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1.
Food Chem ; 367: 130624, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339982

RESUMO

Wuyi Rock tea (WRT), a top-ranking oolong tea, possesses characteristic woody, floral, nutty flavor. WRT flavor is mainly formed during the manufacturing process. However, details regarding its formation process are not fully understood yet. In this study, the dynamics of volatile and phenolic components over the whole manufacturing process of WRT were investigated. During withering, despite minor changes in volatile and phenolic components, the central vacuole shrunk remarkably, which reduced the cell mechanical performance and facilitated the subsequent enzymatic fermentation. During fermentation, approximately 78% of flavan-3-ols in fresh tea leaves were oxidized and converted to a diverse mixture of highly heterogeneous oxidation products, such as theaflavins, whereas flavonols, phenolic acids, and xanthine alkaloids remained stable throughout the manufacturing process. Aldehydes, ketones, and heterocyclic compounds, imparting woody, floral, and nutty scent, were mainly formed during the roasting steps. This detailed information can expand our understanding on the formation of WRT flavor.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis , Chá , Aromatizantes , Manipulação de Alimentos , Odorantes/análise , Folhas de Planta , Paladar
2.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 20: e210328, jan.-dez. 2021. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1253738

RESUMO

Aim: The in vitro study evaluated the effect of different concentrations of green tea extract solution (GT) on the bonding durability of etch-and-rinse adhesive system to caries dentin affected (CAD). Methods: Dentinal surfaces of human third molars were polished and submitted to a microbiological caries induction protocol for 14 days. After removal of the infected dentin layer, the samples were randomly divided into 4 groups (n= 10), according to the concentration of GT solution applied in CAD, after acid etching: 0.05%; 0.2%; 2% and NT (no treatment ­ control). After application of a etch-and-rinse adhesive system (Adper Single Bond 2, 3M ESPE), composite resin restorations were performed on the dentin. After 24 hours, the resin-dentin blocks were sectioned 1mm2 specimens, which were subjected to the microtensile test immediately or after 6 months of storage in water. Data were submitted to two-way ANOVA for randomized blocks and Tukey test (α= 5%). Results: There was no effect of double interaction (p= 0.934). The application of 0.2% GT promoted a statistically significant increase in dentin bond strength values in comparison to the condition where GT was not used (p=0.012). There was a significant decrease of bond strength after 6 months of storage, regardless of dentin pretreatment (p = 0.007). The G test identified that there was no statistical difference regarding failure mode (p= 0.326). Conclusion: The concentration of 0.2% improved the bond strength of an etch-and-rinse adhesive system to caries affected dentin, however, none of dentin pretreatments could prevent the decrease in bond strength over time


Assuntos
Resistência à Tração , Camellia sinensis , Cárie Dentária , Dentina
3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(38): 11204-11215, 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34544239

RESUMO

Herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) play an important role in insect resistance. As a common HIPV in tea plants (Camellia sinensis), ß-ocimene has shown anti-insect function in other plants. However, whether ß-ocimene in tea plants also provides insect resistance, and its mechanism of synthesis and emission are unknown. In this study, ß-ocimene was confirmed to interfere with tea geometrid growth via signaling. Light was identified as the key factor controlling regular emission of ß-ocimene induced by the wounding from tea geometrids. ß-Ocimene synthase (CsBOS1) was located in plastids and catalyzed ß-ocimene formation in overexpressed tobacco. CsBOS1 expression in tea leaves attacked by tea geometrids showed a day-low and night-high variation pattern, while CsABCG expression involved in volatile emission showed the opposite pattern. These two genes might regulate the regular ß-ocimene emission from tea plants induced by tea geometrid attack. This study advances the understanding on HIPV emission and signaling in tea plants.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis , Monoterpenos Acíclicos , Alcenos , Animais , Herbivoria , Insetos , Folhas de Planta , Chá
4.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500554

