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1.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 14(7): 726-731, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32794461

RESUMO

Pakistan is also seeing the profound effect of the outbreak of COVID-19, which demands an urgent investigation of literature and further scientific investigation for cure and prevention. This study has employed the systematic approach for searching the literature from the recently compiled database of researches namely COVID-19 Open Research Dataset (CORD-19) and related diseases. The literature on Pakistan has shown the evidence of human-to-human and animal-to-human transmission of viruses, the presence of antibodies of MERS-CoV in camels, and careless attitude towards preventive measures of such respiratory diseases. There is a lot of gap in the literature regarding coronaviruses and their antibodies creating herd immunity for another coronavirus and COVID-19. In particular to Pakistan, and in general, for other developing countries, a weak health-care system coupled with the trembling economy has many implications of COVID-19 which should be carefully thought-out to combat the spread.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Animais , Camelus/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Humanos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Pandemias
2.
Open Vet J ; 10(2): 164-177, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32821661

RESUMO

Viruses are having great time as they seem to have bogged humans down. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and novel coronavirus (COVID-19) are the three major coronaviruses of present-day global human and animal health concern. COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 is identified as the newest disease, presumably of bat origin. Different theories on the evolution of viruses are in circulation, yet there is no denying the fact that the animal source is the skeleton. The whole world is witnessing the terror of the COVID-19 pandemic that is following the same path of SARS and MERS, and seems to be more severe. In addition to humans, several species of animals are reported to have been infected with these life-threatening viruses. The possible routes of transmission and their zoonotic potentialities are the subjects of intense research. This review article aims to overview the link of all these three deadly coronaviruses among animals along with their phylogenic evolution and cross-species transmission. This is essential since animals as pets or food are said to pose some risk, and their better understanding is a must in order to prepare a possible plan for future havoc in both human and animal health. Although COVID-19 is causing a human health hazard globally, its reporting in animals are limited compared to SARS and MERS. Non-human primates and carnivores are most susceptible to SARS-coronavirus and SARS-CoV-2, respectively, whereas the dromedary camel is susceptible to MERS-coronavirus. Phylogenetically, the trio viruses are reported to have originated from bats and have special capacity to undergo mutation and genomic recombination in order to infect humans through its reservoir or replication host. However, it is difficult to analyze how the genomic pattern of coronaviruses occurs. Thus, increased possibility of new virus-variants infecting humans and animals in the upcoming days seems to be the biggest challenge for the future of the world. One health approach is portrayed as our best way ahead, and understanding the animal dimension will go a long way in formulating such preparedness plans.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/classificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/classificação , Pandemias/veterinária , Pneumonia Viral/veterinária , Vírus da SARS/classificação , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/veterinária , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Betacoronavirus/genética , Camelídeos Americanos/virologia , Camelus/virologia , Gatos , Quirópteros/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/veterinária , Cães , Eutérios/virologia , Furões/virologia , Humanos , Leões/virologia , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/genética , Filogenia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Primatas/virologia , Cães Guaxinins/virologia , Vírus da SARS/genética , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/imunologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/transmissão , Serpentes/virologia , Tigres/virologia , Viverridae/virologia
3.
Virol Sin ; 35(3): 290-304, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32607866

RESUMO

The recent outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has already affected a large population of the world. SARS-CoV-2 belongs to the same family of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). COVID-19 has a complex pathology involving severe acute respiratory infection, hyper-immune response, and coagulopathy. At present, there is no therapeutic drug or vaccine approved for the disease. There is an urgent need for an ideal animal model that can reflect clinical symptoms and underlying etiopathogenesis similar to COVID-19 patients which can be further used for evaluation of underlying mechanisms, potential vaccines, and therapeutic strategies. The current review provides a paramount insight into the available animal models of SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, and MERS-CoV for the management of the diseases.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Vírus da SARS , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia , Animais , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Camelídeos Americanos , Camelus , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Camundongos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/patogenicidade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Vírus da SARS/patogenicidade , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/imunologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/fisiopatologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/terapia , Suínos
4.
Food Chem ; 333: 127514, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683259

RESUMO

This study investigated the effect of pH on the denaturation extent, the surface chemical composition, the water sorption isotherm and the glass transition temperature of camel and bovine whey protein's powders. The LC-MS analysis indicated that the ß-Lactoglobulin was the most denatured protein in bovine whey powders regardless the pH value, while this protein was totally absent in camel whey. The α-Lactalbumin was relatively heat stable after drying and predominated the powder surface (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results) in both camel and bovine whey powders regardless the pH (neutral (6.7) or acidic (4.3 and 4.6)). Analysis of the water sorption isotherms indicated that decreasing the pH induced the increase of the water activity of lactose crystallization for camel and bovine whey powders. Finally, decreasing the pH led to the decrease of the glass transition temperature of camel and bovine whey powder (at 0.13, 0.23, and 0.33 of water activity).


