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1.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 182, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34466203

RESUMO

Introduction: approximately 6000 Cameroonian women died of cancer in 2018, and the breast is the most affected with 2625 new cases. The aim of this study was to establish a pattern of malignant breast tumours in Yaoundé (Cameroon). Methods: this study was a descriptive and analytical retrospective study of breast cancer between January 2010 and December 2015 in Yaoundé General Hospital (YGH) after the Institutional ethics committee approval. The variables studied were the socio-demographic characteristics, risk factors for breast cancer, types of tumours and type of treatments. The 5-year survival was analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method. The adjusted hazard ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated to assess the association between studied variables and patient survival through the cox regression using SPSS 23 software. The difference was considered significant at p < 0.05. Results: among the 344 files collected in this study, breast cancer patients were predominantly female (96.64%, n = 288) aged 45.39 ± 13.35 years, with invasive ductal carcinoma (68.03%, n = 270), located in the left breast (52%, n= 147). The average tumour size was ~6.5 ± 0.3 cm and diagnosed in grade II of Scarf Bloom Richardson (SBR) in 60% (n= 150) of cases. The 5-year survival was 43.3%. Factors associated with this poor survival were the religion (aHR 5.05, 95% CI: 1.57 - 16.25; p = 0.007 for animist and aHR 4.2, 95% CI: 1.53 - 11.46; p = 0.005 for protestant), location of the tumour (aHR 6.24, 95% CI: 1.58 - 24.60; p = 0.012), tumor height (aHR 0.21, 95% CI: 0.04 - 1.11; p = 0.011) and the time spent before medical treatment (aHR 5.12, 95% CI: 0.39 - 8.38; p = 0.011). Conclusion: the young age, large tumour size and high histological grade in our studied population suggest a weak awareness of women about breast cancer. Action should be taken in early screening to improve the management of breast cancer in Cameroon.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/patologia , Camarões/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/patologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Feminino , Hospitais Gerais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
2.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 392, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34381536

RESUMO

Introduction: since 1971, Cameroon is facing a growing series of cholera epidemics despite all the efforts made by the government to address this huge public health threat. In 2020, in addition to the COVID-19 pandemic, Cameroon recorded a high cholera case fatality rate of 4.3% following epidemics noted in the South, Littoral and South-West regions. The Cameroon Ministry of Public Health, has thus organized a reactive vaccination campaign against cholera to address the high mortality rate in the affected health districts of those regions. The objective of this study was to describe the challenges, best practices and lessons learned drawing from daily experiences from this reactive vaccination campaign against cholera. Methods: we conducted a cross-sectional study drawn from the results of the campaign. We had a target population of 631,109 participants aged 1 year and above resident of the targeted health areas. Results: the overall vaccination coverage was 64.4% with a refusal rate ranging from 0-10% according to health districts. Vaccination coverage was the lowest among people aged 20 years and above. The main challenge was difficulty maintaining physical distanciation, the main best practice was the screening of all actors taking part at the vaccination against COVID-19 and we found that emphasizing on thorough population sensitization through quarter heads and social mobilizers and adequately programming the campaign during a good climate season is crucial to achieving good vaccination coverage. Conclusion: lessons learned from this study could serve to inform various agencies in the event of planning rapid mass vaccination programs during pandemics.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas contra Cólera/administração & dosagem , Cólera/prevenção & controle , Vacinação em Massa/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Camarões , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde Pública , Vacinação/métodos , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
3.
Afr Health Sci ; 21(Suppl): 8-17, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34447418

RESUMO

Background: There is evidence that Quality of Life (QoL) of People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) has a significant role in ART retention, treatment adherence, and survival. As a result, QoL is becoming increasingly important for policymakers, program implementers, and researchers. However, factors associated with QoL, in a culturally diverse country like Cameroon are unknown. Objective: We aimed to assess the QoL of PLHIV on ART and assess the extent to which physical, psychosocial, environmental, and spiritual factors drive QoL. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 394 PLHIV aged >21 in North-West Cameroon from April to July 2019. Data were collected using WHO-QOL BREF questionnaire. Descriptive statistics, bivariate, and multivariate linear regression analyses were performed. Results: Majority (34.5%) of participants were in the age range of 41-50, with 73% females. The average QoL of the respondents was "good" with mean score of 3.57 on 5 and 71.4% agreed to have satisfactory QoL. Bivariate regression analyses revealed that all six proposed predictors were significantly associated with QoL. Psychological factors made the greatest impact (ß = 0.213; p<0.003), followed by physical factors (ß = 0.19; p<0.001). Conclusion: PLHIV fairly agreed to have good QoL. The QoL was driven by mainly psychological and physical factors and not level of independence. However, the mean score perceptions for the investigated domains were low. Mental health services should consider these predictors when designing strategies to improve the QoL of PLHIV. While this study provides useful insights, other possible drivers of QoL among PLHIV should be investigated.


