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1.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248176, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33667280

RESUMO

Testing and case identification are key strategies in controlling the COVID-19 pandemic. Contact tracing and isolation are only possible if cases have been identified. The effectiveness of testing should be assessed, but a single comprehensive metric is not available to assess testing effectiveness, and no timely estimates of case detection rate are available globally, making inter-country comparisons difficult. The purpose of this paper was to propose a single, comprehensive metric, called the COVID-19 Testing Index (CovTI) scaled from 0 to 100, derived from epidemiological indicators of testing, and to identify factors associated with this outcome. The index was based on case-fatality rate, test positivity rate, active cases, and an estimate of the detection rate. It used parsimonious modeling to estimate the true total number of COVID-19 cases based on deaths, testing, health system capacity, and government transparency. Publicly reported data from 165 countries and territories that had reported at least 100 confirmed cases by June 3, 2020 were included in the index. Estimates of detection rates aligned satisfactorily with previous estimates in literature (R2 = 0.44). As of June 3, 2020, the states with the highest CovTI included Hong Kong (93.7), Australia (93.5), Iceland (91.8), Cambodia (91.3), New Zealand (90.6), Vietnam (90.2), and Taiwan (89.9). Bivariate analyses showed the mean CovTI in countries with open public testing policies (66.9, 95% CI 61.0-72.8) was significantly higher than in countries with no testing policy (29.7, 95% CI 17.6-41.9) (p<0.0001). A multiple linear regression model assessed the association of independent grouping variables with CovTI. Open public testing and extensive contact tracing were shown to significantly increase CovTI, after adjusting for extrinsic factors, including geographic isolation and centralized forms of government. The correlation of testing and contact tracing policies with improved outcomes demonstrates the validity of this model to assess testing effectiveness and also suggests these policies were effective at improving health outcomes. This tool can be combined with other databases to identify other factors or may be useful as a standalone tool to help inform policymakers.


Assuntos
/diagnóstico , /epidemiologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Camboja/epidemiologia , Busca de Comunicante , Política de Saúde , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Humanos , Islândia/epidemiologia , Modelos Lineares , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Vietnã/epidemiologia
2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 223, 2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33637051

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite a dramatic reduction in HCV drug costs and simplified models of care, many countries lack important information on prevalence and risk factors to structure effective HCV services. METHODS: A cross-sectional, multi-stage cluster survey of HCV seroprevalence in adults 18 years and above was conducted, with an oversampling of those 45 years and above. One hundred forty-seven clusters of 25 households were randomly selected in two sets (set 1=24 clusters ≥18; set 2=123 clusters, ≥45). A multi-variable analysis assessed risk factors for sero-positivity among participants ≥45. The study occurred in rural Moung Ruessei Health Operational District, Battambang Province, Western Cambodia. RESULTS: A total of 5098 individuals and 3616 households participated in the survey. The overall seroprevalence was 2.6% (CI95% 2.3-3.0) for those ≥18 years, 5.1% (CI95% 4.6-5.7) for adults ≥ 45 years, and 0.6% (CI95% 0.3-0.9) for adults 18-44. Viraemic prevalence was 1.9% (CI95% 1.6-2.1), 3.6% (CI95% 3.2-4.0), and 0.5% (CI95% 0.2-0.8), respectively. Men had higher prevalence than women: ≥18 years male seroprevalence was 3.0 (CI95% 2.5-3.5) versus 2.3 (CI95% 1.9-2.7) for women. Knowledge of HCV was poor: 64.7% of all respondents and 57.0% of seropositive participants reported never having heard of HCV. Risk factor characteristics for the population ≥45 years included: advancing age (p< 0.001), low education (higher than secondary school OR 0.7 [95% CI 0.6-0.8]), any dental or gum treatment (OR 1.6 [95% CI 1.3-1.8]), historical routine medical care (medical injection after 1990 OR 0.7 [95% CI 0.6-0.9]; surgery after 1990 OR 0.7 [95% CI0.5-0.9]), and historical blood donation or transfusion (blood donation after 1980 OR 0.4 [95% CI 0.2-0.8]); blood transfusion after 1990 OR 0.7 [95% CI 0.4-1.1]). CONCLUSIONS: This study provides the first large-scale general adult population prevalence data on HCV infection in Cambodia. The results confirm the link between high prevalence and age ≥45 years, lower socio-economic status and past routine medical interventions (particularly those received before 1990 and 1980). This survey suggests high HCV prevalence in certain populations in Cambodia and can be used to guide national and local HCV policy discussion.


