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1.
BMJ Open ; 12(4): e054139, 2022 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35473722

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between gender-based violence, HIV risks, psychological distress and binge drinking among female entertainment workers (FEWs) in Cambodia. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Phnom Penh and three other provinces in Cambodia. PARTICIPANTS: We recruited 600 FEWs from entertainment venues using a stratified random sampling method. Participants were eligible if they were at least 18 years old, working in the selected entertainment venues and self-identified as a FEW. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURE: Binge drinking was defined as drinking more than five units of alcoholic drinks in 24 hours on at least one occasion in the past 3 months. RESULTS: The prevalence of binge drinking was 76.7%. Adjusted odds of binge drinking were significantly higher among FEWs who earned >US$250 per month than those who earned ≤US$120 per month (adjusted OR (AOR) 2.96, 95% CI: 1.40 to 6.24), had been forced to drink more than once per month in the past 3 months than those who had never been forced to drink (AOR 5.66, 95% CI: 2.19 to 14.65), worked at karaoke bars than those working at a restaurants/café (AOR 1.85, 95% CI: 1.19 to 2.88) and experienced emotional abuse in the past 6 months than those who did not experience it (AOR 2.71, 95% CI: 1.22 to 6.02). The odds of binge drinking were significantly higher among FEWs with lower psychological distress than those with higher psychological distress (AOR 1.65, 95% CI: 1.09 to 2.49). CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights a high prevalence of binge drinking among FEWs and its associations with working environments, conditions and contexts. Our findings suggest that individual-based behavioural intervention may not effectively reduce binge drinking among FEWs. Structural and occupational health policy interventions may be needed to change the working environment.


Assuntos
Consumo Excessivo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Violência de Gênero , Angústia Psicológica , Adolescente , Consumo Excessivo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Camboja/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
2.
BMJ Open ; 12(4): e058092, 2022 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35383083

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine risk factors of growth faltering by assessing childhood nutrition and household water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) variables and their association with nutritional status of children under 24 months in rural Cambodia. DESIGN: We conducted surveys in 491 villages (clusters) randomised across 55 rural communes in Cambodia in September 2016 to measure associations between child, household and community-level risk factors for stunting and length-for-age z-score (LAZ). We measured 4036 children under 24 months of age from 3877 households (491 clusters). We analysed associations between nutrition/WASH practices and child growth (LAZ, stunting) using generalised estimating equations (GEEs) to fit linear regression models with robust SEs in a pooled analysis and in age-stratified analyses; child-level and household-level variables were modelled separately from community-level variables. RESULTS: After adjustment for potential confounding, we found household-level and community-level water, sanitation and hygiene factors to be associated with child growth among children under 24 months: presence of water and soap at a household's handwashing station was positively associated with child growth (adjusted mean difference in LAZ +0.10, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.16); household-level use of an improved drinking water source and adequate child stool disposal practices were protective against stunting (adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) 0.80, 95% CI 0.67 to 0.97; aPR 0.82, 95% CI 0.64 to 1.03). In our age-stratified analysis, we found associations between child growth and community-level factors among children 1-6 months of age: shared sanitation was negatively associated with growth (-0.47 LAZ, 95% CI -0.90 to -0.05 compared with children in communities with no shared facilities); improved sanitation facilities were protective against stunting (aPR 0.43, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.88 compared with children in communities with no improved sanitation facilities); and open defecation was associated with more stunting (aPR 2.13, 95% CI 1.10 to 4.11 compared with children in communities with no open defecation). These sanitation risk factors were only measured in the youngest age strata (1-6 months). Presence of water and soap at the household level were associated with taller children in the 1-6 month and 6-12 month age strata (+0.10 LAZ, 95% CI -0.02 to 0.22 among children 1-6 months of age; +0.11 LAZ, 95% CI -0.02 to 0.25 among children 6-12 months of age compared with children in households with no water and soap). Household use of improved drinking water source was positively associated with growth among older children (+0.13 LAZ, 95% CI -0.01 to 0.28 among children 12-24 months of age). CONCLUSION: In rural Cambodia, water, sanitation and hygiene behaviours were associated with growth faltering among children under 24 months of age. Community-level sanitation factors were positively associated with growth, particularly for infants under 6 months of age. We should continue to make effort to: investigate the relationships between water, sanitation, hygiene and human health and expand WASH access for young children.


