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1.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 169, 2019.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31565130

RESUMO

Introduction: hepatitis C virus (HCV) has several extra-hepatic manifestations including cryoglubulinemia. Cryoglobulinemia is defined as the abnormal presence in the blood of one or several proteins (cryoglobulins) that can precipitate at low temperatures. Method: We conducted a cross-sectional analytical study in the Laboratory of Biology and in the Unit of Hepatology of the General Hospital in Douala (HGD) over a period of 6 months. All patients agreeing to participate to the study and with anti-hepatitis-C antibodies under treatment or not were enrolled. Cryoglobulins were detected using biuret method and the classification was performed using Brouet immunoelectrophoresis. A multivariate analysis was conducted, confounding factors such as age, sex and the length of time after Hepatitis C Virus screening were adjusted. Results: The study enrolled 116 patients. The average age of patients was 58.47±9.95 years. Male sex accounted for 50.86% of cases. Arthralgia was found in 69.80% of cases. Cryoglobulin was found in 63.80% of patients. After adjustment, female sex (OR =2.18; CI 95% [0,97-4,90]; p= 0.059), asthenia alone (OR =2.45;CI 95% [1,04-5,80]; p= 0.041), asthenia combined with arthralgia (OR =2.84;CI 95% [1,13-7, 10]; p= 0.026) and the presence of HCV RNA (OR =2.84;CI 95% [1,13-7,10]; p= 0.028) were factors independently associated with the presence of cryoglobulin. Conclusion: The prevalence of cryoglobubin is high in patients with anti-hepatitis-C antibodies at the HGD. Simple biological methods are used to detect it. Cryoglobulin test in patients with HCV is essential in resource-limited countries.


Assuntos
Crioglobulinemia/epidemiologia , Crioglobulinas/análise , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite C/sangue , Hepatite C/complicações , Idoso , Artralgia/epidemiologia , Artralgia/etiologia , Camarões , Estudos Transversais , Crioglobulinemia/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoeletroforese , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Prevalência , RNA Viral/análise
2.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 127, 2019.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558926

RESUMO

Introduction: Low birth weight (LBW) is an important predictor of newborn survival and development. Given its pathophysiology, malaria is presumed to be one of the risk factors for low birth weight. This study aims to determine the association between malaria in pregnant women (PW) and LBW (weight < 2500 g). Methods: We conducted a case-control analytical study based on the administration of a questionnaire and an observation chart. We calculated the crude odds ratio (OR) and the adjusted odds ratio to determine this association. Logistic regression was applied to recognize the variables which act as determinants of the issue under discussion. Results: This study involved 156 women (78 cases and 78 controls). The prevalence of LBW was 12.32% (105/852); 41.02% (64/156) of women had had malaria during pregnancy and 42.14% of parturients had received three doses of IPT (intermittent preventive treatment). A significant association between malaria and LBW emerged. Crude odds ratio= 3.75 [P = 0.0001 (p < 0.05)] and adjusted OR = 2.82 [P = 0.01 (p < 0.05)] were calculated taking into account the various confusion factors. Conclusion: Malaria during pregnancy is a factor increasing the risk of LBW. Efforts should be made to improve IPT coverage and the use of long lasting impregnated mosquito nets in order to prevent malaria during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/administração & dosagem , Peso ao Nascer , Malária/complicações , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Camarões , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Logísticos , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
3.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 130, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558929

RESUMO

Introduction: Cancer is a public health problem that affect women more than men. The aim of the study was to describe the epidemiological and histopathological features of gynecological malignancies in the city of Yaoundé, Cameroon. Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study of histologically proven gynecological cancers over a 10-year period (2008-2017) in the Gynecology and Pathological Anatomy Departments of the University Teaching Hospital of Yaoundé. Results: A total of 682 cancers were identified among which, 342 gynecological cancers, for an overall frequency of 50.1% and an annual frequency of 34.2 cases on average. There was a trend suggesting an increase annual frequency over time. The cervix was the most frequent location with 182 cases (53.2%); followed by breast with 96 cases (28.1%); endometrium with 33 cases (9.7%) and ovaries 15 cases (4.4%). These patients were on average 51.9±13.7 years old, mostly housewives (56.8%), married (60.4%), multiparous (61.3%) and referred (62.6%). Histopathologically, cervical cancer was predominantly squamous cell carcinoma (86.8%), invasive (80.9%) and well differentiated (45.5%). For breast cancers, the majority were ductal carcinomas (78.1%), invasive (92%), and histological grade SBR II (50.6%). The most common histopathological types of endometrial and ovarian cancer were adenocarcinoma (72.2%) and serous cystadenocarcinoma (46.7%), respectively. Conclusion: Gynecological cancers are common. Screening is expected to increase at 30 years for cervical cancer and start at age 40 with mammography for breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias dos Genitais Femininos/epidemiologia , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Camarões/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/patologia , Estudos Transversais , Neoplasias do Endométrio/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Endométrio/patologia , Feminino , Neoplasias dos Genitais Femininos/patologia , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 137, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558935

