dent ; 22(1): 10-14, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33719476

RESUMO

AIM: In vitro evaluation of cleanliness of root canal walls of primary molars after preparation with the Self-Adjusting-File and Mtwo-instruments and final irrigation with citric acid and sodium hypochlorite. MATERIALS AND METHODS: s Study Design: In 23 matched pairs, teeth were prepared either with SAF or with Mtwo NiTi-instruments, and final irrigation was performed with 2 mL citric acid and 4 mL NaOCl. Roots were split longitudinally, SEM-images were taken, and smear layer was evaluated by two blinded observers using a four-grade score. Statistical evaluation was performed with Mann-Whitney-U-Test and Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test (P<0.05). RESULTS: No significant difference between SAF and Mtwo (P=0.9454) was observed. Overall removal of the smear layer was significantly better in the coronal part of the root canal than in the apical one (P=0.0004393). Mtwo showed no significant difference in cleanliness when comparing the coronal and apical part of the root canal (P=0.1089), whereas SAF cleaned the coronal part of the root canal significantly better than the apical part (P=0.00108). CONCLUSION: None of the two instruments was superior concerning cleanliness in root canals of primary molars. Both show good cleaning ability when using an irrigation protocol with citric acid and sodium hypochlorite.


Assuntos
Cavidade Pulpar , Camada de Esfregaço , Humanos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Dente Molar/cirurgia , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular , Preparo de Canal Radicular , Hipoclorito de Sódio
2.
Dent Mater J ; 40(2): 538-546, 2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33328395

RESUMO

This study evaluated the effects of remaining dentin thickness (RDT), different smear layers, and aging on the microtensile bond strength (µTBS) of universal adhesives to dentin when applied in self-etch mode. Ninety-six human third molars were randomly allocated to 12 groups (n=8) based on adhesives: ClearfilTM SE Bond 2 (SE, control), ClearfilTM Universal Bond (CU) and ScotchBondTM Universal Adhesive (SB); smear layers: prepared either with 600-grit SiC paper (P) or regular diamond bur (B); and aging: stored in distilled water at 37ºC for 24 hours (24h) or 1 year (1y). µTBS was significantly affected by the type of adhesives, smear layers, and aging (p<0.001). A statistically significant and positive linear relationship was also observed between µTBS and RDT (p<0.05) in all the tested groups, except for SEB1y and CUB24h (p>0.05). RDT, smear layer types, and aging can influence the bonding performances of universal adhesives when applied in self-etch mode.


Assuntos
Colagem Dentária , Camada de Esfregaço , Adesivos , Envelhecimento , Cimentos Dentários , Dentina , Adesivos Dentinários , Humanos , Teste de Materiais , Cimentos de Resina , Resistência à Tração
3.
Indian J Dent Res ; 31(4): 550-556, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107455

RESUMO

Background: The complex structure and irregularities of root canal walls are liable for infection by several bacterial species. Thus, the use of irrigants and auxiliary chemical solutions associated with instrumentation is necessary for effective eradication of the biofilm as well as complete removal of the smear layer. Aim: To evaluate the effects of calcium hypochlorite and chitosan oligosaccharide (COS) in disinfecting Enterococcus faecalis root canal biofilm and smear layer removal with minimal erosion. Materials And Methods: A total of 70 mandibular premolars were decoronated at the cementoenamel junction. The samples were biomechanically prepared, sterilized in an autoclave, and incubated with E. faecalis (ATCC-29212) bacteria for 21 days. Cleaning and shaping were done till maximum apical file size of #45 K. Specimens were randomly divided into 4 groups: GROUP I: Control Group, GROUP II: 5% Sodium Hypochlorite (NaOCl) solution followed by 17% EDTA solution, GROUP III: 5% Calcium Hypochlorite [Ca(OCl)2] solution followed by 17% EDTA solution and GROUP IV: 5% Ca(OCl)2 solution followed by 1% COS. The samples were subjected to microbial count followed by smear layer removal under scanning electron microscope (SEM) at coronal, middle and apical third. Statistical Analysis Used: Kruskal-Wallis Test and post-hoc Scheffe's test. Results: It was observed that Group IV showed the lowest amount of CFU count/mL and the highest amount of smear layer removal with a statistically significant difference (P < 0.05) when compared with the other three Groups. Conclusion: 5% Ca(OCl)2 solution with 1% COS solution effectively removed the Enterococcus faecalis biofilm and smear layer from the root canals with minimal erosion.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Camada de Esfregaço , Biofilmes , Compostos de Cálcio , Quitosana/farmacologia , Ácido Edético , Humanos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Oligossacarídeos , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/farmacologia , Preparo de Canal Radicular
4.
Acta Odontol Latinoam ; 33(2): 117-124, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920614

