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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 726, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008333

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ivermectin is an excellent microfilaricide against Onchocerca volvulus. However, in some regions, long term use of ivermectin has resulted in sub-optimal responses to the treatment. More data to properly document the phenomenon in various contexts of ivermectin mass drug administration (IVM-MDA) is needed. Also, there is a need to accurately monitor a possible repopulation of skin by microfilariae following treatment. Skin snip microscopy is known to have a low sensitivity in individuals with light infections, which can be the case following treatment. This study was designed with two complementary objectives: (i) to assess the susceptibility of O. volvulus microfilariae to ivermectin in two areas undergoing IVM-MDA for different lengths of time, and (ii) to document the repopulation of skin by the O. volvulus microfilariae following treatment, using 3 independent diagnostic techniques. METHOD: Identified microfilaridermic individuals were treated with ivermectin and re-examined after 1, 3, and 6 months using microscopy, actin real-time PCR (actin-qPCR) and O-150 LAMP assays. Susceptibility to ivermectin and trends in detecting reappearance of skin microfilariae were determined using three techniques. Microscopy was used as an imperfect gold standard to determine the performance of actin-qPCR and LAMP. RESULTS: In Bafia with over 20 years of IVM-MDA, 11/51 (21.6%) direct observe treated microfilaridemic participants were still positive for skin microfilariae after 1 month. In Melong, with 10 years of IVM-MDA, 2/29 (6.9%) treated participants were still positive. The microfilarial density reduction per skin biopsy within one month following treatment was significantly lower in participants from Bafia. In both study sites, the molecular techniques detected higher proportions of infected individuals than microscopy at all monitoring time points. LAMP demonstrated the highest levels of sensitivity and real-time PCR was found to have the highest specificity. CONCLUSION: Patterns in skin mirofilariae clearance and repopulation were established. O. volvulus worms from Bafia with higher number of annual MDA displayed a lower clearance and higher repopulation rate after treatment with ivermectin. Molecular assays displayed higher sensitivity in monitoring O. volvulus microfilaridemia within six months following treatment.


Assuntos
Antiparasitários/uso terapêutico , Ivermectina/uso terapêutico , Onchocerca volvulus/fisiologia , Oncocercose/tratamento farmacológico , Pele/patologia , Adolescente , Animais , Biópsia , Camarões , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos , Microscopia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Adulto Jovem
2.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(9): e0008700, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886678

RESUMO

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (COVID 19) has plagued the world with about 7,8 million confirmed cases and over 430,000 deaths as of June 13th, 2020. The knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) people hold towards this new disease could play a major role in the way they accept measures put in place to curb its spread and their willingness to seek and adhere to care. We sought to understand if: a) demographic variables of Cameroonian residents could influence KAP and symptomatology, and b) KAP could influence the risk of having COVID19.A cross-sectional KAP/symptomatology online survey was conducted between April 20 to May 20. All analyses were performed using SPSS version 23. Of all respondents (1006), 53.1% were female, 26.6% were students, 26.9% interacted face to face and 62.8% were residents in Yaoundé with a median age of 33. The overall high score was 84.19% for knowledge, 69% for attitude, and 60.8% for practice towards COVID 19. Age > 20 years was associated with a high knowledge of COVID 19. Women had lower practice scores compared to men (OR = 0.72; 95%CI 0.56-0.92). 41 respondents had ≥3 symptoms and only 9 (22.95%) of them had called 1510 (emergency number). There was no significant difference between KAP and symptomatology. The presence of ≥ 3 symptoms in 4% of respondents (with 56% of them having co-morbidities) supports the current trend in the number of confirmed cases (8681) in Cameroon. The continuous increase in the number of cases and the overall good KAP warrants further investigation to assess the effectiveness of the measures put in place to curb the spread of the disease. Sensitization is paramount to preclude negative health-seeking behaviors and encourage positive preventive and therapeutic practices, for fear of an increase in mortality.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Camarões/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
4.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237832, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841283

RESUMO

This paper analyses the evolution of COVID-19 in Cameroon over the period March 6-April 2020 using SIR models. Specifically, we 1) evaluate the basic reproduction number of the virus, 2) determine the peak of the infection and the spread-out period of the disease, and 3) simulate the interventions of public health authorities. Data used in this study is obtained from the Cameroonian Public Health Ministry. The results suggest that over the identified period, the reproduction number of COVID-19 in Cameroon is about 1.5, and the peak of the infection should have occurred at the end of May 2020 with about 7.7% of the population infected. Furthermore, the implementation of efficient public health policies could help flatten the epidemic curve.