RESUMO

Introduction: Malaria is a life threatening disease caused by the Plasmodium parasite, transmitted through the bites of infected female anopheles' mosquitoes. According to the latest WHO data published in 2017, malaria deaths in Cameroon reached 9.161 deaths accounting for 4.14% of total deaths. The age adjusted death rate is 29.11 per 100,000 and Cameroon is ranked the 30th in the world with a high prevalence of malaria. The aim of this study was therefore, to access the knowledge of the modes of transmission and prevention of malaria among pregnant women attending Antenatal Clinic (ANC) at the Nkwen Health Center, Bamenda. Methods: This was a cross-sectional hospital based survey study. The researchers recruited 51 eligible women in the Nkwen Health Centre and used a validated and pre-tested questionnaires to collect data. Collected data were entered into Excel and analysed using descriptive statistics and the results presented in tables and figures. Results: Sixty four percent of the women have basic knowledge about the mode of malaria transmission. Thirty six percent of the women had little knowledge about malaria transmission modes and the possible dangers of the disease. Conclusion: Slightly above 50% of pregnant women have basic knowledge on the modes of malaria transmission. Lack of knowledge regarding the modes of malaria transmission can be one of the reasons why there is still quite a high level of malaria prevalence among pregnant women attending ANC at the Nkwen Health Center, Bamenda. There is therefore, a need to educate women on malaria transmission modes.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Malária/prevenção & controle , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Camarões , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/transmissão , Gravidez , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
5.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 152, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558949

RESUMO

Introduction: Access to free diagnoses and treatments has been shown to be a major determinant in malaria control. The Cameroon government launched in 2011 and 2014 the exemption of the under-fives' simple and severe malaria treatment policy to increase access to health care and reduce inequality, so as to reduce the mortality related to malaria among the under-fives. This study assessed the effect of providing free malaria treatment in the Buea health district. Methods: This retrospective and cross sectional study was carried out in the Buea health district. Aggregated monthly data from (2008-2010) before and (2012-2014) after the implementation of free malaria treatment was compared, to assess the attributable outcomes of free treatment. A semi-structure questionnaire was also used to assess barriers faced in providing free malaria treatment services by health care workers. Data was collected using a semi-structure questionnaire and a data review summary sheet. The data was analysed using Epi-Info 7, Excel and SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) version 20.0 for Windows. All statistical tests were performed at 95% confidence interval (significance level of 0.05). Results: Increase utilisation of health care; as general and malaria related consultations (by 5.7% (p=0.001) witnessed an increase after the implementation of free malaria treatment services. Severe malaria hospitalisation also increased, indicating that most caregivers used the health facility when complications had already set in, which could have led to no significant reduction in mortality due to malaria among under-five children (4.4%, p=0.533). Conclusion: Utilisation of health care increased; as consultation and morbidity rate increased after the implementation of free malaria treatment services. Communication strategy should therefore be strengthened so as to better disseminate information, so as to enhance the effectiveness of the program. There is the need to make a large-scale study to assess the impact of subsidized malaria treatment.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/administração & dosagem , Política de Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Antimaláricos/economia , Camarões , Cuidadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Financiamento Governamental/economia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Malária/economia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 106, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489084

