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1.
Onderstepoort J Vet Res ; 87(1): e1-e9, 2020 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33354975

RESUMO

The first known severe disease caused by a coronavirus (CoV) in humans emerged with the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic in China, which killed 774 people during its 2002/2003 outbreak. The Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) was the second human fatal disease, which started in 2012 in Saudi Arabia and resulted in 858 fatalities. In December 2019, a new virus, SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19), originating from China, began generating headlines worldwide because of the unprecedented speed of its transmission; 5.2 million people were infected and 338 480 had been reported dead from December 2019 to May 2020. These human coronaviruses are believed to have an animal origin and had reached humans through species jump. Coronaviruses are well known for their high frequency of recombination and high mutation rates, allowing them to adapt to new hosts and ecological niches. This review summarises existing information on what is currently known on the role of wild and domesticated animals and discussions on whether they are the natural reservoir/amplifiers hosts or incidental hosts of CoVs. Results of experimental infection and transmission using different wild, domesticated and pet animals are also reviewed. The need for a One Health approach in implementing measures and practices is highlighted to improve human health and reduce the emergence of pandemics from these zoonotic viruses.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio , Zoonoses , Animais , /transmissão , Camelus/virologia , Quirópteros/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/etiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Vetores de Doenças , Saúde Global , Humanos , Saúde Única , Pandemias
2.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e247, 2020 10 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33050973

RESUMO

Dromedary camels remain the currently identified reservoir for the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). The virus is released in the secretions of the infected camels, especially the nasal tract. The virus shedding curve through the nasal secretions was studied. Although human transmission of the virus through the respiratory tract of close contact people with dromedary reported previously, the exact mechanism of transmission is still largely unknown. The main goal of this study was to check the possibility of MERS-CoV shedding in the exhaled air of the infected camels. To achieve this goal, we conducted a follow-up study in one of the dromedary camel herds, December 2018-April 2019. We tested nasal swabs, breath samples from animals within this herd by the real-time PCR. Our results showed that some of the tested nasal swabs and breath were positive from 24 March 2019 until 7 April 2019. The phylogenetic analysis of the obtained S and N gene sequences revealed the detected viruses are clustering together with some human and camel samples from the eastern region, especially from Al-Hufuf city, as well as some samples from Qatar and Jordon. These results are clearly showing the possibility of shedding of the virus in the breath of the infected camels. This could explain, at least in part, the mechanism of transmission of MERS-CoV from animals to humans. This study is confirming the shedding of MERS-CoV in the exhaled air of the infected camels. Further studies are needed for a better understanding of the MERS-CoV.


Assuntos
Camelus/virologia , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Testes Respiratórios , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/classificação , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/genética , Nariz/virologia , Filogenia , RNA Viral/análise , Eliminação de Partículas Virais
3.
Viruses ; 12(11)2020 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33120981

RESUMO

MERS-CoV is a zoonotic virus that has emerged in humans in 2012 and caused severe respiratory illness with a mortality rate of 34.4%. Since its appearance, MERS-CoV has been reported in 27 countries and most of these cases were in Saudi Arabia. So far, dromedaries are considered to be the intermediate host and the only known source of human infection. This study was designed to determine the seroprevalence and the infection rate of MERS-CoV in slaughtered food-camels in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A total of 171 nasal swabs along with 161 serum samples were collected during the winter; from January to April 2019. Nasal swabs were examined by Rapid test and RT-PCR to detect MERS-CoV RNA, while serum samples were tested primarily using S1-based ELISA Kit to detect MERS-CoV (IgG) antibodies and subsequently by MERS pseudotyped viral particles (MERSpp) neutralization assay for confirmation. Genetic diversity of the positive isolates was determined based on the amplification and sequencing of the spike gene. Our results showed high prevalence (38.6%) of MERS-CoV infection in slaughtered camels and high seropositivity (70.8%) during the time of the study. These data indicate previous and ongoing MERS-CoV infection in camels. Phylogenic analysis revealed relatively low genetic variability among our isolated samples. When these isolates were aligned against published spike sequences of MERS-CoV, deposited in global databases, there was sequence similarity of 94%. High seroprevalence and high genetic stability of MERS-CoV in camels indicating that camels pose a public health threat. The widespread MERS-CoV infections in camels might lead to a risk of future zoonotic transmission into people with direct contact with these infected camels. This study confirms re-infections in camels, highlighting a challenge for vaccine development when it comes to protective immunity.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Camelus/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , RNA Viral/análise , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Matadouros , Animais , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Variação Genética/genética , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/genética , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/isolamento & purificação , Prevalência , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética
4.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 2222-2235, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32967592

