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1.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0229073, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040501

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a zoonotic pathogen of which pigs have been established as reservoirs. In the present study, we investigated the presence of HEV among pigs in the Center and Littoral regions of Cameroon and performed the molecular characterization of positive strains. METHODOLOGY: A total of 453 serum and stool samples were randomly collected from pigs in slaughterhouses in Obala, Douala and Yaounde. All samples were examined for the presence of anti-HEV IgG and IgM antibodies using ELISA assays. IgM positive stool samples were tested for HEV RNA using an RT-PCR assay, followed by a nested PCR assay for sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. RESULTS: Overall, 216 samples (47.7%, 95% CI: 43.1%-52.3%) were positive for at least one of the serological markers of HEV infection. Amongst these, 21.0% were positives for anti-HEV IgM, 17.7% for anti-HEV IgG, and 9.1% for both. A total of eight stool samples (5.9%) were positive for HEV RNA by nested RT-PCR. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the retrieved sequences clustered within HEV genotype 3. CONCLUSION: This study shows a high prevalence of anti-HEV antibodies and the circulation of genotype 3 in the swine population in Cameroon. Subsequent studies will be needed to elucidate the zoonotic transmission of HEV from pigs to humans in Cameroon.


Assuntos
Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Genótipo , Vírus da Hepatite E/classificação , Hepatite E/veterinária , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Animais , Camarões/epidemiologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite/sangue , Vírus da Hepatite E/genética , Vírus da Hepatite E/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Masculino , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Suínos/imunologia , Zoonoses
2.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0229008, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32053650

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study has two main objectives: 1) to assess the value of combining the rapid assessment of avoidable blindness (RAAB) and the recently developed rapid assessment of hearing loss (RAHL) based on existing population-based data from Cameroon andIndia; 2) to test the feasibility of a combined RAAB-RAHL protocol. METHODS: A secondary data analysis of population-based disability surveys in India and Cameroon (in 2013-2014) was conducted, focussing on people aged 50+. Hearing impairment (HI) was defined as pure tone average of ≥41dB (better ear).Visual impairment (VI) was defined as presenting visual acuity of <6/18 (better eye). The relationship between HI and VI was examined. The feasibility of a combined RAAB-RAHL survey was assessed within a RAHL conducted among adults aged 50+ in Malawi in 2018. Outcomes included: time taken, costs, number of people examined in a day, and qualitative feedback from participants and field teams. RESULTS: The prevalence of combined VI and HI among people aged 50+ was 4.4% (95% confidence interval (CI) 3.0, 6.4) in India and 4.8% (95%CI 3.0, 8.0) in Cameroon. Among participants with VI, approximately a third in India (29.3%) and Cameroon (35.1%) also had HI. A quarter of participants in India (25.4%) and Cameroon (26.9%) who had HI also had VI. In Malawi, the total time taken to complete both RAAB and RAHL assessments was approximately 27 minutes per participant. It was feasible to complete 30 participants per day for a team of four people. The estimated cost of a combined RAAB-RAHL approach in comparison to two separate impairment surveys is up to 37% less depending on the method of combination. CONCLUSION: The substantial overlap between VI and HI supports a combined rapid survey of the two impairments. The pilot study of a combined RAAB-RAHL survey demonstrates feasibility and lower cost compared to conducting two standalone impairment surveys. A combined RAAB-RAHL approach could maximize limited resources to increase prevalence data for both vision and hearing impairment.


Assuntos
Cegueira/epidemiologia , Perda Auditiva/epidemiologia , Camarões/epidemiologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Malaui/epidemiologia , Projetos Piloto , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 40, 2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31937250

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is believed that the current prevalence of malaria in endemic areas reflects selection for the carrier form of sickle cell trait through a survival advantage. Malaria has been incriminated as a great cause of mortality in people with sickle cell disease (SCD). However, people with SCD, a high-risk group, do not benefit from free or subsisized malaria prevention and treatment in Cameroon unlike other vulnerable groups which may be due to insufficient evidence to guide policy makers. This study aimed at describing clinical and socio-demographic characteristics of patients with malaria, determining the prevalence of malaria in hospitalized children and in those with SCD and without, compare frequency of presentation of malaria related complications (using clinical and laboratory elements that define severe malaria) between children admitted for malaria with SCD and those without and finally, determing the risk factors for death in children admitted for malaria. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of admission records of children age 1 to 18 years with a confirmed malaria diagnosis admitted at the Laquintinie Hospital during January 2015 through December 2018. Clinical features, laboratory characteristics and outcome of malarial infections, stratified by SCD status were studied. Patients with HIV infection, malnutrition, renal failure and discharged against medical advice were excluded from the study. Data were analysed using Epi-info 7 software and analysis done. Chi square test, Odds ratios, CI and student's t test were used to determine association between variables. Statistical significance was set at p-value ≤0.05. RESULTS: The prevalence of malaria was lower among children with SCD than it was among children without SCD (23.5% vs 44.9%). Similarly, among those with a positive microscopy, the mean parasite density was significantly lower among children with SCD than it was among children without SCD (22,875.6 vs 57,053.6 parasites/ µl with t-value - 3.2, p-value 0.002). The mean hemoglobin concentration was lower in SCD as compared to non SCD (5.7 g/l vs 7.4 g/l, t-value - 12.5, p-value < 0.001). Overall mortality in SCD was 3.4% and malaria was reponsible for 20.4% of these deaths as compared to the 35.4% in non SCD patients. Convulsion and impaired consciousness were significantly lower in SCD group (OR:0.1, CI: 0.1-0.3, p value < 0.01 and OR:0.1, CI:0.1-0.2, p-value < 0.001 respectively). Death was significantly higher in SCD patients with malaria as compared to SCD patients admitted for other pathologies (3.2% vs 1.5%., OR:2.2, CI:1-5, p-value 0.050). CONCLUSION: The SCD population has a lower mortality related to malaria compared to the non-SCD population. Meanwhile, within the SCD population, those admitted with malaria are twice more likely to die than those admitted for other pathologies. Jaundice, hepatomegaly and splenomegaly were common in SCD with malaria, however no risk factors for malaria severity or malaria related death was identified.