Assuntos
Higiene , Saneamento , Adolescente , Camboja/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Crescimento/etiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Fatores de Risco , População Rural
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 317, 2022 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35361143

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that 29% of global tuberculosis (TB) and almost 47% of childhood TB cases were not reported to national TB programs in 2019. In Cambodia, most childhood TB cases were reported from health facilities supported by the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria in 2019. This study aimed to compare the healthcare providers' knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) on childhood TB case detection in operational districts (ODs) with high and low childhood TB case detection in Cambodia. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study between November and December 2020 among healthcare providers in 10 purposively selected ODs with high childhood TB case detection and 10 ODs with low childhood TB case detection. A total of 110 healthcare providers from referral hospitals (RHs) and 220 from health centers (HCs) were interviewed. We collected information on socio-demographic characteristics, training, and KAP on childhood TB. Pearson's Chi-square or Fisher's exact and Student's t-tests were performed to explore the differences in KAP of healthcare providers from ODs with low vs. high childhood TB detection. RESULTS: Of the 330 respondents, 193 were from ODs with high childhood TB case detection, and 66.67% were from HCs. A significantly higher proportion (46.11%) of respondents from ODs with high childhood TB case detection received training on childhood TB within the past two years than those from low childhood TB case detection ODs (34.31%) (p = 0.03). Key knowledge on childhood TB was not significantly different among respondents from ODs with high and low childhood TB case detection. A significantly higher proportion of respondents from ODs with high childhood TB case detection had a good attitude (98.96 vs. 97.08%, p = 0.002) and performed good practices (58.55 vs. 45.26%, p = 0.02) on contact investigation in the community than those from low childhood TB case detection ODs. CONCLUSIONS: Healthcare providers from ODs with high childhood TB detection had better attitudes and practices towards childhood TB. The attitudes and practices need to be improved among healthcare providers in ODs with low case detection. Further investment in training and experience sharing on childhood TB case detection among healthcare providers is needed to improve childhood TB case detection.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Tuberculose , Camboja/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia
4.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0265120, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35482770

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although there are effective methods for the treatment and management of various mental illnesses, some individuals still do not seek psychiatric treatment. Various factors could affect this reluctance toward treatment, one of which is the public's lack of mental health literacy. This survey aimed to measure and compare mental health literacy in Cambodia's urban and rural areas. METHOD: Tours were held to hold seminars that provided information about mental health in the health centers around Phnom Penh (PP) and Siem Reap (SR), and a survey was conducted on mental health literacy for the participants before the seminar at each location. Anthony Jorm's vignette of psychosis (young adult) and Angermeyer's questionnaire were used. After the participants were classified into the "agree group" and "disagree group" for each item, the answers for each item given by the participants in PP and SR were compared using the chi-square test and the odds rate was calculated. RESULTS: The participants in SR were more likely to give reasons such as inherited causes, economic problems, stress at work, or family problems as the cause of schizophrenia. The percentage of these beliefs about schizophrenia was relatively lower in PP than in SR. Regarding attitudes toward schizophrenia, the participants in SR were more likely to have negative views and predict negative prognoses than the participants in PP. As for participants' feelings about schizophrenia, the participants in SR reacted more strongly than those in PP. Even though the participants in SR reacted more negatively, they were sympathetic toward individuals with schizophrenia. CONCLUSION: Overall, the participants in the SR group were more likely to have negative attitudes toward schizophrenia than those in the PP group. These results support our hypothesis that mental health literacy represents the maturity of community mental health in a targeted area.