RESUMO

Coronaviruses (CoVs) are enveloped, positive sense, single-stranded RNA viruses. The viruses have adapted to infect a large number of animal species, ranging from bats to camels. At present, seven CoVs infect humans, of which Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for causing the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in humans. Since its emergence in late 2019, SARS-CoV-2 has spread rapidly across the globe. Healthcare systems around the globe have been stretched beyond their limits posing new challenges to emergency healthcare services and critical care. The outbreak continues to jeopardize human health, social life and economy. All known human CoVs have zoonotic origins. Recent detection of SARS-CoV-2 in pet, zoo and certain farm animals has highlighted its potential for reverse zoonosis. This scenario is particularly alarming, since these animals could be potential reservoirs for secondary zoonotic infections. In this article, we highlight interspecies SARS-CoV-2 infections and focus on the reverse zoonotic potential of this virus. We also emphasize the importance of potential secondary zoonotic events and the One-Health and One-World approach to tackle such future pandemics.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Zoonoses/virologia , Animais , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Camelus/virologia , Quirópteros/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Saúde Global , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/transmissão
5.
Open Vet J ; 10(2): 164-177, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32821661

RESUMO

Viruses are having great time as they seem to have bogged humans down. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and novel coronavirus (COVID-19) are the three major coronaviruses of present-day global human and animal health concern. COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 is identified as the newest disease, presumably of bat origin. Different theories on the evolution of viruses are in circulation, yet there is no denying the fact that the animal source is the skeleton. The whole world is witnessing the terror of the COVID-19 pandemic that is following the same path of SARS and MERS, and seems to be more severe. In addition to humans, several species of animals are reported to have been infected with these life-threatening viruses. The possible routes of transmission and their zoonotic potentialities are the subjects of intense research. This review article aims to overview the link of all these three deadly coronaviruses among animals along with their phylogenic evolution and cross-species transmission. This is essential since animals as pets or food are said to pose some risk, and their better understanding is a must in order to prepare a possible plan for future havoc in both human and animal health. Although COVID-19 is causing a human health hazard globally, its reporting in animals are limited compared to SARS and MERS. Non-human primates and carnivores are most susceptible to SARS-coronavirus and SARS-CoV-2, respectively, whereas the dromedary camel is susceptible to MERS-coronavirus. Phylogenetically, the trio viruses are reported to have originated from bats and have special capacity to undergo mutation and genomic recombination in order to infect humans through its reservoir or replication host. However, it is difficult to analyze how the genomic pattern of coronaviruses occurs. Thus, increased possibility of new virus-variants infecting humans and animals in the upcoming days seems to be the biggest challenge for the future of the world. One health approach is portrayed as our best way ahead, and understanding the animal dimension will go a long way in formulating such preparedness plans.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/classificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/classificação , Pandemias/veterinária , Pneumonia Viral/veterinária , Vírus da SARS/classificação , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/veterinária , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Betacoronavirus/genética , Camelídeos Americanos/virologia , Camelus/virologia , Gatos , Quirópteros/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/veterinária , Cães , Eutérios/virologia , Furões/virologia , Humanos , Leões/virologia , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/genética , Filogenia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Primatas/virologia , Cães Guaxinins/virologia , Vírus da SARS/genética , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/imunologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/transmissão , Serpentes/virologia , Tigres/virologia , Viverridae/virologia
6.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 14(7): 726-731, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32794461

