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1.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 37(1): 1-16, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541693

RESUMO

Small ruminants are increasing in popularity as both production and companion animals in the United States. Among sheep, goats, and camelids, there are many disease processes and management techniques that have the potential to result in painful or noxious stimuli. In these species, many medications and therapeutic techniques can be used to reduce or eliminate the long-term consequences of pain. This review focuses on the commonly used medications available for pain management of small ruminants and discusses the benefits and negative aspects of their use.


Assuntos
Camelídeos Americanos , Doenças das Cabras/tratamento farmacológico , Manejo da Dor/veterinária , Dor/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Cabras , Ovinos
2.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 37(1): 139-147, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541695

RESUMO

Hysteroscopy in alpacas and llamas allows for the identification of abnormalities on the surface or within the endometrium that cannot be identified with other methods. Hysteroscopy also allows for site-directed endometrial cytology, culture, and biopsy to achieve a definitive diagnosis. Even when no cause for infertility can be found, previously infertile females tend to become pregnant and maintain their pregnancies to term following the hysteroscopic procedure. This therapeutic effect may be a response to pre-hysteroscopy estrogen treatment, dilation of the uterine horns during hysteroscopy, and/or posttreatment uterine lavages. Complications following hysteroscopy have not been reported in camelids.


Assuntos
Camelídeos Americanos , Infertilidade Feminina/veterinária , Animais , Biópsia/veterinária , Endometrite/diagnóstico , Endometrite/veterinária , Endométrio/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Histeroscopia/métodos , Histeroscopia/veterinária , Infertilidade Feminina/diagnóstico , Infertilidade Feminina/etiologia , Infertilidade Feminina/patologia , Gravidez , Útero
3.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 37(1): 17-31, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541697

RESUMO

Small ruminants are increasing in popularity as production and companion animals in the United States, and among sheep, goats, and camelids there are many disease processes and management techniques that have the potential to result in painful or noxious stimuli. In these species, many medications and therapeutic techniques can be used to reduce or eliminate the long-term consequences of pain. In this second portion of the review, we focus on the application of pain management in these species. These strategies include mono- and multimodal and the use of precision pain management, such as epidural drug administration, regional perfusions, and transdermal applications.


Assuntos
Camelídeos Americanos , Doenças das Cabras/tratamento farmacológico , Manejo da Dor/veterinária , Dor/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Analgesia/métodos , Analgesia/veterinária , Animais , Cabras , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Ruminantes , Ovinos , Estados Unidos
4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 3318, 2021 02 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33558635

RESUMO

Despite unprecedented global efforts to rapidly develop SARS-CoV-2 treatments, in order to reduce the burden placed on health systems, the situation remains critical. Effective diagnosis, treatment, and prophylactic measures are urgently required to meet global demand: recombinant antibodies fulfill these requirements and have marked clinical potential. Here, we describe the fast-tracked development of an alpaca Nanobody specific for the receptor-binding-domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein with potential therapeutic applicability. We present a rapid method for nanobody isolation that includes an optimized immunization regimen coupled with VHH library E. coli surface display, which allows single-step selection of Nanobodies using a simple density gradient centrifugation of the bacterial library. The selected single and monomeric Nanobody, W25, binds to the SARS-CoV-2 S RBD with sub-nanomolar affinity and efficiently competes with ACE-2 receptor binding. Furthermore, W25 potently neutralizes SARS-CoV-2 wild type and the D614G variant with IC50 values in the nanomolar range, demonstrating its potential as antiviral agent.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Afinidade de Anticorpos/genética , /imunologia , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , /imunologia , Animais , Camelídeos Americanos/imunologia , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , Células HeLa , Humanos , Imunização , Masculino , Testes de Neutralização , Biblioteca de Peptídeos , Ligação Proteica/genética , /isolamento & purificação , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Transfecção
6.
Protein Eng Des Sel ; 332020 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33341882