Assuntos
Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/métodos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Adulto , Camarões/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
4.
Afr Health Sci ; 21(Suppl): 29-38, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34447421

RESUMO

Background: Antiretroviral therapy is a lifelong commitment that requires consistent intake of tablets to optimize health outcomes, attain and maintain viral suppression. Objective: We aimed to elicit predictors of treatment interruption amongst PLHIV and identify motivating factors influencing return to care. Method: We conducted a cross-sectional study using a mixed-method approach in four hospitals in Yaoundé. Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected from ART registers. Using purposeful sampling, thirteen participants were enrolled for interviews. Quantitative data were analyzed using Epi-Info and Atlas-TI for qualitative analysis. Ethical clearance approved by CBCHS-IRB. Results: A total of 271 participants records were assessed. The mean age was 33 years (SD±11years). Private facilities CASS and CMNB registered respectively 53 (19.6%) and 14 (5.2%) participants while CMA Nkomo and IPC had 114 (42.1%) and 90 (33.2%) participants. Most participants (75.3%) were females [OR 1.14; CI 0.78-1.66] compare with males. 78% had no viral load test results. Transport cost and stigmatization constituted the most prominent predictors of treatment interruption (47.5%) and (10.5%) respectively. Belief in the discovery of an eminent HIV cure and the desire to raise offspring motivated 30% and 61%, respectively to resume treatment. Conclusion: Structural barriers like exposed health facility, and dispensing ARVs in open spaces stigmatizes clients and increases odds of attrition. Attrition of patients on ART will be minimized through implementation of client centered approaches like multiplying proxy ART pick points, devolving stable clients to community ARV model.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/métodos , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Adesão à Medicação , Adulto , Camarões , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Pesquisa Qualitativa
5.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 344, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34367423

RESUMO

Since the first reported case of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan China, the virus has spread to every continent, including sub-Saharan Africa. There exist no cure or vaccine for COVID-19. Classic public health approaches such as hygiene and sanitation, and social distancing are the recommended measures to contain the spread of the causative virus. While it is possible to combine strict lockdown measures in some western countries, this is not practical in almost every country in sub-Saharan Africa. In Cameroon, those without symptoms are encouraged to respect measures of hygiene and sanitation, physical distancing, and to wear a mask in public places. Those who develop symptoms are isolated in accredited COVID-19 management centres until they recover. However, the latter strategy is ineffective in containing the local spread of the virus because testing is not robust. Intuitively, the control of the virus in Cameroon depends largely on how engaged the public is in fighting against the virus. Social media can complement the use of community health workers for community or public engagement. In this viewpoint, we discuss how to optimize public engagement, to combat misinformation and to develop a culture for preparedness amidst the COVID-19 pandemic when time and resources are of the essence.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Mídias Sociais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Camarões/epidemiologia , Países em Desenvolvimento , Humanos
6.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 348, 2021.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34367427

RESUMO

Introduction: since its appearance, the COVID-19 has exhausted global health systems. It was predictable that countries with weak health systems will be severly wiped out by the pandemic. Countries across Europe faced severe human loses and it was foreseable that Africa will experience an even worse tragedy. Suprisingly, since the evolution of the pandemic, there has been remarkable resistance from African countries, including Cameroon. Method: the study was phenomenographic. The data were collected successively from media observations (in particular the WHO site, national TV (CRTV) programs 'Parlons COVID'), social networks - Facebook and Whatsapp) and direct observations of some quarters of Garoua (Roumdé-Adjia, Foulbéré, Kakataré) and Mora for the Far North and the southern zone of Yaoundé (Ngoa-Ekelé, Nkolondom, Mokolo). These observations were associated with individual interview, reviews and note-taking around places of public circulation (places of worship, markets and discussion sites (Faada). The theory of functionalism was mobilized in this study. Results: the results show that Cameroonians perceive the pandemic as an eminently metasocial phenomenon which explains their tendency to use prayers, nature to counter this attack. Conclusion: the study suggests that a multidimensional approach is capable of offering avenues of « liberation ¼. Also, the study once again raises the place of traditional medecine in health systems and shows the close link that exists between traditional medicine and spirituality.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Antropologia Cultural , Camarões/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pobreza , Religião , Fatores Sociológicos , Saúde da População Urbana
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444064