Assuntos
Letramento em Saúde , Camboja/epidemiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , População Rural , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(11): e2115285119, 2022 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35238677

RESUMO

SignificanceMetagenomic pathogen sequencing offers an unbiased approach to characterizing febrile illness. In resource-scarce settings with high biodiversity, it is critical to identify disease-causing pathogens in order to understand burden and to prioritize efforts for control. Here, metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) characterization of the pathogen landscape in Cambodia revealed diverse vector-borne and zoonotic pathogens irrespective of age and gender as risk factors. Identification of key pathogens led to changes in national program surveillance. This study is a "real world" example of the use of mNGS surveillance of febrile individuals, executed in-country, to identify outbreaks of vector-borne, zoonotic, and other emerging pathogens in a resource-scarce setting.


Assuntos
Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Recursos em Saúde , Metagenoma , Metagenômica/métodos , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Ásia Sudeste/epidemiologia , Camboja/epidemiologia , Feminino , Febre/epidemiologia , Febre/etiologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 177, 2022 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35193496

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding the extent of viral hepatitis burden in specific subgroups, such as pregnant women and people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), and their geographic distribution is essential for evidence-informed policy and mobilizing resources for targeted treatment and prevention efforts. However, in Cambodia, the epidemiology of hepatitis C remains uncertain. We estimated the hepatitis C virus (HCV) burden and transmission risk factors among PLWHA and pregnant women attending antenatal care (ANC) in Cambodia. METHODS: Between March and April 2016, we conducted a cross-sectional survey in four diverse geographical areas: the capital city of Phnom Penh and three provinces. We collected information on demographic characteristics and risk behaviors and performed HCV antibody (Anti-HCV) testing among pregnant women attending public ANC clinics and among those receiving HIV care at the hospitals. We computed the prevalence of HCV among the two population subsets and performed logistic regression analyses to identify risk factors associated with HCV antibody positivity. RESULTS: Of 935 participants enrolled, 510 (54.6%) were pregnant women and 425 (45.4%) were PLWHA. Anti-HCV prevalence was significantly higher in PLWHA than in pregnant women (29/425, 6.8% vs 5/510, 0.9%, P < 0.001). Of the geographic regions, Preah Sihanouk province (Southwest) had the highest anti-HCV prevalence among PLWHA (12.0%, P = 0.031). There was no significant geographic difference in anti-HCV prevalence among pregnant women. In multivariable analyses (data subset to PLWHA), HCV infection was significantly associated with having a family member positive for HCV (OR = 7.6 [95% CI: 1.01-57.84], P = 0.048) and a history of intravenous medication injection in the last 5 years (OR = 7.1 [95% CI: 2.79-18.10], P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: HCV infection is relatively common among Cambodian PLWHA, likely related to intravenous medication injection and intra-familial viral transmission. Systematic HCV testing and care among PLWHA (and possibly their family members) might be necessary. Setting up a surveillance system for HCV might also be beneficial for some geographical regions and populations.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Hepatite C , Camboja/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hepacivirus , Humanos , Gravidez , Gestantes , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
8.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35215769

RESUMO

Bats have been recognized as an exceptional viral reservoir, especially for coronaviruses. At least three bat zoonotic coronaviruses (SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2) have been shown to cause severe diseases in humans and it is expected more will emerge. One of the major features of CoVs is that they are all highly prone to recombination. An extreme example is the insertion of the P10 gene from reoviruses in the bat CoV GCCDC1, first discovered in Rousettus leschenaultii bats in China. Here, we report the detection of GCCDC1 in four different bat species (Eonycteris spelaea, Cynopterus sphinx, Rhinolophus shameli and Rousettus sp.) in Cambodia. This finding demonstrates a much broader geographic and bat species range for this virus and indicates common cross-species transmission. Interestingly, one of the bat samples showed a co-infection with an Alpha CoV most closely related to RsYN14, a virus recently discovered in the same genus (Rhinolophus) of bat in Yunnan, China, 2020. Taken together, our latest findings highlight the need to conduct active surveillance in bats to assess the risk of emerging CoVs, especially in Southeast Asia.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/virologia , Infecções por Coronaviridae/veterinária , Coronaviridae/classificação , Coronaviridae/genética , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Filogeografia , Recombinação Genética , Animais , Camboja/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Quirópteros/classificação , Coronaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronaviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronaviridae/transmissão , Evolução Molecular , Genoma Viral , Filogenia
9.
Arch Sex Behav ; 51(3): 1461-1470, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35194721