RESUMO

Single-domain antibody fragments known as VHH have emerged in the pharmaceutical industry as useful biotherapeutics. These molecules, which are naturally produced by camelids, share the characteristics of high affinity and specificity with traditional human immunoglobulins, while consisting of only a single heavy chain. Currently, the most common method for generating VHH is via animal immunization, which can be costly and time-consuming. Here we describe the development of a synthetic VHH library for in vitro selection of single domain binders. We combine structure-based design and next-generation sequencing analysis to build a library with characteristics that closely mimic the natural repertoire. To validate the performance of our synthetic library, we isolated VHH against three model antigens (soluble mouse PD-1 ectodomain, amyloid-ß peptide, and MrgX1 GPCR) of different sizes and characteristics. We were able to isolate diverse binders targeting different epitopes with high affinity (as high as 5 nM) against all three targets. We then show that anti-mPD-1 binders have functional activity in a receptor blocking assay.


Assuntos
Especificidade de Anticorpos , Antígenos/química , Epitopos/química , Biblioteca de Peptídeos , Engenharia de Proteínas , Anticorpos de Domínio Único , Animais , Antígenos/imunologia , Camelídeos Americanos/genética , Camelídeos Americanos/imunologia , Camelus/genética , Camelus/imunologia , Epitopos/imunologia , Camundongos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/química , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/genética , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/imunologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
7.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 22370, 2020 12 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33353972

RESUMO

There are currently few approved effective treatments for SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic. Nanobodies are 12-15 kDa single-domain antibody fragments that can be delivered by inhalation and are amenable to relatively inexpensive large scale production compared to other biologicals. We have isolated nanobodies that bind to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein receptor binding domain and block spike protein interaction with the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) with 1-5 nM affinity. The lead nanobody candidate, NIH-CoVnb-112, blocks SARS-CoV-2 spike pseudotyped lentivirus infection of HEK293 cells expressing human ACE2 with an EC50 of 0.3 µg/mL. NIH-CoVnb-112 retains structural integrity and potency after nebulization. Furthermore, NIH-CoVnb-112 blocks interaction between ACE2 and several high affinity variant forms of the spike protein. These nanobodies and their derivatives have therapeutic, preventative, and diagnostic potential.


Assuntos
/metabolismo , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Afinidade de Anticorpos , Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas/imunologia , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , /genética , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Sítios de Ligação de Anticorpos/imunologia , /virologia , Camelídeos Americanos , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Imunização/métodos , Masculino , Ligação Proteica , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Transdução Genética , Transfecção
9.
Viruses ; 12(9)2020 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933150

RESUMO

Coronaviruses are enveloped RNA viruses capable of causing respiratory, enteric, or systemic diseases in a variety of mammalian hosts that vary in clinical severity from subclinical to fatal. The host range and tissue tropism are largely determined by the coronaviral spike protein, which initiates cellular infection by promoting fusion of the viral and host cell membranes. Companion animal coronaviruses responsible for causing enteric infection include feline enteric coronavirus, ferret enteric coronavirus, canine enteric coronavirus, equine coronavirus, and alpaca enteric coronavirus, while canine respiratory coronavirus and alpaca respiratory coronavirus result in respiratory infection. Ferret systemic coronavirus and feline infectious peritonitis virus, a mutated feline enteric coronavirus, can lead to lethal immuno-inflammatory systemic disease. Recent human viral pandemics, including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and most recently, COVID-19, all thought to originate from bat coronaviruses, demonstrate the zoonotic potential of coronaviruses and their potential to have devastating impacts. A better understanding of the coronaviruses of companion animals, their capacity for cross-species transmission, and the sharing of genetic information may facilitate improved prevention and control strategies for future emerging zoonotic coronaviruses. This article reviews the clinical, epidemiologic, virologic, and pathologic characteristics of nine important coronaviruses of companion animals.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Animais de Estimação/virologia , Animais , Camelídeos Americanos/virologia , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/virologia , Gatos/virologia , Quirópteros/virologia , Coronavirus/classificação , Coronavirus/genética , Coronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Cães/virologia , Peritonite Infecciosa Felina/epidemiologia , Peritonite Infecciosa Felina/virologia , Furões/virologia , Variação Genética , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/virologia , Cavalos/virologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Humanos , RNA Viral/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/fisiologia , Replicação Viral , Zoonoses
10.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4420, 2020 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887876