RESUMO

This study assessed the mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of geophagic clays sold in some markets in Cameroon to ascertain their provenance, contamination status and human health risk. To achieve this, 40 samples from 13 markets in Cameroon were purchased and analysed using X-ray diffractometry, X-ray fluorescence and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for their mineralogy and geochemistry, respectively. The geophagic clays were dominantly made up of kaolinite and quartz. Their chemistry was dominated by SiO2, Al2O3 and LOI with means of 48.76 wt%, 32.12 wt% and 13.93 wt%, respectively. The major, trace and rare earth elements data showed that these geophagic clays were predominantly derived from felsic rocks. The contamination assessment indicated no enrichment of metals from anthropogenic sources, except for Zn in samples from Acacia, Madagascar and Mfoudi markets. The index of geo-accumulation indicated no contamination to moderate contamination of the clays. The non-carcinogenic index values for Fe, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn were generally less than 1, suggesting no non-carcinogenic risk exposure to children and adults consuming the geophagic clays from these metals. The carcinogenic risk index (TCR) for Ni and Cr were above 10-6, which implies that children and adults are vulnerable to minimal carcinogenic health risk. The TCR values from Ni posed the highest risk, especially to children consuming clays from some markets.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Adulto , Camarões , Criança , Argila , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco , Dióxido de Silício
8.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 405, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34381549

RESUMO

Introduction: thyroid cancer (TC) is considered to have become the fastest growing cancer in terms of incidence worldwide. Despite literature reporting a prevalence of 5-10% in clinically identified thyroid nodules, Cameroon still has limited data on the profile of TCs in patients with Nodular Goitres (NGs). The Objective were to describe the epidemiological, diagnostic and therapeutic profiles of TCs in patients with nodular goitres at the Douala General Hospital (DGH). Methods: this was a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of patient records with diagnoses of NGs, over 11 years (2006 to 2016) at the DGH. Results: overall, 187 patients (mean age= 46.8±13.9 years, men=27 (14.4%)) were included; 43 (23%) cancers were identified. The most common histological type was papillary cancer (50%). Nodule size of >4cm and hypoechogenicity were independently associated with malignancy. Most patients presented with TNM stage II (47.4%) and well-differentiated cancers were considered to be predominantly at low-risk according to MACIS (55%) and AMES (74%) scores. Surgery was offered to 95.3% of patients. Conclusion: TCs are frequent in patients with NGs with papillary cancer dominating. A high index of suspicion should be held if a nodule is >4cm and/or is hypoechogenic. Prognostic studies are needed to describe the outcome of TCs in our setting.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Papilar/patologia , Bócio Nodular/patologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Nódulo da Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Camarões , Carcinoma Papilar/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hospitais Gerais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia , Nódulo da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 410, 2021.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34381554

RESUMO

Introduction: synanthropic flies are sometimes involved in the transmission of diarrheal diseases as mechanical vectors of pathogenic bacteria. The purpose of this study was to assess the diversity of synanthropic flies and to determine their potential involvement in the transmission of diarrheal diseases in the city of Maroua. Methods: fly catching sessions were carried out per season in 12 wards, in five different sites and in three moments of the day, corresponding to the different daily sunshine hours. Multiple keys for the identification of diptera and of microbiological analyzes in the laboratory were used to estimate the biodiversity and the portage of microorganisms by the synanthropic flies. We carried out an ecological and statistical analyses of collected data. Results: eight species of synanthropic flies belonging to four families were identified in the city of Maroua and the distribution of these species varied according to the seasons, sites and moment of the day (p<0.05). Musca domestica and Chrysomya putoria were the most numerous species detected in the sites where the activities of agri-food processing and livestock were intense, notably Hardé, Pont-vert, Doualaré, Kongola and Makabaye. Escherichia coli was more involved than Salmonella spp.in the transmission of diarrheal diseases and the portage of bacteria by synanthropic flies was abundance-dependent. Conclusion: the diversity of synanthropic flies varies as a function of anthropogenic activities, season of the year and moment of the day. These flies are important potential mechanical vectors of fecal pathogenic bacteria in Maroua.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Dípteros/microbiologia , Insetos Vetores , Animais , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/transmissão , Camarões/epidemiologia , Diarreia/microbiologia , Humanos
10.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 352, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34367431

