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1.
Food Chem ; 367: 130661, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34348197

RESUMO

Cow (CwC) and camel casein (CaC) hydrolysates were generated using Alcalase™ (CwCA and CaCA) and Pronase-E (CwCP and CaCP) each for 3 and 6 h, and investigated for their potential to inhibit key lipid digesting enzymes i.e., pancreatic lipase (PL) and cholesteryl esterase (CE). Results revealed stronger PL and CE inhibition by CaC hydrolysates compared to CwC. Potent hydrolysates (CwCP-3 h and CaCA-6 h) upon simulated gastrointestinal digestion (SGID) showed significant improvement in inhibition of both PL and CE. However, both the SGID hydrolysates showed similar extent of PL and CE inhibition and were further sequenced for peptide identification. Peptides MMML, FDML, HLPGRG from CwC and AAGF, MSNYF, FLWPEYGAL from CaC hydrolysates were predicted to be most active PL inhibitory peptides. Peptide LP found in both CwC and CaC hydrolysates was predicted as active CE inhibitor. Thus, CwC and CaC could be potential source of peptides with promising CE and PL inhibitory properties.


Assuntos
Caseínas , Esterol Esterase , Animais , Camelus , Bovinos , Digestão , Feminino , Hidrólise , Lipase , Peptídeos , Hidrolisados de Proteína , Esterol Esterase/genética
2.
Food Chem ; 367: 130658, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343808

RESUMO

Camel milk is rich in nutrients and its impact on human medicine and nutrition cannot be ignored. We conducted an in-depth analysis of milk proteins obtained from two camel breed (Camelus bactrianus, CB and Camelus dromedarius, CD). Label-free proteomic technology was performed to analysis the MFGM and whey proteomes of CB and CD milk. In total, 1133 MFGM proteins and 627 whey proteins were identified from camel milk. Results revealed that 216 MFGM proteins and 109 whey proteins were significantly different between them. In addition, the cellular process, cell and binding were the predominately GO annotations of milk proteins. KEGG analysis shown that most proteins were involved in metabolic pathways. Furthermore, many proteins were found to be involved in PI3K/AKT signaling pathway, which could be the possible reason for hypoglycemic effect of camel milk. These results could provide a further understanding for unique biological characteristics of camel milk proteins.


Assuntos
Camelus , Proteoma , Animais , Glicolipídeos , Glicoproteínas , Gotículas Lipídicas , Proteínas do Leite , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases , Proteômica , Soro do Leite , Proteínas do Soro do Leite
3.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(5): 500, 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34613460

RESUMO

Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an emerging mosquito-borne zoonosis that threatens public health and animal agriculture in the endemic areas causing devastating epizootics characterized by abortion storms and high mortalities, especially in newborn animals. A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence and investigate risk factors associated with exposure to the virus in camels slaughtered in Maiduguri abattoir, Borno State of Nigeria. Camels presented for slaughtered were sampled and data on age, sex, source or origin, utility, presence of post-mortem lesions, body weights and body condition score were collected. Blood samples were collected and sera were harvested and stored at - 20 °C until tested. The sera were tested using a commercial ELISA kit based on the manufacturer's instructions. The overall seroprevalence in the study was 20.7% (95% CI, 13.6-30.0). The analysis showed no significant differences between the presence of antibodies and variables that included the sex of camels (χ2 = 0.015, df = 1, p = 0.904) and the presence of post-mortem lesion on the carcass (χ2 = 0.009, df = 1, p = 0.925). There were significant differences between presence of antibodies and three variables that included the age (χ2 = 4.89, df = 1, p = 0.027), the source (χ2 = 7.077, df = 2, p = 0.029) and the main utility (χ2 = 8.057, df = 3, p = 0.045) of the camels. It was concluded that camels presented for slaughter at the Maiduguri abattoir have evidence of exposure to the RVF virus and maybe means of transmission of the virus. Regular monitoring and control of transboundary animal movements were recommended in the study area.