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of different irrigation protocols to remove from the walls of the root canal and entrance to dentinal tubules the smear layer produced during preparation for a fiber post. Fifty decoronated human lower premolars were treated endodontically and the apical third of the canal was filled with a single gutta-percha point using warm vertical compaction. Ten millimeters were left free for post preparation, which was done by sequential use of a Largo #1 drill and Exacto #3 pilot drill (Angelus, Brazil), with irrigation with distilled water upon each instrument change. Samples were distributed randomly into 5 groups (n=10). G 1: No irrigation after post preparation. G 2: Distilled water activated for 60 s + distilled water. G 3: 5.25% NaOCl 15 s+ distilled water. G 4: 17% EDTA (Farmadental, Argentina) 60 s + 5.25% NaOCl 15 s + distilled water. G 5: 10% polyacrylic acid (Densell) 15 s + distilled water. Irrigant was activated mechanically with a low-speed conical brush. Roots were then split longitudinally in vestibular-lingual direction. Each surface was observed under SEM in its different thirds. Microphotographs were taken at 150X and 600X magnification and results analyzed statistically using Kruskall Wallis and Friedman tests (p<0.05). The results [mean (standard deviation)] were: for 150X: G1 11.00 (1.33), G2 7.50 (3.13), G3 6.30 (2.58), G4 2.20 (2.80), G5 4.30 (1.50), and for 600X G1 11.40 (0.84), G2 10.00 (1.94), G3 7.70 (3.33), G4 5.80 (3.70), G5 7.20 (2.65). The statistical analysis showed significant differences between irrigants (p<0.05) but not between root thirds (p>0.05). The EDTA+NaOCl combination and polyacrylic acid showed greater capacity to remove the smear layer created during post preparation.


Assuntos
Cavidade Pulpar/efeitos dos fármacos , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/farmacologia , Preparo de Canal Radicular/métodos , Cavidade Pulpar/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/administração & dosagem , Camada de Esfregaço
5.
Stomatologiia (Mosk) ; 99(4): 15-20, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692514

RESUMO

The study was aimed to conduct a morphological assessment of the influence exerted by a certain method of activation of endodontic rinsing liquid on the root dentin structure and canal cleaning effectiveness in an ex vivo experiment. The study was performed on 20 single-rooted teeth removed due to complicated caries in people aged 25-44 years. A devised method of vacuum-jet irrigation was used to carry out the final antiseptic treatment and to activate a rinsing liquid in the group No. 1 (n=10), and an endodontic syringe with ultrasonic activation was used in the group No. 2 (n=10). Optical and scanning electron microscopy data were used to assess dentin histostructure, presence or absence of organic inclusions in the root canal lumens, quality of preparation and contour lines of their sides. An analysis of scans demonstrates that the vacuum-jet irrigation method effectively cleans the root canal lumen in the apical area in 90% of the cases, while irrigation with an endodontic syringe and ultrasound activation has been effective in 67% of the cases. The smear layer throughout the root canals in the samples of the group No. 1 was removed in 100% of the cases. At the same time, the smear layer in the canal apical area was not completely removed in either of the samples of the group No. 2. An analysis of photomicrographs of histotopographic cross sections of the dental roots in group No. 2 under consideration revealed numerous cavities in the circumpulpal dentin, which form nidi of destruction up to 10-15 mcr in diameter merging in the cervical and middle third of the root. At the same time, a typical structure of the circumpulpal dentin with a well-developed network of dentinal tubules and intact peritubular and intertubular matrix was observed throughout the dental roots in the samples of the group No. 1. These investigational studies allow us to conclude that vacuum-jet irrigation of root canals provides better cleaning, completely removes the smear layer and does not damage the root dentin structure.


Assuntos
Cavidade Pulpar , Camada de Esfregaço , Adulto , Dentina , Ácido Edético , Humanos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular , Preparo de Canal Radicular , Hipoclorito de Sódio
6.
J Endod ; 46(9): 1248-1255, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32553876