RESUMO

Introduction: despite increasing research interest on Indigenous peoples´ health worldwide, the nutritional status of Indigenous children in Cameroon remains unknown. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of stunting, wasting, and underweight among under-five Indigenous Mbororo children in the Foumban and Galim health districts of the West Region. Methods: a cross-sectional study was conducted involving 472 child-caregiver pairs from 16 Mbororo Communities in the Foumban and Galim health districts. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were used for data collection. Anthropometric measurements were collected using standard procedures. Socio-demographic data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Anthropometric indices: height-for-age, weight-for-height, and weight-for-age - z-scores were analyzed using z-score 06 Stata version 11 and compared with World Health Organization growth reference standards. Ethical approval was obtained from the Faculty of Health Sciences Institutional Review Board of the University of Buea. Results: overall prevalence of stunting, wasting and underweight were 55.08% (95% CI: 50.5-59.58), 13.77% (95% CI: 10.65-16.89), and 31.99% (95% CI: 27.76-36.21), respectively. Severe stunting, wasting and underweight were 34.53% (95% CI: 30.22-38.83), 3.18% (95% CI: 1.58-4.76), and 10.59% (95% CI: 7.80-13.37), respectively. Rates of stunting, wasting and underweight for female and male were: 56.88% and 52.71%; 12.38% and 14.72%; and 30.73% and 32.55%, respectively. Stunting, wasting and underweight rates varied with child age. Conclusion: the prevalence of undernutrition was high, indicating a serious public health problem and the necessity for strategies to ensure the optimal health of the target population.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Magreza/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Emaciação/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Camarões/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/etnologia , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento/etnologia , Humanos , Povos Indígenas , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Prevalência , Distribuição por Sexo , Magreza/etnologia , Síndrome de Emaciação/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 355, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34367434

RESUMO

Introduction: in Cameroon, data on viral hepatitis B infection in prison environments is limited. We determined the prevalence of hepatitis B infection (HBV) and correlates among prisoners incarcerated at the Douala New Bell Central Prison in Cameroon. Methods: this was a cross-sectional study carried out in July 2018 and included 940 randomly selected prisoners. Data were collected using pre-tested questionnaire while blood screening for HBV surface antigen (HBs Ag) used rapid test, with confirmation via Elisa test. Sociodemographic characteristics and risk factors were compared among the three age groups with respect to the prison's partitioning. Factors associated with positive HBs Ag were identified using logistic regression adjusted to age and gender. Confounders were then excluded by logistic multivariate analysis. All p values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: of the 940 prisoners selected, 94% were male. The mean age of the study population was 33.81 ± 10.35 years. The median duration of incarceration and median number of incarcerations were 12 months (IQR: 5-36) and 1 (IQR: 1-2) respectively. HBV prevalence was 12.9% (95% CI: 10.7-15%). The use of non-injectable illicit drugs (OR: 3.5; 95% CI: 1.9-6.2; P<0.001), sharing of needle or razors (aOR: 24.1; 95% CI: 12.9-45.0; P<0.001), sharing of tooth brushes(aOR: 2.7; 95% CI: 0.9-7.4) (P=0.053), having tattoos or piercings (aOR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.1-3.1; P=0.01) were significantly associated with HBs Ag seropositivity. Conclusion: prisoners in this setting had a high prevalence of HBV and related risk factors. These findings highlight an urgent need to implement control strategies and programs that reach people in detention centers in Cameroon.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Prisioneiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Camarões/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hepatite B/sangue , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite C/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Prisões , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Adulto Jovem
12.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 379, 2021.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34367458

