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1.
Parasitol Res ; 118(12): 3371-3375, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705288

RESUMO

Enterocytozoon bieneusi is a single-celled obligate pathogen that seriously threatens animal and public health. However, information on the prevalence and genotypes of E. bieneusi in alpacas in China is limited. In the present study, 366 fresh fecal samples from alpacas in Shanxi Province, northern China, were collected to detect E. bieneusi by nested PCR amplification of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA). The overall prevalence of E. bieneusi in alpacas was 4.4% (16/366), including 3.9% (12/305) in Yangqu County and 6.6% (4/61) in Dai county, respectively. Four known genotypes were identified, namely ALP1, ALP3, P, and SH11, all of which belong to the zoonotic group 1 by phylogenetic analysis. Moreover, ITS-positive samples were further characterized by PCR amplification of other four targets, including three microsatellites (MS1, MS3, and MS7) and one minisatellite (MS4). Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) showed that 5, 2, 3, and 3 types were identified at MS1, MS3, MS7, and MS4 loci, respectively, representing eight multilocus genotypes (MLGs). These findings contribute to the improved understanding of the prevalence and genotypes of E. bieneusi in alpacas in China and have important implications for controlling E. bieneusi infections in animals and humans.


Assuntos
Camelídeos Americanos/parasitologia , DNA Intergênico/genética , Enterocytozoon/genética , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Microsporidiose/veterinária , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Enterocytozoon/classificação , Enterocytozoon/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/parasitologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Microsporidiose/epidemiologia , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência
2.
J Vet Intern Med ; 33(5): 2336-2342, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454105

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mycoplasma haemolamae (Mhl) and gastrointestinal nematodes can cause anemia in camelids. Control programs aim to suppress parasitism without promoting anthelminthic resistance, but few evidence-based guidelines define acceptable parasite loads in camelids. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: In clinically healthy nonanemic camelids, compare erythrocyte variables to Mhl real-time PCR status and to fecal egg count (FEC). Determine the FEC threshold above which erythrocyte variables are consistently below reference interval medians. ANIMALS: One hundred fourteen client-owned adult alpacas and llamas. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, whole blood in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) was assessed for packed cell volume (PCV) by centrifugation, erythrocyte count (RBC), and hemoglobin concentration (HGB) using an ADVIA120 analyzer, and Mhl using real-time PCR. Trichostrongyle eggs per gram (epg) were counted by modified McMaster test on freshly collected feces. Significant differences in erythrocyte variables based on Mhl status and FEC thresholds were assessed by independent t test and one-way ANOVA, respectively. RESULTS: Packed cell volume, RBC, and HGB were not significantly different between Mhl-positive and Mhl-negative animals, but were significantly lower in animals with FEC >1000 epg compared to those with <500 epg. All animals with FEC >600 epg had RBC and HGB below the reference interval median. All animals with FEC >750 epg had PCV below the reference interval median. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: In healthy nonanemic camelids, positive Mhl PCR is not associated with lower erythrocyte variables and such animals may not warrant treatment. Fecal egg count >600-750 epg has a negative effect on erythrocyte variables, and may be a guide for deworming protocols.


Assuntos
Camelídeos Americanos/microbiologia , Camelídeos Americanos/parasitologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Tricostrongiloidíase/veterinária , Animais , Camelídeos Americanos/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Contagem de Eritrócitos/veterinária , Feminino , Hematócrito/veterinária , Hemoglobinas/análise , Masculino , Mycoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Mycoplasma/sangue , Infecções por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Tennessee/epidemiologia , Trichostrongyloidea/isolamento & purificação
3.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 330, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31266521