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 enters host cells through an interaction between the spike glycoprotein and the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor. Directly preventing this interaction presents an attractive possibility for suppressing SARS-CoV-2 replication. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of an alpaca-derived single domain antibody fragment, Ty1, that specifically targets the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike, directly preventing ACE2 engagement. Ty1 binds the RBD with high affinity, occluding ACE2. A cryo-electron microscopy structure of the bound complex at 2.9 Å resolution reveals that Ty1 binds to an epitope on the RBD accessible in both the 'up' and 'down' conformations, sterically hindering RBD-ACE2 binding. While fusion to an Fc domain renders Ty1 extremely potent, Ty1 neutralizes SARS-CoV-2 spike pseudovirus as a 12.8 kDa nanobody, which can be expressed in high quantities in bacteria, presenting opportunities for manufacturing at scale. Ty1 is therefore an excellent candidate as an intervention against COVID-19.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Camelídeos Americanos/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/farmacologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/antagonistas & inibidores , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/farmacologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/química , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Chlorocebus aethiops , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Epitopos/imunologia , Epitopos/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Moleculares , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/química , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Ligação Proteica , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/imunologia , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/isolamento & purificação , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Células Vero
11.
Open Vet J ; 10(2): 164-177, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32821661

RESUMO

Viruses are having great time as they seem to have bogged humans down. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and novel coronavirus (COVID-19) are the three major coronaviruses of present-day global human and animal health concern. COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 is identified as the newest disease, presumably of bat origin. Different theories on the evolution of viruses are in circulation, yet there is no denying the fact that the animal source is the skeleton. The whole world is witnessing the terror of the COVID-19 pandemic that is following the same path of SARS and MERS, and seems to be more severe. In addition to humans, several species of animals are reported to have been infected with these life-threatening viruses. The possible routes of transmission and their zoonotic potentialities are the subjects of intense research. This review article aims to overview the link of all these three deadly coronaviruses among animals along with their phylogenic evolution and cross-species transmission. This is essential since animals as pets or food are said to pose some risk, and their better understanding is a must in order to prepare a possible plan for future havoc in both human and animal health. Although COVID-19 is causing a human health hazard globally, its reporting in animals are limited compared to SARS and MERS. Non-human primates and carnivores are most susceptible to SARS-coronavirus and SARS-CoV-2, respectively, whereas the dromedary camel is susceptible to MERS-coronavirus. Phylogenetically, the trio viruses are reported to have originated from bats and have special capacity to undergo mutation and genomic recombination in order to infect humans through its reservoir or replication host. However, it is difficult to analyze how the genomic pattern of coronaviruses occurs. Thus, increased possibility of new virus-variants infecting humans and animals in the upcoming days seems to be the biggest challenge for the future of the world. One health approach is portrayed as our best way ahead, and understanding the animal dimension will go a long way in formulating such preparedness plans.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/classificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/classificação , Pandemias/veterinária , Pneumonia Viral/veterinária , Vírus da SARS/classificação , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/veterinária , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Betacoronavirus/genética , Camelídeos Americanos/virologia , Camelus/virologia , Gatos , Quirópteros/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/veterinária , Cães , Eutérios/virologia , Furões/virologia , Humanos , Leões/virologia , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/genética , Filogenia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Primatas/virologia , Cães Guaxinins/virologia , Vírus da SARS/genética , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/imunologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/transmissão , Serpentes/virologia , Tigres/virologia , Viverridae/virologia
13.
Aust Vet J ; 98(10): 486-490, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32794196