RESUMO

Introduction: rheumatoid arthritis (RA) dramatically affects the quality of life of patients. The objective of our study was to study the link between the activity of the disease and the quality of life of Guinean (Conakry) and Cameroonian patients with RA. Methods: pilot multicentric cross-sectional study (Ignace Dean National Hospital of Conakry in Guinea and Efoulan Yaoundé District Hospital in Cameroon) for 15 months (1st October 2016 to 30th January 2018). The diagnosis of RA was based on the criteria of the ACR/EULAR. Disease activity was assessed by DAS 28. The EMIR questionnaire and the Steinbrocker score were used to assess quality of life. Results: fifty-two patients, 82% of whom were women. The total EMIR score was 5.06±0.50 as a relatively impaired quality of life. Alteration of quality of life was more marked on psychic components (6.78±0.99) and pain (5.37±0.99). The work component was the least affected (4.03±0.98). DAS28 was significantly related to psychic components (p=0.036, R=0.29), pain (p=0.076, R=0.25), physical (p=0.0029, R=0.41), and at the overall quality of life (total EMIR) (p=0.027, R=0.31). Conclusion: the most significant of RA on quality of life was related to pain (EVA-pain) and RA activity (DAS 28). The results of this pilot study will have to be confirmed by a largest study.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/fisiopatologia , Dor/etiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Artrite Reumatoide/diagnóstico , Artrite Reumatoide/psicologia , Camarões , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Guiné , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 14, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34394805

RESUMO

Preeclampsia is one of the most common complications of pregnancy and occurs in approximately 3-8% of all pregnancies worldwide. Although the aetiology of preeclampsia still largely remains unclear, it is thought to be related to endothelial dysfunction and can lead to serum lipid abnormalities. Therefore, this case-control study was conceived and designed with the aim to compare maternal lipid profile parameters and cardiovascular risk factors, between preeclamptic and healthy pregnancies. Blood samples were collected after overnight fasting from 48 preeclamptics and 96 healthy pregnant controls matched for age and gestational weeks and serum lipid profile concentrations were estimated and used them to calculate cardiac risk ratio I and II. There was a significant rise in serum lipid levels in pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia. These lipids turn out to be risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Positive correlation of maternal serum lipids to high blood pressure suggests a causal relationship.


Assuntos
Lipídeos/sangue , Pré-Eclâmpsia/sangue , Adulto , Camarões , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
14.
Ig Sanita Pubbl ; 77(3): 492-501, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34342598

RESUMO

Hepatitis viral infections are one of major threat to public health worldwide. The vast majority of people infected with viral hepatitis are found in resources limited countries of Africa and Asia. There is a lack of accurate data to better determine the burden of this disease in Cameroon, moreover among vulnerable people. The aim of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of HBV and HCV viruses among persons with disabilities (PwD) with or without HIV status.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Infecções por HIV , Hepatite B , Vírus , Camarões/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Prevalência , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
15.
J Water Health ; 19(4): 616-628, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371498

RESUMO

Many Cameroonian cities lack access to potable drinking water where populations rely on alternative water sources of doubtful quality. This study aimed at describing the trends and patterns of waterborne diseases (WBDs) reported in some health facilities in Bamboutos Division between 2013 and 2017 as baseline data towards understanding the profile of WBDs in this area. A retrospective review of clinical data kept on patients who visited the main health facilities in Bamboutos Division from January 2013 to December 2017 was conducted. Overall, 39.1% (n = 8,124) of total patients were positive for at least one WBD. Categories of WBDs were dysenteries (18.6%), gastroenteritis (4.2%), viral hepatitis (0.2%) and typhoid was the most preponderant (24.4%). The most affected age groups were those above 24 years but significant differences were observed only in 2013 and 2017. Distribution of potential WBDs was locality dependent. The highest prevalence of typhoid fever was recorded in Bameboro (35.4%), dysenteries in Bamedjinda (20.4%) and gastroenteritis (17.3%) in Bamekoumbou. The study shows very high overall prevalence of WBDs in some localities which could be considered as 'hotspots' of WBDs in Bamboutos. This suggests the urgent need for setting up measures to tackle the challenges of potable drinking water supply.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Doenças Transmitidas pela Água , Adulto , Camarões/epidemiologia , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Microbiologia da Água , Poluição da Água , Abastecimento de Água , Doenças Transmitidas pela Água/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 33, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34422156