Assuntos
Pós/química , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/química , Adsorção , Animais , Calorimetria , Camelus , Bovinos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cristalização , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Lactoglobulinas/química , Lactoglobulinas/metabolismo , Lactose/química , Espectrometria de Massas , Desnaturação Proteica , Propriedades de Superfície , Temperatura de Transição , Água/química , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/metabolismo
5.
Viruses ; 12(6)2020 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-532726

RESUMO

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes severe respiratory illness in humans; the second-largest and most deadly outbreak to date occurred in Saudi Arabia. The dromedary camel is considered a possible host of the virus and also to act as a reservoir, transmitting the virus to humans. Here, we studied evolutionary relationships for 31 complete genomes of betacoronaviruses, including eight newly sequenced MERS-CoV genomes isolated from dromedary camels in Saudi Arabia. Through bioinformatics tools, we also used available sequences and 3D structure of MERS-CoV spike glycoprotein to predict MERS-CoV epitopes and assess antibody binding affinity. Phylogenetic analysis showed the eight new sequences have close relationships with existing strains detected in camels and humans in Arabian Gulf countries. The 2019-nCov strain appears to have higher homology to both bat coronavirus and SARS-CoV than to MERS-CoV strains. The spike protein tree exhibited clustering of MERS-CoV sequences similar to the complete genome tree, except for one sequence from Qatar (KF961222). B cell epitope analysis determined that the MERS-CoV spike protein has 24 total discontinuous regions from which just six epitopes were selected with score values of >80%. Our results suggest that the virus circulates by way of camels crossing the borders of Arabian Gulf countries. This study contributes to finding more effective vaccines in order to provide long-term protection against MERS-CoV and identifying neutralizing antibodies.


Assuntos
Camelus/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Betacoronavirus/classificação , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Evolução Biológica , DNA Complementar/química , DNA Viral/química , Epitopos/análise , Epitopos/química , Epitopos/genética , Biblioteca Gênica , Humanos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/classificação , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , RNA Viral/análise , RNA Viral/química , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Arábia Saudita
6.
Infez Med ; 28(suppl 1): 71-83, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-596356

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Coronaviruses are zoonotic viruses that include human epidemic pathogens such as the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome virus (MERS-CoV), and the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome virus (SARS-CoV), among others (e.g., COVID-19, the recently emerging coronavirus disease). The role of animals as potential reservoirs for such pathogens remains an unanswered question. No systematic reviews have been published on this topic to date. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature review with meta-analysis, using three databases to assess MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV infection in animals and its diagnosis by serological and molecular tests. We performed a random-effects model meta-analysis to calculate the pooled prevalence and 95% confidence interval (95%CI). RESULTS: 6,493articles were retrieved (1960-2019). After screening by abstract/title, 50 articles were selected for full-text assessment. Of them, 42 were finally included for qualitative and quantitative analyses. From a total of 34 studies (n=20,896 animals), the pool prevalence by RT-PCR for MERS-CoV was 7.2% (95%CI 5.6-8.7%), with 97.3% occurring in camels, in which pool prevalence was 10.3% (95%CI 8.3-12.3). Qatar was the country with the highest MERS-CoV RT-PCR pool prevalence: 32.6% (95%CI 4.8-60.4%). From 5 studies and 2,618 animals, for SARS-CoV, the RT-PCR pool prevalence was 2.3% (95%CI 1.3-3.3). Of those, 38.35% were reported on bats, in which the pool prevalence was 14.1% (95%CI0.0-44.6%). DISCUSSION: A considerable proportion of infected animals tested positive, particularly by nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT). This essential condition highlights the relevance of individual animals as reservoirs of MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV. In this meta-analysis, camels and bats were found to be positive by RT-PCR in over 10% of the cases for both; thus, suggesting their relevance in the maintenance of wild zoonotic transmission.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/virologia , Camelus/virologia , Quirópteros/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da SARS/isolamento & purificação , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/veterinária , Animais , Animais Domésticos/virologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Estudos Transversais , Reservatórios de Doenças , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Humanos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/genética , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/imunologia , Prevalência , Doenças dos Primatas/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Primatas/virologia , Primatas/virologia , RNA Viral/sangue , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Roedores/virologia , Roedores/virologia , Vírus da SARS/genética , Vírus da SARS/imunologia , Testes Sorológicos , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/transmissão , Zoonoses
7.
Infez Med ; 28(suppl 1): 71-83, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32532942