Assuntos
Vírus da Febre do Vale do Rift , Matadouros , Animais , Camelus , Estudos Transversais , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5324, 2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493730

RESUMO

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is enzootic in dromedary camels across the Middle East and Africa. Virus-induced pneumonia in humans results from animal contact, with a potential for limited onward transmission. Phenotypic changes have been suspected after a novel recombinant clade (lineage 5) caused large nosocomial outbreaks in Saudi Arabia and South Korea in 2016. However, there has been no functional assessment. Here we perform a comprehensive in vitro and ex vivo comparison of viruses from parental and recombinant virus lineages (lineage 3, n = 7; lineage 4, n = 8; lineage 5, n = 9 viruses) from Saudi Arabia, isolated immediately before and after the shift toward lineage 5. Replication of lineage 5 viruses is significantly increased. Transcriptional profiling finds reduced induction of immune genes IFNB1, CCL5, and IFNL1 in lung cells infected with lineage 5 strains. Phenotypic differences may be determined by IFN antagonism based on experiments using IFN receptor knock out and signaling inhibition. Additionally, lineage 5 is more resilient against IFN pre-treatment of Calu-3 cells (ca. 10-fold difference in replication). This phenotypic change associated with lineage 5 has remained undiscovered by viral sequence surveillance, but may be a relevant indicator of pandemic potential.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/genética , Animais , Camelus , Células Cultivadas , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/isolamento & purificação , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/patogenicidade , Filogenia , Recombinação Genética , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Replicação Viral
5.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(5): 464, 2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34545480

RESUMO

The milk productivity improvement of she-camels requires a good feeding program that should indicate appropriate foods, required quantities, and how and when to distribute them. The aim of this study was to explore the interactions between milk productivity and body variations of dairy camels in response to experimental dietary treatments. The camels received a new diet every 15 days approximately, with higher rate of concentrates and high energy concentration. Results showed that diets with high energy or protein density, UFL (forage unit for milk production), and nutrient waste stimulated the development of body weight at the expense of milk production (p <0.05). Therewith, the inadequate supply of feeds rich in fermentable carbohydrates such as dates (p <0.01) or corn (p <0.05) compromised milk productivity level in favor of ADG (average daily gain) and body reserves deposit. Increasing the level of roughage feed intake had a positive effect on milk production (p < 0.05). According to the results, it is recommended in the feeding of dairy she-camels to maintain a minimum level of roughage at more than 60%. In addition, it is necessary that the energy density (DER) be in the order of 0.91-1.17 maximum (0.78 UFL/kg.DM-dry matter). Taking into account famous nitrogen recycling mechanisms of camels, the protein supply of diets does not seem useful to overcome 63 g PDI/kg.DM (PDI protein digestible in the intestine).


Assuntos
Camelus , Rúmen , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Fermentação , Lactação , Leite , Rúmen/metabolismo , Zea mays
6.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(4): 446, 2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34427777

RESUMO

This study aimed to assess the oxidative stress status in blood plasma of nomadic she-camels (Camelus dromedarius) during transition from late pregnancy to early lactation. From 12 late pregnant she-camels, blood was sampled weekly as they progressed from the third week prepartum up to the third week postpartum. Levels of albumin, uric acid, and malondialdehyde (a biomarker of lipid peroxidation) concentrations were fairly constant (P > 0.05) throughout the sampling times. Compared to the initial time (third week prepartum), values of the superoxide anion, total peroxides, and protein carbonyl (a biomarker of protein peroxidation) increased (P < 0.05) by more than 67%, 43%, and 23%, respectively, at parturition and this increase extended to the first week postpartum. Ascorbic acid concentration lost more than 20% (P < 0.05) of its value at parturition. Bilirubin value increased as camels progressed from the first week pre- up to the first week postpartum, and reached its maximum value (~ 2.5 fold) at parturition. Superoxide dismutase activity increased (P < 0.05) by 71.7% at the first week pretpartum and by 57% at parturition. Total antioxidant capacity level increased (P < 0.05) by ~ 25% at the first week prepartum and remained at this high level up to the second week postpartum. It seems that periparturient camels experience a substantial oxidative stress particularly at parturition and the week after calving as indicated by the increased peroxidative by-products of proteins in parallel to the enhanced production of pro-oxidants.