RESUMO

Introduction: despite the existence of a preventive vaccine against hepatitis B viral (HBV) infection, approximately 250 million people are infected with the virus worldwide. This study aimed at evaluating the level of knowledge, attitude and seropositivity of the disease among apparently healthy, potential blood donors at the blood service of the Bamenda Regional Hospital Blood Bank. Methods: a cross-sectional study was carried out from March to May 2019 among 250 blood donors. Following screening for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) using the one-step HBsAg test strip, information on the level of knowledge and attitude towards the infection was obtained using a self-administered questionnaire. The correlation analysis was done to assess relationships between selected factors and knowledge of hepatitis B, p-value of 0.05 was considered as statistical significance. Results: the seropositivity of HBV was 6.4% (n = 16). Overall, 46.8% (n = 19) of the study participants had adequate knowledge while 76.3% (n = 31) had a positive attitude toward the disease. The highest seropositivity was observed in singles (7.1%; n = 13), primary school leavers (14.3%; n = 5), unskilled laborers (14.5%; n = 8) and replacement donors (9.33%; n = 7). The probability of being hepatitis B seropositive was higher in males, students (aOR: 8.8, 95% CI 0.7-96.1; p = 0.046) and those who had attained higher education (aOR: 3.2, 95% CI 0.8-12.7; p = 0.016). Independent factors responsible for higher odds of inadequate knowledge were being a male and attaining secondary education. On the contrary, students (aOR: 0.3, 95% CI 0.1-0.8; p = 0.012) and those with a history of blood donation (aOR: 0.5, 95% CI 0.2-0.9; p = 0.042) recorded lower odds of inadequate knowledge. Conclusion: the prevalence of hepatitis B among blood donors in this blood service is in the high intermediate category. Overall, the level of knowledge on this infection among these blood donors is average. These findings suggest that health education on HBV infection should be provided to the public as a major strategy to curb the infection.


Assuntos
Doadores de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Vírus da Hepatite B/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Bancos de Sangue , Camarões/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hepatite B/sangue , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
17.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 47, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34422170

RESUMO

Introduction: birth preparedness and complication readiness (BPCR) intervention should greatly have an impact on the reduction of maternal mortality if implemented properly at all levels. Responsibility for BPCR must be shared among all safe motherhood stakeholders-because a coordinated effort is needed to reduce the delays that contribute to maternal and newborn deaths. This study aimed to assess the factors associated with birth preparedness and complication readiness among pregnant women attending government health facilities in the Bamenda Health District. Methods: this was a cross-sectional analytic study. The study period was 30th October - 30th November, 2016. A total of 345 pregnant women of ≥ 32 weeks gestational age seen at the antenatal consultation (ANC) units were recruited. The dependent variable was birth preparedness and complication readiness while the independent variables were the socio-demographic and reproductive health characteristics. Frequency distributions were used to determine the awareness and practice and logistic regression at 95% confidence interval (CI) and p<0.05 to identify the factors that favour birth preparedness and complication readiness. Results: the most likely factors that favour birth preparedness and complication readiness were monthly income (Odds Ratio (OR) = 2.94, (1.39, 6.25), p = 0.005) and the number of antenatal care visits (OR = 2.16, (1.18, 3.90), p = 0.013). Conclusion: majority of the women in this study were not prepared for birth/complications. The factors most associated with birth preparedness and complication readiness were monthly income and number of antenatal care visits.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Complicações na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Camarões , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Mortalidade Materna , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
18.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 52, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34422175

RESUMO

Heterotopic pregnancy is a rare obstetrics phenomenon and carries significant maternal morbidity and mortality due to the risk of rupture of the ectopic pregnancy. Physicians tend to feel comfortable and relieved when an intrauterine gestation sac is seen. This results in an inadequate inspection of the adnexae and remaining structures during emergency bedside ultrasound despite a strong initial clinical suspicion of ectopic pregnancy. We present a case report of ruptured ectopic pregnancy and massive hemoperitoneum in a patient with heterotopic pregnancy. The diagnosis was done on bedside ultrasonography in a clinically unstable 32-year-old patient with a history of infertility. She presented with acute abdominal pain, body weakness, and amenorrhea. She underwent emergency laparotomy and salpingectomy. In our context where ultrasound is not readily available, practitioners carrying out salpingectomy for ruptured ectopic pregnancies should bear in mind the plausibleness of heterotopic pregnancy to properly handle the uterus.