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In this study, we investigated the properties of nanobubble (NB) water and its effect on smear layer removal and strengthening the efficiency of disinfecting agents used in regenerative endodontic treatment. METHODS: NB water was generated in a NB Generator. The NB size, concentration, and pH were measured. Porcine teeth were enlarged to size 60 by using hand-files and irrigated with either NB water or 17% EDTA or received no further irrigation. The ability of irrigants to remove the smear layer was evaluated by using a scanning electron microscope (9 roots/group). Other samples (6 roots/group) were subjected to Vickers hardness test to determine the dentin microhardness. Autofluorescent tetracycline mixed with distilled water or NB water was placed inside the root canal space of porcine teeth, and the depth of medicament penetration into the dentinal tubules was visualized by using fluorescent stereomicroscope (5 roots/group). For the disinfection experiment, human roots were prepared, autoclaved, and inoculated with Enterococcus faecalis for 3 weeks. Canals were then disinfected by (1) standard needle irrigation (SNI) with 5.25% NaOCl, (2) 5.25% NaOCl with ultrasonication (US), (3) 5.25% NaOCl + XP finisher (XP), (4) SNI with 1.5% NaOCl, or (5) SNI with 1.5% NaOCl in NB water (5 roots/group). Teeth were split open and stained with LIVE/DEAD BackLight and visualized by using confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) at the coronal, middle, and apical thirds of the canal. The ratio of dead/total bacteria in the dentinal tubules at various depth levels (50, 100, and 150 µm) was calculated. RESULTS: NB water was more effective in removing smear layer than 17% EDTA and could allow infiltration of tetracycline into the dentinal tubule more than 1 mm. NB water did not alter the dentin microhardness compared with 17% EDTA (P < .05). At 50-µm depth, CLSM analysis showed no statistically significant difference between 1.5% NaOCl in NB water and 5.25% NaOCl with or without irrigation activation at the coronal, middle, and apical root segments (P > .05), ie, these groups had stronger bacterial killing than 1.5% NaOCl (P < .05). At deeper levels (100 and 150 µm), higher concentrations of NaOCl were more effective than 1.5% NaOCl with or without NB water. No statistically significant difference was noted between 5.25% NaOCl with and without irrigation activation at most depth levels (P > .05). CONCLUSIONS: NB water can allow smear layer removal and enhance tubular penetration of medicaments without changing dentin microhardness. In large canal models, NB water appears to improve the tubular disinfection capacity of lower concentration of NaOCl up to 50 µm. On the other hand, the use of irrigation activation (US or XP) did not provide any added disinfection into the dentinal tubules compared with SNI. These results suggest that NB water may be a promising adjunct to endodontic irrigants and medicaments.


Assuntos
Irrigantes do Canal Radicular , Camada de Esfregaço , Animais , Cavidade Pulpar , Dentina , Ácido Edético , Humanos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Endodontia Regenerativa , Preparo de Canal Radicular , Hipoclorito de Sódio , Suínos
7.
J Endod ; 46(8): 1120-1124, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497653

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to assess whether ultrasonic activation (UA) or the EasyClean (EC; BassiEndo, Belo Horizonte, BH, Brazil) or EDDY (ED; VDW, Munich, Germany) systems used to promote agitation of the irrigating solutions during the final irrigation step can lead to smear layer formation in the apical third of the root canal. METHODS: Thirteen premolars were instrumented with the Reciproc R40 file (VDW) and embedded in silicone, forming a closed irrigation/aspiration system. The teeth were cleaved, and 4 indentations were made on the inner buccal wall of the canal to standardize the observation sites. All the specimens were cleaned in an ultrasonic bath and evaluated under environmental scanning electron microscopy, thus constituting the control group. The same specimens were reassembled, submitted to final irrigation using UA or the ED or EC systems, and classified using a 4-level scoring system. The data were analyzed using the kappa, Pearson, and Kruskal-Wallis tests (P < .05). RESULTS: Smear layer formation occurred in all of the experimental groups and at all apical levels. At 3 and 4 mm, all of the experimental groups had significantly higher levels of smear layer formation than the control group. At 2 mm, the level of smear layer formation in the UA group was significantly higher than that of the control group, and there were no significant differences among the EC, ED, and control groups. At 1 mm, there were no significant differences between the ED and control groups, and the levels of smear layer formation in the EC and UA groups were significantly higher than that of the control group. There were no significant differences between the ED and EC groups at any of the apical levels. CONCLUSIONS: The smear layer formation occurred in all of the specimens submitted to final irrigation, irrespective of the technique used.


Assuntos
Camada de Esfregaço , Brasil , Cavidade Pulpar , Ácido Edético , Alemanha , Humanos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular , Preparo de Canal Radicular , Hipoclorito de Sódio
8.
Clin Oral Investig ; 24(10): 3699-3706, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32418013