Assuntos
Camelus , Período Periparto , Animais , Antioxidantes , Árabes , Feminino , Humanos , Estresse Oxidativo , Gravidez
7.
Theriogenology ; 173: 123-127, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371439

RESUMO

A total of 184 dromedary camel embryos were vitrified using a novel vitrification kit specifically developed for camel embryos. These embryos were vitrified using a 3-step process by exposing them to vitrification solutions (VS) containing 20% foetal calf serum (FCS) with (+) or without (-) the addition of bovine serum albumin (BSA). Embryos were then further divided into two groups (

Assuntos
Camelus , Vitrificação , Animais , Criopreservação/veterinária , Embrião de Mamíferos , Feminino , Gravidez , Taxa de Gravidez
8.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(9): 2301-2311, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34423762

RESUMO

After the first detection of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in camels in Jordan in 2013, we conducted 2 consecutive surveys in 2014-2015 and 2017-2018 investigating risk factors for MERS-CoV infection among camel populations in southern Jordan. Multivariate analysis to control for confounding demonstrated that borrowing of camels, particularly males, for breeding purposes was associated with increased MERS-CoV seroprevalence among receiving herds, suggesting a potential route of viral transmission between herds. Increasing age, herd size, and use of water troughs within herds were also associated with increased seroprevalence. Closed herd management practices were found to be protective. Future vaccination strategies among camel populations in Jordan could potentially prioritize breeding males, which are likely to be shared between herds. In addition, targeted management interventions with the potential to reduce transmission between herds should be considered; voluntary closed herd schemes offer a possible route to achieving disease-free herds.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio , Animais , Camelus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Jordânia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
9.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(9): 2471-2474, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34424177

RESUMO

We previously detected a potentially novel reassortant of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in camels at the largest livestock market in the United Arab Emirates. A broader survey of large mammals at the site indicated zoonotic transmission is associated with dromedaries and camel ticks. Seroprevalence in cattle, sheep, and goats is minimal.


Assuntos
Vírus da Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia-Congo , Carrapatos , Animais , Camelus , Bovinos , Vírus da Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia-Congo/genética , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Ovinos , Emirados Árabes Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj ; 1865(11): 129974, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343644

RESUMO

Background Since December 2019, the newly emerged SARS-CoV-2 virus continues to infect humans and many people died from severe Covid-19 during the last 2 years worldwide. Different approaches are being used for treatment of this infection and its consequences, but limited results have been achieved and new therapeutics are still needed. One of the most interesting biotherapeutics in this era are Nanobodies which have shown very promising results in recent researches. Scope of review Here, we have reviewed the potentials of Nanobodies in Covid-19 treatment. We have also discussed the properties of these biotherapeutics that make them very suitable for pulmonary drug delivery, which seems to be very important route of administration in this disease. Major conclusion Nanobodies with their special biological and biophysical characteristics and their resistance against harsh manufacturing condition, can be considered as promising, targeted biotherapeutics which can be administered by pulmonary delivery pharmaceutical systems against Covid-19. General significance Covid-19 has become a global problem during the last two years and with emerging mutant strains, prophylactic and therapeutic approaches are still highly needed. Nanobodies with their specific properties can be considered as valuable and promising candidates in Covid-19 therapy.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/terapia , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/uso terapêutico , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/antagonistas & inibidores , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/antagonistas & inibidores , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/genética , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/biossíntese , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/isolamento & purificação , Antivirais/isolamento & purificação , Antivirais/metabolismo , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , Camelus , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Soros Imunes/química , Fatores Imunológicos/biossíntese , Fatores Imunológicos/isolamento & purificação , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/virologia , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/métodos , Biblioteca de Peptídeos , Ligação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/biossíntese , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/isolamento & purificação , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia
11.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 78: 101690, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34265544

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND METHODOLOGY: Brucellosis in livestock causes huge economic loses of developing countries and demonstrates a serious health risks to the patrons of infected dairy goods and meat. Prevention of brucellosis in cattle relies on the trustworthiness of the techniques utilized to detect the causative pathogen. In the current investigation, we described the exploration of the well-known real-time PCR technique based on the Brucella-specific IS711 with different tissue samples of dromedary camels in Qatar. RESULTS: The findings of the real-time PCR unveiled the occurrence of Brucella spp in 60 % of lung tissues, 71.42 % of liver tissues, 72 % of spleen tissues, 25 % of kidney tissues, and 42.42 % of placental fluid samples. Among them, the liver tissues and spleen tissues possessed the highest number of positive results, whereas kidney tissues displayed the lowest number of positive results for Brucella spp. CONCLUSION: The findings of this investigation discloses that PCR technique is a sensitive and specific technique for the identification of Brucella spp. in dromedary camels. Most of the tissues samples showed the presence of Brucella spp. and also we concluded that there is a need for further studies to be conducted in order to identify specific species of Brucella.