RESUMO

Introduction: Cervical cancer remains one of the leading health hazards affecting a majority women across the globe. The situation is even more, preoccupying particularly in areas where screening programmes and services are absent. The World Health Organization (WHO) says "cervical cancer is the fourth most frequent cancer in women, with an estimated 570,000 new cases diagnosed in 2018 which represents 6.6% of all female cancers. Approximately 90% of deaths from cervical cancer occurred in low- and middle-income countries". Despite the high mortality rate from cervical cancer globally, the trend could be reduced through a comprehensive approach that includes prevention, early diagnosis, effective screening and treatment programmes. In Cameroon, the prevalence of cervical cancer is 24% among women of reproductive age. An estimated 1,993 new cases are recorded annually in Cameroon with 1676 deaths. Despite this precarious situation, the uptake in cervical cancer screening service remains poor and stands at 19.6% in Cameroon. It is against this background that this paper evaluates the uptake of cervical cancer among women aged 25-65 years in the Kumbo West Health District (KWHD). Specifically, this study assesses the knowledge of women in this health district on cervical cancer and determines factors that affect the uptake of cervical cancer screening services. Methods: This study is a cross-sectional study in the KWHD involving 253 consented women between the ages 25 to 65 years. The principal research instrument was a three-part questionnaire designed to collect information on socio-demographic profile, cervical cancer knowledge and associated factors for uptake in cervical cancer screening. Data was entered in MS Excel and analysed using Excel. Results were presented in tables and figures. Results: Our study reveals that a majority of the participants (74.70%) had heard of cervical cancer and 43.48% had undergone cervical cancer screening. Again, 24.51% and 29.25% of the participants respectively could not identify any risk factor and symptom of cervical cancer. Conclusion: The study revealed that the uptake of cervical cancer screening in KWHD is higher than the national uptake. The level of awareness on the risk factors and symptoms of cervical cancer is low, posing a need to put more emphasis on educating and creating awareness of cervical cancer among communities on risk factors, prevention measures and signs and symptoms in all the health areas of the KWHD.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Camarões , Estudos Transversais , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 109, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489087

RESUMO

Introduction: "Calabar chalk" is a lead-laden pica mostly consumed by pregnant women worldwide as a remedy for morning sickness. This clay material has been shown to have lead levels of up to 40mg per kilogram. Meanwhile blood lead levels, even at doses less than 10µg/dl will be toxic to humans and even worse-off to the fetus as it crosses the placenta. We, therefore, sort to determine the prevalence of "Calabar chalk" consumption amongst pregnant women and if it translates to higher umbilical cord blood lead levels. Methods: We carried out a cross-sectional study by prospectively and consecutively enrolling 300 pregnant women from December 2014 through February 2015. A questionnaire was administered to ascertain "Calabar chalk" consumption. The levels of lead in the umbilical cord blood of 51 participants of each group of those who consumed and didn't consume "Calabar chalk" were measured by spectrometry and compared using the T-test (p<0.05). Results: The prevalence of "Calabar chalk" consumption was 43.33%. This was mostly consumed during pregnancy only (46.34%), with higher rates observed amongst primigravidas. The mean umbilical blood lead levels amongst those who consumed and those who did not consume "Calabar chalk" was 39.19µg/dl and 25.33µg/dl respectively (P=0.111). Conclusion: The prevalence of "Calabar chalk" consumption was high in the pregnant women population. The overall umbilical cord blood lead levels were extremely high in both consumers and non-consumers. We recommend health education and chelation therapy to be considered.


Assuntos
Sangue Fetal/química , Chumbo/sangue , Pica/complicações , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Camarões/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Pica/epidemiologia , Placenta/metabolismo , Gravidez , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
8.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 87, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489065

RESUMO

Introduction: The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in the treatment of HIV infection has provided different good results: like long-term viral suppression, the decrease of opportunistic infections, and repair of the immune system. Methods: We carried out a hospital-based cross-sectional analytic study involving 315 participants 228 were on HAART (group 1) and 87 were HAART-naïve (group 2) at the HIV treatment centre of the Bamenda regional hospital with our study population being all people living with HIV (PLWHIV) in the North West region of Cameroon. The sampling was performed from the 15th of March to the 30th of June 2017. The questionnaire was administered face to face with participants and their vital signs taken. Blood pressure was measured using an automated electronic blood pressure monitor and hypertension (HTN) was considered as systolic blood pressure (BP) ≥ 140 mmHg and/or diastolic BP ≥ 90mmHg. Results: The prevalence of hypertension in the HAART group was 36.44% (n=82, CI: 30.15%-43.10%) compared to that of the HAART-naïve group which was 13.33% (n=12, CI: 7.08%-22.13%, P=0.01). HAART was associated with HTN after controlling for gender, family history of hypertension, body mass index (BMI), smoking and alcohol consumption. The odds ratio of the HAART-treated versus the HAART-naïve was 3.86 (95% CI: 1.98-7.50). We also found an association between TDF/3TC/EFV (OR=2.83), AZT/3TC/NVP (OR=2.82), AZT/3TC+EFV (OR=3.48) and TDF/3TC+NVP (OR=2.36) and HTN whereas those on AZT+3TC+ATV/r (OR=0.84) and TDF+3TC+ATV/r (OR=0.45) were not associated to hypertension. Conclusion: Our result suggests that blood pressure should be periodically measured and treated when necessary in PLWHIV on HAART.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/efeitos adversos , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/métodos , Pressão Sanguínea , Camarões , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
9.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 90, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489068