Assuntos
Hepacivirus/imunologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Viremia/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Camboja/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Características da Família , Feminino , Hepacivirus/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Hepatite C/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Viremia/diagnóstico , Viremia/virologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244357, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33347494

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cambodia has been well recognized for its success in the fight against the HIV epidemic. However, challenges remain in eliminating HIV infections in key populations, including women working in entertainment establishments, such as massage parlors, karaoke bars, or beer gardens. This study explored the prevalence of HIV and identified factors associated with HIV infection among female entertainment workers (FEWs) in Cambodia. METHODS: This national biological and behavioral survey was conducted in 2016 in Phnom Penh and 17 provinces. We used a two-stage cluster sampling method to recruit FEWs for HIV testing performed on-site and face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire. We investigated factors associated with HIV infection using multiple logistic regression. RESULTS: This study included 3149 FEWs with a mean age of 26.2 years (SD 5.7). The adjusted prevalence of HIV was 3.2% (95% CI 1.76-5.75). In the multiple logistic regression model, the odds of HIV infection were significantly higher among FEWs in the age group of 31 to 35 (AOR 2.72, 95% CI 1.36-8.25) and 36 or older (AOR 3.62, 95% CI 1.89-10.55); FEWs who were not married but living with a sexual partner (AOR 3.00, 95% CI 1.16-7.79); FEWs who had at least ten years of formal education (AOR 0.32, 95% CI 0.17-0.83); FEWs who reported having abnormal vaginal discharge (AOR 3.51, 95% CI 1.12-9.01), genital ulcers or sores (AOR 2.06, 95% CI 1.09-3.17), and genital warts (AOR 2.89, 95% CI 1.44-6.33) in the past three months; and FEWs who reported using illicit drugs (AOR 3.28, 95% CI 1.20-4.27) than their respective reference group. The odds of HIV infection were significantly lower among FEWs working in karaoke bars (AOR 0.26, 95% CI 0.14-0.50) and beer gardens (AOR 0.17, 95% CI 0.09-0.54) than among freelance FEWs. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of HIV among FEWs in Cambodia remains much higher than that in the general population. These findings indicate that differentiated strategies to address HIV and other sexually transmitted infections should be geared towards FEWs working as freelancers or in veiled entertainment venues such as massage parlors and freelance sex workers. Prevention efforts among venue-based FEWs should be sustained.


Assuntos
Condiloma Acuminado/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Profissionais do Sexo/estatística & dados numéricos , Descarga Vaginal/epidemiologia , Adulto , Camboja/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/etiologia , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Sexual , Parceiros Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
4.
Oral Health Prev Dent ; 18(1): 973-980, 2020 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33215488

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the associations between early childhood caries (ECC) and maternal factors among 18- to 36-month-old children in one rural province of Cambodia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 121 mother-child pairs (male = 67, female = 54; mean age = 25.18 ± 6.24 months) were recruited at several villages in Stueng Trang district, Kampong Cham province. ECC and maternal caries experience were recorded following WHO guidelines. Maternal factors such as literacy and socioeconomic status, as well as child-rearing behaviours, were assessed through an interview questionnaire of the mothers. RESULTS: ECC and maternal caries prevalence were 54.5% and 84.3%, respectively. Statistically significant associations were found between ECC and: breast-feeding after 18 months; sugary food and beverage intake for the child (p < 0.05); maternal caries experience; illiteracy; night-time breastfeeding, bottle feeding, and late introduction of toothbrushing for the child (p < 0.01). A logistic regression revealed that ECC was more common in children whose mothers had DMFT > 0 (OR = 4.08; 95% CI =1.13-14.75; p = 0.032), children whose mothers were illiterate (OR = 8.21; 95% CI = 1.67-40.85; p = 0.009), children who had night-time breastfeeding after 18 months (OR = 2.76; 95% CI = 1.06-7.19; p = 0.037), and children for whom toothbrushing was introduced after 18 months (OR = 2.87; 95% CI = 1.03-7.97; p = 0.042). CONCLUSION: The findings of this study suggest that maternal caries experience and illiteracy, as well as a range of child-rearing behaviours including prolonged night-time breastfeeding and late introduction of toothbrushing were indicators for ECC in this population.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Alimentação Artificial , Camboja/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Escovação Dentária
5.
Ann Biol Clin (Paris) ; 78(5): 499-518, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026346