Assuntos
Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Malária Falciparum/mortalidade , Plasmodium falciparum/isolamento & purificação , Traço Falciforme/epidemiologia , Traço Falciforme/parasitologia , Adolescente , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Camarões/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Comorbidade , Feminino , Hospitalização , Hospitais , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Traço Falciforme/mortalidade , Traço Falciforme/prevenção & controle
4.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227778, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945127

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Obstructive sleep apnea and hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) is poorly documented in Sub-Saharan Africa, especially in the hospital setting. The aim of this study was to determine its prevalence and to investigate the associated factors in patients admitted in a tertiary referral hospital in Cameroon. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study conducted in the Cardiology, Endocrinology and Neurology departments of the Yaounde Central Hospital; all patients aged 21 and older were included consecutively. A sample of randomly selected patients was recorded using a portable sleep monitoring device (PMD). OSAHS was defined as apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) ≥ 5/hour (with > 50% of events being obstructive) and moderate to severe OSAHS as an AHI > 15/hour. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated to OSAHS. RESULTS: Of the 359 patients included, 202 (56.3%) patients were women. The mean age (standard deviation) was 58 (16) years. The prevalence of OSAHS assessed by PMD (95% CI) was 57.7% (48.5-66.9%), 53.8% in men and 62.7% in women (p = 0.44). The median (25th-75th percentiles) AHI, body mass index and Epworth Sleepiness Scale score of OSAHS patients were 17 (10.6-26.9)/hour, 27.4 (24.7-31.6) kg/m2 and 7 (5-9) respectively. The only factor associated to moderate to severe OSAHS was hypertension [odds ratio (95% CI)]: 3.24 (1.08-9.72), p = 0.036. CONCLUSION: OSAHS is a common condition in patients in this health care centre of Cameroon. In the hospital setting, screening for OSAHS in patients with hypertension is recommended.


Assuntos
Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/epidemiologia , Ronco/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Camarões/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polissonografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/diagnóstico , Centros de Atenção Terciária/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(12): e0007557, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805049

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Density dependence in helminth establishment and heterogeneity in exposure to infection are known to drive resilience to interventions based on mass drug administration (MDA). However, the interaction between these processes is poorly understood. We developed a novel individual-based model for onchocerciasis transmission, EPIONCHO-IBM, which accounts for both processes. We fit the model to pre-intervention epidemiological data and explore parasite dynamics during MDA with ivermectin. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Density dependence and heterogeneity in exposure to blackfly (vector) bites were estimated by fitting the model to matched pre-intervention microfilarial prevalence, microfilarial intensity and vector biting rate data from savannah areas of Cameroon and Côte d'Ivoire/Burkina Faso using Latin hypercube sampling. Transmission dynamics during 25 years of annual and biannual ivermectin MDA were investigated. Density dependence in parasite establishment within humans was estimated for different levels of (fixed) exposure heterogeneity to understand how parametric uncertainty may influence treatment dynamics. Stronger overdispersion in exposure to blackfly bites results in the estimation of stronger density-dependent parasite establishment within humans, consequently increasing resilience to MDA. For all levels of exposure heterogeneity tested, the model predicts a departure from the functional forms for density dependence assumed in the deterministic version of the model. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first, stochastic model of onchocerciasis, that accounts for and estimates density-dependent parasite establishment in humans alongside exposure heterogeneity. Capturing the interaction between these processes is fundamental to our understanding of resilience to MDA interventions. Given that uncertainty in these processes results in very different treatment dynamics, collecting data on exposure heterogeneity would be essential for improving model predictions during MDA. We discuss possible ways in which such data may be collected as well as the importance of better understanding the effects of immunological responses on establishing parasites prior to and during ivermectin treatment.