Assuntos
Brucelose , Doenças dos Bovinos , Animais , Brucelose/diagnóstico , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Brucelose/veterinária , Camelus , Bovinos , Feminino , Placenta , Gravidez , Catar/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária
12.
Theriogenology ; 172: 289-299, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34304044

RESUMO

In this paper, we described the incidence of early pregnancy loss (EPL) both after natural mating and embryo transfer, evaluated risk factors, and summarized the outcome of twin pregnancies throughout gestation in dromedaries under reproductive care. Data were collected over seven breeding seasons at the world's largest camel dairy farm (study 1). In addition, we determined the timing of EPL and monitored serum progesterone (P4) concentration between Days 13-70 of gestation during one breeding season (study 2). In the first study, out of 2970 pregnancies, 507 cases (17.1%) of EPL were diagnosed with transrectal ultrasonography. The rate of EPL after natural mating and embryo transfer was 16.1% (n = 422 out of 2616) and 24.0% (n = 85 out of 354), respectively. Twin pregnancies were detected in 215 cases (7.2% of all gestations), and 57 of those (26.5%) underwent complete EPL. Almost half of the early losses (n = 243; 47.9%) occurred before 30 d of gestation. Another 43.2% (n = 219) of EPL was diagnosed during the next month, and 8.9% (n = 45) occurred after 60 d of gestation. Multivariable mixed effects logistic regression models revealed that the breeding season (year) and twin pregnancy were the most important exposure variables affecting the rate of EPL (P < 0.001). The effect of some male camels was also demonstrated while other factors, such as type of breeding, age category, month of mating, breed/ecotype and reproductive history did not prove to have a significant influence. In the second study, the overall rate of EPL was 24.5% (n = 34 of 139). There was no difference in the incidence of EPL between ET recipient (24.2%, n = 23 of 95) and mated (25%, n = 11 of 44) camels. Weekly rate of EPL ranged from 0.9% to 4.8% with a decreasing tendency, and approx. 41% of the animals (n = 14 of 34) had some ultrasonographic signs of impending EPL 1 week before the final diagnosis. Mean serum P4 concentration in camels with subsequent EPL was 5.3 ± 0.1 ng/ml compared to 5.6 ± 0.04 ng/ml in normal pregnant dromedaries. Day of gestation and future EPL influenced serum P4 levels (P < 0.001) with an interaction between the two fixed factors (P < 0.05). At the time of the final diagnosis of EPL, mean serum P4 concentration was 2.8 ± 0.44 ng/ml. Although twinning had an unfavorable prognosis with a total pregnancy loss of 36.7%, it was not entirely detrimental for the final outcome of gestation as two-thirds of twin pregnancies (n = 136 out of 212) resulted in the birth of a live calf.


Assuntos
Aborto Animal , Camelus , Aborto Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Transferência Embrionária/veterinária , Feminino , Incidência , Masculino , Parto , Gravidez
13.
Theriogenology ; 172: 187-192, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34218101

RESUMO

The positive impact of melatonin on in vitro embryo production (IVEP) has been reported in many domestic species; however, no studies have been carried out in camelids. We aimed to evaluate the effects of melatonin supplementation in maturation media on in vitro maturation, fertilization, and preimplantation embryo development of dromedary camel oocytes (experiment 1). We also evaluated the concentrations of total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the IVM spent medium in relation to melatonin supplementation. Cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) were cultured in in vitro maturation media (IVM) supplemented with either 0.0, 25.0, 50.0 or 75.0 µM of melatonin for 30 h. Matured oocytes were then fertilized in vitro with epididymal camel spermatozoa. Following IVF, the resulting embryos were cultured in vitro for seven days. The percentage of maturation, fertilization, cleavage, and embryo developmental rates (morula and blastocyst) was recorded (experiment 1). TAC and MDA levels in the IVM spent maturation media were also evaluated at 30 h post-IVM (experiment 2). The results showed that supplementation of IVM media with 25 µM melatonin significantly improved oocyte nuclear maturation, fertilization (18 h post-insemination; pi), cleavage (day 3 pi), morula (day 5 pi) and blastocyst (day 7 pi) rates as compared with the controls and other melatonin-supplemented groups. Furthermore, the TAC in the IVM spent media was significantly increased (P < 0.05) in 25 µM melatonin supplemented groups than those supplemented with 0.0, 50.0, 75.0 µM melatonin. However, the concentration of MDA was significantly lower (P < 0.05) in IVM media supplemented with 25.0 µM of melatonin when compared with the control and other treatment groups. In conclusion, supplementation of IVM medium with 25 µM of melatonin could enhance the in vitro developmental capacity of dromedary camel oocytes.