Assuntos
Número Básico de Reprodução , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Progressão da Doença , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Algoritmos , Betacoronavirus , Camarões/epidemiologia , Simulação por Computador , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Funções Verossimilhança , Modelos Estatísticos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle
5.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008616, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853202

RESUMO

Podoconiosis is a type of tropical lymphedema that causes massive swelling of the lower limbs. The disease is associated with both economic insecurity, due to long-term morbidity-related loss of productivity, and intense social stigma. The geographical distribution and burden of podoconiosis in Africa are uncertain. We applied statistical modelling to the most comprehensive database compiled to date to predict the environmental suitability of podoconiosis in the African continent. By combining climate and environmental data and overlaying population figures, we predicted the environmental suitability and human population at risk of podoconiosis in Africa. Environmental suitability for podoconiosis was predicted in 29 African countries. In the year 2020, the total population in areas suitable for podoconiosis is estimated at 114.5 million people, (95% uncertainty interval: 109.4-123.9) with 16.9 million in areas suitable for both lymphatic filariasis and podoconiosis. Of the total 5,712 implementation units (typically second administrative-level units, such as districts) defined by the World Health Organization in Africa, 1,655 (29.0%) were found to be environmentally suitable for podoconiosis. The majority of implementation units with high environmental suitability are located in Angola (80, 4.8%), Cameroon (170, 10.3%), the DRC (244, 14.7%), Ethiopia (495, 29.9%), Kenya (217, 13.1%), Uganda (116, 7.0%) and Tanzania (112, 6.8%). Of the 1,655 environmentally suitable implementation units, 960 (58.0%) require more detailed community-level mapping. Our estimates provide key evidence of the population at risk and geographical extent of podoconiosis in Africa, which will help decision-makers to better plan more integrated intervention programmes.


Assuntos
Elefantíase/epidemiologia , África/epidemiologia , Angola/epidemiologia , Camarões/epidemiologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , República Democrática do Congo/epidemiologia , Filariose Linfática/epidemiologia , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Previsões , Geografia , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Morbidade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Uganda/epidemiologia
6.
Vasc Health Risk Manag ; 16: 317-324, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32801728

RESUMO

Background: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a serious complication in hospitalized patients. It is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Therefore, its prevention is of great importance. There is paucity of data on the incidence of VTE in hospitalized patients in Cameroon. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of symptomatic VTE, its risk factors and the proportion of patients at risk that receive thromboprophylaxis in patients hospitalized in the medical and surgical units in two hospitals in the South West Region of Cameroon. Methods: A prospective study was performed in the medical and surgical units from January to March 2018. All consecutive eligible patients admitted for at least 3 days were included. Patient profile and risk factors were recorded. Patients were followed and evaluated for signs and symptoms of VTE until discharge from hospital. Suspected VTE was confirmed using compression ultrasonography and computed tomography. Results: A total of 314 patients were included of which 58.7% were females. The mean age was 46±17.9 years. Patients aged <40 years represented 42% of the study population. Three cases of symptomatic VTE were recorded. The incidence of symptomatic VTE was 1% (95% CI: 0.3-2.8%). The prevalence of VTE risk was 93.6% with 32.5% being at high risk. The risk was 94.6% in medical patients and 92.8% in surgical patients. Among the patients at risk, only 32.5% received thromboprophylaxis. Thromboprophylaxis was significantly higher in surgical patients compared to medical patients (45.2% versus 18.7%; p<0.0001). Conclusion: The incidence of VTE in hospitalized medical and surgical patients appeared low but likely underestimated considering the high prevalence of patients at risk of VTE coupled with the underutilization of thromboprophylaxis. Clinicians should assess risk of VTE in conjunction with the clinical situation to determine the most appropriate type of prophylaxis as well as the duration of prophylaxis for VTE.