Assuntos
Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Exposição Ambiental , Modelos Estatísticos , Oncocercose/epidemiologia , Oncocercose/transmissão , Simuliidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Burkina Faso/epidemiologia , Camarões/epidemiologia , Costa do Marfim/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência
6.
Blood Transfus ; 17(6): 403-408, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31846605

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Cameroon, the prevention of hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission by blood transfusion is still only based on hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) screening. However, occult HBV infection (OBI) characterised by the absence of detectable HBsAg and low level of viral DNA remains a potential threat for blood safety. The prevalence of OBI was investigated in blood donors from Yaoundé to provide evidence-based recommendations to improve HBV blood safety. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Blood donations from August 1st, 2016 to March 31st, 2017 were routinely screened for HBV, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections (Murex HBsAg Version 3, Murex HIV Ag/Ab Combination, and Murex HCV Ag/Ab Combination [DiaSorin]). Additional HBV investigations were performed, including hepatitis B core antibody ([HBc] Monolisa Anti-HBc PLUS; BIO-RAD) and HBV DNA tested in minipools of two samples using the quantitative Cobas Taqman HBV assay (Roche; LoQ: 6 IU/mL) and HBV DNA genotyping by sequencing. RESULTS: Of 1,162 donations analysed, 91 (7.8%) were reactive for HBsAg. All of them were also anti-HBc positive. Among the 1,071 HBsAg negative samples, 522 (48.7%) were reactive for anti-HBc. Six (0.56% of all donations) samples fulfilled the consensus definition of OBI and showed low HBV DNA loads (all <6 IU/mL). Following nested polymerase chain reaction amplifications, HBV DNA sequences were obtained for 4 of these samples (1 nearly whole genome [3123 nt], 2 Pre-S/S regions [1,356 nt], and 1 S region [445 nt]). Phylogenetic analysis identified genotype E in all samples. DISCUSSION: Around 1 in 100 Cameroonian blood donors screened who resulted HBsAg negative and anti-HBc positive carried occult HBV infection. HBsAg alone for screening prospective donors is not sufficient to eliminate the risk of HBV transfusion transmission in Cameroon, and because anti-HBc screening does not seem to be feasible without compromising blood supply, implementation of HBV nucleic acid testing could be considered when possible.


Assuntos
Doadores de Sangue , Segurança do Sangue , DNA Viral/sangue , Seleção do Doador , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Vírus da Hepatite B , Hepatite B/sangue , Adulto , Camarões/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/sangue , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
7.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0225591, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841512

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Positive associations have been found between Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy gestational hypertension, preeclampsia and cardiovascular diseases within non-African populations, no data exist from sub-Saharan Africa. We aimed to assess this association in Cameroonian mothers. METHODS: We used a case-control study. Cases were women diagnosed with any arteriosclerotic cardiovascular disease between 2012 and 2017 at two major hospitals of Yaoundé. Controls were mothers of children who sought pediatric care at the Gyneco-obstetric hospital of Yaoundé, with no diagnosis of cardiovascular disease. We abstracted data from patient files to assess cardiovascular disease and used phone-based questionnaires to assess a prior history of Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy. We used logistic regression and propensity scores for data analysis. RESULTS: Out of 1228 individuals selected, 173 cases and 339 controls participated in the study. We found no increased risk of cardiovascular diseases for women with a history of Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy (OR = 0.83, 95% CI, 0.51 to 1.34). Women with gestational hypertension had 2.33 (95% CI, 0.99 to 5.50) times the risk of women with no history of Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy, an inverse association was observed between preeclampsia and cardiovascular diseases (OR = 0.28, 95% CI, 0.10 to 0.72). CONCLUSIONS: Cameroonian women with a history of gestational hypertension may have a higher risk of cardiovascular diseases. However, population-based studies with more accurate data on the exposure are needed.


Assuntos
Arteriosclerose/epidemiologia , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/epidemiologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/epidemiologia , Adulto , Arteriosclerose/complicações , Camarões/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/etiologia , Anamnese/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pré-Eclâmpsia/etiologia , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 988, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752719

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malaria and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection constitute public health problems in Cameroon including the South West Region (SWR). This study determined the prevalence of malaria parasites and haematological abnormalities in HIV positive patients in Limbe, Cameroon from April-July 2014. METHODS: The study was cross-sectional and involved 411 participants who were administered structured questionnaires to record socio-demographic and clinical data. Three hundred and nine (309) HIV positive patients and one hundred and two (102) HIV negative individuals were examined clinically and venous blood collected for malaria parasite detection, HIV infection diagnosis and full blood count analysis. RESULTS: Overall malaria parasite prevalence was 14.1% (58/411). This prevalence was significantly higher (P <  0.001) in the HIV negative participants (33.3%, 34/102) compared to the HIV positive patients (7.8%, 24/309). Amongst HIV positive participants, malaria parasite prevalence was significantly higher in female patients (P = 0.003), febrile patients (P <  0.001), anaemic patients (P = 0.015) and in patients who were not on antiretroviral treatment (ART) (P = 0.03) when compared with their respective counterparts. Among the HIV negative group, though not significant, malaria parasite prevalence was higher in females, febrile and anaemic patients when compared with their respective counterparts. Overall anaemia prevalence was 52.1% (214/309) and was significantly higher (P = 0.004) in HIV positive patients (56%, 173) than in HIV negative participants (40.2%, 41). Malaria/HIV co-infected patients had a significantly lower mean value of Hb (P = 0.002), RBC (P = 0.002) and Hct (P = 0.001) when compared with HIV-infected patients. CONCLUSION: HIV negative participants had a higher prevalence of malaria parasites than their HIV positive counterparts. Anaemia prevalence was higher in HIV positive patients than in HIV negative participants. Malaria/HIV co-infected patients presented with more red blood cell abnormalities than HIV-infected patients.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Malária/epidemiologia , Plasmodium/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Antirretrovirais/administração & dosagem , Camarões/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Coinfecção/parasitologia , Coinfecção/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Malária/parasitologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Plasmodium/classificação , Plasmodium/genética , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
9.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 315, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31723374