RESUMO

Untargeted (NMR) and targeted (RP-HPLC-PDA-ESI-MSn, RP-HPLC-FD) analytical methodologies were used to determine the bioactive components of 19 tea samples, characterized by different production processes (common tea and GABA tea), degrees of fermentation (green and oolong teas), and harvesting season (autumn and spring). The combination of NMR data and a multivariate statistical approach led to a statistical model able to discriminate between GABA and non-GABA teas and green and oolong teas. Targeted analyses showed that green and GABA green teas had similar polyphenol and caffeine contents, but the GABA level was higher in GABA green teas than in regular green tea samples. GABA oolong teas showed lower contents of polyphenols, caffeine, and amino acids, and a higher content of GABA, in comparison with non-GABA oolong teas. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that the healthy properties of teas, especially GABA teas, have to be evaluated via comprehensive metabolic profiling rather than only the GABA content.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis/química , Chá/química , Aminoácidos/química , Cafeína/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Cromatografia de Fase Reversa/métodos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Polifenóis/química
5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(37): 11142-11150, 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34514782

RESUMO

Tea is the most consumed beverage worldwide, and l-theanine in tea leaves significantly affects their flavor and market quality. We have developed and validated a fast and reliable gas chromatographic method with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) to quantify l-theanine after its extraction from Camellia sinensis (tea plant) and derivatization. The procedure was completed in 40 min, from extraction to chromatographic analysis, with a recovery rate of more than 93% and allowing a high sample throughput. The GC-FID intraday precision was within 0.57-2.28%, while the interday precision ranged from 1.57 to 13.48%. The intraday accuracy ranged from -6.84 to 5.26%, while the interday accuracy ranged from -1.08 to 3.12%. The limit of detection was 2.28 µg/mL, and the limit of quantification was 6.47 µg/mL. The GC-FID method was validated by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection (HPLC-UV) and was used to investigate the biosynthesis and regulation of l-theanine in tea plants. We found that plants fed with ethylamine significantly increased l-theanine concentrations in roots, while exogenous supplementation of glutamic acid, carbamide, and glutamine did not significantly affect the l-theanine level in roots. Our results also indicated that roots were not indispensable for the biosynthesis of l-theanine, which was detected in undifferentiated embryonic calluses in concentrations (g/100 g dry weight) as high as in leaves of whole plants (1.67 and 1.57%, respectively) and without any exogenous theanine precursor supplementation.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis , Glutamatos , Ácido Glutâmico , Folhas de Planta , Proteínas de Plantas , Chá
6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(39): 11656-11664, 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34554738

RESUMO

As the major contributors to the floral odors of tea products, terpenoid volatiles play critical roles in the defense response of plants to multiple stresses. Until now, only a few TPS genes in tea plants (Camellia sinensis) have been functionally validated. In this study, by comparative studies conducted at gene, protein, and metabolite levels during oolong tea processing, we isolated an ocimene synthase gene, CsOCS, which displays a low similarity to previously characterized tea ocimene synthases. Further prokaryotic expression and subcellular localization analysis showed that it is plastid-located and could produce (E)-ß-ocimene and (Z)-ß-ocimene using GPP as the substrate. The optimum temperature and pH of the enzyme were 30 °C and 7.5, respectively. Treatment with exogenous methyl jasmonate elevated the transcript level of CsOCS and enhanced the emission of ocimene from tea leaves. Collectively, CsOCS is implicated as a key enzyme for ß-ocimene synthesis during oolong tea processing.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis , Monoterpenos Acíclicos , Alcenos , Folhas de Planta , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Chá
7.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 105(19): 7187-7199, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34515843