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Coronaviruses are zoonotic viruses that include human epidemic pathogens such as the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome virus (MERS-CoV), and the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome virus (SARS-CoV), among others (e.g., COVID-19, the recently emerging coronavirus disease). The role of animals as potential reservoirs for such pathogens remains an unanswered question. No systematic reviews have been published on this topic to date. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature review with meta-analysis, using three databases to assess MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV infection in animals and its diagnosis by serological and molecular tests. We performed a random-effects model meta-analysis to calculate the pooled prevalence and 95% confidence interval (95%CI). RESULTS: 6,493articles were retrieved (1960-2019). After screening by abstract/title, 50 articles were selected for full-text assessment. Of them, 42 were finally included for qualitative and quantitative analyses. From a total of 34 studies (n=20,896 animals), the pool prevalence by RT-PCR for MERS-CoV was 7.2% (95%CI 5.6-8.7%), with 97.3% occurring in camels, in which pool prevalence was 10.3% (95%CI 8.3-12.3). Qatar was the country with the highest MERS-CoV RT-PCR pool prevalence: 32.6% (95%CI 4.8-60.4%). From 5 studies and 2,618 animals, for SARS-CoV, the RT-PCR pool prevalence was 2.3% (95%CI 1.3-3.3). Of those, 38.35% were reported on bats, in which the pool prevalence was 14.1% (95%CI0.0-44.6%). DISCUSSION: A considerable proportion of infected animals tested positive, particularly by nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT). This essential condition highlights the relevance of individual animals as reservoirs of MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV. In this meta-analysis, camels and bats were found to be positive by RT-PCR in over 10% of the cases for both; thus, suggesting their relevance in the maintenance of wild zoonotic transmission.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/virologia , Camelus/virologia , Quirópteros/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da SARS/isolamento & purificação , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/veterinária , Animais , Animais Domésticos/virologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Estudos Transversais , Reservatórios de Doenças , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Humanos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/genética , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/imunologia , Prevalência , Doenças dos Primatas/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Primatas/virologia , Primatas/virologia , RNA Viral/sangue , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Roedores/virologia , Roedores/virologia , Vírus da SARS/genética , Vírus da SARS/imunologia , Testes Sorológicos , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/transmissão , Zoonoses
8.
Viruses ; 12(6)2020 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32503352

RESUMO

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes severe respiratory illness in humans; the second-largest and most deadly outbreak to date occurred in Saudi Arabia. The dromedary camel is considered a possible host of the virus and also to act as a reservoir, transmitting the virus to humans. Here, we studied evolutionary relationships for 31 complete genomes of betacoronaviruses, including eight newly sequenced MERS-CoV genomes isolated from dromedary camels in Saudi Arabia. Through bioinformatics tools, we also used available sequences and 3D structure of MERS-CoV spike glycoprotein to predict MERS-CoV epitopes and assess antibody binding affinity. Phylogenetic analysis showed the eight new sequences have close relationships with existing strains detected in camels and humans in Arabian Gulf countries. The 2019-nCov strain appears to have higher homology to both bat coronavirus and SARS-CoV than to MERS-CoV strains. The spike protein tree exhibited clustering of MERS-CoV sequences similar to the complete genome tree, except for one sequence from Qatar (KF961222). B cell epitope analysis determined that the MERS-CoV spike protein has 24 total discontinuous regions from which just six epitopes were selected with score values of >80%. Our results suggest that the virus circulates by way of camels crossing the borders of Arabian Gulf countries. This study contributes to finding more effective vaccines in order to provide long-term protection against MERS-CoV and identifying neutralizing antibodies.