RESUMO

Pakistan is also seeing the profound effect of the outbreak of COVID-19, which demands an urgent investigation of literature and further scientific investigation for cure and prevention. This study has employed the systematic approach for searching the literature from the recently compiled database of researches namely COVID-19 Open Research Dataset (CORD-19) and related diseases. The literature on Pakistan has shown the evidence of human-to-human and animal-to-human transmission of viruses, the presence of antibodies of MERS-CoV in camels, and careless attitude towards preventive measures of such respiratory diseases. There is a lot of gap in the literature regarding coronaviruses and their antibodies creating herd immunity for another coronavirus and COVID-19. In particular to Pakistan, and in general, for other developing countries, a weak health-care system coupled with the trembling economy has many implications of COVID-19 which should be carefully thought-out to combat the spread.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Animais , Camelus/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Humanos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Pandemias
7.
Viruses ; 12(6)2020 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32503352

RESUMO

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes severe respiratory illness in humans; the second-largest and most deadly outbreak to date occurred in Saudi Arabia. The dromedary camel is considered a possible host of the virus and also to act as a reservoir, transmitting the virus to humans. Here, we studied evolutionary relationships for 31 complete genomes of betacoronaviruses, including eight newly sequenced MERS-CoV genomes isolated from dromedary camels in Saudi Arabia. Through bioinformatics tools, we also used available sequences and 3D structure of MERS-CoV spike glycoprotein to predict MERS-CoV epitopes and assess antibody binding affinity. Phylogenetic analysis showed the eight new sequences have close relationships with existing strains detected in camels and humans in Arabian Gulf countries. The 2019-nCov strain appears to have higher homology to both bat coronavirus and SARS-CoV than to MERS-CoV strains. The spike protein tree exhibited clustering of MERS-CoV sequences similar to the complete genome tree, except for one sequence from Qatar (KF961222). B cell epitope analysis determined that the MERS-CoV spike protein has 24 total discontinuous regions from which just six epitopes were selected with score values of >80%. Our results suggest that the virus circulates by way of camels crossing the borders of Arabian Gulf countries. This study contributes to finding more effective vaccines in order to provide long-term protection against MERS-CoV and identifying neutralizing antibodies.


Assuntos
Camelus/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Betacoronavirus/classificação , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Evolução Biológica , DNA Complementar/química , DNA Viral/química , Epitopos/análise , Epitopos/química , Epitopos/genética , Biblioteca Gênica , Humanos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/classificação , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , RNA Viral/análise , RNA Viral/química , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Arábia Saudita
8.
Virol J ; 17(1): 77, 2020 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32552831

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is an emerging virus that infects humans and camels with no approved antiviral therapy or vaccine. Some vaccines are in development for camels as a one-health intervention where vaccinating camels is proposed to reduce human viral exposure. This intervention will require an understanding of the prior exposure of camels to the virus and appropriate vaccine efficacy studies in camels. METHODS: We conducted a cross sectional seroprevalence study in young dromedary camels to determine the rate of MERS-CoV seropositivity in young camels. Next, we utilised naturally infected camels as a natural challenge model that can be used by co-housing these camels with healthy naive camels in a ratio of 1 to 2. This model is aimed to support studies on natural virus transmission as well as evaluating drug and vaccine efficacy. RESULTS: We found that 90% of the screened camels have pre-existing antibodies for MERS-CoV. In addition, the challenge model resulted in MERS-CoV transmission within 48 h with infections that continued for 14 days post challenge. CONCLUSIONS: Our finding suggests that the majority of young dromedary camels in Saudi Arabia are seropositive and that naturally infected camels can serve as a challenge model to assess transmission, therapeutics, and vaccine efficacy.