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endoparasites are considered a major health problem of South American camelids as shown in a recent survey among German and Austrian camelid owners. Although prophylactic and therapeutic measures such as application of anthelmintics are commonly used, treatment efficacy is usually not assessed. Owners have expressed significant concerns regarding the effect of antiparasitic therapy, so this study aimed to evaluate the outcome of anthelmintic treatment in German alpaca herds with different drugs. RESULTS: Overall, 617 samples from 538 clinically healthy alpacas > 1 year-old from 27 farms (n = 11-157 animals/herd) were examined. The most common parasites detected by flotation were Eimeria spp. (75.1%) followed by strongylids (55.0%), Nematodirus spp. (19.3%), cestodes (3.1%) and Trichuris (2.7%). After initial coproscopical examination by flotation and strongylid egg quantification by the McMaster technique, positive animals excreting at least 150 eggs per gram of faeces were included in a faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) using fenbendazole (n = 71 samples), moxidectin (n = 71) or monepantel (n = 66). Pre-treatment larval cultures (n = 23 positive pooled farm samples) revealed Haemonchus (87% of the farms), Cooperia (43.5%), Trichostrongylus (21.7%), Ostertagia (13.0%), Nematodirus and Oesophagostomum (4.3% each). Fenbendazole treatment reduced egg excretion by 45%, moxidectin by 91% and monepantel by 96%. On the farm level, 13/18 farms that used fenbendazole, 6/6 farms that used moxidectin and 2/5 farms that used monepantel had individual FECR values < 90% (fenbendazole) or < 95% (moxidectin, monepantel). Haemonchus and Cooperia were overrepresented on the farms with reduced treatment efficacy. CONCLUSIONS: Gastrointestinal strongylids are common in German alpacas and fenbendazole in particular was not sufficiently effective to reduce strongylid egg excretion. Although the FECRT could not unambiguously determine anthelmintic resistance in the present study, the finding that small ruminant strongylids, especially Haemonchus, are common in alpacas indicates that determination of effective anthelmintic doses, monitoring of efficacy and adapted (selective) treatment regimens must be implemented as part of sustainable deworming practices in this species in accordance with recommendations for ruminants.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Camelídeos Americanos/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/prevenção & controle , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária , Estrongilídios/efeitos dos fármacos , Aminoacetonitrila/administração & dosagem , Aminoacetonitrila/análogos & derivados , Animais , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Fenbendazol/administração & dosagem , Haemonchus/efeitos dos fármacos , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/prevenção & controle , Macrolídeos/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Infecções por Strongylida/parasitologia , Infecções por Strongylida/prevenção & controle
4.
Parasitol Res ; 118(6): 1963-1966, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31069537

RESUMO

A Hypoderma larva was removed from a painful swelling in the lumbar region of a 17-month-old male alpaca kept on a farm in the Brandenburg district, eastern Germany. Morphological analysis and sequencing of the 18S rRNA gene demonstrated it was a second instar larvae of Hypoderma diana. The main host of H. diana is the roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). This is the first description of hypodermosis caused by H. diana in a camelid species.


Assuntos
Camelídeos Americanos/parasitologia , Dípteros/classificação , Dípteros/genética , Ectoparasitoses/diagnóstico , Animais , Alemanha , Larva/classificação , Masculino , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética
5.
Parasitol Res ; 118(3): 891-900, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30719533

RESUMO

This study involved a national cross-sectional survey of gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) of alpacas in Australia. A total of 1545 fresh faecal samples were collected from both sexes of alpacas and processed for faecal egg counts (FEC) and molecular identification of nematodes using the multiplexed tandem PCR assay. Based on egg morphology, the overall prevalence of GINs was 66% while that for strongyles was 59%. The overall mean FEC was 276 eggs per gram (EPG) of faeces, with the highest count of 17,415 EPG. Male alpacas had a higher prevalence (68%, 334/490) as well as mean FEC (328 ± 60 EPG) of GINs than females (63%, 602/954; 227 ± 26, respectively). Weaners had the highest prevalence (80%) whereas tuis had the highest FEC (402 EPG) of nematodes. The highest prevalence (77%, 293/383) and FEC (630 EPG) of GINs were observed in the summer rainfall zone followed by the Mediterranean-type rainfall, non-seasonal rainfall and winter rainfall zones. The characterisation of nematode DNA isolated from faeces revealed the occurrence of seven different GINs, including Camelostrongylus mentulatus, Cooperia spp., Haemonchus spp., Oesophagostomum spp., Ostertagia ostertagi, Teladorsagia circumcincta and Trichostrongylus spp. Besides, Nematodirus spp. and Trichuris spp. were also found during FECs. The prevalence of Haemonchus spp. was highest in the summer rainfall zone while that of C. mentulatus was highest in the Mediterranean-type rainfall, non-seasonal rainfall and winter rainfall zones. The findings of this study revealed that alpacas harbour many of the same nematodes as sheep and cattle.