RESUMO

Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) infection was detected by real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) in four adult alpacas (Vicugna pacos) from two properties on the Far North Coast of New South Wales (NSW) in April and May 2018 and in two adult alpacas from a third property on the Central Coast of NSW in October 2018. Viral RNA was detected in a range of samples, including blood, fresh body organs and mucosal swabs. EMCV was isolated from the blood and body organs of five of these alpacas. These animals displayed a range of clinical signs, including inappetence, colic, recumbency and death. Necropsy findings included multifocal to coalescing areas of myocardial pallor, pulmonary congestion and oedema, hepatic congestion and serosal effusion. Histopathological changes comprised acute, multifocal myocardial degeneration and necrosis, with mild, neutrophilic and lymphocytic inflammation (5/5 hearts) and mild, perivascular neutrophilic meningoencephalitis (1/3 brains). This is the first report of disease due to EMCV in alpacas under farm conditions, and it identifies EMCV infection as a differential diagnosis for acute disease and death in this camelid species. In addition to the samples traditionally preferred for EMCV isolation (fresh heart, brain and spleen), blood samples are also appropriate for EMCV detection by qRT-PCR assay.


Assuntos
Camelídeos Americanos , Infecções por Cardiovirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Cardiovirus/veterinária , Infecções/veterinária , Animais , Vírus da Encefalomiocardite/genética , Coração , New South Wales/epidemiologia
15.
Virol Sin ; 35(3): 290-304, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32607866

RESUMO

The recent outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has already affected a large population of the world. SARS-CoV-2 belongs to the same family of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). COVID-19 has a complex pathology involving severe acute respiratory infection, hyper-immune response, and coagulopathy. At present, there is no therapeutic drug or vaccine approved for the disease. There is an urgent need for an ideal animal model that can reflect clinical symptoms and underlying etiopathogenesis similar to COVID-19 patients which can be further used for evaluation of underlying mechanisms, potential vaccines, and therapeutic strategies. The current review provides a paramount insight into the available animal models of SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, and MERS-CoV for the management of the diseases.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Vírus da SARS , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia , Animais , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Camelídeos Americanos , Camelus , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Camundongos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/patogenicidade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Vírus da SARS/patogenicidade , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/imunologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/fisiopatologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/terapia , Suínos
16.
Can Vet J ; 61(5): 521-524, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32355352

RESUMO

A 5-year-old llama was presented for unilateral cryptorchidism. Clinical findings included an abdominally retained right testicle. Surgical treatment consisted of laparoscopic removal of the abdominally retained testicle and routine closed castration of the descended testicle, which is presented as a therapeutic option for cryptorchidectomy. Key clinical message: Laparoscopic exploration and castration should be considered as a suitable surgical treatment for a llama with abdominally retained testicles.


Assuntos
Camelídeos Americanos , Criptorquidismo/cirurgia , Criptorquidismo/veterinária , Laparoscopia/veterinária , Animais , Masculino , Orquiectomia/veterinária
17.
Korean J Parasitol ; 58(2): 181-184, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32418387

RESUMO

Blastocystis, an enteric protist, has been reported to be an important cause of protozoal gastrointestinal manifestations in humans and animals worldwide. Animals harboring certain Blastocystis subtypes (STs) may serve as a potential source of human infection. However, information about the prevalence and genetic diversity of Blastocystis in alpacas is limited. In the present study, a total of 366 fecal samples from alpacas in Shanxi Province, northern China, were examined for Blastocystis by PCR amplification of the small subunit rRNA gene, followed by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The prevalence of Blastocystis in alpacas was 23.8%, and gender difference in the prevalence of Blastocystiswas observed. The most predominant Blastocystis ST was ST10, followed by ST14 and ST5. The detection of ST5, a potentially zoonotic genotype, indicates that alpacas harboring ST5 could be a potential source of human infection with Blastocystis. These data provide new insight into the prevalence and genetic diversity of Blastocystis in alpacas.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Animais/parasitologia , Infecções por Blastocystis/epidemiologia , Infecções por Blastocystis/veterinária , Blastocystis , Camelídeos Americanos/parasitologia , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Prevalência
18.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 1034-1036, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32403995