Assuntos
Camelus/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Estudos Transversais , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Vacinação/veterinária
9.
Infez Med ; 28(suppl 1): 71-83, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32532942

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Coronaviruses are zoonotic viruses that include human epidemic pathogens such as the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome virus (MERS-CoV), and the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome virus (SARS-CoV), among others (e.g., COVID-19, the recently emerging coronavirus disease). The role of animals as potential reservoirs for such pathogens remains an unanswered question. No systematic reviews have been published on this topic to date. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature review with meta-analysis, using three databases to assess MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV infection in animals and its diagnosis by serological and molecular tests. We performed a random-effects model meta-analysis to calculate the pooled prevalence and 95% confidence interval (95%CI). RESULTS: 6,493articles were retrieved (1960-2019). After screening by abstract/title, 50 articles were selected for full-text assessment. Of them, 42 were finally included for qualitative and quantitative analyses. From a total of 34 studies (n=20,896 animals), the pool prevalence by RT-PCR for MERS-CoV was 7.2% (95%CI 5.6-8.7%), with 97.3% occurring in camels, in which pool prevalence was 10.3% (95%CI 8.3-12.3). Qatar was the country with the highest MERS-CoV RT-PCR pool prevalence: 32.6% (95%CI 4.8-60.4%). From 5 studies and 2,618 animals, for SARS-CoV, the RT-PCR pool prevalence was 2.3% (95%CI 1.3-3.3). Of those, 38.35% were reported on bats, in which the pool prevalence was 14.1% (95%CI0.0-44.6%). DISCUSSION: A considerable proportion of infected animals tested positive, particularly by nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT). This essential condition highlights the relevance of individual animals as reservoirs of MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV. In this meta-analysis, camels and bats were found to be positive by RT-PCR in over 10% of the cases for both; thus, suggesting their relevance in the maintenance of wild zoonotic transmission.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/virologia , Camelus/virologia , Quirópteros/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da SARS/isolamento & purificação , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/veterinária , Animais , Animais Domésticos/virologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Estudos Transversais , Reservatórios de Doenças , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Humanos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/genética , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/imunologia , Prevalência , Doenças dos Primatas/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Primatas/virologia , Primatas/virologia , RNA Viral/sangue , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Roedores/virologia , Roedores/virologia , Vírus da SARS/genética , Vírus da SARS/imunologia , Testes Sorológicos , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/transmissão , Zoonoses
10.
Vet Q ; 40(1): 190-197, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32543343

RESUMO

Background: The natural MERS-CoV infection in dromedary camels is understudied. Recent experimental studies showed no obvious clinical signs in the infected dromedary camels.Aim: To study the pathological changes associated with natural MERS-CoV infection in dromedary camels.Methods: Tissues from three MERS-CoV positive animals as well as two negative animals were collected and examined for the presence of pathological changes. The screening of the animals was carried out first by the rapid agglutination test and then confirmed by the RT-PCR. The selected animals ranged from six to twelve months in age. The sensitivity of the latter technique was much higher in the detection of MERS-CoV than the Rapid test (14 out of 75 animals positive or 18% versus 31 out of 75 positive or 41%).Results: MERS-CoV induced marked desquamation of the respiratory epithelium accompanied by lamina propria and submucosal mononuclear cells infiltration, epithelial hyperplasia in the respiratory tract, and interstitial pneumonia. Ciliary cell loss was seen in the trachea and turbinate. In addition, degeneration of glomerular capillaries with the complete destruction of glomerular tufts that were replaced with fibrinous exudate in renal corpuscles in the renal cortex were noticed. Expression of the MERS-CoV-S1 and MERS-CoV-N proteins was revealed in respiratory tract, and kidneys.Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the first study describing the pathological changes of MERS-CoV infection in dromedary camels under natural conditions. In contrast to experimental infection in case of spontaneous infection interstitial pneumonea is evident at least in some affected animals.


Assuntos
Camelus/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/veterinária , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Nefropatias/patologia , Nefropatias/veterinária , Nefropatias/virologia , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/patologia , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/virologia , Masculino , Arábia Saudita , Proteínas Virais/análise
11.
Viruses ; 12(5)2020 05 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32370153