Assuntos
Hemoperitônio/etiologia , Gravidez Heterotópica/diagnóstico por imagem , Salpingectomia/métodos , Dor Abdominal/etiologia , Adulto , Camarões , Feminino , Humanos , Laparotomia/métodos , Gravidez , Ruptura Espontânea/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal
19.
Microb Pathog ; 158: 105101, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34303811

RESUMO

A 21-year-old young boy who lived alone since one year and a half ago in Paris was referred due to severe vertigo. He is originally from Ivory Coast but lived from 2011 to 2017 in Douala city in west of Cameroon. Beside vertigo, he complained from headache, sudden abdominal pain and edema in both left and right forearms for about two years. General examination demonstrated a healthy condition with no subcutaneous nodules and swelling on any other part of the body, not splenomegaly or lymphadenopathy. Moreover, the eyes were normal with clear lens. Blood count analysis revealed a hypereosinophilia (2670*106/L, N: <500*106/L). A couple of direct and May-Grunwald-Giemsa stained smears, analyzed by microscopy revealed the semitransparent cylindrical worms with almost 300 µm length and 45 µm width identified as Loa loa. The identity of the worm was then confirmed by bidirectional sequencing of 450 bp fragment of internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1-rDNA). Based on Neighbor-Joining phylogenetic tree, our isolate was clustered tightly with other few Loa species from Gabon in the same clade. No hybrid was observed among processed sequences since all species groups were discriminated separately. In the current case, he was originally from Ivory Coast but absence of medical and epidemiological evidences as well as the residency of our patient for 6 years in Cameroon made us suspicious that the patient has been most likely infected by L. loa worms in this country. The patient was treated by a couple of ivermectin (200 µg/kg for 3 days) and diethylcarbamazine (3 mg/kg, 2 times per day for 4 weeks) and a favorable evolution was observed within few weeks. Regarding at least one year and a half interval between the probable Loa loa infection in Cameroon and diagnosis, Loa loa worms are competent to persist in the human host for several years. Consequently, the clinicians should be aware of this parasitosis among the travelers or immigrants coming from endemic regions in Africa.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Loíase , Parasitos , Adulto , Animais , Camarões , Variação Genética , Humanos , Loa/genética , Loíase/diagnóstico , Masculino , Paris , Filogenia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Ig Sanita Pubbl ; 77(2): 459-473, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34314407

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the average price that a patient living in Cameroon would be willing to pay for the MosquirixTM vaccine and the factors influencing the proposed price. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study Methods: Data were collected using a semi-open questionnaire in 5 hospitals in Cameroon. This study included all persons over 18 years who came for consultation in one of the 5 selected hospitals during the study period (from 02th to 14th April 2018 and from 02th to 22th July 2018). The factors associated with the price of the vaccine proposed by the patient were determined by linear multiple regression analysis. The average price was determined based on the patient's income and the percentage of that income proposed for the purchase of the vaccine. RESULTS: We collected data from 1,187 participants aged 18 to 80 years. The average price that Cameroonian patients were willing to pay for the MosquirixTM vaccine was 1,514±475 XAF (2.3±0.73 Euro). The minimum and maximum purchase price of the vaccine were 1,178 XAF (1.8 Euro) and 1,850 XAF (2.8 Euro) respectively. We also noted that patients were willing to spend an average of 1.34% of their income on the vaccine. This percentage of income was significantly (lt;0.001) associated with the respondents' income, the fact that they had been consulted at least once for malaria in the 12 months preceding the survey (lt;0.001) and the fact that the respondent had at least one under- five year child (lt;0.001). CONCLUSION: Factors associated with the average price are elements that should be strongly considered by policy makers to introduce this vaccine in Cameroon. This pilot study can serve as a framework for a potential national population-based study.


Assuntos
Vacinas Antimaláricas , Camarões , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Renda , Projetos Piloto , Inquéritos e Questionários
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