Assuntos
Camelus/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Betacoronavirus/classificação , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Evolução Biológica , DNA Complementar/química , DNA Viral/química , Epitopos/análise , Epitopos/química , Epitopos/genética , Biblioteca Gênica , Humanos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/classificação , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , RNA Viral/análise , RNA Viral/química , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Arábia Saudita
9.
Vet Q ; 40(1): 190-197, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32543343

RESUMO

Background: The natural MERS-CoV infection in dromedary camels is understudied. Recent experimental studies showed no obvious clinical signs in the infected dromedary camels.Aim: To study the pathological changes associated with natural MERS-CoV infection in dromedary camels.Methods: Tissues from three MERS-CoV positive animals as well as two negative animals were collected and examined for the presence of pathological changes. The screening of the animals was carried out first by the rapid agglutination test and then confirmed by the RT-PCR. The selected animals ranged from six to twelve months in age. The sensitivity of the latter technique was much higher in the detection of MERS-CoV than the Rapid test (14 out of 75 animals positive or 18% versus 31 out of 75 positive or 41%).Results: MERS-CoV induced marked desquamation of the respiratory epithelium accompanied by lamina propria and submucosal mononuclear cells infiltration, epithelial hyperplasia in the respiratory tract, and interstitial pneumonia. Ciliary cell loss was seen in the trachea and turbinate. In addition, degeneration of glomerular capillaries with the complete destruction of glomerular tufts that were replaced with fibrinous exudate in renal corpuscles in the renal cortex were noticed. Expression of the MERS-CoV-S1 and MERS-CoV-N proteins was revealed in respiratory tract, and kidneys.Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the first study describing the pathological changes of MERS-CoV infection in dromedary camels under natural conditions. In contrast to experimental infection in case of spontaneous infection interstitial pneumonea is evident at least in some affected animals.


Assuntos
Camelus/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/veterinária , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Nefropatias/patologia , Nefropatias/veterinária , Nefropatias/virologia , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/patologia , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/virologia , Masculino , Arábia Saudita , Proteínas Virais/análise
10.
Arch Microbiol ; 202(8): 2207-2219, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32524178

RESUMO

The objectives of this study were to isolate lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from a raw Moroccan camel milk collected after the incorporation of a specific Argane by-products diet, and to investigate their technological properties as well as their probiotic features. The molecular identification of the isolates indicated that they belong to Weissella confusa, Weissella cibaria or Enterococcus durans species. Our results revealed that the tested isolates have a fast acidifying ability (values ranging between 0.045 ± 0.01 to 0.93 ± 0.01 after only 4 h incubation), important proteolysis, autolysis, lipolytic activities and an important diacetyl and exopolysaccharides production. All these isolates demonstrated a high tolerance to gastrointestinal conditions, namely to gastric simulated juice (survival rate ranged between 75.05 ± 7.88 and 85.55 ± 1.77%) and to bile salts (survival rate between 42.79 ± 1.11 and 82.75 ± 1.01%). The autoaggregation, hydrophobicity and antioxidant activity mean values of the isolates were 13.26-41.16%, 13.23-54.47% and 47.57-63.31%, respectively. Importantly, LAB cultures exhibited antibacterial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria and none of the tested isolates presented antibiotic resistance, haemolytic or DNase activities. This study revealed interesting properties for LAB isolated and supported their utilization as autochthone starters for camel milk fermentation that represent a challenge process. These results presented as well the probiotic potential for a possible human consumption.


Assuntos
Camelus , Enterococcus/fisiologia , Lactobacillales/fisiologia , Leite/microbiologia , Weissella/fisiologia , Animais , Antibiose , Enterococcus/classificação , Enterococcus/isolamento & purificação , Fermentação , Lactobacillales/isolamento & purificação , Probióticos/metabolismo , Alimentos Crus/microbiologia , Weissella/classificação , Weissella/isolamento & purificação
11.
Virol J ; 17(1): 77, 2020 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32552831