RESUMO

The Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a lethal zoonotic pathogen circulating in the Arabian Peninsula since 2012. There is no vaccine for MERS and anti-viral treatment is generally not applicable. We investigated the evolution of the MERS-CoV spike gene sequences and changes in viral loads over time from patients in Saudi Arabia from 2105-2017. All the MERS-CoV strains belonged to lineage 5, and showed high sequence homology (99.9%) to 2017 strains. Recombination analysis showed a potential recombination event in study strains from patients in Saudi Arabia. The spike gene showed eight amino acid substitutions, especially between the A1 and B5 lineage, and contained positively selected codon 1020. We also determined that the viral loads were significantly (p < 0.001) higher in fatal cases, and virus shedding was prolonged in some fatal cases beyond 21 days. The viral concentration peaked during the first week of illness, and the lower respiratory specimens had higher levels of MERS-CoV RNA. The presence of the diversifying selection and the topologies with the structural mapping of residues under purifying selection suggested that codon 1020 might have a role in the evolution of spike gene during the divergence of different lineages. This study will im-prove our understanding of the evolution of MERS-CoV, and also highlights the need for enhanced surveillance in humans and dromedaries. The presence of amino acid changes at the N-terminal domain and structural mapping of residues under positive selection at heptad repeat 1 provides better insight into the adaptive evolution of the spike gene and might have a potential role in virus-host tropism and pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Substituição de Aminoácidos/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Camelus/virologia , Dipeptidil Peptidase 4/metabolismo , Evolução Molecular , Feminino , Genoma Viral/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Domínios Proteicos/genética , RNA Viral/genética , Receptores Virais/genética , Recombinação Genética/genética , Arábia Saudita , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Homologia de Sequência , Carga Viral , Tropismo Viral/genética
12.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232790, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32453746

RESUMO

The Middle East Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is an endemic virus in dromedaries. Annually, Saudi Arabia imports thousands of camels from the Horn of Africa, yet the epidemiology of MERS-CoV in these animals is largely unknown. Here, MERS-CoV prevalence was compared in imported African camels and their local counterparts. A total of 1399 paired sera and nasal swabs were collected from camels between 2016 and 2018. Imported animals from Sudan (n = 829) and Djibouti (n = 328) were sampled on incoming ships at Jeddah Islamic seaport before unloading, and local camels were sampled from Jeddah (n = 242). Samples were screened for neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) and MERS-CoV viral RNA. The overall seroprevalence was 92.7% and RNA detection rate was 17.2%. Imported camels had higher seroprevalence compared to resident herds (93.8% vs 87.6%, p <0.01) in contrast to RNA detection (13.3% vs 35.5%, p <0.0001). Seroprevalence significantly increased with age (p<0.0001) and viral RNA detection rate was ~2-folds higher in camels <2-year-old compared to older animals. RNA detection was higher in males verses females (24.3% vs 12.6%, p<0.0001) but seroprevalence was similar. Concurrent positivity for viral RNA and nAbs was found in >87% of the RNA positive animals, increased with age and was sex-dependent. Importantly, reduced viral RNA load was positively correlated with nAb titers. Our data confirm the widespread of MERS-CoV in imported and domestic camels in Saudi Arabia and highlight the need for continuous active surveillance and better prevention measures. Further studies are also warranted to understand camels correlates of protection for proper vaccine development.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Camelus/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/isolamento & purificação , RNA Viral/sangue , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Djibuti/epidemiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/genética , Prevalência , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Sudão/epidemiologia
13.
J Infect Public Health ; 13(6): 834-838, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32451260

RESUMO

Nearly four months have passed since the emergence of the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), which caused the rapidly spreading Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. To date, there have been more than 2.3 million confirmed cases and more than 160,000 deaths globally caused by COVID-19. Chinese health authorities, where the virus emerged, have taken prompt strict public health measures to control and prevent the spread of the outbreak. In Saudi Arabia, unprecedented precautionary strict measures were applied to prevent virus entry to the country or to mitigate its impact when it arrives. Here, we review the response of Saudi Arabia to COVID-19 pandemic and how did the experience learned from the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) epidemic since 2012 has helped the country to be better prepared for the current COVID-19 pandemic. We also discuss the country readiness, improvement in research and development, and the unprecedented rapid precautionary measures that have been taken by the Saudi government thus far.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Animais , Betacoronavirus , Camelus/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Viagem , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/virologia
14.
Viruses ; 12(5)2020 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32422937