RESUMO

Introduction: The study investigated the prevalence of stillbirth at the Buea regional hospital, by taking cases of pregnant women who attended antenatal clinic(s) and those who did not attend but had their deliveries at the Buea regional hospital. The study specifically estimated the prevalence of stillbirths; identified possible risk factors associated with stillbirths, and determined whether the number of antenatal clinic visits is related to the occurrence of stillbirths-because during antenatal clinic visits, pregnant women are educated on risk factors of stillbirths such as: preterm deliveries; sex of the stillbirth; history of stillbirth; history of abortion(s); what age group of mothers are more likely to have a stillbirth. Methods: The study was a hospital based retrospective study at the maternity in which there were 3577 deliveries registered at the Buea regional hospital dated May 1st, 2014 to April 30th, 2017. With the aid of a checklist data was collected, analysed and presented with the use of tables, pie-charts and bar charts. Results: The prevalence of stillbirths was 26‰; possible risk factors associated with stillbirths included: preterm deliveries; women aged 20-29 years; history of abortion(s); a history of stillbirth; sex of stillbirths were more of females than males; and insufficient antenatal clinic attendance (≤1 antenatal clinic attendance) had more stillbirths. Conclusion: The study established that stillbirths can occur in any woman of child-bearing age. possible risk factors associated with stillbirths included: preterm deliveries; women aged 20-29 years; history of abortion(s); a history of stillbirth; gender of stillbirths were more of females than males; and insufficient antenatal clinic attendance (≤1 antenatal clinic attendance) had more stillbirths.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Adulto , Camarões/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Idade Materna , Gravidez , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
10.
Malar J ; 18(1): 359, 2019 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707994

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A major health burden in Cameroon is malaria, a disease that is sensitive to climate, environment and socio-economic conditions, but whose precise relationship with these drivers is still uncertain. An improved understanding of the relationship between the disease and its drivers, and the ability to represent these relationships in dynamic disease models, would allow such models to contribute to health mitigation and adaptation planning. This work collects surveys of malaria parasite ratio and entomological inoculation rate and examines their relationship with temperature, rainfall, population density in Cameroon and uses this analysis to evaluate a climate sensitive mathematical model of malaria transmission. METHODS: Co-located, climate and population data is compared to the results of 103 surveys of parasite ratio (PR) covering 18,011 people in Cameroon. A limited set of campaigns which collected year-long field-surveys of the entomological inoculation rate (EIR) are examined to determine the seasonality of disease transmission, three of the study locations are close to the Sanaga and Mefou rivers while others are not close to any permanent water feature. Climate-driven simulations of the VECTRI malaria model are evaluated with this analysis. RESULTS: The analysis of the model results shows the PR peaking at temperatures of approximately 22 °C to 26 °C, in line with recent work that has suggested a cooler peak temperature relative to the established literature, and at precipitation rates at 7 mm day-1, somewhat higher than earlier estimates. The malaria model is able to reproduce this broad behaviour, although the peak occurs at slightly higher temperatures than observed, while the PR peaks at a much lower rainfall rate of 2 mm day-1. Transmission tends to be high in rural and peri-urban relative to urban centres in both model and observations, although the model is oversensitive to population which could be due to the neglect of population movements, and differences in hydrological conditions, housing quality and access to healthcare. The EIR follows the seasonal rainfall with a lag of 1 to 2 months, and is well reproduced by the model, while in three locations near permanent rivers the annual cycle of malaria transmission is out of phase with rainfall and the model fails. CONCLUSION: Malaria prevalence is maximum at temperatures of 24 to 26 °C in Cameroon and rainfall rates of approximately 4 to 6 mm day-1. The broad relationships are reproduced in a malaria model although prevalence is highest at a lower rainfall maximum of 2 mm day-1. In locations far from water bodies malaria transmission seasonality closely follows that of rainfall with a lag of 1 to 2 months, also reproduced by the model, but in locations close to a seasonal river the seasonality of malaria transmission is reversed due to pooling in the transmission to the dry season, which the model fails to capture.