RESUMO

Studies in drug use settings rarely use sex under the influence of drugs as an indicator of sexual risk behaviors. This study explored the prevalence of sex under the influence of drugs and its correlates among people who use drugs (PWUD) in Cambodia. We included 1147 PWUD from 12 provinces in this study. A multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify factors associated with sex under the influence of drugs. Of the total, 39.7% reported having had sex under the influence of drugs in the past three months. After adjustment, sex under the influence of drugs was significantly associated with living in urban areas (AOR 2.97, 95% CI 1.68-5.27), having two to three (AOR 2.48, 95% CI 1.76-3.49) and four or more sexual partners (AOR 6.46, 95% CI 4.24-9.85), engaging in transactional sex (AOR 1.69, 95% CI 1.19-2.39), using methamphetamine (AOR 2.97, 95% CI 2.06-4.31), using drugs for three years or longer (AOR 1.67, 95% CI 1.15-2.41), having been to a drug rehabilitation center (AOR 1.77, 95% CI 1.18-2.41), having a network of ten or more PWUD (AOR 1.82, 95% CI 1.25-2.66), and having high psychological distress (AOR 1.66, 95% CI 1.25-2.22). This study documents the high prevalence of sex under the influence of drugs and its risk factors among male and female PWUD in Cambodia. These findings point to the need for integrating HIV and harm-reduction programs using innovative approaches to address the overlapping risks in this key population.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Camboja/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Assunção de Riscos , Comportamento Sexual , Parceiros Sexuais
10.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 106(3): 985-992, 2022 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35008060

RESUMO

Short-term volunteers are susceptible to a wide spectrum of morbidities, mostly infectious diseases preventable with general hygiene and preventive measures. This study aimed to identify the health problems encountered by European short-term volunteers collaborating for 1 month with a nongovernmental organization (NGO) in Cambodia and to describe their characteristics. A prospective, descriptive observational study was conducted on short-term volunteers who collaborated with an NGO in Cambodia during August 2018. Informed consent and sociodemographic, clinical, and preventative health-related questionnaire data were provided by 198 volunteers. The health problems encountered were confirmed in a primary care consultation with healthcare professionals. Univariate and bivariate analyses were performed. The median age of the volunteers was 22 years (interquartile range = 21-24), and 64% were women. Some (18.2%) had allergies, 8.6% had preexisting health conditions, and 10.6% were under regular treatment. A total of 77.3% visited a pretravel consultation clinic, 39.9% completed a specific pretravel health course, 21.7% took malaria prophylaxis, 92.4% received hepatitis A vaccination, and 82.3% received typhoid fever vaccination. Medical assistance was sought by 112 (57.3%) of the volunteers. The average number of health problems was 2.5 (standard deviation = 1.5), and the total number of health problems attended by the medical team was 279. The most common health problems were upper respiratory infections (12.2 per 1,000 person/days), wounds (10.8 per 1,000 person/days), and diarrhea (6.3 per 1,000 person/days). Short-term volunteers experienced a high rate of health problems during their stay in Cambodia, but most of the problems were mild and preventable and resolved quickly. Pretravel consultation and specific pretravel health training seemed to increase disease awareness.