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare the cleanliness and erosion of root canal walls after the use of a new HEDP (1-hydroxyethane-1,1-diphosphonic acid) -based irrigant with that achieved by irrigation with sodium hypochlorite followed by EDTA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty recently extracted single-rooted teeth were prepared with ProTaper Next files to size X3, using either HEDP-containing 3% sodium hypochlorite, throughout the procedure (n = 20), or 3% sodium hypochlorite followed by a final rinse with 17% EDTA (n = 20), which were both applied with a syringe and needle. Ten additional teeth were prepared and irrigated with saline and served as negative controls. The teeth were split longitudinally and subjected to SEM evaluation for the presence of a smear layer, debris, and erosion of the root canal wall. The Pearson chi-square test was used to compare the results, and the level of significance was set at p < 0.05. RESULTS: In both groups, there were more cases with a smear layer in the apical third of the root canal than in the coronal third, but the groups did not differ from each other significantly (p = 0.545). The root canal walls in both groups were almost free of debris, showing no difference between the groups (p = 0.342). Moderate erosion of the root dentine was found in 10-26% of the cases in both groups, but severe erosion was detected in only one case in each of the groups, which did not differ significantly from each other (p = 0.606). CONCLUSION: Within the limitations of the present study, the HEDP-based irrigation solution did not differ from 3% sodium hypochlorite followed by EDTA in terms of cleanliness or the incidence of erosion of the canal wall. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: When used with syringe and needle irrigation, the new HEDP-based irrigant is convenient and safe but should not be expected to result in cleaner canal walls than 3% sodium hypochlorite followed by 17% EDTA.


Assuntos
Cavidade Pulpar , Camada de Esfregaço , Dentina , Ácido Edético , Ácido Etidrônico , Humanos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular , Preparo de Canal Radicular , Hipoclorito de Sódio
9.
Eur J Oral Sci ; 128(3): 246-254, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32396258

RESUMO

Using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), this study investigated the characteristics of smear layers after preparation of dentin surfaces using different methods. In addition, this study analyzed, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the interactions of smear layers with the various acidic agents used subsequently to treat the dentin surface. Mid-coronal dentin surfaces were prepared according to one of five instrumentation methods: fracture; grinding with carbide bur; grinding with regular-grit diamond bur; grinding with superfine-grit diamond bur; or grinding with 600-grit silicon carbide (SiC) abrasive paper. Then, each prepared dentin surface was further divided into control (no further treatment) or treatment with one of the following agents: phosphoric acid solution (PAS); phosphoric acid gel (PAG); Clearfil SE Bond 2 Primer (SE2); or Scotchbond Universal Adhesive (SBU). Longitudinal ultra-thin sections were made for TEM observations. Dentin discs, representing each surface preparation and treatment method described above, were created, and the morphology was examined by SEM. The TEM results revealed differences in thickness and denseness of the smear layer, according to the different methods of instrumentation used to prepare the dentin surface. The two forms of phosphoric acid completely removed the smear layer in all groups. Agglomerated silica particles were observed on the top of the collagen layer after etching with PAG. For all dentin surfaces, except for that prepared with SiC, SE2 demonstrated better etching efficacy on different smear layers, whereas SBU provided only superficial interaction.


Assuntos
Colagem Dentária , Resinas Compostas , Cimentos Dentários , Dentina , Adesivos Dentinários , Humanos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Cimentos de Resina , Camada de Esfregaço , Propriedades de Superfície , Resistência à Tração
10.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(5): 697-703, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32367879

RESUMO

Background: The purpose of this study was to assess the quantity of the chelated calcium ions and the smear layer removal efficiency after root canal final irrigation with three different solutions. Materials and Methods: Forty-five teeth were instrumented with rotary-files, then randomly divided into 3 equal groups (n = 15) depending on the final irrigation solution; group I: 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), group II: 0.2% chitosan, and group III: 10% trisodium citrate. According to the time of application, every group was divided into 3 subgroups (1 min, 5 min, and 24 h). The quantification analysis of chelated calcium ions was performed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). Then, the presence of smear layer was examined by splitting the samples longitudinally and using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to examine coronal, middle, and apical root canal levels. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test was used for the evaluation of treatment effect. Kruskal-Wallis test was executed to detect a significant difference between groups, while Mann-Whitney U test has determined the difference between each two groups for smear layer. Results: Both 17% EDTA and 0.2% chitosan had not been statistically significant difference for smear layer removal efficiency and observed calcium ion concentrations. Although, they were more efficient of 10% trisodium citrate with a significant difference (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The application time of the chelators' solutions must not exceed 5 min to completely remove smear layer, and 0.2% chitosan is a natural substitute for 17% EDTA with a safety application for 24 h.


Assuntos
Quitosana/química , Ácido Edético/química , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/química , Preparo de Canal Radicular/métodos , Humanos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Camada de Esfregaço/diagnóstico por imagem , Camada de Esfregaço/cirurgia , Dente/cirurgia
11.
J Vet Dent ; 37(1): 35-40, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32319333

RESUMO

Pulp debridement and disinfection in the pulp cavity is a critical step in achieving a successful root canal therapy. Microorganisms remaining in the root canal system after endodontic treatment are a main cause of root canal failure. The challenges faced in endodontic disinfection include the complex anatomy of the root canal system, the existence of a biofilm within the root canal, and the creation of a problematic smear layer during instrumentation of the canal. Historically, sodium hypochlorite and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid have been utilized as irrigants and still remain as the most effective disinfectants due to their synergistic abilities to eradicate microorganisms, dissolve necrotic debris, and remove the smear layer and biofilm. This article addresses challenges in endodontic disinfection, objectives of endodontic irrigants, properties of an ideal irrigant, currently used irrigants, and irrigant delivery systems utilized in veterinary dentistry.