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is an emerging virus that infects humans and camels with no approved antiviral therapy or vaccine. Some vaccines are in development for camels as a one-health intervention where vaccinating camels is proposed to reduce human viral exposure. This intervention will require an understanding of the prior exposure of camels to the virus and appropriate vaccine efficacy studies in camels. METHODS: We conducted a cross sectional seroprevalence study in young dromedary camels to determine the rate of MERS-CoV seropositivity in young camels. Next, we utilised naturally infected camels as a natural challenge model that can be used by co-housing these camels with healthy naive camels in a ratio of 1 to 2. This model is aimed to support studies on natural virus transmission as well as evaluating drug and vaccine efficacy. RESULTS: We found that 90% of the screened camels have pre-existing antibodies for MERS-CoV. In addition, the challenge model resulted in MERS-CoV transmission within 48 h with infections that continued for 14 days post challenge. CONCLUSIONS: Our finding suggests that the majority of young dromedary camels in Saudi Arabia are seropositive and that naturally infected camels can serve as a challenge model to assess transmission, therapeutics, and vaccine efficacy.


Assuntos
Camelus/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Estudos Transversais , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Vacinação/veterinária
12.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232790, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-616862

RESUMO

The Middle East Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is an endemic virus in dromedaries. Annually, Saudi Arabia imports thousands of camels from the Horn of Africa, yet the epidemiology of MERS-CoV in these animals is largely unknown. Here, MERS-CoV prevalence was compared in imported African camels and their local counterparts. A total of 1399 paired sera and nasal swabs were collected from camels between 2016 and 2018. Imported animals from Sudan (n = 829) and Djibouti (n = 328) were sampled on incoming ships at Jeddah Islamic seaport before unloading, and local camels were sampled from Jeddah (n = 242). Samples were screened for neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) and MERS-CoV viral RNA. The overall seroprevalence was 92.7% and RNA detection rate was 17.2%. Imported camels had higher seroprevalence compared to resident herds (93.8% vs 87.6%, p <0.01) in contrast to RNA detection (13.3% vs 35.5%, p <0.0001). Seroprevalence significantly increased with age (p<0.0001) and viral RNA detection rate was ~2-folds higher in camels <2-year-old compared to older animals. RNA detection was higher in males verses females (24.3% vs 12.6%, p<0.0001) but seroprevalence was similar. Concurrent positivity for viral RNA and nAbs was found in >87% of the RNA positive animals, increased with age and was sex-dependent. Importantly, reduced viral RNA load was positively correlated with nAb titers. Our data confirm the widespread of MERS-CoV in imported and domestic camels in Saudi Arabia and highlight the need for continuous active surveillance and better prevention measures. Further studies are also warranted to understand camels correlates of protection for proper vaccine development.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Camelus/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/isolamento & purificação , RNA Viral/sangue , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Djibuti/epidemiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/genética , Prevalência , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Sudão/epidemiologia
13.
J Infect Public Health ; 13(6): 834-838, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-390185

RESUMO

Nearly four months have passed since the emergence of the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), which caused the rapidly spreading Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. To date, there have been more than 2.3 million confirmed cases and more than 160,000 deaths globally caused by COVID-19. Chinese health authorities, where the virus emerged, have taken prompt strict public health measures to control and prevent the spread of the outbreak. In Saudi Arabia, unprecedented precautionary strict measures were applied to prevent virus entry to the country or to mitigate its impact when it arrives. Here, we review the response of Saudi Arabia to COVID-19 pandemic and how did the experience learned from the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) epidemic since 2012 has helped the country to be better prepared for the current COVID-19 pandemic. We also discuss the country readiness, improvement in research and development, and the unprecedented rapid precautionary measures that have been taken by the Saudi government thus far.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Animais , Betacoronavirus , Camelus/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Viagem , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/virologia
14.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232790, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-378063