Assuntos
Viagem , Voluntários , Adulto , Camboja/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Vacinação , Adulto Jovem
11.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(2): 440-444, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35076009

RESUMO

Inhabitants of the Greater Mekong Subregion in Cambodia are exposed to pathogens that might influence serologic cross-reactivity with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. A prepandemic serosurvey of 528 malaria-infected persons demonstrated higher-than-expected positivity of nonneutralizing IgG to spike and receptor-binding domain antigens. These findings could affect interpretation of large-scale serosurveys.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Malária , Anticorpos Antivirais , Camboja/epidemiologia , Humanos , Malária/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus
12.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(1): e0010028, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35077452

RESUMO

Cambodia has one of the highest dengue infection rates in Southeast Asia. Here we report quantitative entomological results of a large-scale cluster-randomised trial assessing the impact on vector populations of a package of vector control interventions including larvivorous guppy fish in household water containers, mosquito trapping with gravid-ovitraps, solid waste management, breeding-container coverage through community education and engagement for behavioural change, particularly through the participation of school children. These activities resulted in major reductions in Container Index, House Index, Breteau Index, Pupal Index and Adult Index (all p-values 0.002 or lower) in the Intervention Arm compared with the Control Arm in a series of household surveys conducted over a follow-up period of more than one year, although the project was not able to measure the longer-term sustainability of the interventions. Despite comparative reductions in Adult Index between the study arms, the Adult Index was higher in the Intervention Arm in the final household survey than in the first household survey. This package of biophysical and community engagement interventions was highly effective in reducing entomological indices for dengue compared with the control group, but caution is required in extrapolating the reduction in household Adult Index to a reduction in the overall population of adult Aedes mosquitoes, and in interpreting the relationship between a reduction in entomological indices and a reduction in the number of dengue cases. The package of interventions should be trialled in other locations.


Assuntos
Culicidae/fisiologia , Dengue/epidemiologia , Dengue/prevenção & controle , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Poecilia/fisiologia , Animais , Camboja/epidemiologia , Utensílios Domésticos , Larva , Mosquitos Vetores , Saúde Pública , Água , Abastecimento de Água
13.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 16(1): 102374, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34973623

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Facial flushing after drinking alcohol, common among Asians, is a phenotype for genes involved in alcohol metabolism. METHODS: We investigated cross-sectional associations between flushing, alcohol use, blood pressure (BP) and HbA1c among (n = 287) Cambodians with dysglycemia in Cambodia and in the U.S. Participants were categorized as Abstainers, Flushers who drink, or Non-flushers who drink. RESULTS: Flushers and Non-flushers had similar alcohol use. Flushers had higher BP than Non-flushers and Abstainers, even after controlling for confounders. Findings were similar across countries. Drinkers had higher HbA1c than Abstainers. CONCLUSIONS: Future research should examine whether reducing alcohol improves cardiometabolic outcomes.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Pressão Sanguínea , Camboja/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Hemoglobina A Glicada , Humanos
14.
World J Surg ; 46(1): 54-60, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523046

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Snakebite-related injury is a serious public health issue. In Cambodia, it is estimated that up to 21,500 cases of envenoming occurs from snakebites annually. Musculoskeletal disability is a major long-term complication associated with the injury. In this study, we aim to describe surgical management and rehabilitation in snakebite-related musculoskeletal injuries at Children's Surgical Centre, Phnom Penh, Cambodia. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective case series analysis of patients with snakebite-related injury who were treated between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2018. Surgical patients were divided into the early and late presenting groups (= < one year vs. > one year, respectively) based on their time interval from snake bite to time of presentation. RESULTS: There were 88 patients who presented with snakebite-related musculoskeletal injury during the cohort study period. Majority of them were male (n = 62, 71%) and had a median age of 24 years old (IQR 17-44). The injuries were all in the upper and lower limbs though lower limb injury was more common in female patients (81% vs. 48%, Fisher's test p = 0.005). The median time interval from snakebite to time of treatment was 3 years (IQR 3 months-11 years). In this study, 65 patients received surgical interventions. An ulcerated wound was the most common symptom among the early presenting group (78% vs. 24%), while scar contracture was most common among the late group (76% vs. 22%) (Fisher's test p < 0.0001). For management, surgical debridement was the most common primary intervention for the early group (52% vs. 19%), and contracture release was the most common for patients in the late group (62% vs. 15%) (Fisher's test p = 0.0004). Overall, the postoperative complication rate was highest in the late presenting group (34% vs. 3%, Fisher's test p = 0.005). CONCLUSION: More than half of the patients presented with musculoskeletal injury require surgical correction. Our study demonstrated that scar contracture is the most common complaint among the late presenting group and is associated with high postoperative complication rate.