Assuntos
Cavidade Pulpar , Camada de Esfregaço/veterinária , Animais , Desinfecção , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular , Tratamento do Canal Radicular/veterinária
12.
Eur J Oral Sci ; 128(3): 255-262, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32311176

RESUMO

The effect of smear layer-deproteinizing pretreatment using hypochlorous acid (HOCl) on the micro-shear bond strengths (µSBS) of conventional and resin-modified glass-ionomer cements (GIC) to dentin was investigated and compared with demineralizing pretreatment with polyacrylic acid (PAA). Three GICs: Fuji IX GP Extra (restorative conventional GIC), GC Fuji II LC EM (restorative resin-modified GIC), and GC Fuji Luting EX (luting resin-modified GIC), were used. One hundred fifty human molars were divided into groups (n = 10) according to the cements and dentin pretreatments; no pretreatment (control), 10 s PAA pretreatment, and HOCl pretreatment for 5, 15, or 30 s. After 24 h, µSBS was tested and the data were statistically analyzed using a two-way ANOVA, followed by Tukey's post-hoc test. HOCl pretreatment significantly increased µSBS of conventional GIC compared to the control group. For resin-modified restorative GIC, 5 s HOCl deproteinization significantly increased µSBS, while longer application times did not. There was no significant difference between HOCl-pretreated and control groups of resin-modified luting GIC. PAA pretreatment increased the µSBS of all cements significantly. In conclusion, smear layer deproteinization with HOCl can enhance the dentin bonding of conventional GIC. However, the residual radicals may adversely affect the polymerization of resin-modified GICs.


Assuntos
Colagem Dentária , Camada de Esfregaço , Resinas Compostas , Dentina , Cimentos de Ionômeros de Vidro , Humanos , Ácido Hipocloroso , Teste de Materiais , Cimentos de Resina
13.
BMC Oral Health ; 20(1): 88, 2020 03 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32216774

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Smear layer removal has been shown to reduce bacterial penetration through root canal obturations when resin-based endodontic sealer is used. The purpose of this in vitro study was to test this effect when a non-resin-based sealer is used. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty root segments were assigned to the following groups: Smear layer removed (n = 8); smear layer retained (n = 8); negative controls (n = 10; 5 with smear layer, 5 without); and positive controls (n = 4; 2 with smear layer, 2 without). After rotary instrumentation, smear layers were removed in the treatment group and half of controls using 17% ethylenediamenetetraacetic acid (EDTA) prior to obturation. Each obturated root was affixed into a dual-chamber leakage model employing Streptococcus mutans. Roots were incubated at 37 °C for 120 d. Days until lower chamber turbidity occurred was recorded for each sample, and data were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier survival curve analysis (p = 0.05). RESULTS: No negative controls leaked, while all positive controls were turbid within 1 day. Mean days to leakage for roots with smear layer intact was 82.75 (+/- 33.29, 95% CI), although three never leaked. Mean days to leakage through roots with smear layer removed was 46.25 (+/- 26.67, 95% CI), and all leaked. Treatment survival curves were significantly different (p = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS: Under the conditions and limitations of this study, retaining the smear layer reduced the rate of bacterial penetration through canals which had been obturated using zinc oxide eugenol (ZOE) -based sealer.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/prevenção & controle , Infiltração Dentária/prevenção & controle , Cavidade Pulpar/microbiologia , Obturação do Canal Radicular/métodos , Camada de Esfregaço , Cimento de Óxido de Zinco e Eugenol/uso terapêutico , Eugenol , Guta-Percha , Humanos , Materiais Restauradores do Canal Radicular , Óxido de Zinco
14.
J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent ; 38(1): 64-70, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32174631

RESUMO

Introduction: The chemomechanical preparation of root canal dentin with hand or rotary instruments creates debris and a smear layer. Root canal preparation (RCP) along with irrigants is not effective in cleaning apical portions, and hence, different laser activation systems were used for better cleaning in the apical third. Aim: The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy of erbium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) and diode laser irradiation in smear layer removal and dentin permeability after biomechanical preparation using scanning electron microscopic investigation. Material and Methods: Thirty sound single-rooted human teeth were distributed randomly and equally into three groups (n = 10 each) based upon the type of laser irradiation after RCP: Group I (control group) - RCP with ProTaper rotary system using the standard irrigating protocol; Group II - RCP with ProTaper rotary system using the standard irrigating protocol followed by diode laser irradiation; and Group III - RCP with ProTaper rotary system using the standard irrigating protocol followed by Er:YAG laser irradiation. After root sectioning, specimens were dehydrated, then gold plated and observed using a scanning electron microscopy. Then, the smear layer scores were recorded and performed using the statistical analysis. Results: Smear layer removal efficacy of Er:YAG laser was more at coronal, middle, and apical third when compared to Group I and Group II. Debris removal score of Group III (Er:YAG) was better than Group I (17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) and Group II (diode). Conclusion: Er:YAG laser-activated RCP was comparatively efficient in cleaning the smear layer and dentinal tubules opening.