RESUMO

The French society of clinical biology "Biochemical markers of COVID-19" has set up a working group with the primary aim of reviewing, analyzing and monitoring the evolution of biological prescriptions according to the patient's care path and to look for markers of progression and severity of the disease. This study covers all public and private sectors of medical biology located in metropolitan and overseas France and also extends to the French-speaking world. This article presents the testimonies and data obtained for the "Overseas and French-speaking countries" sub-working group made up of 45 volunteer correspondents, located in 20 regions of the world. In view of the delayed spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, the overseas regions and the French-speaking regions have benefited from feedback from the first territories confronted with COVID-19. Thus, the entry of the virus or its spread in epidemic form could be avoided, thanks to the rapid closure of borders. The overseas territories depend very strongly on air and/or sea links with the metropolis or with the neighboring continent. The isolation of these countries is responsible for reagent supply difficulties and has necessitated emergency orders and the establishment of stocks lasting several months, in order to avoid shortages and maintain adequate patient care. In addition, in countries located in tropical or intertropical zones, the diagnosis of COVID-19 is complicated by the presence of various zoonoses (dengue, Zika, malaria, leptospirosis, etc.).


Assuntos
Serviços de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Medicina de Viagem/organização & administração , Adulto , África/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Biomarcadores/análise , Biomarcadores/sangue , Camboja/epidemiologia , Criança , Serviços de Laboratório Clínico/organização & administração , Serviços de Laboratório Clínico/estatística & dados numéricos , Busca de Comunicante/métodos , Busca de Comunicante/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Ilhas/epidemiologia , Idioma , Laos/epidemiologia , Louisiana/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoal de Laboratório Médico/organização & administração , Pessoal de Laboratório Médico/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Análise de Sobrevida , Medicina de Viagem/métodos , Medicina de Viagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença Relacionada a Viagens , Clima Tropical , Medicina Tropical/métodos , Medicina Tropical/organização & administração , Medicina Tropical/estatística & dados numéricos , Vietnã/epidemiologia
6.
J Pregnancy ; 2020: 2097285, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32908703

RESUMO

Introduction: Practicing exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) in an infant's first six months of life is recommended by the World Health Organization because of its proven effectiveness as a method to support the infant's short- and long-term physical and cognitive development. However, many countries, including Cambodia, face contextually driven challenges in meeting this optimum standard of breastfeeding. The recent declining EBF rate in Cambodia is a concerning indicator of the impact of these challenges. Methods: We used existing data from the 2014 Cambodian Demographic and Health Survey (CDHS) to analyze 717 Cambodian mother-infant pairs. CDHS 2014 used a two-stage stratified cluster sampling approach to select samples. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to assess determinants of EBF, taking into account the sampling weight in the analysis. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated, and significance level was considered at p value < 0.05. Results: Our findings indicate that among mothers with infants under six months, EBF was more likely if they resided rurally (AOR = 2.28; 95% CI 1.23-4.23) and if they delivered at a public hospital (AOR = 2.64; 95% CI 1.28-5.47). On the other hand, mothers of middle wealth index practiced EBF less than mothers of low wealth index (AOR = 0.58; 95% CI 0.34-0.99). And as expected, our analysis confirmed that the older the infants grew, the less likely they were to be exclusively breastfed than those younger than one month old (2-3 months: AOR = 0.49; 95% CI 0.26-0.92; 4-5 months: AOR = 0.25; 95% CI 0.15-0.43). Conclusion: The findings emphasize the need to address these determinants adequately by appropriate interventions to halt the declining trend of EBF practice. We recommend a multifaceted approach to improve EBF rates in Cambodia. Advocacy around EBF at public hospitals should continue, and private hospital staff should receive training to provide EBF counselling and support to mothers.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Aleitamento Materno/tendências , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Camboja/epidemiologia , Aconselhamento , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , População Rural , Classe Social , Apoio Social , Adulto Jovem
7.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238314, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886693