Assuntos
Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Hospitalização , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/efeitos adversos , Tromboembolia Venosa/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Idoso , Camarões/epidemiologia , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Feminino , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Padrões de Prática Médica , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Tromboembolia Venosa/diagnóstico , Adulto Jovem
7.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237671, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797068

RESUMO

In high malaria transmission settings, the use of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine-based intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy (IPTp-SP) has resulted in decreased antibody (Ab) levels to VAR2CSA. However, information of Ab levels in areas of low or intermediate malaria transmission after long-term implementation of IPTp-SP is still lacking. The present study sought to evaluate antibody prevalence and levels in women at delivery in Etoudi, a peri-urban area in the capital of Yaoundé, Cameroon, that is a relatively low-malaria transmission area. Peripheral plasma samples from 130 pregnant women were collected at delivery and tested for IgG to the full-length recombinant VAR2CSA (FV2) and its most immunogenic subdomain, DBL5. The study was conducted between 2013 and 2015, approximately ten years after implementation of IPTp-SP in Cameroon. About 8.6% of the women attending the clinic had placental malaria (PM). One, two or 3 doses of SP did not impact significantly on either the percentage of women with Ab to FV2 and DBL5 or Ab levels in Ab-positive women compared to women not taking SP. The prevalence of Ab to FV2 and DBL5 was only 36.9% and 36.1%, respectively. Surprisingly, among women who had PM at delivery, only 61.5% and 57.7% had Ab to FV2 and DBL5, respectively, with only 52.9% and 47.1% in PM-positive paucigravidae and 77.7% of multigravidae having Ab to both antigens. These results suggest that long-term implementation of IPTp-SP in a low-malaria transmission area results in few women having Ab to VAR2CSA.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/imunologia , Antígenos de Protozoários/imunologia , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Malária Falciparum/prevenção & controle , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Pirimetamina/uso terapêutico , Sulfadoxina/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Camarões/epidemiologia , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Malária/sangue , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/imunologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Malária Falciparum/sangue , Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Malária Falciparum/imunologia , Plasmodium falciparum/efeitos dos fármacos , Plasmodium falciparum/imunologia , Gravidez , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/sangue , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(8): 507, 2020 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32653956

RESUMO

Changes in LULC and landscape factors impact water quality at spatial and temporal scales. In this study, we investigated the current status in water quality for sub-watersheds of the southern portion of the Nyong River basin of Cameroon from 1994 to 2014 using the WHO guideline. The trends in the water quality parameters were explored using Mann-Kendall test, and their relationship with changes in LULC and landscape factors were analysed using multiple linear regression and Pearson correlation. The current status in water quality did not exceed the WHO guideline limits for drinking water despite a 16% decrease in forest cover and 10% increase in agricultural areas during the period of record. The concentration and changes in water quality trends varied significantly among the sub-watersheds. The concentration of Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, SiO2, K+, DOC, SPM and WT showed significantly increasing trends in the Nsimi small sub-watershed, while only Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ and NO3- showed significantly increasing trends in the large sub-watersheds of Mbalmayo and Olama. A combination of one to five LULC and landscape factors, including changes in urban cover, young secondary forest, slope, elevation and population explained 10 to 70% of the changes in water quality trends at watershed scale. Although the interaction of LULC and landscape factors seems to have low impact on the water quality so far, maintaining greater than 70% forest cover and appropriate fallow farming system is invaluable to protecting water quality in the Nyong River basin in the Congo basin and in other forest-rich regions.


Assuntos
Rios , Qualidade da Água , Agricultura , Camarões , Monitoramento Ambiental
10.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236267, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32701976

RESUMO

Influenza virus accounts for majority of respiratory virus infections in Cameroon. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), influenza-like illnesses (ILI) are identified by a measured temperature of ≥38°C and cough, with onset within the past 10 days. Other symptoms could as well be observed however, none of these are specific to influenza alone. This study aimed to determine symptom based predictors of influenza virus infection in Cameroon. Individuals with ILI were recruited from 2009-2018 in sentinel sites of the influenza surveillance system in Cameroon according to the WHO case definition. Individual data collection forms accompanied each respiratory sample and contained clinical data. Samples were analyzed for influenza using the gold standard assay. Two statistical methods were compared to determine the most reliable clinical predictors of influenza virus activity in Cameroon: binomial logistic predictive model and random forest model. Analyses were performed in R version 3.5.2. A total of 11816 participants were recruited, of which, 24.0% were positive for influenza virus. Binomial logistic predictive model revealed that the presence of cough, rhinorrhoea, headache and myalgia are significant predictors of influenza positivity. The prediction model had a sensitivity of 75.6%, specificity of 46.6% and AUC of 66.7%. The random forest model categorized the reported symptoms according to their degree of importance in predicting influenza virus infection. Myalgia had a 2-fold higher value in predicting influenza virus infection compared to any other symptom followed by arthralgia, head ache, rhinorrhoea and sore throat. The model had a OOB error rate of 25.86%. Analysis showed that the random forest model had a better performance over the binomial regression model in predicting influenza infection. Rhinorrhoea, headache and myalgia were symptoms reported by both models as significant predictors of influenza infection in Cameroon. These symptoms could be used by clinicians in their decision to treat patients.