Assuntos
Camelídeos Americanos/parasitologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Infecções por Nematoides/epidemiologia , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Animais , Austrália/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Estudos Transversais , DNA de Protozoário/análise , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Haemonchus/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Infecções por Nematoides/parasitologia , Ostertagia/isolamento & purificação , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas , Prevalência , Estações do Ano , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Trichostrongylus/isolamento & purificação
6.
Parasitol Res ; 118(3): 901-911, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30737673

RESUMO

We conducted a longitudinal survey on 13 alpaca farms in four climatic zones of Australia to understand the epidemiology of gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) of alpacas. A total of 1688 fresh faecal samples were collected from both sexes of alpacas from May 2015 to April 2016 and processed for faecal egg counts (FEC) and molecular identification of eggs using the multiplexed-tandem PCR assay. Based on egg morphology, the overall prevalence of GINs was 61% while that for strongyles was 53%. The overall mean FEC was 168 eggs per gram (EPG) of faeces, with the highest count of 15,540 EPG. Weaners had the highest prevalence (73%) and mean FEC (295 EPG) of GINs followed by tuis, crias and adults. Alpacas in the winter rainfall zone had the highest prevalence (68%) as well as FEC (266 EPG) followed by Mediterranean-type, non-seasonal and summer rainfall zones. Trichostrongylus spp. (83%, 89/107), Haemonchus spp. (71%, 76/107) and Camelostrongylus mentulatus (63%, 67/107) were the three most common GINs of alpacas across all climatic zones. The mixed-effects zero-inflated negative binomial regression model used in this study showed that it could help to design parasite control interventions targeted at both the herd level and the individual alpaca level. The findings of this study showed that the epidemiology of GINs of alpacas is very similar to those of cattle and sheep, and careful attention should be paid when designing control strategies for domestic ruminants co-grazing with alpacas.


Assuntos
Camelídeos Americanos/parasitologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Infecções por Nematoides/epidemiologia , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Animais , Austrália/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Clima , Fazendas , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Haemonchus/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Infecções por Nematoides/parasitologia , Ostertagia/isolamento & purificação , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas , Estações do Ano , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Trichostrongylus/isolamento & purificação
7.
Parasitol Res ; 118(3): 1031-1038, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30734862

RESUMO

In this study, 100 gastrointestinal tracts of Australian alpacas were examined to assess the worm burden and to identify the species of nematode present. Faecal samples were collected from 97 alpacas and processed for faecal egg counts (FECs). For identification of the species, both molecular (multiplexed-tandem polymerase chain reaction [MT-PCR]) and morphological techniques were used. Total worm counts (TWCs) revealed a mean burden of 1300 worms, with the highest burden of 29,000 worms. The average egg count was 501 eggs per gram of faeces (EPG), with the highest count of 3500 EPG. Nineteen different species of gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) were identified, and Graphinema auchenia, Camelostrongylus mentulatus and Trichuris tenuis were recovered from Australian alpacas for the first time. Haemonchus contortus was the most prevalent nematode (81%) followed by C. mentulatus (60%). The majority of the nematodes found are shared with sheep, goats and cattle. Findings of this study provide useful insights into the spectrum of GINs and their burden in Australian alpacas.