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, the prevalence of HIV among transgender women remains much higher than that of the general population, and a large proportion of them are unaware of their HIV status. Transgender women are exposed to gender-based violence and social stigma and discrimination in different settings that may create significant barriers to receiving HIV prevention and care services. This study aimed to identify factors associated with recent HIV testing among transgender women in Cambodia. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey in 2016 among 1375 transgender women recruited from 13 provinces using a peer-based social network recruitment method. We used a structured questionnaire for face-to-face interviews and performed rapid HIV/syphilis testing onsite. We used a multiple logistic regression analysis to identify factors associated with recent HIV testing. RESULTS: Of the total, 49.2% of the participants reported having an HIV test in the past six months. After controlling for other covariates, the odds of having an HIV test in the past six months was significantly lower among students (AOR 0.36, 95% CI 0.20-0.65), participants who perceived that they were unlikely to be HIV infected (AOR 0.50, 95% CI 0.32-0.78), and participants who reported always using condoms with male non-commercial partners in the past three months (AOR 0.65, 95% CI 0.49-0.85) relative to their respective reference group. The odds of having an HIV test in the past six months was significantly higher among participants who had been reached by community-based HIV services (AOR 5.01, 95% CI 3.29-7.65) and received HIV education (AOR 1.65, 95% CI 1.06-2.58) in the past six months relative to their respective reference group. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the widely available free HIV testing services, more than half of transgender women in this study had not received an HIV test in the past six months. Our findings suggest that a tailored and comprehensive combination prevention program, in which HIV testing is linked to care continuum and beyond, maybe an essential next step. Social media may have the potential to be promoted and utilized among transgender women populations in order to improve HIV testing and other prevention measures.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , HIV/isolamento & purificação , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Sexual , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Pessoas Transgênero/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Camboja/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Estigma Social , Pessoas Transgênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
8.
Korean J Parasitol ; 58(4): 431-443, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871637

RESUMO

Echinostoma mekongi n. sp. (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) is described based on adult flukes collected from humans residing along the Mekong River in Cambodia. Total 256 flukes were collected from the diarrheic stool of 6 echinostome egg positive villagers in Kratie and Takeo Province after praziquantel treatment and purging. Adults of the new species were 9.0-13.1 (av. 11.3) mm in length and 1.3-2.5 (1.9) mm in maximum width and characterized by having a head collar armed with 37 collar spines (dorsal spines arranged in 2 alternative rows), including 5 end group spines. The eggs in feces and worm uterus were 98-132 (117) µm long and 62-90 (75) µm wide. These morphological features closely resembled those of Echinostoma revolutum, E. miyagawai, and several other 37-collar-spined Echinostoma species. However, sequencing of the nuclear ITS (ITS1-5.8S rRNA-ITS2) and 2 mitochondrial genes, cox1 and </>nad1, revealed unique features distinct from E. revolutum and also from other 37-collar-spined Echinostoma group available in GenBank (E. bolschewense, E. caproni, E. cinetorchis, E. deserticum, E. miyagawai, E. nasincovae, E. novaezealandense, E. paraensei, E. paraulum, E. robustum, E. trivolvis, and Echinostoma sp. IG). Thus, we assigned our flukes as a new species, E. mekongi. The new species revealed marked variation in the morphology of testes (globular or lobulated), and smaller head collar, collar spines, oral and ventral suckers, and cirrus sac compared to E. revolutum and E. miyagawai. Epidemiological studies regarding the geographical distribution and its life history, including the source of human infections, remain to be performed.