RESUMO

The Middle East Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is an endemic virus in dromedaries. Annually, Saudi Arabia imports thousands of camels from the Horn of Africa, yet the epidemiology of MERS-CoV in these animals is largely unknown. Here, MERS-CoV prevalence was compared in imported African camels and their local counterparts. A total of 1399 paired sera and nasal swabs were collected from camels between 2016 and 2018. Imported animals from Sudan (n = 829) and Djibouti (n = 328) were sampled on incoming ships at Jeddah Islamic seaport before unloading, and local camels were sampled from Jeddah (n = 242). Samples were screened for neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) and MERS-CoV viral RNA. The overall seroprevalence was 92.7% and RNA detection rate was 17.2%. Imported camels had higher seroprevalence compared to resident herds (93.8% vs 87.6%, p <0.01) in contrast to RNA detection (13.3% vs 35.5%, p <0.0001). Seroprevalence significantly increased with age (p<0.0001) and viral RNA detection rate was ~2-folds higher in camels <2-year-old compared to older animals. RNA detection was higher in males verses females (24.3% vs 12.6%, p<0.0001) but seroprevalence was similar. Concurrent positivity for viral RNA and nAbs was found in >87% of the RNA positive animals, increased with age and was sex-dependent. Importantly, reduced viral RNA load was positively correlated with nAb titers. Our data confirm the widespread of MERS-CoV in imported and domestic camels in Saudi Arabia and highlight the need for continuous active surveillance and better prevention measures. Further studies are also warranted to understand camels correlates of protection for proper vaccine development.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Camelus/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/isolamento & purificação , RNA Viral/sangue , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Djibuti/epidemiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/genética , Prevalência , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Sudão/epidemiologia
15.
Vet Q ; 40(1): 169-182, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-244904

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has spread over 210 countries and territories beyond China shortly. On February 29, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) denoted it in a high-risk category, and on March 11, 2020, this virus was designated pandemic, after its declaration being a Public Health International Emergency on January 30, 2020. World over high efforts are being made to counter and contain this virus. The COVID-19 outbreak once again proves the potential of the animal-human interface to act as the primary source of emerging zoonotic diseases. Even though the circumstantial evidence suggests the possibility of an initial zoonotic emergence, it is too early to confirm the role of intermediate hosts such as snakes, pangolins, turtles, and other wild animals in the origin of SARS-CoV-2, in addition to bats, the natural hosts of multiple coronaviruses such as SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. The lessons learned from past episodes of MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV are being exploited to retort this virus. Best efforts are being taken up by worldwide nations to implement effective diagnosis, strict vigilance, heightened surveillance, and monitoring, along with adopting appropriate preventive and control strategies. Identifying the possible zoonotic emergence and the exact mechanism responsible for its initial transmission will help us to design and implement appropriate preventive barriers against the further transmission of SARS-CoV-2. This review discusses in brief about the COVID-19/SARS-CoV-2 with a particular focus on the role of animals, the veterinary and associated zoonotic links along with prevention and control strategies based on One-health approaches.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/classificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Saúde Única , Pandemias/veterinária , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/veterinária , Zoonoses/transmissão , Animais , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Camelus , Gatos , Quirópteros , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Cães , Eutérios , Furões , Humanos , Macaca mulatta , Modelos Animais , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Serpentes , Tigres , Vacinas Virais , Eliminação de Partículas Virais , Viverridae , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Zoonoses/virologia
16.
Vet Q ; 40(1): 169-182, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393111

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has spread over 210 countries and territories beyond China shortly. On February 29, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) denoted it in a high-risk category, and on March 11, 2020, this virus was designated pandemic, after its declaration being a Public Health International Emergency on January 30, 2020. World over high efforts are being made to counter and contain this virus. The COVID-19 outbreak once again proves the potential of the animal-human interface to act as the primary source of emerging zoonotic diseases. Even though the circumstantial evidence suggests the possibility of an initial zoonotic emergence, it is too early to confirm the role of intermediate hosts such as snakes, pangolins, turtles, and other wild animals in the origin of SARS-CoV-2, in addition to bats, the natural hosts of multiple coronaviruses such as SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. The lessons learned from past episodes of MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV are being exploited to retort this virus. Best efforts are being taken up by worldwide nations to implement effective diagnosis, strict vigilance, heightened surveillance, and monitoring, along with adopting appropriate preventive and control strategies. Identifying the possible zoonotic emergence and the exact mechanism responsible for its initial transmission will help us to design and implement appropriate preventive barriers against the further transmission of SARS-CoV-2. This review discusses in brief about the COVID-19/SARS-CoV-2 with a particular focus on the role of animals, the veterinary and associated zoonotic links along with prevention and control strategies based on One-health approaches.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/classificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Saúde Única , Pandemias/veterinária , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/veterinária , Zoonoses/transmissão , Animais , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Camelus , Gatos , Quirópteros , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Cães , Eutérios , Furões , Humanos , Macaca mulatta , Modelos Animais , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Serpentes , Tigres , Vacinas Virais , Eliminação de Partículas Virais , Viverridae , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Zoonoses/virologia
17.
J Infect Public Health ; 13(6): 834-838, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32451260