Assuntos
Camelídeos Americanos/parasitologia , Nematoides/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Animais , Austrália/epidemiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Nematoides/classificação , Infecções por Nematoides/epidemiologia , Infecções por Nematoides/parasitologia , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária
8.
Parasitol Int ; 68(1): 60-62, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30342118

RESUMO

Lamanema chavezi (Family Molineidae) is a parasitic nematode of South American camelids (SACs). A few studies have reported this parasite in SACs, mainly in domestic camelid species (llama and alpaca). Parasite identification by means of copro-parasitological methods is non-invasive and allows performing epidemiological studies. However, egg misidentification and difficulty to culture third-stage larvae do not allow identifying nematodes to species level. In contrast, molecular tools allow identifying eggs of gastrointestinal nematodes more accurately. However, the little genomic information available in databases for some species prevents an accurate diagnosis. In the present work, L. chavezi females present in feces of llamas from northwestern Argentina were molecularly characterized to obtain genomic information and improve parasitological diagnosis of L. chavezi-like eggs present in guanaco feces from southeastern Argentina. An 833-bp fragment of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and a 434-bp fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene from both L. chavezi females and eggs were amplified and sequenced. Comparison between sequences from females and eggs showed 99-99.6% identity to rDNA and 99.5-96.1% to the cox1 gene fragments, confirming egg morphological assignment. A higher divergence between sequences was observed in the cox1 fragment, with a maximum variation of 3.9%. The examination of eggs found in guanaco feces from southeastern Argentina and their specific molecular identification represent the first record for this host in Argentine Patagonia and contribute to improving the diagnosis of gastrointestinal nematodes in SACs, mainly in wild camelids.


Assuntos
Camelídeos Americanos/parasitologia , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Fezes/parasitologia , Molineoidae/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária , Animais , Animais Domésticos , Argentina/epidemiologia , DNA de Helmintos , Feminino , Genoma Helmíntico , Molineoidae/isolamento & purificação , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Infecções por Strongylida/epidemiologia , Infecções por Strongylida/parasitologia
9.
BMC Vet Res ; 14(1): 384, 2018 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30514380

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An infestation of bot fly larvae causes myiasis which is known to cause respiratory symptoms in ruminants. There are reports of bot fly larvae in llamas, but to our knowledge there are no previous reports of nasal myiasis due to bot flies in alpacas ("Vicugna pacos"). CASE PRESENTATION: The following case report describes a neutered male alpaca showing sneezing and mild nasal discharge. Endoscopic examination of the upper respiratory tract revealed bot fly larvae in one nostril. After treatment with doramectin, there was no evidence of living bot fly larvae visible in the nostril. CONCLUSION: Bot fly larvae should be considered as a potential cause of respiratory symptoms in alpacas. In the present case, a treatment with doramectin was successful.


Assuntos
Camelídeos Americanos/parasitologia , Miíase/veterinária , Doenças Nasais/veterinária , Animais , Masculino , Miíase/tratamento farmacológico , Cavidade Nasal/parasitologia , Doenças Nasais/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Parasit Vectors ; 11(1): 498, 2018 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30185227

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Eukaryotic pathogens, including Cryptosporidium, Giardia and Enterocytozoon, have been implicated in neonatal diarrhoea, leading to marked morbidity and mortality in the alpaca (Vicugna pacos) and llama (Lama glama) around the world. Australia has the largest population of alpacas outside of South America, but very little is known about these pathogens in alpaca populations in this country. Here, we undertook the first molecular epidemiological survey of Cryptosporidium, Giardia and Enterocytozoon in V. pacos in Australia. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of 81 herds, comprising alpacas of 6 weeks to 26 years of age, were sampled from the six Australian states (Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia, Tasmania and Western Australia) across the four seasons. PCR-based sequencing was employed, utilising genetic markers in the small subunit of the nuclear ribosomal RNA (SSU) and 60-kilodalton glycoprotein (gp60) genes for Cryptosporidium, triose-phosphate isomerase (tpi) gene for Giardia duodenalis and the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) for Enterocytozoon bieneusi. RESULTS: PCR-based analyses of 81 faecal DNA samples representing 1421 alpaca individuals detected Cryptosporidium, Giardia and/or Enterocytozoon on 15 farms in New South Wales, Victoria and South Australia, equating to 18.5% of all samples/herds tested. Cryptosporidium was detected on three (3.7%) farms, G. duodenalis on six (7.4%) and E. bieneusi on eight (9.9%) in two or all of these three states, but not in Queensland, Tasmania or Western Australia. Molecular analyses of selected faecal DNA samples from individual alpacas for Cryptosporidium, Giardia and/or Enterocytozoon consistently showed that alpacas of ≤ 6 months of age harboured these pathogens. CONCLUSIONS: This first molecular investigation of Cryptosporidium, Giardia and Enterocytozoon in alpaca subpopulations in Australia has identified species and genotypes that are of likely importance as primary pathogens of alpacas, particularly young crias, and some genotypes with zoonotic potential. Although the prevalence established here in the alpaca subpopulations studied is low, the present findings suggest that crias are likely reservoirs of infections to susceptible alpacas and/or humans. Future studies should focus on investigating pre-weaned and post-weaned crias, and on exploring transmission patterns to establish what role particular genotypes play in neonatal or perinatal diarrhoea in alpacas and in zoonotic diseases in different states of Australia.