Assuntos
Mordeduras de Serpentes , Adolescente , Adulto , Camboja/epidemiologia , Criança , Cicatriz , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Mordeduras de Serpentes/complicações , Mordeduras de Serpentes/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34886416

RESUMO

This study aimed to estimate the costs and incremental cost-effectiveness of two community-based tuberculosis (TB) active case-finding (ACF) strategies in Cambodia. We also assessed the number needed to screen and test to find one TB case. Program and national TB notification data from a quasi-experimental study of a cohort of people with TB in 12 intervention operational districts (ODs) and 12 control ODs between November 2018 and December 2019 were analyzed. Two ACF interventions (ACF seed-and-recruit (ACF SAR) model and one-off roving (one-off) ACF) were implemented concurrently. The matched control sites included PCF only. We estimated costs using the program and published data in Cambodia. The primary outcome was disability-adjusted life years (DALY) averted over 14 months. We considered the gross domestic product per capita of Cambodia in 2018 as the cost-effectiveness threshold. ACF SAR needed to test 7.7 people with presumptive TB to identify one all-forms TB, while one-off ACF needed to test 22.4. The costs to diagnose one all-forms TB were USD 458 (ACF SAR) and USD 191 (one-off ACF). The incremental cost per DALY averted was USD 257 for ACF SAR and USD 204 for one-off ACF. Community-based ACF interventions that targeted key populations for TB in Cambodia were highly cost-effective.


Assuntos
Anos de Vida Ajustados pela Incapacidade , Tuberculose , Camboja/epidemiologia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Tuberculose/epidemiologia
16.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 24145, 2021 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34921180

RESUMO

Recent studies suggest that coronaviruses circulate widely in Southeast Asian bat species and that the progenitors of the SARS-Cov-2 virus could have originated in rhinolophid bats in the region. Our objective was to assess the diversity and circulation patterns of coronavirus in several bat species in Southeast Asia. We undertook monthly live-capture sessions and sampling in Cambodia over 17 months to cover all phases of the annual reproduction cycle of bats and test specifically the association between their age and CoV infection status. We additionally examined current information on the reproductive phenology of Rhinolophus and other bat species presently known to occur in mainland southeast China, Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia. Results from our longitudinal monitoring (573 bats belonging to 8 species) showed an overall proportion of positive PCR tests for CoV of 4.2% (24/573) in cave-dwelling bats from Kampot and 4.75% (22/463) in flying-foxes from Kandal. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the PCR amplicon sequences of CoVs (n = 46) obtained clustered in Alphacoronavirus and Betacoronavirus. Interestingly, Hipposideros larvatus sensu lato harbored viruses from both genera. Our results suggest an association between positive detections of coronaviruses and juvenile and immature bats in Cambodia (OR = 3.24 [1.46-7.76], p = 0.005). Since the limited data presently available from literature review indicates that reproduction is largely synchronized among rhinolophid and hipposiderid bats in our study region, particularly in its more seasonal portions (above 16° N), this may lead to seasonal patterns in CoV circulation. Overall, our study suggests that surveillance of CoV in insectivorous bat species in Southeast Asia, including SARS-CoV-related coronaviruses in rhinolophid bats, could be targeted from June to October for species exhibiting high proportions of juveniles and immatures during these months. It also highlights the need to develop long-term longitudinal surveys of bats and improve our understanding of their ecology in the region, for both biodiversity conservation and public health reasons.