Assuntos
Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Camarões/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
11.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235958, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692778

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART), pre-treatment drug resistance (PDR) appears ≥10% amongst ART-initiators in many developing countries, including Cameroon. Northwest region-Cameroon having the second epidemiological burden of HIV infection, generating data on PDR in these geographical settings, will enhance evidence-based decision-making. OBJECTIVES: We sought to ascertain levels of PDR and HIV-1 clade dispersal in rural and urban settings, and their potential association with subtype distribution and CD4-staging. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted from February to May 2017 among patients recently diagnosed with HIV-infection and initiating ART at the Bamenda regional Hospital (urban setting) and the Mbingo Baptist hospital (rural setting). Protease and reverse transcriptase sequencing was performed using an in-house protocol and pre-treatment drug resistance mutations were interpreted using Stanford HIVdb.v8.3. Phylogeny was performed for subtype assignation. RESULTS: A total of 61 patient sequences were generated from ART initiators (median age: 37 years old; 57.4% female; median CD4 cell count: 184 [IQR: 35-387] in urban vs. 161 [IQR: 96-322] cells/mm3 in rural). Overall, the level of PDR was 9.8% (6/61). Of note, burden of PDR was almost doubled in urban (12.9% [4/31]) compared to rural setting 6.7% (2/30), p = 0.352). Fifteen (15) PDR mutations were found among four patients the urban settings [6 resistance mutations to NRTIs:[M41L (2), E44D (1), K65R (1), K70E (1), M184V/I (2), K219R (1)] and 6 resistance mutations to NNRTIs: K103N (1), E138A/G (2), V179E (1), M230L (1), K238T (1), P225H (1)] against two (02) mutations found in two patients in the rural setting[2 resistant mutations to NNRTIs: E138A (1) and Y188H (1)]. The rural setting showed more genetic diversity (8 subtypes) than the urban setting (5 subtypes), with CRF02_AG being the most prevalent clade (72.1% [44/61]). Of note, level of PDR was similar between patients infected with CRF02_AG and non-CRF02_AG infected (9.1% [4/44]) vs. 11.8% [2/17]), p = 1.000). Moreover, PDR appeared higher in patients with CD4 cell count <200 cells/mm3 compared to those with CD4 cell count ≥200 cells/mm3 (14.7% [5/34]) vs. 3.7% [1/27]), p = 0.214). CONCLUSIONS: PDR is at a moderate rate in the Northwest region of Cameroon, with higher burden within urban populations. CRF02_AG is the most predominant clade in both urban and rural settings. No effect of HIV molecular epidemiology and CD4-staging on the presence of PDR in patients living in these settings was found. Our findings suggest close monitoring, NNRTI-sparing regimens or sequencing for patients initiating ART, especially in urban settings.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Viral/genética , Variação Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , HIV-1/genética , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Camarões/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Genótipo , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/genética , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Masculino , População Rural , População Urbana , Carga Viral/genética
12.
Rech Soins Infirm ; 140(1): 97-106, 2020 03.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32524806

RESUMO

Introduction : The brutal occurrence of a stroke upsets the life of a parent, within his or her family and circle of friends. Context : The lack of medical-social interventions and support from a health professional for parents who have suffered a stroke forces family caregivers to provide care for their parents. The aim of this study is to describe and understand the subjective lived experience of family caregivers of stroke patients in such a context. Method : Using a clinical method and interpretative phenomenological analysis, eight clinical interviews were conducted at home with four family caregivers (two interviews per caregiver) from two separate families (two caregivers per family), recruited at the neurology unit in the internal medicine department at Yaoundé military hospital. Results : Throughout the whole care process, family caregivers have a difficult experience, with painful affects and psychological fatigue. They are forced into subjugation by unconscious alliances through the quality of the bond they have with the parent who has had the stroke. The strengthening of this bond enables them to avoid the risk of psychological and relational collapse.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Camarões , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa
13.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(6): e0008334, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584806