Assuntos
Camelídeos Americanos/microbiologia , Camelídeos Americanos/parasitologia , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Enterocytozoon/genética , Giardia/genética , Giardíase/veterinária , Microsporidiose/veterinária , Animais , Austrália/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , DNA Fúngico/genética , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Diarreia/parasitologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Genótipo , Giardíase/epidemiologia , Microsporidiose/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , RNA Ribossômico/genética , Inquéritos e Questionários , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/microbiologia , Zoonoses/parasitologia
11.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30142654

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to obtain an overview of management practices, diagnostics, prophylaxis and therapy of endoparasite infections in alpaca herds and of the animal owners perception of this topic, and to combine these data with management data to develop recommendations for prevention and prophylaxis of endoparasitoses in New World camelids. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A questionnaire collected information concerning animal husbandry, feeding and care as well as on prevalence, prophylaxis and therapy of endoparasitoses. The questionnaire was sent to 349 alpaca farms in Germany and 67 in Austria, and was completed and returned by 81 farms, 65 (18.6 %) from Germany and 16 (23.9 %) from Austria. RESULTS: Differences in regional parasite distribution were not observed. Coccidia and gastrointestinal strongyles were the most frequent endoparasites detected by faecal examination. In total, 91.0 % of the farms submitted samples for coproscopy; however the frequency of examinations varied very widely. The subjective assessment of the pasture showed a relatively low association to endoparasite infections. Inefficacy of antiparasitic drugs was suspected by the owners in 17.2 % and 12.5 % of the herds in Germany and Austria, respectively. Macrocyclic lactones were the most commonly used drugs (80.0 % of the herds), but benzimidazoles and monepantel were also widely used. Antiparasitic drugs were regularly rotated by 61.0 % of the owners. Independent of the pasture area available per animal, the risk of lethal cases because of endoparasite infection (primarily due to Haemonchus contortus) was significantly higher in larger herds (≥ 50 animals) compared to smaller farms (≤ 10 animals). CONCLUSION: A major conclusion drawn from the questionnaire is that faecal examination is definitely advisable before any anthelmintic treatment to monitor the current parasite infection status in the herd and to avoid unnecessary or ineffective treatments or drug rotations. This also facilitates the application of selective, specific anthelmintic treatment, a concept which is currently applied only by 29.0 % of the German farms and 35.7 % of the Austrian farms.


Assuntos
Camelídeos Americanos/parasitologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Antibioticoprofilaxia , Antiparasitários/administração & dosagem , Antiparasitários/uso terapêutico , Áustria/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Fazendas/estatística & dados numéricos , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Parasit Vectors ; 11(1): 388, 2018 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29973276