Assuntos
Echinostoma/anatomia & histologia , Echinostoma/isolamento & purificação , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/parasitologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Camboja/epidemiologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas , Adulto Jovem
9.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008381, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804954

RESUMO

The world's most consequential pathogens occur in regions with the fewest diagnostic resources, leaving the true burden of these diseases largely under-represented. During a prospective observational study of sepsis in Takeo Province Cambodia, we enrolled 200 patients over an 18-month period. By coupling traditional diagnostic methods such as culture, serology, and PCR to Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) and advanced statistical analyses, we successfully identified a pathogenic cause in 46.5% of our cohort. In all, we detected 25 infectious agents in 93 patients, including severe threat pathogens such as Burkholderia pseudomallei and viral pathogens such as Dengue virus. Approximately half of our cohort remained undiagnosed; however, an independent panel of clinical adjudicators determined that 81% of those patients had infectious causes of their hospitalization, further underscoring the difficulty of diagnosing severe infections in resource-limited settings. We garnered greater insight as to the clinical features of severe infection in Cambodia through analysis of a robust set of clinical data.


Assuntos
Sepse/epidemiologia , Sepse/etiologia , Sepse/microbiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bactérias/classificação , Infecções Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Camboja/epidemiologia , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Estudos Prospectivos , Sepse/virologia , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Testes Sorológicos , Viroses/diagnóstico , Viroses/epidemiologia , Vírus/classificação
11.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1051, 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32616007

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Violence against children is a pervasive public health issue, with limited data available across multiple contexts. This study explores the rarely studied prevalence and dynamics around disclosure, reporting and help-seeking behaviours of children who ever experienced physical and/or sexual violence. METHODS: Using nationally-representative Violence Against Children Surveys in six countries: Cambodia, Haiti, Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria and Tanzania, we present descriptive statistics for prevalence of four outcomes among children aged 13-17 years: informal disclosure, knowledge of where to seek formal help, formal disclosure/help seeking and receipt of formal help. We ran country-specific multivariate logistic regressions predicting outcomes on factors at the individual, household and community levels. RESULTS: The prevalence of help-seeking behaviours ranged from 23 to 54% for informal disclosure, 16 to 28% for knowledge of where to seek formal help, under 1 to 25% for formal disclosure or help seeking, and 1 to 11% for receipt of formal help. Factors consistently correlated with promoting help-seeking behaviours included household number of adult females and absence of biological father, while those correlated with reduced help-seeking behaviours included being male and living in a female-headed household. Primary reasons for not seeking help varied by country, including self-blame, apathy and not needing or wanting services. CONCLUSIONS: Across countries examined, help-seeking and receipt of formal services is low for children experiencing physical and/or sexual violence, with few consistent factors identified which facilitated help-seeking. Further understanding of help seeking, alongside improved data quality and availability will aid prevention responses, including the ability to assist child survivors in a timely manner.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Revelação/estatística & dados numéricos , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Violência/psicologia , Adolescente , Camboja/epidemiologia , Criança , Feminino , Haiti/epidemiologia , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Malaui , Masculino , Prevalência , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Sobreviventes/estatística & dados numéricos , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Violência/prevenção & controle
12.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1181, 2020 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727433

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HIV/AIDS continues to be a major public health concern for children. Each day, worldwide, approximately 440 children became newly infected with HIV, and 270 children died from AIDS-related causes in 2018. Poor nutrition has been associated with accelerated disease progression, and sufficient dietary diversity is considered a key to improve children's nutritional status. Therefore, this study aims to 1) examine nutritional status of school-age children living with HIV in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, and 2) identify factors associated with their nutritional status, especially taking their dietary diversity into consideration. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in May 2018 within the catchment area of the National Pediatric Hospital, Cambodia. Data from 298 children and their caregivers were included in the analyses. Using semi-structured questionnaires, face-to-face interviews were conducted to collect data regarding sociodemographic characteristics, quality of life, and dietary diversity. To assess children's nutritional status, body weight and height were measured. Viral load and duration of antiretroviral therapy (ART) were collected from clinical records. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with stunting and wasting. RESULTS: Of 298 children, nearly half (46.6%) were stunted, and 13.1% were wasted. The mean number of food groups consumed by the children in the past 24 h was 4.6 out of 7 groups. Factors associated with children's stunting were age (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.166, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.151, 4.077), household wealth (AOR 0.543, 95%CI: 0.299, 0.986), duration of receiving ART (AOR 0.510, 95%CI: 0.267, 0.974), and having disease symptoms during the past 1 year (AOR 1.871, 95%CI: 1.005, 3.480). The only factor associated with wasting was being male (AOR 5.304, 95%CI: 2.210, 12.728). CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of stunting was more than double that of non-infected school-age children living in urban areas in Cambodia. This highlights the importance of conducting nutritional intervention programs, especially tailored for children living with HIV in the country. Although dietary diversity was not significantly associated with children's nutritional status in this study, the findings will contribute to implementing future nutritional interventions more efficiently by indicating children who are most in need of such interventions in Cambodia.