RESUMO

Introduction: Syphilis rapid test results may be influenced by numerous environmental and genetic factors. Methods: The proportion of false positive syphilis non-treponemal (NT) and treponemal (T) test results using immuno-chromatographic dual syphilis rapid test on serum from Cameroonian blacks (n=103) versus French blacks (n=104) or French caucasians (n=51), all HIV-negative and free of clinical syphilis, was examined. Results: Black individuals in Cameroon had a significantly higher frequency of false positive NT or T tests than black individuals in France. black individuals in France had a higher frequency of indeterminate NT tests as compared to caucasians in France. Conclusion: Both racial and environmental factors may affect immuno-chromatographic dual syphilis rapid testing.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Sorodiagnóstico da Sífilis/métodos , Sífilis/diagnóstico , Treponema pallidum/imunologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Camarões , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Reações Falso-Positivas , França , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Sífilis/imunologia
10.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 94, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489072

RESUMO

Introduction: Soil-transmitted helminth infections (STHs) and schistosomiasis have serious consequences for the health, education and nutrition of children in developing countries. As Loum is known as a highly endemic commune for these infections, several deworming campaigns have been carried out in the past. The purpose of this study was to determine any changes that have occurred since then in the characteristics of these infections among schoolchildren in this site. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in October 2016 on 289 schoolchildren. Stool and urine samples were collected and examined to determine the prevalence and intensity of helminth infections. Results: The highest prevalence was noted for Schistosoma haematobium (34.2%), followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (8.6%), S. mansoni (4.9%) and Trichuris trichiura (4.9%) in decreasing order. A prevalence of less than 2% was noted for each of the other two helminths. The highest mean intensity was found for S. haematobium (39.6 eggs/10 ml of urine), followed by A. lumbricoides (24.2 eggs per gram of faeces: epg), Strongyloides stercoralis (16.6 epg) and Schistosoma mansoni (12.3 epg). The prevalence of T. trichiura was significantly higher in boys and that of S. haematobium in children aged 10 years or older, while the differences between other values of prevalence or between egg burdens were not significant. Conclusion: Compared with values reported in 2003, the prevalence and intensity of schistosomiases and STH infections in Loum has sharply decreased in 2016. Confirmation of this decrease in the years to come allowed to space deworming campaigns among schoolchildren.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Solo/parasitologia , Adolescente , Camarões/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Helmintíase/tratamento farmacológico , Helmintíase/parasitologia , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Esquistossomose/tratamento farmacológico , Esquistossomose/parasitologia , Fatores Sexuais
11.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 264: 531-535, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437980

RESUMO

Epidemiological surveillance systems enable collection, analysis and dissemination of information on the monitored disease to different stakeholders. It may be done manually or using a software. Given the poor performances of manual systems, the software approach is generally adopted. Epidemiological surveillance systems are based on existing softwares, softwares developed from scratch given the specifications or softwares provided by a vendor. These solutions are not always suitable because epidemiological surveillance systems evolve quickly (new drugs, new treatment protocols, etc.), leading to software updates, which can take time (while waiting for a new version) and be expensive. In this article, we present the use of the Model-Driven Architecture (MDA) approach to model and generate epidemiological surveillance systems. The result is a complete MDA based methodology and tool to develop epidemiological surveillance systems. The tool was used to model and generate softwares that are now used for epidemiological surveillance of tuberculosis in Cameroon.


Assuntos
Software , Tuberculose , Camarões , Humanos
12.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 264: 1708-1709, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438304

RESUMO

Implementing electronic data collection for health research can be challenging in resource-limited settings, where electricity, Internet access, and study staff with computer training may be limited. Our team has established a successful research data infrastructure using the REDCap software at three HIV clinics and one coordinating center in Cameroon. We describe our recommended network architecture and guidance for study data teams working in similar settings.