Assuntos
Camelus , Melatonina , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Fertilização , Fertilização In Vitro/veterinária , Técnicas de Maturação in Vitro de Oócitos/veterinária , Masculino , Melatonina/farmacologia , Oócitos , Gravidez
14.
Food Chem ; 365: 130421, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34216912

RESUMO

Oil-in-water emulsions (20%/80%, w/w) were stabilised by two types of ß-caseins (1 g/L, w/w) extracted by rennet coagulation from camel and cow's milk, respectively. Both extracts were treated under different ranges of pH (3.0, 6.0 and 9.0) and temperature (25, 65 and 95 °C for 15 min) before emulsification. The emulsifying properties of the proteins were studied by surface and interfacial measurements. Results show that the emulsifying activity (EAI) of camel ß-casein is higher than the bovine protein. Yet, both proteins exhibited heat stability and nonsignificant effect of temperature was reported. Conversely, a significant effect of pH on camel ß-casein was recorded: at pH 6.0, the lowest values of EAI were measured and explained by the formation of micellar protein structure. Under such conditions, camel ß-casein is therefore a novel emulsifying protein with high potential to stabilise oil-in-water interfaces which provides numerous applications for the food chemistry field.


Assuntos
Camelus , Caseínas , Animais , Bovinos , Emulsões , Feminino , Temperatura Alta , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Leite
15.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 5522331, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34307655

RESUMO

Objective: A crosssectional study was conducted between September 2015 and August 2016 in the district of Afar Regional State, Northeastern Ethiopia, to characterize the most prevalent bacterial pathogens and identify the associated risk factors of camel subclinical mastitis. California mastitis test (CMT) was used as a screening test, and standard bacteriological methods were carried out for isolation and identification of the pathogens. Results: Among the total 96 lactating camels examined, 25 were found positive with the overall prevalence of 26%, with 25% and 1% subclinical and clinical mastitis cases, respectively. Totally, 384 quarters of udder were examined; of these, 10 of them were blind while the rest 374 were nonblind teats. The quarter level prevalence of subclinical mastitis was 8.9%. The analysis showed that statistically significant difference (P < 0.05) of tick infestation and subclinical mastitis. Additionally, among the bacteriologically tested 34 CMT positive milk samples, all of them showed growth on nutrient and blood agar plate. Out of these culture isolates, the major bacterial pathogens identified were Staphylococcus aureus (8.7%), Staphylococcus hyicus (6.52%), Staphylococcus intermedius (6.52), Coagulase-negative staphylococci (19.57%), Bacillus (19.57%), Escherichia coli (6.52%), and Pasteurella multocida (6.52%) species. Therefore, appropriate control measures and awareness creation to the community should be practiced.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Camelus/microbiologia , Mastite/microbiologia , Mastite/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Mastite/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
16.
J Dairy Res ; 88(3): 278-285, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34289918

RESUMO

This research paper addresses the hypothesis that oxytocin (OT) could be released during suckling and during milking with and without the presence of a calf and that this release could be regulated by maternal behaviour. Plasma concentration patterns of OT and cortisol (CORT) were measured in six Tunisian dromedary camels during 2 suckling episodes, 2 manual milking episodes with calves beside the mother and 2 machine milking episodes without calves present. Various patterns of OT release were observed between each camel including specific two peak release patterns. Higher plasma OT concentrations were found during the suckling and hand-milking episodes with simultaneous suckling of calves, than during the machine milking episodes without calves. Exclusive mechanical milking episodes also evoked significant mean OT release, although greatly reduced compared to suckling and hand milking. The low basal levels and classical CORT release patterns suggested non-stressful management practices were used and there were very limited differences in udder stimulation between managements. The OT release induced by exclusive suckling and suckling together with hand-milking gives a reference point for what a good milk ejection stimulation is in camels. The important and specific reduction of OT release during machine milking without the calf present could be a physiological consequence of the maternal behaviour (selectivity for the own young) and to a lesser extent explained by a lower stimulation by machine milking.