RESUMO

This study compared the phylogeography of MERS-CoV between hospital outbreak-associated cases and sporadic cases in Saudi Arabia. We collected complete genome sequences from human samples in Saudi Arabia and data on the multiple risk factors of human MERS-CoV in Saudi Arabia reported from 2012 to 2018. By matching each sequence to human cases, we identified isolates as hospital outbreak-associated cases or sporadic cases. We used Bayesian phylogenetic methods including temporal, discrete trait analysis and phylogeography to uncover transmission routes of MERS-CoV isolates between hospital outbreaks and sporadic cases. Of the 120 sequences collected between 19 June 2012 and 23 January 2017, there were 64 isolates from hospital outbreak-associated cases and 56 from sporadic cases. Overall, MERS-CoV is fast evolving at 7.43 × 10-4 substitutions per site per year. Isolates from hospital outbreaks showed unusually fast evolutionary speed in a shorter time-frame than sporadic cases. Multiple introductions of different MERS-CoV strains occurred in three separate hospital outbreaks. MERS-CoV appears to be mutating in humans. The impact of mutations on viruses transmissibility in humans is unknown.


Assuntos
Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/genética , Animais , Camelus/virologia , Quirópteros/virologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/transmissão , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/virologia , Infecção Hospitalar/transmissão , Infecção Hospitalar/virologia , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Genoma Viral/genética , Humanos , Mutação/genética , Taxa de Mutação , Filogeografia , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia
16.
Acta Trop ; 207: 105462, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32325049

RESUMO

Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne zoonosis that severely impacts livelihoods, national and international economies, and human health. Few studies have investigated the prevalence of this infection in Tunisian livestock. The present report aimed to update the epidemiological status and identify the risk factors associated with this RVF virus infection in the one-humped dromedary camel from arid areas. A total of 470 sera of apparently healthy camels (Camelus dromedarius) were collected from six governorates from southern and central Tunisia. Samples were tested by a competitive Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). An overall, 162 camels (34%, 95%CI: 0.1-0.4) were seropositive to RVF virus antigen. Logistic regression model revealed three potential risk factors associated with the infection. A meaningful high seropositivity was observed among aged camels (>10 years-old) (40%) (P=0.001; OR=3.367). Besides, camels raised in small flocks particularly intended for meat production showed a high level of seropositivity (37%) (P=0.013; OR=13.173). Animals having close contact with other ruminants showed high seroprevalence (37%) (P=0.022; OR=10.919). This report indicated that Tunisian one-humped dromedaries were exposed to this virus and may contribute to its dissemination among farmers and other livestock. Furthers studies are urgently required to isolate and characterize this virus, evaluate the potential risk of human infection particularly in farmers, veterinarians and slaughterhouse workers and finally to program a serious strategy for RVF control.


Assuntos
Camelus/virologia , Vírus da Febre do Vale do Rift/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Fazendeiros , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Vírus da Febre do Vale do Rift/imunologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
17.
Semin Respir Crit Care Med ; 41(4): 568-578, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32305045

RESUMO

Emerging infectious diseases continue to be of a significant importance worldwide with the potential to cause major outbreaks and global pandemics. In 2002, the world had witnessed the appearance of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus in China which disappeared abruptly within 6 months. About a decade later, a new and emerging novel coronavirus named the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was described in a patient from Saudi Arabia. These two coronaviruses shared multiple similarities in the epidemiology, clinical presentations, and posed challenges in its prevention and management. Seven years since its discovery, MERS-CoV continues to be a lethal zoonotic pathogen capable of causing severe pneumonia with high case fatality rates and the ability to cause large health care-associated outbreaks.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio , Vírus da SARS , Distribuição por Idade , Animais , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Camelus/virologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia , Mortalidade , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/mortalidade , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/fisiopatologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/terapia , Distribuição por Sexo
18.
Mol Biol Evol ; 37(9): 2699-2705, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32289821