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) can cause significant economic losses in alpacas due to lowered production of fibre and meat. Although no anthelmintics are registered for use in alpacas, various classes of anthelmintics are frequently used to control parasitic gastroenteritis in alpacas in Australia and other countries. Very little is known about the current worm control practices as well as the efficacy of anthelmintics used against common GINs of alpacas. This study aimed to assess the existing worm control practices used by Australian alpaca farmers and to quantify the efficacy of commonly used anthelmintics against GINs of alpacas. METHODS: An online questionnaire survey was conducted to assess current worm control practices on 97 Australian alpaca farms, with an emphasis on the use of anthelmintics. Of this group of 97 alpaca farms, 20 were selected to assess the efficacy of eight anthelmintics and/or their combinations (closantel, fenbendazole ivermectin, monepantel, moxidectin and a combination of levamisole, closantel, albendazole, abamectin) using the faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT). A multiplexed-tandem PCR (MT-PCR) was used to identify the prevalent nematode genera/species. RESULTS: The response rate for the questionnaire was 94% (91/97). Almost half of the respondents kept alpacas with sheep and cattle, and 26% of respondents allowed alpacas to co-graze with these ruminants. Although only 63% respondents perceived worms to be an important health concern for alpacas, the majority of respondents (89%) used anthelmintics to control GINs of alpacas. The commonly used anthelmintics were macrocyclic lactones, monepantel, benzimidazoles, levamisole, closantel and their combinations, and they were typically administered at the dose rate recommended for sheep. The FECRT results showed that a combination of levamisole, closantel, albendazole and abamectin was the most effective dewormer followed by single drugs, including monepantel, moxidectin, closantel, fenbendazole and ivermectin. Haemonchus spp. were the most commonly resistant nematodes followed by Trichostrongylus spp., Camelostrongylus mentulatus, Ostertagia ostertagi and Cooperia spp. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study aimed at assessing worm control practices and efficacy of commonly used anthelmintics in alpacas in Australia. Our findings document the extent of anthelmintics resistance on Australian alpaca farms and identify those anthelmintics that are still effective against GINs of alpacas.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/efeitos adversos , Camelídeos Americanos/parasitologia , Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Nematoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Austrália/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Fazendas , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Masculino , Nematoides/genética , Nematoides/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Nematoides/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Nematoides/epidemiologia , Infecções por Nematoides/parasitologia , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Ruminantes/parasitologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Parasit Vectors ; 11(1): 370, 2018 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29954433

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) frequently infect South American camelids (alpacas and llamas) and cause economic losses due to reduced production of fiber, meat and/or leather. Our knowledge about the epidemiology and diagnosis of GINs in llamas and alpacas is limited, and reliable keys for the identification of the third-stage larvae (L3s) of some common nematodes (such as Camelostrogylus mentulatus) that infect alpacas and llamas remain undescribed. In this study, we modified two existing semi-quantitative multiplexed-tandem (MT)-PCR assays, originally developed for the GINs of sheep and cattle, to reliably detect and differentiate the common genera/species of GINs in the faeces of alpacas. RESULTS: Following the establishment of the MT-PCR assay using positive and negative control samples, alpaca faecal samples were tested to validate the assay to detect and differentiate nematode genera/species, including C. mentulatus, Cooperia spp., Haemonchus spp., Oesophagostomum spp., Ostertagia ostertagi, Teladorsagia circumcincta and Trichostrongylus spp. Sequencing of the MT-PCR products demonstrated specific (100%) amplification of the target nematode genera/species. Additionally, a comparison of results of the MT-PCR assay and the morphological identification of adult worms collected from the same 35 alpacas revealed that there was a good agreement (37-94%) between the two methods. However, some discrepancies were observed between the results of the MT-PCR assay and the morphological identification of adult worms. CONCLUSIONS: The MT-PCR platform is an accurate, sensitive and rapid method for the diagnosis of GINs in alpacas, and it can be used as a substitute to larval culture to identify common nematodes in the faeces of alpacas and llamas.


Assuntos
Camelídeos Americanos/parasitologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/métodos , Nematoides/genética , Nematoides/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Animais , Austrália/epidemiologia , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Fezes/parasitologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Infecções por Nematoides/diagnóstico , Infecções por Nematoides/epidemiologia , Infecções por Nematoides/parasitologia , Ostertagia/genética , Ostertagia/isolamento & purificação , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia
14.
Parasitol Res ; 117(7): 1999-2013, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29804192

RESUMO

Camelids (llamas, alpacas, vicuñas, guanacos) are important for the economy of South America and Eimeria infections are important as cause of mortality in camelids. Of the five most prevalent species of Eimeria in South American camelids, Eimeria macusaniensis, Eimeria lamae, Eimeria alpacae, Eimeria punoensis, and Eimeria ivitaensis, E. macusaniensis is considered the most pathogenic. There is considerable confusion concerning the endogenous developmental stages of Eimeria spp. in camelids. Many papers on camelid coccidiosis were published in local Peruvian journals, not easily accessible to wider audience. The objective of the present paper is to summarize information on history, validity of Eimeria species, life cycle, pathogenicity, prevalence, epidemiology, diagnosis, and control of coccidiosis in camelids.