RESUMO

The most consumed and economically important beverage plant, tea (Camellia sinensis), and its pests have coevolved so as to maintain the plant-insect interaction. In this review, findings of different research groups on pest responsive tolerance mechanisms that exist in tea manifested through the production of secondary metabolites and their inducers are presented. The phytochemicals of C. sinensis have been categorized into volatiles, nonvolatiles, enzymes, and phytohormones for convenience. Two types of pests, namely the piercing-sucking pests and chewing pests, are associated with tea. Both the insect groups can trigger the production of those metabolites and inducers through several primary and secondary biosynthetic pathways. These induced biomolecules can act as insect repellents and most of them are associated with lowering the nutrient quality of plant tissue and increasing the indigestibility in the pest's gut. Moreover, some of them also act as predator attractants of particular pests. The herbivore-induced plant volatiles secreted from tea plants during pest infestation were (E)-nerolidol, α-farnesene, (Z)-3-hexenol, (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene, indole, benzyl nitrile (BN), linalool, and ocimenes. The nonvolatiles like theaflavin and L-theanine were increased in response to the herbivore attack. Simultaneously, S-adenosyl-L-methionine synthase, caffeine synthase activities were affected, whereas flavonoid synthesis and wax formation were elevated. Defense responsive enzymes like peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, ascorbate peroxidase, and catalase are involved in pest prevention mechanisms. Phytohormones like jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, abscisic acid, and ethylene act as the modulator of the defense system. The objective of this review is to discuss the defensive roles of these metabolites and their inducers against pest infestation in tea with an aim to develop environmentally sustainable pesticides in the future.Key points• Herbivore-induced volatile signals and their effects on neighboring tea plant protection• Stereochemical conversion of volatiles, effects of nonvolatiles, expression of defense-responsive enzymes, and phytohormones due to pest attack• Improved understanding of metabolites for bio-sustainable pesticide development.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis , Animais , Insetos , Chá
8.
Plant Sci ; 311: 110997, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482909

RESUMO

Yunnan Province has a very wide diversity of tea germplasm resources. A variety of special tea germplasms with outstanding traits have been discovered, including tea germplasms with high anthocyanin content and low caffeine content. Albino tea cultivars generally have higher contents of theanine that contribute to the umami taste, and the quality of tea brewed from it is higher. The catechin index (CI), the ratio of dihydroxylated catechins (DIC) to trihydroxylated catechins (TRIC), is a crucial index of suitability for processing tea. In this study, the albino tea plant Menghai Huangye (MHHY) with yellow leaves was identified. Analysis of the biochemical components revealed that MHHY was enriched in theanine and the total catechins (TC) were lower than Yunkang 10 (YK10). In addition, the CI value of MHHY was extremely significantly higher than that of YK10. Metabolic profile of catechins and the related gene expression profile analysis found that the coordinated expression of the key branch genes F3'H and F3'5'Ha for the synthesis of DIC and TRIC in tea plant was closely related to the high CI and low TC of MHHY. Further analysis of the F3'H promoter showed that a 284-bp deletion mutation was present in the F3'H promoter of MHHY, containing the binding sites of the transcriptional repressor MYB4 involved in flavonoid metabolism, which might be an important reason for the up-regulated expression of F3'H in MHHY. Overall, this study provides a theoretical basis for understanding the characteristics of albino tea germplasm resources and efficiently utilizing high-CI tea germplasm resources.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis/anatomia & histologia , Camellia sinensis/genética , Catequina/análise , Glutamatos/análise , Pigmentação/genética , Catequina/genética , Genes de Plantas , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Glutamatos/genética , Fenótipo , Transcriptoma
9.
J Food Sci ; 86(9): 3909-3925, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390261

RESUMO

Crush-tear-curl (CTC) black tea is a popular beverage, owing to its unique taste characteristics and health benefits. However, differences in the taste quality and chemical profiles of CTC black tea from different geographical regions remain unclear. In this study, 28 CTC black tea samples were collected from six geographical regions and analyzed using electronic tongue and ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-Orbitrap-mass spectroscopy. The e-tongue analysis indicated that each region's CTC black tea has its own relatively prominent taste characteristics: Sri Lanka (more umami and astringent), North India (more umami), China (more sweetness and astringent), South India (moderate umami and sweetness), and Kenya (moderate umami and astringent). Based on multivariate statistical analysis, 78 metabolites were tentatively identified and used as potential markers for CTC black tea of different origins, mainly including amino acids, flavone/flavonol glycosides, and pigments. Different metabolites, which contributed to the taste characteristics of CTC black tea, were clarified by partial least squares regression correlation analysis. Our findings may serve as useful references for future studies on origin traceability and quality characteristic determination of CTC black teas. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This study provides useful references for future studies on the origin traceability and taste characteristic determination of CTC black teas from different geographical regions.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Análise de Alimentos , Espectrometria de Massas , Aminoácidos/análise , Camellia sinensis/química , Camellia sinensis/classificação , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Glicosídeos/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química
10.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(35): 10069-10081, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410120