Assuntos
Dieta , Transtornos do Crescimento/complicações , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Estado Nutricional , Síndrome de Emaciação/complicações , Adolescente , Estatura , Peso Corporal , Camboja/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , HIV , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Qualidade de Vida , Carga Viral , Síndrome de Emaciação/epidemiologia
13.
Int J Infect Dis ; 97: 334-336, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569838

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Enteric fever remains an important diagnostic and treatment challenge in febrile children living in the tropics. In the context of a national Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A outbreak, the objective of this retrospective study was to compare features of S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A infections in Cambodian children. METHODS: Clinical and laboratory features were reviewed for 192 blood culture-confirmed children with S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A infections presenting to a paediatric referral hospital in Siem Reap, 2012-2016. RESULTS: Children with S. Typhi infections were younger, were more likely to have chills and/or diarrhoea, and were more frequently hospitalized than those with S. Paratyphi A infections. Over three quarters (88.3%) of S. Typhi isolates were multidrug-resistant, compared to none of the S. Paratyphi A. CONCLUSIONS: In this small study of Cambodian children, S. Typhi infections were more severe than S. Paratyphi A infections. Antibiotic resistance limits treatment options for enteric fever in this population.


Assuntos
Febre Paratifoide/microbiologia , Salmonella paratyphi A/fisiologia , Salmonella typhi/fisiologia , Febre Tifoide/microbiologia , Adolescente , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Camboja/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Hospitais Pediátricos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Febre Paratifoide/tratamento farmacológico , Febre Paratifoide/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Salmonella paratyphi A/genética , Salmonella paratyphi A/isolamento & purificação , Salmonella typhi/genética , Salmonella typhi/isolamento & purificação , Febre Tifoide/tratamento farmacológico , Febre Tifoide/epidemiologia
15.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233669, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502226

RESUMO

Only few data exist in Cambodia on mosquito diversity and their potential role as vectors. Many arboviruses, such as dengue and Japanese encephalitis, are endemic and mostly affect children in the country. This research sets out to evaluate vector relative abundance and diversity in primary schools in Cambodia in an attempt to explain the apparent burden of dengue fever, severe dengue (DEN), Japanese encephalitis (JE), other arboviral diseases and malaria among children, 15 years and under, attending selected primary schools through vector surveys. Entomological surveys were implemented in primary schools in two provinces of Cambodia to assess the potential risk of exposure of schoolchildren to mosquito vector species. Light traps and BG traps were used to collect adult mosquitoes in 24 schools during the rainy and dry seasons of 2017 and 2018 in Kampong Cham and Tboung Khmum provinces. A total of 61 species were described, including Aedes, Culex and Anopheles species. The relative abundance and biodiversity of mosquito species were dependent on the month and school. Of the 37,725 mosquitoes caught during the study, three species accounted for three-quarters of the relative abundance: Culex vishnui, Anopheles indefinitus and Culex quinquefasciatus. More importantly, nearly 90% of the mosquitoes caught in the schools were identified as potential vectors of pathogens including Japanese encephalitis, dengue, and malaria parasites. Our results showed that schools in Cambodia represent a risk for vector-borne disease transmission and highlight the importance of implementing vector control in schools in Cambodia to decrease the risk of transmission.