RESUMO

Nearly four months have passed since the emergence of the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), which caused the rapidly spreading Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. To date, there have been more than 2.3 million confirmed cases and more than 160,000 deaths globally caused by COVID-19. Chinese health authorities, where the virus emerged, have taken prompt strict public health measures to control and prevent the spread of the outbreak. In Saudi Arabia, unprecedented precautionary strict measures were applied to prevent virus entry to the country or to mitigate its impact when it arrives. Here, we review the response of Saudi Arabia to COVID-19 pandemic and how did the experience learned from the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) epidemic since 2012 has helped the country to be better prepared for the current COVID-19 pandemic. We also discuss the country readiness, improvement in research and development, and the unprecedented rapid precautionary measures that have been taken by the Saudi government thus far.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Animais , Betacoronavirus , Camelus/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Viagem , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/virologia
18.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232790, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32453746

RESUMO

The Middle East Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is an endemic virus in dromedaries. Annually, Saudi Arabia imports thousands of camels from the Horn of Africa, yet the epidemiology of MERS-CoV in these animals is largely unknown. Here, MERS-CoV prevalence was compared in imported African camels and their local counterparts. A total of 1399 paired sera and nasal swabs were collected from camels between 2016 and 2018. Imported animals from Sudan (n = 829) and Djibouti (n = 328) were sampled on incoming ships at Jeddah Islamic seaport before unloading, and local camels were sampled from Jeddah (n = 242). Samples were screened for neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) and MERS-CoV viral RNA. The overall seroprevalence was 92.7% and RNA detection rate was 17.2%. Imported camels had higher seroprevalence compared to resident herds (93.8% vs 87.6%, p <0.01) in contrast to RNA detection (13.3% vs 35.5%, p <0.0001). Seroprevalence significantly increased with age (p<0.0001) and viral RNA detection rate was ~2-folds higher in camels <2-year-old compared to older animals. RNA detection was higher in males verses females (24.3% vs 12.6%, p<0.0001) but seroprevalence was similar. Concurrent positivity for viral RNA and nAbs was found in >87% of the RNA positive animals, increased with age and was sex-dependent. Importantly, reduced viral RNA load was positively correlated with nAb titers. Our data confirm the widespread of MERS-CoV in imported and domestic camels in Saudi Arabia and highlight the need for continuous active surveillance and better prevention measures. Further studies are also warranted to understand camels correlates of protection for proper vaccine development.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Camelus/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/isolamento & purificação , RNA Viral/sangue , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Djibuti/epidemiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/genética , Prevalência , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Sudão/epidemiologia
19.
Arch Microbiol ; 202(7): 1861-1872, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32448959

RESUMO

In addition to a wide variety of anaerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria, camel rumen also harbors a diverse of eukaryotic organisms. In the present study, the eukaryotic communities of camel rumen were characterized using 18S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Metagenomic DNA was isolated from rumen samples of fourteen adult Bikaneri and Kachchhi breeds of camel fed different diets containing Jowar, Bajra, Maize, and Guar. Illumina sequencing generated 27,161,904 number of reads corresponding to 1543 total operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Taxonomic classification of community metagenome sequences from all the samples revealed the presence of 92 genera belonging to 16 different divisions, out of which Ciliophora (73%), Fungi (13%) and Streptophyta (9%) were found to be the most dominant. Notably, the abundance of Ciliophora was significantly higher in the case of Guar feed, while Fungi was significantly higher in the case of Maize feed, indicating the influence of cellulose and hemicellulose content of feedstuff on the composition of eukaryotes. The results suggest that the camel rumen eukaryotes are highly dynamic and depend on the type of diet given to the animal. Pearson's correlation analysis suggested the ciliate protozoa and fungi were negatively correlated with each other. To the best of our knowledge, this is first systematic study to characterize camel rumen eukaryotes, which has provided newer information regarding eukaryotic diversity patterns amongst camel fed on different diets.


Assuntos
Camelus/microbiologia , Camelus/parasitologia , Cilióforos , Dieta , Fungos , Rúmen/microbiologia , Rúmen/parasitologia , Animais , Cilióforos/classificação , Cilióforos/genética , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Metagenoma , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
20.
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