RESUMO

Many studies have shown that phenolic compounds such as lignin and flavonoids enhance plant resistance. Tea plants are rich in flavonoid compounds. Whether these compounds are related to tea plant resistance is unclear. In this study, an interesting conclusion was drawn on the basis of experimental results: in response to abiotic stress (except for sucrose treatment), gene expression was increased in the phenylpropanoid and lignin pathways and was reduced in the flavonoid pathway in tea plants. CsHCTs, the genes located at the branch point of the lignin and flavonoid pathways, are most suitable for regulating the ratio of carbon flow in the lignin pathway and flavonoid synthesis. Enzymatic and genetic modification experiments proved that CsHCTs encode hydroxycinnamoyl-coenzyme A:shikimate/quinate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, the genetic modification results showed that the contents of phenolic acids and lignin were increased in tobacco and Arabidopsis plants overexpressing CsHCTs, whereas the content of flavonol glycosides was decreased. Both types of transgenic plants showed resistance to many abiotic stresses and bacterial infections. We speculate that CsHCTs participate in regulation of the metabolic flow of carbon from the flavonoid pathway to the chlorogenic acid, caffeoylshikimic acid, and lignin pathways to increase resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Camellia sinensis , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Camellia sinensis/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Lignina/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Chá
11.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361745

RESUMO

The edible parts of the plants Camellia sinensis, Vitis vinifera and Withania somnifera were extensively used in ancient practices such as Ayurveda, owing to their potent biomedical significance. They are very rich in secondary metabolites such as polyphenols, which are very good antioxidants and exhibit anti-carcinogenic properties. This study aims to evaluate the anti-cancerous properties of these plant crude extracts on human liver cancer HepG2 cells. The leaves of Camellia sinensis, Withania somnifera and the seeds of Vitis vinifera were collected and methanolic extracts were prepared. Then, these extracts were subjected to DPPH, α- amylase assays to determine the antioxidant properties. A MTT assay was performed to investigate the viability of the extracts of HepG2 cells, and the mode of cell death was detected by Ao/EtBr staining and flow cytometry with PI Annexin- V FITC dual staining. Then, the protein expression of BAX and BCl2 was studied using fluorescent dye to determine the regulation of the BAX and BCl2 genes. We observed that all the three extracts showed the presence of bioactive compounds such as polyphenols or phytochemicals. The W. somnifera bioactive compounds were found to have the highest anti-proliferative activity on human liver cancer cells.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Camellia sinensis/química , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Vitis/química , Withania/química , Alcaloides/química , Alcaloides/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Compostos de Bifenilo/antagonistas & inibidores , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Picratos/antagonistas & inibidores , Picratos/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Transdução de Sinais , Taninos/química , Taninos/isolamento & purificação , Terpenos/química , Terpenos/isolamento & purificação , alfa-Amilases/genética , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/genética , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
12.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(34): 10002-10016, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34406741

RESUMO

Theanine and flavonoids (especially proanthocyanidins) are the most important and abundant secondary metabolites synthesized in the roots of tea plants. Nitrogen promotes theanine and represses flavonoid biosynthesis in tea plant roots, but the underlying mechanism is still elusive. Here, we analyzed theanine and flavonoid metabolism in tea plant roots under nitrogen deficiency and explored the regulatory mechanism using proteome and ubiquitylome profiling together with transcriptome data. Differentially expressed proteins responsive to nitrogen deficiency were identified and found to be enriched in flavonoid, nitrogen, and amino acid metabolism pathways. The proteins responding to nitrogen deficiency at the transcriptional level, translational level, and both transcriptional and translational levels were classified. Nitrogen-deficiency-responsive and ubiquitinated proteins were further identified. Our results showed that most genes encoding enzymes in the theanine synthesis pathway, such as CsAlaDC, CsGDH, and CsGOGATs, were repressed by nitrogen deficiency at transcriptional and/or protein level(s). While a large number of enzymes in flavonoid metabolism were upregulated at the transcriptional and/or translational level(s). Importantly, the ubiquitylomic analysis identified important proteins, especially the hub enzymes in theanine and flavonoid biosynthesis, such as CsAlaDC, CsTSI, CsGS, CsPAL, and CsCHS, modified by ubiquitination. This study provided novel insights into the regulation of theanine and flavonoid biosynthesis and will contribute to future studies on the post-translational regulation of secondary metabolism in tea plants.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis , Nitrogênio , Camellia sinensis/genética , Camellia sinensis/metabolismo , Flavonoides , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Glutamatos , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Chá
13.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443390