Assuntos
Camada de Esfregaço , Alumínio , Cavidade Pulpar , Dentina , Permeabilidade da Dentina , Érbio , Humanos , Lasers Semicondutores , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular , Preparo de Canal Radicular , Ítrio
15.
Rev. cuba. estomatol ; 57(1): e2872, ene.-mar. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126486

RESUMO

RESUMEN Introducción: La microfiltración es uno de los problemas principales de todas las obturaciones a base de resina. Muchos estudios buscan optimizar un buen sellado marginal utilizando diversos acondicionadores, como el hipoclorito de sodio, que permite que el adhesivo penetre bien, al generar desproteinización, y el ácido fosfórico que permite remover el barro dentinario, y así de esta manera formar una capa híbrida al colocar el adhesivo. Objetivo: Evaluar el grado de sellado marginal de la resina Bulk Fill aplicando gel de hipoclorito de sodio 10 por ciento comparado con el gel de ácido fosfórico al 37 por ciento en el acondicionamiento dental in vitro. Métodos: El universo fue de 72 dientes con cavidades clase I; se separaron en 4 grupos por muestra de 18 dientes cada uno; después de obturar se realizó el termociclaje a 500 ciclos entre 5 °C a 55 °C; luego se sumergieron en azul de metileno 2 por ciento, durante 12 h y 24 h a temperatura de 37 °C. Finalmente se evaluó el sellado marginal en el estereomicroscopio, según el ISO / TS 11405: 2015, con los criterios siguientes: grado 0 (sin microfiltración), grado 1 (microfiltración hasta esmalte), grado 2 (microfiltración hasta dentina) y grado 3 (microfiltración hasta piso pulpar). Resultados: El acondicionamiento con ácido fosfórico 37 por ciento a las 12 h presentó grado 0 (55,6 por ciento) y grado 1 (33,3 por ciento), y a las 24 h, grado 1 (55,6 por ciento). Con respecto al hipoclorito de sodio 10 por ciento a las 12 h, grado 0 (44.4 por ciento) y a las 24 h predominó grado 1 (55,6 por ciento). Para la contrastación de hipótesis en muestras relacionadas se obtuvo en ácido fosfórico 37 por ciento e hipoclorito de sodio al 10 por ciento a las 12 h y 24 h un p= 0,052 y p= 0,584, respectivamente. Para comparaciones entre muestras independientes a las 12 h y 24 h se obtuvo p= 0,462 y p= 0,406, respectivamente. Conclusiones: El gel de hipoclorito de sodio al 10 por ciento presenta similar eficacia en el sellado marginal respecto al gel de ácido fosfórico al 37 por ciento, al utilizarlo como acondicionador dental(AU)


ABSTRACT Introduction: Microfiltration is one of the main problems of all resin sealings. Many studies aim to optimize marginal sealing using a variety of conditioners, such as sodium hypochlorite, which allows good penetration of the adhesive by generating deproteinization, and phosphoric acid, which allows removal of the dental smear layer, thus creating a hybrid layer when the adhesive is placed. Objective: Evaluate the marginal sealing degree of Bulk Fill resin applying 10 percent sodium hypochlorite gel versus 37 percent phosphoric acid gel in in vitro dental conditioning. Methods: The study universe was 72 teeth with class I cavities, divided into four groups of 18 teeth. Upon sealing, thermal cycling was performed at 500 cycles from 5 ºC to 55 ºC. Next the teeth were submerged in 2 percent methylene blue for 12 h and 24 h at a temperature of 37 ºC. Finally marginal sealing was evaluated in the stereo microscope according to ISO / TS 11405: 2015, using the following scale: grade 0 (no microfiltration), grade 1 (microfiltration as far as the enamel), grade 2 (microfiltration as far as the dentin), and grade 3 (microfiltration as far as the pulp floor). Results: Conditioning with 37 percent phosphoric acid was grade 0 (55.6 percent) and grade 1 (33.3 percent) at 12 h, and grade 1 (55.6 percent) at 24 h, whereas conditioning with 10 percent sodium hypochlorite was grade 0 (44.4%) at 12 h, and predominantly grade 1 (55.6 percent) at 24 h. Hypothesis contrast in related samples yielded 37 percent phosphoric acid and 10 percent sodium hypochlorite at 12 h and 24 h, p= 0.052 and p= 0.584, respectively. Comparison between independent samples at 12 h and 24 h yielded p= 0.462 and p= 0.406, respectively. Conclusions: The 10 percent sodium hypochlorite gel has similar marginal sealing effectiveness as the 37 percent phosphoric acid gel when used as dental conditioners(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Ácidos Fosfóricos/efeitos adversos , Selantes de Fossas e Fissuras/uso terapêutico , Hipoclorito de Sódio/uso terapêutico , Micropeneiramento/métodos , Camada de Esfregaço/etiologia
16.
J Adhes Dent ; 22(1): 79-84, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32030378