Assuntos
Clima , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/transmissão , Densidade Demográfica , Chuva , Temperatura , Camarões/epidemiologia , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Prevalência
11.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 489, 2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623642

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ticks and tick-borne diseases are a major impediment to livestock production worldwide. Cattle trade and transnational transhumance create risks for the spread of ticks and tick-borne diseases and threaten cattle production in the absence of an effective tick control program. Few studies have been undertaken on cattle ticks in the Central African region; therefore, the need to assess the occurrence and the spatial distribution of tick vectors with the aim of establishing a baseline for monitoring future spread of tick borne-diseases in the region is urgent. RESULTS: A total of 7091 ixodid ticks were collected during a countrywide cross-sectional field survey and identified using morphological criteria. Of these, 4210 (59.4%) ticks were Amblyomma variegatum, 1112 (15.6%) Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, 708 (10.0%) Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus, 28 (0.4%) Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus, 210 (3.0%) Hyalomma rufipes, 768 (10.8%) Hyalomma truncatum, and 19 (0.3%) Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Three ticks of the genus Hyalomma spp. and 33 of the genus Rhipicephalus spp. were not identified to the species level. Cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene sequencing supported the data from morphological examination and led to identification of three additional species, namely Hyalomma dromedarii, Rhipicephalus sulcatus and Rhipicephalus pusillus. The finding of the invasive tick species R. microplus in such large numbers and the apparent displacement of the indigenous R. decoloratus is highly significant since R. microplus is a highly efficient vector of Babesia bovis. CONCLUSIONS: This study reports the occurrence and current geographical distribution of important tick vectors associated with cattle in Cameroon. It appears that R. microplus is now well established and may be displacing native Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) species, such as R. decoloratus. This calls for an urgent response to safeguard the livestock sector in western central Africa.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Carrapatos/fisiologia , Agricultura , Animais , Camarões/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Sequência Consenso , Estudos Transversais , Ciclo-Oxigenase 1/genética , Demografia , Feminino , Masculino , Filogenia , Prevalência , Alinhamento de Sequência/veterinária , Razão de Masculinidade , Infestações por Carrapato/epidemiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/parasitologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/veterinária , Carrapatos/classificação , Carrapatos/crescimento & desenvolvimento
12.
Int J Occup Environ Med ; 10(4): 159-173, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586381

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The palm oil industry is the largest contributor to global production of oils and fats. Indonesia and Malaysia are the largest producers of palm oil. More than a million workers are employed in this industry, yet there is a lack of information on their occupational health and safety. OBJECTIVE: To identify and summarize occupational hazards among oil palm plantation workers. METHODS: A search was carried out in June 2018 in PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and Ovid. Relevant publications were identified by a systematic search of four databases and relevant journals. Publications were included if they examined occupational hazards in oil palm plantation workers. RESULTS: 941 publications were identified; of these, 25 studies were found eligible to be included in the final review. Of the 25 studies examined, 19 were conducted in Malaysia, 2 in Costa Rica, and one each in Ghana, Indonesia, Myanmar, Papua New Guinea, and Cameroon. Oil palm plantation workers were found to be at risk of musculoskeletal conditions, injuries, psychosocial disorders, and infectious diseases such as malaria and leptospirosis. In addition, they have potential exposure to paraquat and other pesticides. CONCLUSION: In light of the potential of palm oil for use as a biofuel, this is an industry with strong growth potential. The workers are exposed to various occupational hazards. Further research and interventions are necessary to improve the working conditions of this already vast and growing workforce.


Assuntos
Indústria Alimentícia , Exposição Ocupacional , Saúde do Trabalhador , Óleo de Palmeira , Doenças dos Trabalhadores Agrícolas/epidemiologia , Camarões/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Costa Rica/epidemiologia , Indústria Alimentícia/normas , Indústria Alimentícia/estatística & dados numéricos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Malásia/epidemiologia , Mianmar/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde do Trabalhador/estatística & dados numéricos , Óleo de Palmeira/efeitos adversos , Papua Nova Guiné/epidemiologia , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Óleos Vegetais/efeitos adversos
13.
J Helminthol ; 94: e92, 2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581956

RESUMO

A cross-sectional socio-economic study of fascioliasis in livestock was carried out at the Livestock Development Cooperation (SODEPA) slaughterhouse in Etoudi, Yaoundé during the periods covering the beginning and late dry season in the northern and eastern regions of Cameroon. A total of 768 cattle and 267 sheep were inspected for the presence of Fasciola species. The overall infection rate in cattle and sheep was 18% (n = 767) and 27% (n = 267), respectively. For the animals that were Fasciola positive, a total of 267.86 kg of liver in cattle was condemned, resulting in a loss of US$1124, while a total of 57 kg of liver was condemned from the sheep population, amounting to a loss of US$114. A total of US$76,097 was determined as losses incurred from condemnation of liver for both cattle and sheep per annum based on the total number slaughtered each year. The findings indicate that fascioliasis is present in cattle and sheep slaughtered in Cameroon and that it causes great economic losses due to condemnation of liver. The local climatic conditions, husbandry systems and the presence of snails (intermediate hosts) are probably the main factors influencing the incidence of the disease and may account for the epidemiological significance found in this study.