RESUMO

Since severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is producing a large number of infections and deaths globally, the development of supportive and auxiliary treatments is attracting increasing attention. Here, we evaluated SARS-CoV-2-inactivation activity of the polyphenol-rich tea leaf extract TY-1 containing concentrated theaflavins and other virucidal catechins. The TY-1 was mixed with SARS-CoV-2 solution, and its virucidal activity was evaluated. To evaluate the inhibition activity of TY-1 in SARS-CoV-2 infection, TY-1 was co-added with SARS-CoV-2 into cell culture media. After 1 h of incubation, the cell culture medium was replaced, and the cells were further incubated in the absence of TY-1. The viral titers were then evaluated. To evaluate the impacts of TY-1 on viral proteins and genome, TY-1-treated SARS-CoV-2 structural proteins and viral RNA were analyzed using western blotting and real-time RT-PCR, respectively. TY-1 showed time- and concentration-dependent virucidal activity. TY-1 inhibited SARS-CoV-2 infection of cells. The results of western blotting and real-time RT-PCR suggested that TY-1 induced structural change in the S2 subunit of the S protein and viral genome destruction, respectively. Our findings provided basic insights in vitro into the possible value of TY-1 as a virucidal agent, which could enhance the current SARS-CoV-2 control measures.


Assuntos
COVID-19/virologia , Polifenóis/farmacologia , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Chá/química , Animais , Antivirais/metabolismo , Antivirais/farmacologia , Biflavonoides/química , Biflavonoides/farmacologia , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/metabolismo , Camellia sinensis/metabolismo , Catequina/química , Catequina/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Chlorocebus aethiops , Genoma Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polifenóis/isolamento & purificação , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Células Vero , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443362

RESUMO

The polyphenol content of tea depends on the growing region, harvest date, the production process used, and the brewing parameters. In this study, research was undertaken that included an analysis of the influence of the brewing process parameters on the content of total polyphenols (Folin-Ciocalteu), epigallocatechin gallate (HPLC), and antioxidant activity (against DPPH radicals) of fresh tea shrub leaves grown from Taiwan and of teas obtained from them (oolong, green in bags, and green loose from the spring and autumn harvest). The antioxidant potential was determined in the methanol and aqueous extracts, as well as in infusions that were obtained by using water at 65 or 100 °C and infusing the tea for 5 or 10 min. The highest content of total polyphenols and epigallocatechin gallate was found in green tea extracts from the spring harvest. However, in the case of infusions, the highest content of these compounds was found in green tea in bags. Steaming at 100 °C for 10 min, turned out to be the most favourable condition for the extraction. Oolong tea, brewed at 100 °C for 5 min was characterised by the highest antioxidant activity against stable DPPH radicals.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Camellia sinensis/química , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Folhas de Planta/química , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo , Água/química
15.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 384, 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416854