RESUMO

Wild mammalian species, including bats, constitute the natural reservoir of betacoronavirus (including SARS, MERS, and the deadly SARS-CoV-2). Different hosts or host tissues provide different cellular environments, especially different antiviral and RNA modification activities that can alter RNA modification signatures observed in the viral RNA genome. The zinc finger antiviral protein (ZAP) binds specifically to CpG dinucleotides and recruits other proteins to degrade a variety of viral RNA genomes. Many mammalian RNA viruses have evolved CpG deficiency. Increasing CpG dinucleotides in these low-CpG viral genomes in the presence of ZAP consistently leads to decreased viral replication and virulence. Because ZAP exhibits tissue-specific expression, viruses infecting different tissues are expected to have different CpG signatures, suggesting a means to identify viral tissue-switching events. The author shows that SARS-CoV-2 has the most extreme CpG deficiency in all known betacoronavirus genomes. This suggests that SARS-CoV-2 may have evolved in a new host (or new host tissue) with high ZAP expression. A survey of CpG deficiency in viral genomes identified a virulent canine coronavirus (alphacoronavirus) as possessing the most extreme CpG deficiency, comparable with that observed in SARS-CoV-2. This suggests that the canine tissue infected by the canine coronavirus may provide a cellular environment strongly selecting against CpG. Thus, viral surveys focused on decreasing CpG in viral RNA genomes may provide important clues about the selective environments and viral defenses in the original hosts.


Assuntos
Alphacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Genoma Viral , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Vírus Reordenados/genética , Alphacoronavirus/classificação , Alphacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Animais , Betacoronavirus/classificação , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Evolução Biológica , Camelus/virologia , Quirópteros/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Ilhas de CpG , Cães , Ouriços-Cacheiros/virologia , Humanos , Evasão da Resposta Imune/genética , Camundongos , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Ligação Proteica , RNA Viral/genética , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/imunologia , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Coelhos , Ratos , Vírus Reordenados/classificação , Vírus Reordenados/patogenicidade , Replicação Viral
19.
J Infect Public Health ; 13(5): 679-686, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32307315

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), is an emerging infectious disease of growing global importance. This review describes the latest MERS-CoV clusters and the first cases of nosocomial transmission within health care facilities in Oman. We have highlighted lessons learned and proposed steps to prevent healthcare-associated infections. METHODS: A descriptive analysis of MERS-CoV cases was conducted between January 23 and February 16, 2019. The data from officials and other published sources used. RESULTS: Thirteen laboratory-confirmed cases of MERS-CoV were reported from three simultaneous clusters from two governorates without an epidemiological link between the clusters. Two clusters were reported from North Al Batinah Governorate, with nine cases (69%) and 1 cluster from South Ash Sharqiyah Governorate with four cases (31%). In total, four deaths were reported (case fatality rate 31%). Four cases (31%) reported were household contacts from the first cluster, 3 (23%) were nosocomial transmission in health care facilities (two for first and one from the second cluster) and 7 (54%) were community-acquired cases. CONCLUSIONS: The first local clusters of MERS-CoV reported with evidence suggestive of healthcare and household-associated transmission. Early diagnosis and strict implementation of infection control measures remain fundamental in preventing and managing MERS-CoV infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecção Hospitalar/transmissão , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio , Adulto , Animais , Camelus/virologia , Análise por Conglomerados , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças , Características da Família , Feminino , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Omã/epidemiologia
20.
Viruses ; 12(4)2020 04 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32260186

RESUMO

Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is a respiratory disease caused by a zoonotic coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Camel handlers, including slaughterhouse workers and herders, are at risk of acquiring MERS-CoV infections. However, there is limited evidence of infections among camel handlers in Africa. The purpose of this study was to determine the presence of antibodies to MERS-CoV in high-risk groups in Kenya. Sera collected from 93 camel handlers, 58 slaughterhouse workers and 35 camel herders, were screened for MERS-CoV antibodies using ELISA and PRNT. We found four seropositive slaughterhouse workers by PRNT. Risk factors amongst the slaughterhouse workers included being the slaughterman (the person who cuts the throat of the camel) and drinking camel blood. Further research is required to understand the epidemiology of MERS-CoV in Africa in relation to occupational risk, with a need for additional studies on the transmission of MERS-CoV from dromedary camels to humans, seroprevalence and associated risk factors.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/imunologia , Matadouros , Adulto , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Camelus/virologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Exposição Ocupacional , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Zoonoses/virologia
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