Assuntos
Matadouros/economia , Doenças dos Bovinos/economia , Fasciolíase/veterinária , Alimentos/economia , Doenças dos Ovinos/economia , Animais , Camarões/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Fasciolíase/economia , Fasciolíase/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
14.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 344, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31619238

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: African animal trypanosomosis remains the major constraint of livestock production and livelihood of pastoral communities in Cameroon. Despite several decades of vector and parasite control efforts, it has not been eradicated. Alternative and sustainable control strategies require a sound knowledge of the local species, strains and vectors. In the Sudano-Sahelian and Guinea Savannah of Cameroon the prevalence and genetic diversity of trypanosomes infecting cattle was investigated by microscopy of cattle blood buffy coat and molecular methods using generic primers targeting parts of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS-1) and encoded glycosomal glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase-gene (gGAPDH). RESULTS: A total of 1176 randomly chosen cattle from five divisions in the Sudano-Sahelian and Guinea Savannah of Cameroon were examined. The overall prevalence of trypanosomes by microscopy was 5.9% (56/953) in contrast to 53.2% (626/1176) when molecular tools were used. This indicated a limited sensitivity of microscopy in subclinical infections with frequently low parasitemia. Three trypanosome species were identified by light microscopy: T. vivax (2.3%), T. brucei (3.7%) and T. congolense (3.0%), whereas five were identified by PCR, namely T. grayi/T. theileri (30.8%), T. vivax (17.7%), T. brucei (14.5%) and T. congolense (5.1%). Unexpected cases of T. grayi (n = 4) and T. theileri (n = 26) were confirmed by sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis of the gGAPDH revealed the presence of T. vivax, clade A and T. vivax clade C, which were co-endemic in the Faro et Deo division. T. grayi/T. theileri were the predominant species infecting cattle in tsetse free areas. In contrast, T. vivax, T. brucei and T. congolense were more abundant in areas where the Glossina-vectors were present. CONCLUSIONS: The abundance of pathogenic trypanosomes in tsetse infested areas is alarming and even more, the occurrence of T. vivax, T. brucei, T. congolense, T. theileri and T. grayi in tsetse-free areas implies that tsetse control alone is not sufficient to control trypanosomosis in livestock. To implement control measures that reduce the risk of spread in tsetse free areas, close monitoring using molecular tools and a thorough search for alternative vectors of trypanosomes is recommended.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Trypanosoma/isolamento & purificação , Tripanossomíase Africana/epidemiologia , Animais , Buffy Coat/parasitologia , Camarões/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Feminino , Genes de Protozoários , Insetos Vetores , Masculino , Prevalência , Trypanosoma/classificação , Trypanosoma/genética , Tripanossomíase Africana/parasitologia , Tripanossomíase Africana/prevenção & controle , Moscas Tsé-Tsé
15.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 501, 2019 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31655608

RESUMO

Malaria still has a devastating impact on public health and welfare in Cameroon. Despite the increasing number of studies conducted on disease prevalence, transmission patterns or treatment, there are to date, not enough studies summarising findings from previous works in order to identify gaps in knowledge and areas of interest where further evidence is needed to drive malaria elimination efforts. The present study seeks to address these gaps by providing a review of studies conducted so far on malaria in Cameroon since the 1940s to date. Over 250 scientific publications were consulted for this purpose. Although there has been increased scale-up of vector control interventions which significantly reduced the morbidity and mortality to malaria across the country from a prevalence of 41% of the population reporting at least one malaria case episode in 2000 to a prevalence of 24% in 2017, the situation is not yet under control. There is a high variability in disease endemicity between epidemiological settings with prevalence of Plasmodium parasitaemia varying from 7 to 85% in children aged 6 months to 15 years after long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) scale-up. Four species of Plasmodium have been recorded across the country: Plasmodium falciparum, P. malariae, P. ovale and P. vivax. Several primate-infecting Plasmodium spp. are also circulating in Cameroon. A decline of artemisinin-based combinations therapeutic efficacy from 97% in 2006 to 90% in 2016 have been reported. Several mutations in the P. falciparum chloroquine resistance (Pfcrt) and P. falciparum multidrug resistance 1 (Pfmdr1) genes conferring resistance to either 4-amino-quinoleine, mefloquine, halofanthrine and quinine have been documented. Mutations in the Pfdhfr and Pfdhps genes involved in sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine are also on the rise. No mutation associated with artemisinin resistance has been recorded. Sixteen anopheline species contribute to malaria parasite transmission with six recognized as major vectors: An. gambiae, An. coluzzii, An. arabiensis, An. funestus, An. nili and An. moucheti. Studies conducted so far, indicated rapid expansion of DDT, pyrethroid and carbamate resistance in An. gambiae, An. coluzzii, An. arabiensis and An. funestus threatening the performance of LLINs. This review highlights the complex situation of malaria in Cameroon and the need to urgently implement and reinforce integrated control strategies in different epidemiological settings, as part of the substantial efforts to consolidate gains and advance towards malaria elimination in the country.