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: C. sinensis is an important economic crop with fluoride over-accumulation in its leaves, which poses a serious threat to human health due to its leaf consumption as tea. Recently, our study has indicated that cell wall proteins (CWPs) probably play a vital role in fluoride accumulation/detoxification in C. sinensis. However, there has been a lack in CWP identification and characterization up to now. This study is aimed to characterize cell wall proteome of C. sinensis leaves and to develop more CWPs related to stress response. A strategy of combined cell wall proteomics and N-glycoproteomics was employed to investigate CWPs. CWPs were extracted by sequential salt buffers, while N-glycoproteins were enriched by hydrophilic interaction chromatography method using C. sinensis leaves as a material. Afterwards all the proteins were subjected to UPLC-MS/MS analysis. RESULTS: A total of 501 CWPs and 195 CWPs were identified respectively by cell wall proteomics and N-glycoproteomics profiling with 118 CWPs in common. Notably, N-glycoproteomics is a feasible method for CWP identification, and it can enhance CWP coverage. Among identified CWPs, proteins acting on cell wall polysaccharides constitute the largest functional class, most of which might be involved in cell wall structure remodeling. The second largest functional class mainly encompass various proteases related to CWP turnover and maturation. Oxidoreductases represent the third largest functional class, most of which (especially Class III peroxidases) participate in defense response. As expected, identified CWPs are mainly related to plant cell wall formation and defense response. CONCLUSION: This was the first large-scale investigation of CWPs in C. sinensis through cell wall proteomics and N-glycoproteomics. Our results not only provide a database for further research on CWPs, but also an insight into cell wall formation and defense response in C. sinensis.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis/química , Parede Celular/química , Fluoretos/análise , Glicoproteínas/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , China , Produtos Agrícolas/química , Proteômica
16.
Biomolecules ; 11(7)2021 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201466

RESUMO

Nitric oxide (NO) as a momentous signal molecule participates in plant reproductive development and responds to various abiotic stresses. Here, the inhibitory effects of the NO-dominated signal network on the pollen tube growth of Camellia sinensis under low temperature (LT) were studied by microRNA (miRNA) omics analysis. The results showed that 77 and 71 differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs) were induced by LT and NO treatment, respectively. Gene ontology (GO) analysis showed that DEM target genes related to microtubules and actin were enriched uniquely under LT treatment, while DEM target genes related to redox process were enriched uniquely under NO treatment. In addition, the target genes of miRNA co-regulated by LT and NO are only located on the cell membrane and cell wall, and most of them are enriched in metal ion binding and/or transport and cell wall organization. Furthermore, DEM and its target genes related to metal ion binding/transport, redox process, actin, cell wall organization and carbohydrate metabolism were identified and quantified by functional analysis and qRT-PCR. In conclusion, miRNA omics analysis provides a complex signal network regulated by NO-mediated miRNA, which changes cell structure and component distribution by adjusting Ca2+ gradient, thus affecting the polar growth of the C. sinensis pollen tube tip under LT.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis/genética , Temperatura Baixa , MicroRNAs/genética , Óxido Nítrico/farmacologia , Tubo Polínico/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Camellia sinensis/metabolismo , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/efeitos dos fármacos , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/fisiologia , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Tubo Polínico/efeitos dos fármacos , Tubo Polínico/metabolismo
17.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(29): 8227-8235, 2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34251195

RESUMO

The effect of extracts from four types of tea made from Camelia sinensis (green, white, black, and oolong) on in vitro amylolysis of gelatinized starch and the underlying mechanisms were studied. Of the four extracts, black tea extract (BTE) gave the strongest inhibition of starch digestion and on α-amylase activity. Fluorescence quenching and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) showed compounds in BTE bound to α-amylase more strongly than those in the green, white, and oolong tea extracts. Individual testing of five phenolic compounds abundant in tea extracts showed that theaflavins had a greater inhibitory effect than catechins on α-amylase. SPR showed that theaflavins had much lower equilibrium dissociation constants and therefore bound more tightly to α-amylase than catechins. We conclude that BTE had a stronger inhibitory effect on in vitro enzymatic starch digestion than the other tea extracts, mainly due to the higher content of theaflavins causing stronger inhibition of α-amylase.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis , Catequina , Digestão , Extratos Vegetais , Amido , Chá , Triticum
18.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 337, 2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34271878