Assuntos
Camelus/fisiologia , Indústria de Laticínios/instrumentação , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Ocitocina/sangue , Comportamento de Sucção/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Lactação/fisiologia , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/fisiologia , Comportamento Materno/fisiologia , Ejeção Láctea/fisiologia
17.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(3): 339, 2021 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34059966

RESUMO

The aim of the present work was to predict live body weight by means of some body measurements, i.e., SH, CG, and BG in indigenous Marecha camel breed. For this purpose, multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) algorithm was used at proportions of various training and test sets, i.e., 65:35, 70:30, and 80:20 in V-tenfold cross-validation. In prediction of live body weight of the Marecha camels (160 female and 145 male animals) in the MARS predictive models, pairs of sex-SH (model 1), sex-CG (model 2), and sex-BG (model 3) as potential predictors. The best MARS model in LW prediction was obtained using sex and SH independent variables for 80:20 training and test set. Sex was determined to be an important source of variation in SH, CG, and BG as a result of sexual dimorphism in camels (P < 0.01). MARS results indicated that SH could be used as an indirect selection criterion to obtain elite camel herds on LW of Marecha camels. If genetically confirmed, the Marecha camels whose SH is taller than 165.1 cm could be selected for providing genetic progress in LW. In conclusion, use of MARS algorithm may be worthy of consideration for better identification of camel breed standards and selection of superior Marecha camels for meat productivity in Pakistan.


Assuntos
Camelus , Carne , Animais , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Masculino , Paquistão
18.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(9): 9450-9464, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34147215

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to assess protein degradation and biological activities of the water-soluble extract (WSE) and the 10 kDa permeable and nonpermeable fractions of in vitro digesta of low-fat Akawi cheese made from blends (100:0, 85:15, or 70:30) of bovine milk and camel milk and ripened for 28 d. Biological activities, such as antioxidant activities, amylase and glucosidase inhibition, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition, and antiproliferative of the WSE, and the 10 kDa permeable and nonpermeable fraction of the digesta were assessed. To identify the nature of the bioaccessible compounds, untargeted metabolomic analysis was carried out by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Higher o-phthaldialdehyde absorbances were observed in cheeses made of bovine-camel milk blends compared with cheese from bovine milk only. The WSE from these blends also exhibited higher angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory effects and higher antiproliferative effects than from bovine milk. The results from this study suggest that the use of blends of camel milk and bovine milk can modulate biological activities of low-fat Akawi cheese.


Assuntos
Queijo , Animais , Antioxidantes , Camelus , Bovinos , Queijo/análise , Digestão , Manipulação de Alimentos , Leite
19.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(7): 1964-1968, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34152977

RESUMO

Free-roaming camels, especially those crossing national borders, pose a high risk for spreading Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). To prevent outbreaks, active surveillance is necessary. We found that a high percentage of dromedaries in Tunisia are MERS-CoV seropositive (80.4%) or actively infected (19.8%), indicating extensive MERS-CoV circulation in Northern Africa.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio , Animais , Camelus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Prevalência , Tunísia/epidemiologia , Zoonoses
20.
Molecules ; 26(9)2021 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34066773

RESUMO

Besides human red blood cells (RBC), a standard model used in AFM-single cell force spectroscopy (SCFS), little is known about apparent Young's modulus (Ea) or adhesion of animal RBCs displaying distinct cellular features. To close this knowledge gap, we probed chicken, horse, camel, and human fetal RBCs and compared data with human adults serving as a repository for future studies. Additionally, we assessed how measurements are affected under physiological conditions (species-specific temperature in autologous plasma vs. 25 °C in aqueous NaCl solution). In all RBC types, Ea decreased with increasing temperature irrespective of the suspension medium. In mammalian RBCs, adhesion increased with elevated temperatures and scaled with reported membrane sialic acid concentrations. In chicken only adhesion decreased with higher temperature, which we attribute to the lower AE-1 concentration allowing more membrane undulations. Ea decreased further in plasma at every test temperature, and adhesion was completely abolished, pointing to functional cell enlargement by adsorption of plasma components. This halo elevated RBC size by several hundreds of nanometers, blunted the thermal input, and will affect the coupling of RBCs with the flowing plasma. The study evidences the presence of a RBC surface layer and discusses the tremendous effects when RBCs are probed at physiological conditions.


Assuntos
Camelus/sangue , Adesão Celular/fisiologia , Galinhas/sangue , Eritrócitos/citologia , Cavalos/sangue , Microscopia de Força Atômica/métodos , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Temperatura , Adulto , Animais , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Humanos
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