Assuntos
Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Coleta de Dados , Recursos em Saúde , Software , Camarões , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Informática Médica , Pesquisa
13.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 32, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31384347

RESUMO

Introduction: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is vital for people living with HIV (PLWHIV) and a substantial number of HIV/AIDS patients still face stigmatization from family and other members of the community. Stigma could lead to poor retention in HIV care and consequently result in decreased chances of survival and increased risk of HIV transmission. The aim of this study was to determine the retention of patients in HIV care and community participation in the retention of patients in HIV care at the Muyuka Health District, South-West Region, Cameroon. Methods: This was an analytic cross-sectional retrospective study where 385 hospital records of people living with HIV (PLWHIV) enrolled in HIV care were reviewed, and we administered 348 questionnaires to community members. Data were collected and analysed using bivariate analysis and chi-square test. The Susan Rifkin's scoring method was used to measure community participation. Statistical significance was set at P-value < 0.05. Results: A total number of 112(29.1%) of people living with HIV (PLWHIV) enrolled in HIV care were retained in HIV care against 273(70.9%), who were lost to follow-up over a two year and four months period. Patients on a Zidovudine containing ART regimen were about 7 times more likely to be lost to follow-up (OR 6.92; 95% CI 1.80-26.60, P-value = 0.005). The overall community participation in the retention of adults in HIV care in the Muyuka Health District was low; mean resource allocation score = 2.43, mean leadership score = 1.0; mean organization factor score = 1.30; but the mean needs assessment score was good (4.0). Conclusion: retention of patients enrolled in HIV care, and the community participation in the retention were low. Collaborations between health care structures and community initiatives should be resourced to foster continuum of care for people living with HIV (PLWHIV).


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Participação da Comunidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Estereotipagem , Adulto , Camarões , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Humanos , Perda de Seguimento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estigma Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
14.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 38, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31384353

RESUMO

Introduction: Cervical cancer is a malignant proliferation of the cells of the uterine cervix and can be treated if diagnosed earlier. It is the second most common gynecological malignancy worldwide and the leading cause of cancer associated mortality among women in Africa and Cameroon. This study sort to determine the current state of knowledge of cervical cancer and its risk factors in the Buea Health District of the South West Region of Cameroon. Methods: This was a cross-sectional community based survey. We recruited 433 eligible women, in four (4) Health Areas (Molyko, Bolifamba, Muea and Buea Town) of the Buea Health District and used validated and pre-tested questionnaires to collect data. Collected data were keyed into Epi info version 7.2 statistical software and exported to SPSS Version 25 for analysis. Level of significance was set at P-value < 0.05. Results: Fifty eight percent (58%) of the participants had good knowledge of cervical cancer. 58.99% (95%CI = 54.30-63.52) had good knowledge on the risk factors of cervical cancer. 40% knew at least one of the following risk factors; cigarette smoking, many sexual partners, family history of cervical cancer, being HIV/AIDS positive and giving birth 5 or more times. There was a significant association, OR = 7.5; 95%CI = 2.14-26.33; P = 0.001; X2 = 11.4 between having heard of cervical cancer and having "good" knowledge of cervical cancer among women in Buea. Conclusion: Most of the women had heard of cervical cancer but the knowledge of the risk factors of cervical cancer among women aged 18-68 years in the Buea Health District is low. We found no association between awareness and knowledge of risk factors among the women.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Camarões , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 47, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31448010

RESUMO

Introduction: Hypogonadism refers to a syndrome that results from failure of gonads to function properly. The main concern is considerable rise in morbidity, as shown by increased cardiovascular risk, infertility, osteoporosis and above all, the psychological impact on the life of the patients with hypogonadism. Judicious steroid replacement and culturally-sensitive psychological support before and during steroid therapy remains the key tool in the management of this condition. The present study aimed at filling the knowledge gap on hypogonadism in Cameroon. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study over a period of 12 months, in 3 reference hospitals of Cameroon. We included males and females diagnosed with hypogonadism, aged 16 to 50 years and 16 to 45 years respectively. After a complete clinical examination, patients were invited to fill the modified middlesex hospital questionnaire for psychoneurotic evaluation. Results: We recruited 59 patients with a sex ratio of 1:1. The mean age of the females and males were 27.7 ± 9.1years and 30.8 ± 11.7 years respectively. Normosmic Idiopathic Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism (NIHH) was the most common presentation. Compulsive obsessive traits, phobic anxiety and hysterical trait, were most pronounced in these patients. Testosterone titers significantly correlated positively with testicular size and negatively with body mass index (BMI). A significant positive correlation was found between the testicular volumes measured with ultrasound (US) and with the orchidometer. Conclusion: Normosmic idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is the most common presentation of hypogonadism in the study population. There is a significant psychosocial impact requiring further investigation and attention.