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Snakebite envenoming causes 81,000-138,000 annual human deaths and pain, terror, or disability in 4.5-5.4 million victims. Accurate community-based epidemiological data is scarce. Our objective was to assess snakebite incidence, mortality, and health-seeking behavior, in an affected health district of Cameroon. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional multicluster household survey in Akonolinga health district, Centre Region, Cameroon, from October to December 2016. Using probability-proportional-to-size, 20 villages were randomly selected, then, all inhabited households were systematically selected. Annual incidence and adjusted odds-ratio for predictors were estimated. FINDINGS: Among the 9,924 participants, 66 suffered a snakebite during the past year: the resulting incidence is 665 (95%CI: 519-841) per 100,000 inhabitants per year. Victims were aged 5-75y (median: 34y), 53% were male and 57% farmer-cultivators. Two children died (case-fatality rate: 3%); 39 (59%) presented severity signs, including 2 (3%) neurotoxic syndromes, 20 (30%) systemic digestive syndromes, and 17 (26%) severe cytotoxic syndromes. Non-severe cases included 20 (30%) mild cytotoxic syndromes and 7 (11%) dry bites. Only two victims (3%) received antivenom. 59 (89%) used family traditional practices, 25 (38%) traditional healers, and 31 (47%) consulted health facilities. Median delays to these three care-options were 5, 45, and 60 minutes, respectively. Traditional treatments included incisions (n = 57; 86%), tourniquets (n = 51; 77%) and black-stones (n = 44; 67%). The two last procedures were also used in health facilities (n = 18). Consulting traditional healers was associated with severity (adjusted-OR: 19.6 (2.5-156), p = 0.005) and complications (aOR: 17.3, 2.4-123, p = 0.004). Long-term disabilities were subjective psychological trauma (n = 47; 71%), finger amputation (n = 1; 2%), ankylosis (n = 1; 2%) and chronic pain (n = 1; 2%). CONCLUSIONS: We observed alarming levels of snakebite incidence, mortality, antivenom scarcity, and use of traditional medicine. It could represent several thousands of victims at national level. We suggested conducting a country-wide study, and improving antivenom supply, first-aid training, for traditional healers and health professionals.


Assuntos
Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Mordeduras de Serpentes/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antivenenos/administração & dosagem , Camarões/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Características da Família , Feminino , Primeiros Socorros , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Regressão , Mordeduras de Serpentes/prevenção & controle , Mordeduras de Serpentes/terapia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
14.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(29): 36487-36497, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32562222

RESUMO

Akilbenza clay (Akil) was characterized by XRD, FT-TIR, XRF, EDX, SEM, and N2 gas adsorption. The adsorption performance for Cu(II) ions by this clay was also studied. Akil is composed mainly of kaolinite with mica illite and quartz as minor minerals. The ATR-FTIR analysis shows Si-O-Al, Si-O, Al-O, Si-OH, and Al-OH as the main functional groups. SEM indicates that the clay particles are irregular in shape and size by supported BJH. Akil has a specific surface area of 45.62 m2/g with the presence of both mesopores and micropores. The average pore diameter is 19.4196 nm. XRF and EDX reveal that the clay is mainly composed of silica, aluminum, and iron with a Si/Al ratio of 1.41. For the adsorption performance of Cu(II) ions, a maximum quantity of 76 mg/g was recorded. Freundlich isotherm models best describe the adsorption processes at equilibrium. Kinetic studies revealed that the adsorption process was well explained with pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The value of the mean energy of adsorption from Temkin isotherm and the values from Elovich kinetic model suggest that the adsorption of Copper(II) ions on Akil is a combination between ion exchange and electrostatic attraction. The results obtained can be introduced into the database of knowledge on clay minerals with emphasis on their use for the removal of Cu(II) ions.


Assuntos
Argila , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Adsorção , Camarões , Cobre , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Íons , Cinética , Termodinâmica
15.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234572, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555588