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To use shear bond strength (SBS) testing to determine the effect of surface moisture and smear layer thickness on the adhesion of self-adhesive restorative materials and a universal adhesive. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One single-step self-etch universal adhesive, Prime & Bond Active (PA), was used to bond Ceram.x Spectra ST HV composite resin to dentin and enamel using the self-etching technique. Three commercially available restorative materials and one newly developed material with self-adhesive properties, Activa (A), Fuji II LC(F), Equia Forte (E), and ASAR-MP4 (S), respectively, were also bonded to enamel and dentin prepared moist and dry and to dentin prepared with a thick smear layer. Shear bond testing was performed using an Ultradent bonding apparatus. RESULTS: The universal adhesive generated the highest SBS to dentin and enamel, followed by the newly developed material. None of the materials tested were significantly affected by the moisture conditions on enamel or dentin. The thickness of smear layer significantly affected SBS to dentin for S, F, and E. However, S and F still exhibited higher shear bond strength to dentin with the thicker smear layer compared to the other self-adhesive materials. Only the universal adhesive in self-etch mode was not affected by the thicker smear layer and maintained significantly higher SBS. CONCLUSION: None of the materials tested were affected by bonding to overdried dentin or enamel. All of the self-adhesive materials exhibited lower SBS to specimens with a thicker smear layer. The newly developed material ASAR-MP4 compared favorably to the other self-adhesive materials tested under all test conditions.


Assuntos
Colagem Dentária , Camada de Esfregaço , Cimentos Dentários , Dentina , Adesivos Dentinários , Dessecação , Humanos , Teste de Materiais , Cimentos de Resina , Resistência ao Cisalhamento
17.
J Dent ; 94: 103300, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32070754

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the sealing performance of self-etch adhesives (SEA) after smear layer deproteinization with chemo-mechanical caries removal agents (CRA) to enamel and dentin cavity walls in comparison with 6% NaOCl smear layer deproteinizing. METHODS: Eighty extracted bovine incisors with tapered cylindrical cavities (2.5 mm upper diameter, 1.5 mm lower diameter, 2 mm depth) at the cemento-enamel junction were randomly divided into four pre-treatment groups; no treatment (control), Papacarie (papain enzyme-based CRA), Carisolv (NaOCl-based CRA), and 6% NaOCl. After pretreatment, G-Bond Plus (GBP, one-step SEA) or Clearfil SE Bond 2 (CSE, two-step SEA) was applied to the pre-treated cavity, and then filled with a flowable resin composite (Clearfil Majesty ES Flow). Gap formations at the enamel and dentin lateral walls, and on the dentin cavity floor were investigated using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) after 24-h water storage at 37 °C. Deproteinizing effects of the tested agents on smear layer-covered enamel and dentin were quantified by changes in the amide:phosphate ratio using ATR-FTIR analysis. RESULTS: Papacarie significantly reduced gap formation with both self-etch adhesives at all locations, compared to the control group (p < 0.05). In contrast, increased gap formation was observed with Carisolv and NaOCl. In most groups, CSE exhibited significantly lower gap formation than GBP (p < 0.05). ATR-FTIR revealed a significant decrease in the amide:phosphate ratio for all the deproteinizing agents (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Chemo-mechanical CRAs could effectively remove the organic phase of enamel and dentin smear layer. The papain enzyme-based gel Papacarie could improve the sealing performance of the self-etch adhesives to both enamel and dentin.


Assuntos
Colagem Dentária , Camada de Esfregaço , Adesivos , Animais , Bovinos , Resinas Compostas , Cimentos Dentários , Esmalte Dentário , Dentina , Adesivos Dentinários , Teste de Materiais , Cimentos de Resina
18.
Adv Clin Exp Med ; 29(2): 209-213, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32101646