Assuntos
Camelídeos Americanos/parasitologia , Coccidiose , Eimeria/patogenicidade , Animais , Coccidiose/diagnóstico , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/terapia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Fezes/parasitologia , Prevalência , América do Sul/epidemiologia
15.
Parasit Vectors ; 11(1): 278, 2018 05 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29716657

RESUMO

This study aimed to compare the FECPAKG2 and the McMaster techniques for counting of gastrointestinal nematode eggs in the faeces of alpacas using two floatation solutions (saturated sodium chloride and sucrose solutions). Faecal eggs counts from both techniques were compared using the Lin's concordance correlation coefficient and Bland and Altman statistics. Results showed moderate to good agreement between the two methods, with better agreement achieved when saturated sugar is used as a floatation fluid, particularly when faecal egg counts are less than 1000 eggs per gram of faeces. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study to assess agreement of measurements between McMaster and FECPAKG2 methods for estimating faecal eggs in South American camelids.


Assuntos
Camelídeos Americanos/parasitologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/métodos , Animais , Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia
16.
Parasitology ; 145(12): 1540-1547, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29642969

RESUMO

Camelids (llama, alpaca, vicunãs, guanacos) are important for the economy of South America and Eimeria infections are an important cause of mortality in camelids. Of the six species of Eimeria in camelids, Eimeria macusaniensis, considered the most pathogenic, is distinctive; its oocysts are the largest among all Eimeria species in animals, its prepatent period is more than 1 month, and its oocysts have been found in mummies from prehistoric times. Although, E. macusaniensis gametogonic stages are found associated with enteritis in naturally infected camelids, the schizogonic stages are unknown and clinical disease has been reported in some camelids with no oocysts in feces. Described herein are morphological details of gametogonic development and oocyst formation of E. macusaniensis in a naturally infected llama (Lama lama), solely infected with this parasite. Microgamonts, macrogamonts and oocysts were located in large (up to 300 µm diameter) parasitophorous vacuoles of enterocytes in the ileum. Schizonts were not found. Review of previous reports suggests that multinucleated microgamonts have been mistaken for schizonts. Gametogonic development described in the present study can serve as a guide for differential diagnosis of Eimeria species in the histological sections of intestines.


Assuntos
Camelídeos Americanos/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Eimeria/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coccidiose/patologia , Eimeria/citologia , Enterócitos/parasitologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Íleo/parasitologia , Masculino , Oocistos
17.
Parasit Vectors ; 11(1): 146, 2018 03 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29510746

RESUMO

Members of the genus Sarcocystis (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) are intracellular protozoan parasites that infect a wide range of domestic and wild animals, resulting in economic losses in production animals worldwide. Sarcocystis spp. have indirect life-cycles where canids and felids serve as main definitive hosts while a range of domestic and wild animals serve as intermediate hosts, including South American camelids (SACs) such as alpacas, llamas and guanacos. These animals primarily occur in South American countries on Andean, elevated plains but in recent years, alpacas and llamas have become emerging animal industries in other parts of the world such as Australia, Europe and the USA due to their high-quality fiber, meat and hides. For instance, alpaca meat is becoming popular in many parts of the world due to its lower cholesterol content than other red meat, thereby it has the potential of a valuable product for both local and international markets. However, SAC meat can be degraded and/or even condemned due to the presence of macroscopic sarcocysts in skeletal muscles, leading to significant economic losses to farmers. The infection is generally asymptomatic, though highly pathogenic or even fatal Sarcocystis infections have also been reported in alpacas and llamas. Despite the economic importance of sarcocystosis in SACs, little is known about the life-cycle of parasites involved, disease transmission, epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, control and public health significance. This review article provides an in-depth analysis of the existing knowledge on the taxonomy, epidemiology, clinicopathology and diagnosis of Sarcocystis in SACs, highlights knowledge gaps and proposes future areas of research that could contribute to our better understanding of sarcocystosis in these animals.