Assuntos
Hipogonadismo/fisiopatologia , Testículo/diagnóstico por imagem , Testosterona/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Camarões , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hipogonadismo/epidemiologia , Hipogonadismo/psicologia , Histeria/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/epidemiologia , Transtornos Fóbicos/epidemiologia , Ultrassonografia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 73, 2019.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31448035

RESUMO

Introduction: Esophageal cancer is rare. Poor prognosis is due to delayed diagnosis. Five year survival is less than 20%. This study aimed to investigate the factors associated with survival of patients with esophageal cancer in Cameroon. Methods: We conducted a prognostic study in the General Hospitals in Yaoundé and in Douala over a period of 11 years from 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2015. The parameters studied were those associated with survival. Survival was established on the basis of the date of diagnosis and of the date of death or of the last visit. SPSS software (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) version 23 allowed for data analysis. Kaplan Meier curve was used to estimate the survival function. Log RankTest allowed for comparison among the different groups. Cox regression helped to highlight the different factors associated with it. Significance level was set at 0.05. Results: We collected data from 49 medical records. The average age of patients was 57.83 years. There was a male predominance (71.4%; n=35) with a sex ratio of 2.49. The follow-up period was 3.2 months. Median survival was 6.67 months (CI 95% [1.33-10.4]) and the average survival time was 7.99 months (CI 95% [4.42-11.17]). Multivariate-adjusted analysis showed that stage IV was a predictive factor of mortality (HR = 2.79; CI95% [1.13-6.89], p = 0.025]). Conclusion: Esophageal cancer is a rare disease with poor prognosis. Prognostic factor is the tumor stage.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Adulto , Camarões/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Esofágicas/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hospitais Gerais , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Prev Vet Med ; 169: 104690, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311631

RESUMO

Taenia solium, a zoonotic tapeworm species of human and pigs, has been targeted by the World Health Organisation (WHO) for elimination in endemic areas of Africa, Latin America and some parts of Asia. Unfortunately, the assessment of control measures against T. solium is complicated by the lack of specificity of current immunodiagnostic techniques for diagnosis of porcine cysticercosis. Many authors have concluded that the prevalence of T. hydatigena in pigs in Africa is low and extensive epidemiological studies on T. solium cysticercosis in pigs have been carried out using serological tests that cannot differentiate the taeniid species. To estimate and compare the prevalence of T. solium and T. hydatigena in pigs in Cameroon, we examined 416 slaughtered pigs at a pig abattoir in Yaoundé city with the animals originating from several parts of the country. At post-mortem inspection, 35 pigs (8.4%; 95% Confidence Interval (CI), 5.9-11.5 %) were found infected exclusively with T. solium and 27 (6.5%; 95% CI, 4.3-9.3 %) infected exclusively with T. hydatigena metacestodes. One animal was infected with T. solium and T. hydatigena. A stochastic simulation model which took into account the sensitivity of dissection of the tongue, external masseters and heart for diagnosis of T. solium porcine cysticercosis (TMH dissection test) and examination of mesentery, surfaces of the intestines and liver to identify T. hydatigena cysticerci in slaughtered pigs was developed to estimate the prevalence of these taeniid species. The results revealed that the actual prevalence of T. solium and T. hydatigena in Cameroon were 24.8% (95% CI, 20.1-30.5%) and 19.2% (95% CI, 15.1-24.1%), respectively. This study reports the highest porcine T. hydatigena prevalence ever in Africa and adjusted the prevalence of porcine T. solium infection obtained with genus-specific Ag-ELISA (Dorny et al., 2000) in Cameroon due to the presence of T. hydatigena.