Assuntos
Alphacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/genética , COVID-19/transmissão , Quirópteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Alphacoronavirus/classificação , Animais , Ásia Sudeste/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus/classificação , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Camboja/epidemiologia , Quirópteros/classificação , Quirópteros/virologia , Epidemias/prevenção & controle , Evolução Molecular , Genoma Viral/genética , Geografia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Filogenia , SARS-CoV-2/classificação , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Especificidade da Espécie
17.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(12): e2139543, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34913975

RESUMO

Importance: Stunting was used as a proxy for underdevelopment in early childhood in previous studies, but the associations between child development and other growth and body composition parameters were rarely studied. Objective: To estimate the association between malnutrition and early child development (ECD) at an individual level. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based, cross-sectional study used data from the East Asia Pacific Early Child Development Scales, a population-representative survey of children aged 3 to 5 years old, conducted in 2012 to 2014 in communities in Cambodia, China, Mongolia, Papua New Guinea, and Vanuatu. Data analysis was performed from November 2019 to April 2021. Exposures: Stunting (height-for-age [HFA] z score less than -2), wasting (weight-for-height z score less than -2), overweight (weight-for-height z score greater than 2), body mass index (BMI)-for-age z score, and body fat proportion based on existing growth standard and formula. Main Outcomes and Measures: ECD directly assessed using the validated East Asia-Pacific ECD Scales. Results: A total of 7108 children (3547 girls; mean [SD], age 4.48 [0.84] years) were included in this study. The prevalence of stunting was 27.1% (range across countries, 1.2%-55.0%), that of wasting was 13.7% (range, 5.4%-35.9%), and that of overweight was 15.9% (range, 2.2%-53.7%). Adjusted for country variations, age, sex, urbanicity, family socioeconomic status, and body fat proportion, ECD was linearly associated with HFA (ß, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.35-1.80) and BMI-for-age (ß, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.45-0.82). After adjustment for BMI and height, better ECD was associated with low body fat proportion (ß, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.45-1.42). The association of HFA was more pronounced in Southeast Asia and the Pacific region than in East Asia, and the association of fat proportion was specific to children living in urban environments. Conclusions and Relevance: HFA, BMI-for-age, and body fat proportion were independently associated with ECD, and these findings suggest that future studies should consider using these parameters to estimate the prevalence of child underdevelopment; nutritional trials should examine to what extent the associations are causal.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/etiologia , Desnutrição/complicações , Estado Nutricional , Adiposidade , Fatores Etários , Estatura , Índice de Massa Corporal , Camboja/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento/complicações , Transtornos do Crescimento/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Desnutrição/diagnóstico , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Mongólia/epidemiologia , Papua Nova Guiné/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/complicações , Obesidade Pediátrica/diagnóstico , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Magreza/complicações , Magreza/diagnóstico , Magreza/epidemiologia , Vanuatu/epidemiologia
18.
Korean J Parasitol ; 59(5): 519-522, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34724773

RESUMO

The Chinese edible frogs, Hoplobatrachus rugulosus (n=20), and the striped snakehead fish, Channa striata (n=34), were purchased from local markets in 3 administrative regions of Cambodia (Phnom Penh, Pursat, and Takeo Provinces) from May 2017 to April 2019, and their infection status with Gnathostoma sp. larvae was investigated. The frogs and fish were transported to the laboratory with ice and examined using the artificial digestion method. Advanced 3rd-stage larvae (AdL3) of Gnathostoma spinigerum, 24 in total number (1-6 larvae/frog), were detected from 6 (60.0%) out of 10 frogs purchased from Phnom Penh. No gnathostome larvae were detected in 10 frogs purchased from Takeo Province and 34 snakeheads from Phnom Penh, Pursat, and Takeo Provinces. AdL3 isolated from the frogs were 2.55- 3.90 mm long and 0.31-0.36 mm wide. They had a characteristic head bulb (0.081×0.191 mm in average size) with 4 rows of hooklets, a muscular long esophagus (0.950-1.230 mm long), and 2 pairs of cervical sacs (0.530-0.890 mm long). The average number of hooklets in the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th rows was 41, 45, 48, and 51, respectively. These features were consistent with G. spinigerum AdL3. By the present study, it has been first confirmed that the Chinese edible frog, H. rugulosus, from Phnom Penh serves as a second intermediate host for G. spinigerum, although their intensity of infection was not so high compared to other previously reported localities.