Assuntos
Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Animais , Anopheles/classificação , Anopheles/genética , Anopheles/parasitologia , Camarões/epidemiologia , Humanos , Resistência a Inseticidas , Malária/terapia , Malária/transmissão , Controle de Mosquitos/tendências , Mosquitos Vetores/classificação , Mosquitos Vetores/genética , Mosquitos Vetores/parasitologia , Plasmodium/classificação , Plasmodium/patogenicidade , Prevalência , Saúde Pública
16.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 130, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558929

RESUMO

Introduction: Cancer is a public health problem that affect women more than men. The aim of the study was to describe the epidemiological and histopathological features of gynecological malignancies in the city of Yaoundé, Cameroon. Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study of histologically proven gynecological cancers over a 10-year period (2008-2017) in the Gynecology and Pathological Anatomy Departments of the University Teaching Hospital of Yaoundé. Results: A total of 682 cancers were identified among which, 342 gynecological cancers, for an overall frequency of 50.1% and an annual frequency of 34.2 cases on average. There was a trend suggesting an increase annual frequency over time. The cervix was the most frequent location with 182 cases (53.2%); followed by breast with 96 cases (28.1%); endometrium with 33 cases (9.7%) and ovaries 15 cases (4.4%). These patients were on average 51.9±13.7 years old, mostly housewives (56.8%), married (60.4%), multiparous (61.3%) and referred (62.6%). Histopathologically, cervical cancer was predominantly squamous cell carcinoma (86.8%), invasive (80.9%) and well differentiated (45.5%). For breast cancers, the majority were ductal carcinomas (78.1%), invasive (92%), and histological grade SBR II (50.6%). The most common histopathological types of endometrial and ovarian cancer were adenocarcinoma (72.2%) and serous cystadenocarcinoma (46.7%), respectively. Conclusion: Gynecological cancers are common. Screening is expected to increase at 30 years for cervical cancer and start at age 40 with mammography for breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias dos Genitais Femininos/epidemiologia , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Camarões/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/patologia , Estudos Transversais , Neoplasias do Endométrio/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Endométrio/patologia , Feminino , Neoplasias dos Genitais Femininos/patologia , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 448, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31511038

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Public interest for tick-borne pathogens in cattle livestock is rising due to their veterinary and zoonotic importance. Consequently, correct identification of these potential pathogens is crucial to estimate the level of exposition, the risk and the detrimental impact on livestock and the human population. RESULTS: Conventional PCR with generic primers was used to identify groups of tick-borne pathogens in cattle breeds from northern Cameroon. The overall prevalence in 1260 blood samples was 89.1%, with 993 (78.8%) positive for Theileria/Babesia spp., 959 (76.1%) for Anaplasma/Ehrlichia spp., 225 (17.9%) for Borrelia spp., and 180 (14.3%) for Rickettsia spp. Sanger sequencing of a subset of positively-tested samples revealed the presence of Theileria mutans (92.2%, 130/141), T. velifera (16.3%, 23/141), Anaplasma centrale (10.9%, 15/137), A. marginale (30.7%, 42/137), A. platys (51.1%, 70/137), Anaplasma sp. 'Hadesa' (10.9%, 15/137), Ehrlichia ruminantium (0.7%, 1/137), E. canis (0.7%, 1/137), Borrelia theileri (91.3%, 42/46), Rickettsia africae (59.4%, 19/32) and R. felis (12.5%, 4/32). A high level of both intra- and inter-generic co-infections (76.0%) was observed. To the best of our knowledge, B. theileri, T. mutans, T. velifera, A. platys, Anaplasma sp. 'Hadesa', R. felis and E. canis are reported for the first time in cattle from Cameroon, and for R. felis it is the first discovery in the cattle host. Babesia spp. were not detected by sequencing. The highest number of still identifiable species co-infections was up to four pathogens per genus group. Multifactorial analyses revealed a significant association of infection with Borrelia theileri and anemia. Whereas animals of older age had a higher risk of infection, the Gudali cattle had a lower risk compared to the other local breeds. CONCLUSION: Co-infections of tick-borne pathogens with an overall high prevalence were found in all five study sites, and were more likely to occur than single infections. Fulani, Namchi and Kapsiki were the most infected breed in general; however, with regions as significant risk factor. A better-adapted approach for tick-borne pathogen identification in co-infected samples is a requirement for epidemiological investigations and tailored control measures.