Assuntos
Cisticercose/veterinária , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia , Taenia/isolamento & purificação , Matadouros , Animais , Camarões/epidemiologia , Cisticercose/epidemiologia , Cisticercose/parasitologia , Cisticercose/patologia , Geografia , Testes Imunológicos , Prevalência , Análise de Regressão , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/patologia , Taenia/imunologia
18.
Pan Afr Med J ; 32: 146, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303917

RESUMO

Introduction: there are controversies surrounding the practice of abortion especially in developing countries of Africa. Cameroon is not an exception to this and hence this study aims at assessing knowledge on the awareness of abortion laws, the factors that determine abortion and people's perceptions on the legality of abortion in Cameroon. Methods: the study is cross-sectional in its design. A total of 224 women were randomly sampled. Data for the study were collected through the use of questionnaires from the sampled women of child bearing age. These were used to assess knowledge on the awareness of abortion laws and the determinants of abortion. The data were analysed using STATA 15. Results: the prevalence of induced abortion was 21%. The major determinants of abortion among these women were; desire to stay in school (28%), fear of parents (24%) and shame of being pregnant out of wedlock (26%). Furthermore, many women are not aware of the situations where abortion is allowed and hence some still undertake illegal abortions even when they find themselves in situations deserving a legal abortion. Conclusion: induced abortion is still common in Buea, Cameroon despite the fact that it is illegal. Cameroon's legal and health system needs to work in harmony in order to lessen the legal processes of having a legal abortion.


Assuntos
Aborto Criminoso/estatística & dados numéricos , Aborto Induzido/estatística & dados numéricos , Aborto Legal/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Aborto Induzido/legislação & jurisprudência , Aborto Induzido/psicologia , Camarões , Estudos Transversais , Países em Desenvolvimento , Medo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Vergonha
19.
Pan Afr Med J ; 32: 174, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303943

RESUMO

Introduction: Precancerous cervical lesion is significantly a health problem globally. Thus, screening targeting women between the ages of 17-60 is being undertaken in developing countries, including Cameroon. Over 50% (7.8 per 100,000) women die of cervical cancer every year. This study was to determine the prevalence of precancerous cervical lesion, the age demography and access the risk factor. Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted from August 09th to October 17th 2017. A total of 60 women participated, and were screened for precancerous cervical lesion. Data were collected by using a questionnaire. Visual inspection with acetic acid and visual inspection with Lugol's iodine was applied for the screening. SPSS version 16.0 was used for data entry and analysis. Logistic regression analysis was fitted and odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals and p-values were computed to identify factors associated with precancerous cervical cancer lesion. Results: Out of 60 study participants, 2(3.33%) were found to be positive for precancerous cervical cancer lesion. Conclusion: The prevalence of precancerous cervical lesion in women that consulted at the Mezam polyclinic is high.


Assuntos
Colo do Útero/patologia , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Ácido Acético/química , Adolescente , Adulto , Camarões/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Iodetos/química , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/diagnóstico , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Pan Afr Med J ; 32: 162, 2019.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303931

RESUMO

Introduction: Addition in patients of less than 40 years is not uncommon in our practice. We investigated the need for addition after objective refraction and thus determine the average age of onset of the presbyopia. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study of patients aged 35-45 years at the Central Hospital of Yaoundé over a period of three months. All patients underwent cycloplegic refraction. Distance visual acuity was corrected after instillation of cycloplegic eye drops while near addition was assessed two days later when the cycloplegia was no longer effective. Possible additional distance correction was done 2 days after cycloplegia. Statistical analysis was done using IBM SPSS 20.0 software. Results: We examined 55 patients, 110 eyes. The average age of patients was 41.87±2.5 years, the sex-ratio was 0.28. There was a female predominance. Hypermetropic astigmatism was the most common ametropia (58.2% of cases) followed by hyperopia (24.6%).No patient was myopic. the average age of presbyopia onset in this age group was 43.2±1.7 years. After objective correction of distance visual acuity, no patient needed for addition before the age of 40. Moreover, 4 out of 10 patients with hypermetropic ametropia did not need addition before the age of 40. Addition was significantly associated with age. Conclusion: The average age of presbyopia onset is 43.2±1.7 years. Before the age of 45, addition must be preceded by objective refraction.


Assuntos
Hiperopia/epidemiologia , Miopia/epidemiologia , Presbiopia/epidemiologia , Erros de Refração/epidemiologia , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Idade de Início , Camarões/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Midriáticos/administração & dosagem , Acuidade Visual
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