RESUMO

Coronaviruses cause severe human viral diseases including SARS, MERS and COVID-19. Most recently SARS-CoV-2 virus (causing COVID-19) has led to a pandemic with no successful therapeutics. The SARS-CoV-2 infection relies on trimeric spike (S) proteins to facilitate virus entry into host cells by binding to ACE2 receptor on host cell membranes. Therefore, blocking this interaction with antibodies are promising agents against SARS-CoV-2. Here we describe using humanized llama antibody VHHs against SARS-CoV-2 that would overcome the limitations associated with polyclonal and monoclonal combination therapies. From two llama VHH libraries, unique humanized VHHs that bind to S protein and block the S/ACE2 interaction were identified. Furthermore, pairwise combination of VHHs showed synergistic blocking. Multi-specific antibodies with enhanced affinity and avidity, and improved S/ACE2 blocking are currently being developed using an in-silico approach that also fuses VHHs to Fc domains. Importantly, our current bi-specific antibody shows potent S/ACE2 blocking (KD - 0.25 nM, IC100 ∼ 36.7 nM, IC95 ∼ 12.2 nM, IC50 ∼ 1 nM) which is significantly better than individual monoclonal VHH-Fcs. Overall, this design would equip the VHH-Fcs multiple mechanisms of actions against SARS-CoV-2. Thus, we aim to contribute to the battle against COVID-19 by developing therapeutic antibodies as well as diagnostics.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/imunologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Camelídeos Americanos/imunologia , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Biespecíficos/imunologia , Humanos , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia
19.
Cell ; 181(5): 1004-1015.e15, 2020 05 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32375025

RESUMO

Coronaviruses make use of a large envelope protein called spike (S) to engage host cell receptors and catalyze membrane fusion. Because of the vital role that these S proteins play, they represent a vulnerable target for the development of therapeutics. Here, we describe the isolation of single-domain antibodies (VHHs) from a llama immunized with prefusion-stabilized coronavirus spikes. These VHHs neutralize MERS-CoV or SARS-CoV-1 S pseudotyped viruses, respectively. Crystal structures of these VHHs bound to their respective viral targets reveal two distinct epitopes, but both VHHs interfere with receptor binding. We also show cross-reactivity between the SARS-CoV-1 S-directed VHH and SARS-CoV-2 S and demonstrate that this cross-reactive VHH neutralizes SARS-CoV-2 S pseudotyped viruses as a bivalent human IgG Fc-fusion. These data provide a molecular basis for the neutralization of pathogenic betacoronaviruses by VHHs and suggest that these molecules may serve as useful therapeutics during coronavirus outbreaks.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/isolamento & purificação , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/química , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Camelídeos Americanos/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Reações Cruzadas , Imunoglobulina G/química , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Modelos Moleculares , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Domínios Proteicos , Receptores Virais/química , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/química , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia
20.
Vet Rec ; 186(16): e7, 2020 05 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32303669

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alpacas are being more frequently presented to veterinarians in the UK. It is important to validate whether published normal ocular parameters are consistent with the alpaca population in the UK. METHODS: Ophthalmic examinations were performed on healthy alpacas (Vicugna pacos) from three farms in East Anglia, UK. RESULTS: On direct ophthalmoscopy of 35 alpacas, there was a 50 per cent prevalence of opacities within the lens in alpacas older than two years old (n=8/16). There was a 36.8 per cent prevalence of persistent hyaloid arteries in alpacas under two years old (n=7/19). The mean Schirmer tear test-1 value was 20.0 ±6 mm/minute (n=40). The mean intraocular pressure measured by rebound tonometry was 17.2 ±5.5 mmHg (n=46), and applanation tonometry resulted in statistically similar values (P=0.30; n=25). There was a significant variation in intraocular pressure throughout a 24-hour period (n=8). Fluorescein dye was not detected at the nostrils of any of the alpacas which underwent a Jones test to assess nasolacrimal duct patency (n=8). CONCLUSION: The ophthalmic findings appear largely consistent with previously published values from North America and continental Europe. Variations include the large range of measurements obtained and evidence of diurnal variation in intraocular pressure.


Assuntos
Camelídeos Americanos/fisiologia , Pressão Intraocular/fisiologia , Tonometria Ocular/veterinária , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Masculino , Valores de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Reino Unido
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