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pesticide residue and its poor utilization remains problematic in agricultural development. To address the issue, a nano-pesticide has been developed by incorporating pesticide acetamiprid in porous silica nanoparticles. RESULTS: This nano-pesticide had an acetamiprid loading content of 354.01 mg g-1. Testing LC50 value against tea aphids of the commercial preparation was three times that of the nano-pesticide. In tea seedlings (Camellia sinensis L.), acetamiprid was transported upward from the stem to the young leaves. On day 30, the average retained concentrations in tea leaves treated with the commercial preparation were about 1.3 times of that in the nano-pesticide preparation. The residual concentrations of dimethyl-acetamiprid in leaves for plants treated with the commercial preparation were about 1.1 times of that in the nano-pesticide preparation. Untargeted metabolomics of by LC-MS on the young leaves of tea seedlings under nano-pesticide and commercial pesticide treatments showed significant numbers of differentially expressed metabolites (P < 0.05 and VIP > 1). Between the nano-pesticide treatment group and the commercial preparation treatment group there were 196 differentially expressed metabolites 2 h after treatment, 200 (7th day), 207 (21st day), and 201 (30th day) in negative ion mode, and 294 (2nd h), 356 (7th day), and 286 (30th day) in positive ion mode. Preliminary identification showed that the major differentially expressed metabolites were glutamic acid, salicylic acid, p-coumaric acid, ribonic acid, glutamine, naringenin diglucoside, sanguiin H4, PG (34:2) and epiafzelechin. CONCLUSIONS: This work demonstrated that our nano-pesticide outperformed the conventional pesticide acetamiprid in terms of insecticidal activity and pesticide residue, and the absorption, transportation and metabolism of nano-pesticide in tea plant were different, which pave a new pathway for pest control in agricultural sector.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis/metabolismo , Inseticidas , Nanopartículas , Neonicotinoides , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Neonicotinoides/metabolismo , Resíduos de Praguicidas
19.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 166: 668-676, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34214777

RESUMO

Selenium (Se) is an essential element for human health and an important nutrient for plant growth. Selenite is the main form of Se available to plants in acidic soils. Previous studies have shown that phosphate transporters (PTHs) participate in selenite uptake in plants. Research on the PHT gene family is therefore vital for production of Se-rich products. Here, 23 CsPHT genes were identified in the tea (Camellia sinensis) genome and renamed based on homology with AtPHT genes in Arabidopsis thaliana. The CsPHT genes were divided into four subfamilies: PHT1, PHT3, PHT4, and PHO, containing nine, three, six, and five genes, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that fewer duplication events occurred in tea plants than in A. thaliana, rice, apple, and poplar. Genes in the same subfamily tended to share similar gene structures, conserved motifs, and potential functions. CsPHT genes were differentially expressed in various tissues and in roots under different Se levels, suggesting key roles in selenite uptake, translocation, and homeostasis. The results illuminate the contributions of CsPHT genes to selenite supply in tea plants, and lay a foundation for follow-up studies on their potential functions in this plant species.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis , Camellia sinensis/genética , Camellia sinensis/metabolismo , Família , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Transporte de Fosfato/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Fosfato/metabolismo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Ácido Selenioso , Chá
20.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 166: 849-856, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34229165

RESUMO

γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), a signal molecule, is regarded as the intersection node of carbon and nitrogen metabolism, and its contributions to flavonoid metabolism in tea plant growth and development remain unclear. The correlation between the GABA shunt and flavonoid metabolism in tea plants is worth to explore. Secondary metabolites and their correlations with the taste of tea soup made from tea plants (Camellia sinensis) during different seasons were investigated. Related secondary metabolites and transcript profiles of genes encoding enzymes in the GABA shunt, flavonoid pathway and polyamine biosynthesis were measured throughout the tea plant growth seasons and after exogenous GABA applications. In addition, the abundance of differentially expressed proteins was quantified after treatments with or without exogenous GABA. The tea leaves showed the highest metabolite concentrations in spring season. CsGAD, CsGABAT, CsSPMS, CsODC, CsF3H and CsCHS were found to be important genes in the GABA and anthocyanin biosynthesis pathways. GABA and anthocyanin concentrations showed a positive correlation, to some extent, CsF3H and CsCHS played important roles in the GABA and anthocyanin biosynthesis.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis , Camellia sinensis/metabolismo , Flavonoides , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Chá , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico
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