Assuntos
Camelidae/parasitologia , Sarcocistose/veterinária , Animais , Animais Domésticos/parasitologia , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Camelídeos Americanos/parasitologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Carne Vermelha/parasitologia , Sarcocystis/classificação , Sarcocystis/isolamento & purificação , Sarcocystis/patogenicidade , Sarcocistose/diagnóstico , Sarcocistose/epidemiologia , Sarcocistose/parasitologia , América do Sul , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
J Med Entomol ; 55(2): 464-467, 2018 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29045695

RESUMO

Adult stages of Amblyomma parvitarsum Neumann parasitize wild and domestic camelids of the genera Lama and Vicugna in highlands of Andean Plateau and Patagonia. Within the Peruvian Andes, few reports have documented this tick-host association, and although reported in Chile and Argentina, Rickettsia-infected A. parvitarsum remains undocumented for this country. Here we report a new collection of A. parvitarsum from Peru, the finding of the first gynandromorph for the species and high prevalence of Rickettsia in adult stages.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Ixodidae/microbiologia , Ixodidae/fisiologia , Rickettsia/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Camelídeos Americanos/parasitologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Peru
19.
Vet Parasitol ; 246: 93-95, 2017 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28969787

RESUMO

Three metacestodes were collected from the mesentery and the surface of the liver of three adult alpacas (Vicugna pacos) in a slaughterhouse located in Puno, Peru. Various features of the metacestodes were observed for morphological identification. A molecular diagnosis was performed by PCR-based sequencing of mitochondrial genes of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1). All metacestodes were identified as Taenia omissa by morphology and molecular methods The isolates from alpacas showed significant sequence similarity with previously reported isolates of T. omissa (95.7-98.1% in cox1 and 94.6-95.1% in nad1). Our report is the first to detect T. omissa metacestodes in alpacas and to reveal that alpacas are natural intermediate hosts for this parasite.


Assuntos
Camelídeos Americanos/parasitologia , Taenia/isolamento & purificação , Teníase/veterinária , Animais , Cysticercus/anatomia & histologia , Cysticercus/isolamento & purificação , Taenia/anatomia & histologia , Taenia/genética , Teníase/parasitologia
20.
J Parasitol ; 103(6): 791-794, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28783428

RESUMO

Carnivorous mammals are a trophic guild with an important role in the dissemination of parasite infective stages (larvae, eggs, cysts, and oocysts). In the present study, new samples of coprolites attributed to carnivorous mammals, obtained from 2 archaeological caves, were analyzed for the presence of parasites with the aim to increase the knowledge about parasites in rockshelters that could have spread to humans and other mammals. To this purpose, fragments of 3 coprolites from Cerro Casa de Piedra, cave 5 and cave 7, were examined. Coprolites were rehydrated in aqueous trisodium phosphate and processed by spontaneous sedimentation. High parasite richness was observed and new parasite species for archaeological contexts were found. The parasitological findings in Puma concolor coprolites associated with caves suggest the importance of these carnivores in the dissemination of parasites in areas with high re-use of space and steady conditions of temperature, humidity, and radiation.


Assuntos
Carnívoros/parasitologia , Cavernas/parasitologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Fósseis/parasitologia , Zoonoses/transmissão , Animais , Argentina , Camelídeos Americanos/parasitologia , Dieta Paleolítica , Echinococcus/isolamento & purificação , Eimeria/isolamento & purificação , Fósseis/história , História Antiga , Humanos , Isospora/isolamento & purificação , Nematoides/classificação , Nematoides/isolamento & purificação , Nematodirus/isolamento & purificação , Puma/parasitologia , Espirurídios/isolamento & purificação , Estrongilídios/isolamento & purificação , Taenia/isolamento & purificação , Zoonoses/história , Zoonoses/parasitologia
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