RESUMO

The Asian mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Skuse), is an invasive mosquito which has become one of the most important vectors of dengue, Zika, and chikungunya viruses worldwide. This species was reported for the first time in Cameroon in early 2000s and became the dominant Aedes species in the urban areas in the southern part of Cameroon but remain poorly characterized. Here, we assessed the susceptibility profile of A. albopictus collected throughout Cameroon and investigated the potential resistance mechanisms involved. Immature stages of A. albopictus were collected between March and July 2017 in 15 locations across Cameroon and reared until G1/G2 generation. Larval, adult bioassays, and synergists [piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and diethyl maleate (DEM)] assays were carried out according to WHO recommendations. F1534C mutation was genotyped in field collected adults (Go) using allele specific PCR. All tested populations were susceptible to both larvicides, temephos and Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti), after larval bioassays. Adult bioassays revealed a high level of resistance of A. albopictus to 4% DDT with mortality rates ranging from 12.42% in Bafang to 75.04% in Kumba. The resistance was reported also in 0.05% deltamethrin, 0.25% permethrin, and 0.1% propoxur in some locations. A loss of susceptibility to 0.1% bendiocarb was found in one of three populations analysed. A full susceptibility to 1% fenitrothion were observed across the country. A full recovery or partial of susceptibility was observed in A. albopictus when pre-exposed to PBO or DEM and then to DDT and permethrin, respectively. The F1534C kdr mutation was not detected in A. albopictus. This study showed that the susceptibility profile of A. albopictus to insecticide vary according to the sampling location and insecticides used. These findings are useful to planning vector control program against arbovirus vectors in Cameroon and can be used as baseline data for further researches.


Assuntos
Aedes/fisiologia , Resistência a Inseticidas/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Vetores/transmissão , Animais , Camarões , Larva/fisiologia
16.
Mol Biol Rep ; 47(6): 4827-4833, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-277073

RESUMO

Pangolins, or scaly anteaters, have recently been flagshiped as one of the most illegally traded mammals, and as a corollary, as potential intermediate hosts at the origin of the COVID-19 pandemic. In order to improve the traceability of their trade, we developed 20 polymorphic microsatellite loci for the white-bellied pangolin (Phataginus tricuspis), the species most frequently found on African bushmeat markets. We genotyped 24 white-bellied pangolins from the Douala market, Cameroon, originating from the Ebo forest c. 75 km north-east of Douala. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 4 to 12 (mean = 6.95), and mean observed and expected heterozygosities were 0.592 (0.208-0.875) and 0.671 (0.469-0.836), respectively. Genetic diversity was higher than that cross-estimated from microsatellite loci developed for other species of pangolins. Two loci deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and two loci showed linkage disequilibrium. Genetic variance (PCoA) was increased with the addition of 13 pangolins of unknown origin, possibly suggesting that the Douala market is fed from differentiated source populations of white-bellied pangolins. Each of the 37 individuals had a unique multilocus genotype. The unbiased probability of identity (uPI) and the probability of identity among siblings (PIsibs) were both very low (uPI = 8.443 e-21; PIsibs = 1.011 e-07). Only five microsatellite loci were needed to reach the conservative value of PIsibs < 0.01, overall indicating a powerful discriminating power of our combined loci. These 20 newly developed microsatellite loci might prove useful in tracing the local-to-global trade of the white-bellied pangolin, and will hopefully contribute to the DNA-assisted implementation of future conservation strategies at reasonable costs.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Eutérios/genética , Repetições de Microssatélites , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Zoonoses/transmissão , Alelos , Animais , Camarões/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Eutérios/virologia , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Marcadores Genéticos , Genótipo , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/virologia
17.
Sante Publique ; HS1(S1): 45-52, 2020.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32374093

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Policy directions in the health sector are based on research which provides insight into implemented actions and helps to formulate improvement recommendations for health. In Cameroon, an innovative experience of anthropological research on newborn health was followed by a process of appropriating findings by the Ministry of Public Health aiming at improving the quality of care. We suggest reporting this Cameroonian experience of interdisciplinary collaboration and involved research. METHOD: Coinciding with the anthropological study on newborn care in hospital maternities and at home conducted by researchers in the field of anthropology from December 2016 to June 2017, a process of appropriating findings was carried out. This article accurately describes this process both at the peripheral level, during "reflexive returns" in investigated maternity hospitals, and at the central level within the framework of work conducted by the study's steering committee. It reports on the changes that have taken place as a result of the study both at the level of health structures and at the level of national policies and strategies with a view to improving the quality of newborns care. RESULTS: The output of this process is twofold. At the peripheral level, activities of "reflexive returns" led to in situ changes of some harmful practices detrimental to the survival of the newborn, such as inappropriate use of the cradle in the birth room and lack of knowledge relative to the fight against hypothermia through the practice of skin-to-skin contact. At central level, changes concerned communication and strengthening policies and strategies of newborn care. CONCLUSION: The contribution of anthropology in the production evidence-based data is of paramount importance for the implementation of strategies to improve the quality of neonatal care. It opens up new perspectives for the sustainable improvement of the quality of care for newborns.