Assuntos
Anuros/parasitologia , Gnathostoma , Animais , Camboja/epidemiologia , Larva
19.
Korean J Parasitol ; 59(5): 531-536, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34724775

RESUMO

The prevalence and intensity of Opisthorchis viverrini metacercariae (OvMc) were investigated in fish from 3 southern administrative regions along the Mekong River in Cambodia, i.e., Phnom Penh, Takeo, and Kandal Provinces from 2017 to 2020. A total of 295 freshwater fish (24 species) were transported to our laboratory with ice and examined using the artificial digestion method. In Phnom Penh, among 4 fish species positive for OvMc, 9 (23.7%) of 38 specimens examined were infected, and their intensity of infection averaged 4.3 metacercariae per infected fish. In Takeo Province, among 10 fish species positive for OvMc, 24 (38.1%) out of 63 fish examined were infected, and their intensity of infection was av. 14.4 metacercariae per infected fish. In particular, all of 3 Osteochilus schlegelii fish examined were infected, and their infection intensity was high, 34.7 metacercariae per fish. In Kandal Province, among 6 fish species positive for OvMc, 46 (90.2%) out of 51 specimens examined were infected, and their infection intensity was 24.0 metacercaraie per infected fish. All fish of Systomus orphoides (n=17), Barbonymus altus (n=14), and Rasbora aurotaenia (n=2) were infected, and their intensity of infection averaged 37.7, 21.6, and 18.5 metacercariae per fish, respectively. Metacercariae of Haplochis yokogawai, Haplorchis taichui, and Centrocestus formosanus were detected in fish from Takeo and Kandal Provinces. From these results, it has been confirmed that a variety of fish species from Phnom Penh, Takeo, and Kandal Provinces are commonly infected with OvMc, and preventive measures to avoid human O. viverrini infection should be performed in Cambodia.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae , Doenças dos Peixes , Opisthorchis , Infecções por Trematódeos , Animais , Camboja/epidemiologia , Cyprinidae/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Metacercárias , Prevalência , Infecções por Trematódeos/epidemiologia , Infecções por Trematódeos/veterinária
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769963

RESUMO

The illegal trade of wildlife in SE Asia has been identified as the likely cause of the COVID-19 pandemic. We reviewed 198 papers on the current COVID pandemic in Cambodia, diseases such as avian influenza and Nipah virus, most likely to develop into a new pandemic in Cambodia, and common features of disease that require mitigation. Artisanal goldmining uses pure mercury in the areas where wildlife is smuggled to China. Moreover, 30-40% of Cambodians are zinc deficient. High levels of arsenic in irrigation water (>1000 µg/L) are associated with very low levels of zinc in rice (5 µg/g) and rice is the primary staple food for the region. Brown rice from nine of 15 paddy fields in the arsenic zone of Cambodia had double the new guidelines of 100 µg/kg inorganic arsenic for children's food in the EU and USA. The combination of deficiencies of essential micronutrients like zinc and pervasive presence of arsenic and mercury has the potential to compromise the immunity of many Cambodians. Innovative solutions are suggested to improve micronutrient nutrition. Toxins that suppress the immune system must be better managed to reduce the virulence of pathogens. Cambodia was not likely the source of the COVID-19 but does have problems that could result in a new pandemic.


Assuntos
Arsênio , COVID-19 , Oryza , Animais , Arsênio/análise , Camboja/epidemiologia , Criança , Humanos , Micronutrientes , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
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