Assuntos
Infecções por Arbovirus/transmissão , Arbovirus/isolamento & purificação , Mosquitos Vetores , Adolescente , Infecções por Arbovirus/epidemiologia , Arbovirus/classificação , Biodiversidade , Camboja/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dengue/epidemiologia , Dengue/transmissão , Dengue/virologia , Encefalite Japonesa/epidemiologia , Encefalite Japonesa/transmissão , Encefalite Japonesa/virologia , Humanos , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/transmissão , Malária/virologia
16.
Korean J Parasitol ; 58(2): 201-204, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32418391

RESUMO

Taenia saginata infection has seldom been reported in Cambodia. In this study, we performed a survey of intestinal parasites in 1,156 residents of Preah Vihear and Stung Treng Provinces in 2018. The results revealed that 26 (2.4%) cases were positive for Taenia spp. eggs. In order to obtain the strobilae of the tapeworms, 2 patients in Preah Vihear were treated with praziquantel and purged with magnesium salts. The proglottids expelled after the medication were morphologically and molecularly analyzed to determine the species. The main uterine lateral braches in gravid proglottids were >15 in number suggesting that they are either T. saginata or Taenia asiatica. The sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene and 2 nuclear loci, elongation factor-1 alpha (ef1) and ezrin-radixin-moesin-like protein (elp), were identical to the sequences of T. saginata available in GenBank but distant from Taenia solium, T. asiatica, and T. saginata-T. asiatica hybrid. This is the first report of the presence of T. saginata in the northern part of Cambodia bordering Lao PDR based on a molecular confirmation.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Taenia saginata , Teníase/diagnóstico , Animais , Camboja/epidemiologia , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Mitocôndrias/enzimologia , Taenia saginata/genética , Teníase/epidemiologia
17.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 544, 2020 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32321475

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cambodia has targeted malaria elimination within its territory by 2025 and is developing a model elimination package of strategies and interventions designed to achieve this goal. METHODS: Cambodia adopted a simplified 1-3-7 surveillance model in the Sampov Loun operational health district in western Cambodia beginning in July 2015. The 1-3-7 approach targets reporting of confirmed cases within one day, investigation of specific cases within three days, and targeted control measures to prevent further transmission within seven days. In Sampov Loun, response measures included reactive case detection (testing of co-travelers, household contacts and family members, and surrounding households with suspected malaria cases), and provision of health education, and insecticide-treated nets. Day 28 follow up microscopy was conducted for all confirmed P. falciparum and P. falciparum-mixed-species malaria cases to assess treatment efficacy. RESULTS: The number of confirmed malaria cases in the district fell from 519 in 2015 to 181 in 2017, and the annual parasite incidence (API) in the district fell from 3.21 per 1000 population to 1.06 per 1000 population. The last locally transmitted case of malaria in Sampov Loun was identified in March 2016. In response to the 408 index cases identified, 1377 contacts were screened, resulting in the identification of 14 positive cases. All positive cases occurred among index case co-travelers. CONCLUSION: The experience of the 1-3-7 approach in Sampov Loun indicates that the basic essential malaria elimination package can be feasibly implemented at the operational district level to achieve the goal of malaria elimination in Cambodia and has provided essential information that has led to the refinement of this package.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças/métodos , Malária Falciparum , Vigilância da População , Camboja/epidemiologia , Revelação , Características da Família , Feminino , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Incidência , Mosquiteiros Tratados com Inseticida , Inseticidas , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/terapia , Malária Falciparum/diagnóstico , Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Malária Falciparum/terapia , Programas de Rastreamento , Microscopia , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 305, 2020 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32334529