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: After the mechanical preparation of a root canal, the canal walls are covered with a smear layer. In order to deeply clean the dentinal tubules, removal of the smear layer is recommended. There is no consensus on the length of time of rinsing with chelating agents or irrigation with alternating chelating agents and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of smear layer removal using 4 irrigation protocols. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We prepared 42 straight root canals to size ISO40/04 and assigned them into 4 study groups (n = 10) and a control group (n = 2). The root canals were irrigated as follows: in the control group, 180 s with 5.25% NaOCl; in group 1, 60 s with 40% citric acid (CA) and 120 s with NaOCl; in group 2, 120 s with CA and 120 s with NaOCl; in group 3, 30 s CA, 30 s with NaOCl, 30 s CA and 120 s with NaOCl; and in group 4, 60 s with CA, 30 s with NaOCl, 60 s with CA, and 120 s with NaOCl. The roots were split longitudinally and the root canals were observed under ×200-500 magnification. The root canal walls were analyzed in areas 2 mm, 6 mm and 10 mm from the apex. RESULTS: In the apical and medial sections, the best effects were achieved in groups 3 and 4. In coronal sections, no significant differences between experimental groups were found. CONCLUSIONS: Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that irrigation with alternating NaOCl and CA was the most effective at smear layer removal, regardless of the irrigation time.


Assuntos
Quelantes/uso terapêutico , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/uso terapêutico , Preparo de Canal Radicular , Camada de Esfregaço , Hipoclorito de Sódio/uso terapêutico , Cavidade Pulpar , Humanos
19.
Acta Odontol Scand ; 78(5): 321-326, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31909679

RESUMO

Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate the wall adaptation and apical microleakage values following the application of various irrigation protocols in primary teeth.Material and methods: For the two parts of the study, extracted upper incisor primary teeth were randomly included to the 1% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), 10% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)+1% NaOCl, 6% citric acid (CA)+1% NaOCl and 0.9% physiological saline (PS) groups. Canal wall adaptation and apical microleakage were assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and stereomicroscope, respectively.Results: 6% CA + 1% NaOCl group was found to be the most successful irrigation protocol in providing strong canal wall adaptation and less apical microleakage, followed by 10% EDTA +1% NaOCl. 6% CA +1% NaOCl was significantly superior regarding apical microleakage (p < .05).Conclusions: Due to the ability to provide appropriate changes in the root canal walls to make a well-adapted and leak-proof canal filling, 6% CA + 1% NaOCl can be recommended as an irrigation protocol in primary teeth.


Assuntos
Infiltração Dentária , Ácido Edético/administração & dosagem , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura/métodos , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/farmacologia , Preparo de Canal Radicular , Camada de Esfregaço , Hipoclorito de Sódio/administração & dosagem , Dente Decíduo/diagnóstico por imagem , Cavidade Pulpar/efeitos dos fármacos , Cavidade Pulpar/ultraestrutura , Humanos , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/administração & dosagem , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Int Endod J ; 53(5): 660-670, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31808951

RESUMO

AIM: To evaluate the morphology and impact of root canal preparation in maxillary incisors with palatogingival grooves (PGG). METHODOLOGY: Twenty extracted human maxillary incisors with PGG were subjected to macroscopic analysis and scanning electron microscopy analysis (SEM). The following characteristics of the PGG were evaluated: depth, point of origin in the cingulum, extension and position on the lingual surface. Furthermore, the presence of calculus, communications between the root canal system and the PGG, and root resorptions were investigated. The root canals were subsequently instrumented with K-files of three consecutive sizes. The teeth were sectioned, and the axial plane of each tooth section was imaged using SEM before and after instrumentation. The distance between the root canal walls and the PGG was calculated according to the location. Additionally, the distance between canal walls and cementum was measured at three different sites, to verify if instrumentation influenced dentine removal on a specific wall in teeth with PGG. Statistical analysis was performed using the Mann-Whitney or Student's t-test (P < 0.05). RESULTS: Macroscopic analysis revealed that a deep groove was most frequently observed (75%), followed by a depression/shallow groove (25%) (P < 0.05). PGG typically originated in the distal margin ridge of the cingulum (65%) (P < 0.05), extending only to the middle (45%) or up to the apical (50%) third of the root (P < 0.05). Additionally, PGGs were typically located on the distal aspect of the lingual surface (70%) (P < 0.05). Calculus was concentrated on the surface of the crown and cementum-enamel junction (P < 0.05). Communication between the root canal and PGG was present in 35% of teeth, and root resorptions were noted in 50% of teeth. The distance between the external root surface and the pulp cavity was significantly narrower after instrumentation (P < 0.05); however, root canal preparation did not influence dentine removal on the specific wall associated with the groove (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Palatogingival grooves were characteristically deep and originated from the distal margin of the cingulum. Although it has been associated with a thinner root wall, root canal preparation did not influence the thickness of the specific wall in the maxillary incisors with PGG.


Assuntos
Cavidade Pulpar , Camada de Esfregaço , Cemento Dentário , Dentina , Humanos , Incisivo , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular , Preparo de Canal Radicular , Tratamento do Canal Radicular
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