Assuntos
Babesia/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Theileria/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/veterinária , Animais , Babesia/classificação , Bactérias/classificação , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/veterinária , Camarões/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Coinfecção/parasitologia , Coinfecção/veterinária , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Theileria/classificação , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/parasitologia
18.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 94, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489072

RESUMO

Introduction: Soil-transmitted helminth infections (STHs) and schistosomiasis have serious consequences for the health, education and nutrition of children in developing countries. As Loum is known as a highly endemic commune for these infections, several deworming campaigns have been carried out in the past. The purpose of this study was to determine any changes that have occurred since then in the characteristics of these infections among schoolchildren in this site. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in October 2016 on 289 schoolchildren. Stool and urine samples were collected and examined to determine the prevalence and intensity of helminth infections. Results: The highest prevalence was noted for Schistosoma haematobium (34.2%), followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (8.6%), S. mansoni (4.9%) and Trichuris trichiura (4.9%) in decreasing order. A prevalence of less than 2% was noted for each of the other two helminths. The highest mean intensity was found for S. haematobium (39.6 eggs/10 ml of urine), followed by A. lumbricoides (24.2 eggs per gram of faeces: epg), Strongyloides stercoralis (16.6 epg) and Schistosoma mansoni (12.3 epg). The prevalence of T. trichiura was significantly higher in boys and that of S. haematobium in children aged 10 years or older, while the differences between other values of prevalence or between egg burdens were not significant. Conclusion: Compared with values reported in 2003, the prevalence and intensity of schistosomiases and STH infections in Loum has sharply decreased in 2016. Confirmation of this decrease in the years to come allowed to space deworming campaigns among schoolchildren.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Solo/parasitologia , Adolescente , Camarões/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Helmintíase/tratamento farmacológico , Helmintíase/parasitologia , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Esquistossomose/tratamento farmacológico , Esquistossomose/parasitologia , Fatores Sexuais
19.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 109, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489087

RESUMO

Introduction: "Calabar chalk" is a lead-laden pica mostly consumed by pregnant women worldwide as a remedy for morning sickness. This clay material has been shown to have lead levels of up to 40mg per kilogram. Meanwhile blood lead levels, even at doses less than 10µg/dl will be toxic to humans and even worse-off to the fetus as it crosses the placenta. We, therefore, sort to determine the prevalence of "Calabar chalk" consumption amongst pregnant women and if it translates to higher umbilical cord blood lead levels. Methods: We carried out a cross-sectional study by prospectively and consecutively enrolling 300 pregnant women from December 2014 through February 2015. A questionnaire was administered to ascertain "Calabar chalk" consumption. The levels of lead in the umbilical cord blood of 51 participants of each group of those who consumed and didn't consume "Calabar chalk" were measured by spectrometry and compared using the T-test (p<0.05). Results: The prevalence of "Calabar chalk" consumption was 43.33%. This was mostly consumed during pregnancy only (46.34%), with higher rates observed amongst primigravidas. The mean umbilical blood lead levels amongst those who consumed and those who did not consume "Calabar chalk" was 39.19µg/dl and 25.33µg/dl respectively (P=0.111). Conclusion: The prevalence of "Calabar chalk" consumption was high in the pregnant women population. The overall umbilical cord blood lead levels were extremely high in both consumers and non-consumers. We recommend health education and chelation therapy to be considered.


Assuntos
Sangue Fetal/química , Chumbo/sangue , Pica/complicações , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Camarões/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Pica/epidemiologia , Placenta/metabolismo , Gravidez , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
20.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1216, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481054

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) are a widely used tool that has been proven to be effective in the prevention and control of malaria in malaria endemic countries. However, usage varies among households and can greatly affect the benefits of ITNs as a control tool for malaria transmission. This study determined the coverage and usage of ITNS as well as associated factors and the effect of coverage and usage on the prevalence of malaria parasitemia within households in the Mount Cameroon area. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted between August and September 2014 in six communities within the Mount Cameroon area. Households within the communities were enrolled through multistage sampling and household survey was done using a structured questionnaire. Capillary blood was collected for malaria parasite determination. Data was analysed using SPSS version 20 for windows. Differences in proportions were assessed using the Chi-square test while factors affecting ITNs usage were assessed in multivariate logistic regression at a statistical significance of P ≤ 0.05. RESULTS: A total of 504 households were surveyed, 1564 bed spaces reported while 915(58.5, 95% CI: 56.1-60.9) of the bed spaces had nets and 391(77.6, 95% CI, 74.0-80.2) of the households had at least one bed net. The odds of using ITNs was 2 folds higher (OR = 2.41; 95% CI 1.58-3.69 p = 0.001) and 3 folds higher (OR = 3.149, 95% CI 1.53-6.47 p = 0.002) among houses with 5 to 9 occupants and above 10 occupants respectively when compared to houses with less than 5 occupants. In addition, Individuals living in cement block houses were less likely to use ITNs. Compared to those living in wooden houses (OR = 0.488, 95% CI: 0.269-0.885; p = 0 .018). Rural communities had lower ITN coverage compared to semi-urban communities (p = 0.0001). Increase in ITNs coverage significantly reduces malaria prevalence (correlation - 0.899, p = 0.015). CONCLUSION: Despite the efforts made to scale up ITN distribution so that universal coverage can be attained, coverage remains low. Increasing coverage and putting in place a mechanism to replace torn nets will go a long way reduce the prevalence of malaria parasitemia.


Assuntos
Características da Família , Mosquiteiros Tratados com Inseticida/estatística & dados numéricos , Malária/epidemiologia , Parasitemia/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Camarões/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
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