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to detect Hepatitis B virus (HBV) genome sequences and their variants as of nationwide scale using dried blood spot (DBS) samples and to provide up-to-date reference data for infection control and surveillance in Cambodia. METHOD: Among 2518 children age 5-7 years and their 2023 mothers participated in 2017 Cambodia nationwide sero-survey on hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) prevalence using multistage random sampling strategy, 95 mothers and 13 children positive to HBsAg were included in this study. HBV DNA was extracted from DBS, then performed polymerase chain reaction. HBV genotypes and potential variants were examined by partial and full length genomic analysis. RESULTS: HBsAg positive rate was 4.7% (95/2023) in mothers and 0.52% (13/2518) in their children. Genotype C (80.49%) was abundantly found throughout the whole Cambodia whilst genotype B (19.51%) was exclusively found in regions bordering Vietnam. S gene mutants of HBV were found in 24.29% of mothers and 16.67% of children with HBV DNA positive sera. Full-length genome analysis revealed the homology of 99.62-100% in each mother-child pair. Genotype B was clarified to recombinant genotype B4/C2 and B2/C2. Double (48.39%) and combination mutation (32.26%) were observed in core promoter region of HBV C1 strains. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed the capable of DBS for large-scale molecular epidemiological study of HBV in resource limited countries. Full-genome sequences yield the better understanding of sub-genotypes, their variants and the degree of homology between strains isolated from mother-child pairs calls for effective strategies on prevention, control and surveillance of mother-to-child HBV transmission in Cambodia.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/genética , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Mutação , Adulto , Camboja/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Teste em Amostras de Sangue Seco/métodos , Feminino , Genoma Viral , Genótipo , Hepatite B/transmissão , Hepatite B/virologia , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Humanos , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Mães , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência
19.
Malar J ; 19(1): 107, 2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32127009

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Resistance to anti-malarials is a major threat to the control and elimination of malaria. Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) anti-malarial treatment was used as a national policy for treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Thailand from 1973 to 1990. In order to determine whether withdrawal of this antifolate drug has led to restoration of SP sensitivity, the prevalence of genetic markers of SP resistance was assessed in historical Thai samples. METHODS: Plasmodium falciparum DNA was collected from the Thailand-Myanmar, Thailand-Malaysia and Thailand-Cambodia borders during 2008-2016 (N = 233). Semi-nested PCR and nucleotide sequencing were used to assess mutations in Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (pfdhfr), P. falciparum dihydropteroate synthase (pfdhps). Gene amplification of Plasmodium falcipaurm GTP cyclohydrolase-1 (pfgch1) was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR. The association between pfdhfr/pfdhps mutations and pfgch1 copy numbers were evaluated. RESULTS: Mutations in pfdhfr/pfdhsp and pfgch1 copy number fluctuated overtime through the study period. Altogether, 14 unique pfdhfr-pdfhps haplotypes collectively containing quadruple to octuple mutations were identified. High variation in pfdhfr-pfdhps haplotypes and a high proportion of pfgch1 multiple copy number (51% (73/146)) were observed on the Thailand-Myanmar border compared to other parts of Thailand. Overall, the prevalence of septuple mutations was observed for pfdhfr-pfdhps haplotypes. In particular, the prevalence of pfdhfr-pfdhps, septuple mutation was observed in the Thailand-Myanmar (50%, 73/146) and Thailand-Cambodia (65%, 26/40) border. In Thailand-Malaysia border, majority of the pfdhfr-pfdhps haplotypes transaction from quadruple (90%, 9/10) to quintuple (65%, 24/37) during 2008-2016. Within the pfdhfr-pfdhps haplotypes, during 2008-2013 the pfdhps A/S436F mutation was observed only in Thailand-Myanmar border (9%, 10/107), while it was not identified later. In general, significant correlation was observed between the prevalence of pfdhfr I164L (ϕ = 0.213, p-value = 0.001) or pfdhps K540E/N (ϕ = 0.399, p-value ≤ 0.001) mutations and pfgch1 gene amplification. CONCLUSIONS: Despite withdrawal of SP as anti-malarial treatment for 17 years, the border regions of Thailand continue to display high prevalence of antifolate and anti-sulfonamide resistance markers in falciparum malaria. Significant association between pfgch1 amplification and pfdhfr (I164L) or pfdhps (K540E) resistance markers were observed, suggesting a compensatory mutation.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Antagonistas do Ácido Fólico/farmacologia , Plasmodium falciparum/efeitos dos fármacos , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Pirimetamina/farmacologia , Sulfadoxina/farmacologia , Camboja/epidemiologia , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Teste em Amostras de Sangue Seco , Combinação de Medicamentos , Genótipo , Humanos , Malária Falciparum/tratamento farmacológico , Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Mutação , Prevalência , Tailândia/epidemiologia
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