Assuntos
Antropologia , Cuidado do Lactente/métodos , Saúde do Lactente , Camarões , Comunicação , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Saúde Pública
18.
Sante Publique ; HS1(S1): 69-79, 2020.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32374096

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To supply high-quality neonatal care, it is essential to provide adequate infrastructures and material. Exceeding the visible simplicity of this condition, we suggest analyzing finely the relationship between the arrangement of the care spaces in maternity, their uses, and the quality of the care delivered to the newborns. METHOD: An ethnographic investigation in ten hospitals of Cameroon, among which one by region chosen from the various levels of the sanitary pyramid, allowed us to examine how the arrangement of the sanitary spaces and the arrangement of the material could contribute to the vulnerability of the newborn in maternity wards. Two hundred observations of the care given at birth were transcribed, then used as support for interviews with healthcare professionals in the aims of explaining their actions. RESULTS: The sanitary spaces, with habits and modes of organization, do not optimize the quality of the care to the newborns. The fragmentation of places used in the coverage of the newborn children engenders delays in care in case of complication at the birth. The ways in which the space and material are used in the wards reveal a lack of anticipation and coordination of care. The appropriations of places and arrangement of equipment are not favorable to recommended neonatal care practices, in particular concerning the fight against the hypothermia and the promotion of early breast-feeding. Indeed, the spatial organization in maternity wards appears to be more centered on the obstetrical care. DISCUSSION: Reflecting on care spaces can provide a basis for local collective processes of improvement of newborn care practices. It allows to re-question the biomedical professional culture, the segmentation of the tasks and the techniques, and to durably anchor evolutions favorable to neonatal survival.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde Materna/organização & administração , Obstetrícia , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Aleitamento Materno , Camarões , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez
19.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(1): 73-76, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32400349

RESUMO

Reports that chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine may be effective against COVID-19 have received worldwide attention, increasing the risk of the introduction of falsified versions of these medicines. Five different types of falsified chloroquine tablets were discovered between March 31, 2020 and April 4, 2020, in Cameroon and the Democratic Republic of Congo by locally conducted thin layer chromatographic analysis. Subsequent investigation by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry in Germany proved the absence of detectable amounts of chloroquine and the presence of undeclared active pharmaceutical ingredients, that is, paracetamol and metronidazole, in four of the samples. The fifth sample contained chloroquine, but only 22% of the declared amount. Such products represent a serious risk to patients. Their occurrence exemplifies that once medicines or vaccines against COVID-19 may be developed, falsified products will enter the market immediately, especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Timely preparations for the detection of such products are required, including the establishment of appropriate screening technologies in LMICs.


Assuntos
Cloroquina/análise , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Medicamentos Falsificados/análise , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Camarões , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia em Camada Delgada , República Democrática do Congo , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas , Pandemias
20.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0232320, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353038

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Global surgery is a growing field studying the determinants of safe and affordable surgical care and advocating to gain the global health community's attention. In Cameroon, little is known about the level of knowledge and attitudes of students. Our survey aimed to describe the knowledge and attitudes of Cameroonian medical students towards global surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed an anonymous online survey of final-year Cameroonian medical students. Mann-Whitney U test and Spearman correlation analysis were used for bivariate analysis, and the alpha value was set at 0.05. Odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated. RESULTS: 204 respondents with a mean age of 24.7 years (±2.0) participated in this study. 58.3% were male, 41.6% had previously heard or read about global surgery, 36.3% had taken part in a global surgery study, and 10.8% had attended a global surgery event. Mercy Ships was well known (46.5%), and most students believed that surgical interventions were more costly than medical treatments (75.0%). The mean score of the global surgery evaluation was 47.4% (±29.6%), and being able to recognize more global surgery organizations was correlated with having assumed multiple roles during global surgery studies (p = 0.008) and identifying more global surgery indicators (p = 0.04). Workforce, infrastructure, and funding were highlighted as the top priorities for the development of global surgery in Cameroon. CONCLUSION: Medical students are conscious of the importance of surgical care. They lack the opportunities to nurture their interest and should be taught global surgery concepts and skills.


Assuntos
Saúde Global/normas , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/normas , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/normas , Adulto , Camarões , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
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