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1.
Transl Vis Sci Technol ; 11(5): 5, 2022 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35522306

RESUMO

Purpose: Data postprocessing with statistical techniques that are less sensitive to noise can be used to reduce variability in visual field (VF) series. We evaluated the detection of glaucoma progression with postprocessed VF data generated with the dynamic structure-function (DSF) model and MM-estimation robust regression (MRR). Method: The study included 118 glaucoma eyes with at least 15 visits selected from the Rotterdam dataset. The DSF and MRR models were each applied to observed mean deviation (MD) values from the first three visits (V1-3) to predict the MD at V4. MD at V5 was predicted with data from V1-4 and so on until the MD at V9 was predicted, creating two additional datasets: DSF-predicted and MRR-predicted. Simple linear regression was performed to assess progression at the ninth visit. Sensitivity was evaluated by adjusting for false-positive rates estimated from patients with stable glaucoma and by using longer follow-up series (12th and 15th visits) as a surrogate for progression. Results: For specificities of 80% to 100%, the DSF-predicted dataset had greater sensitivity than the observed and MRR-predicted dataset when positive rates were normalized with corresponding false-positive estimates. The DSF-predicted and observed datasets had similar sensitivity when the surrogate reference standard was applied. Conclusions: Without compromising specificity, the use of DSF-predicted measurements to identify progression resulted in a better or similar sensitivity compared to using existing VF data. Translational Relevance: The DSF model could be applied to postprocess existing visual field data, which could then be evaluated to identify patients at risk of progression.


Assuntos
Glaucoma , Campos Visuais , Progressão da Doença , Glaucoma/diagnóstico , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Testes de Campo Visual
2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 6726, 2022 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35468981

RESUMO

Crowding refers to the inability to recognize objects in clutter, setting a fundamental limit on various perceptual tasks such as reading and facial recognition. While prevailing models suggest that crowding is a unitary phenomenon occurring at an early level of processing, recent studies have shown that crowding might also occur at higher levels of representation. Here we investigated whether local and global crowding interference co-occurs within the same display. To do so, we tested the distinctive contribution of local flanker features and global configurations of the flankers on the pattern of crowding errors. Observers (n = 27) estimated the orientation of a target when presented alone or surrounded by flankers. Flankers were grouped into a global configuration, forming an illusory rectangle when aligned or a rectangular configuration when misaligned. We analyzed the error distributions by fitting probabilistic mixture models. Results showed that participants often misreported the orientation of a flanker instead of that of the target. Interestingly, in some trials the orientation of the global configuration was misreported. These results suggest that crowding occurs simultaneously across multiple levels of visual processing and crucially depends on the spatial configuration of the stimulus. Our results pose a challenge to models of crowding with an early single pooling stage and might be better explained by models which incorporate the possibility of multilevel crowding and account for complex target-flanker interactions.


Assuntos
Reconhecimento Facial , Ilusões , Aglomeração , Humanos , Campos Visuais , Percepção Visual
3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 6558, 2022 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35449232

RESUMO

To evaluate the vision-related quality of life (QoL) in patients with homonymous hemianopia (HH). The study compared the QoL in 32 patients with HH and 33 patients with monocular blindness. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and visual field test were investigated. The National Eye Institute-Visual Function Questionnaire 25 (NEI VFQ-25) and independent mobility questionnaires (IMQs) were used to assess their perceived visual and physical functioning abilities. The results of QoL questionnaires were compared in two groups. The mean deviation (MD) in the better eye was significantly lower in the HH group than in the monocular blindness group. The composite scores of NEI-VFQ and IMQs were significantly lower in the HH patients than in the monocular blindness patients. The driving-related score was significantly lower in patients with right hemianopsia than in those with left hemianopsia. The outdoor activity-related score was significantly lower in patients aged less than 55 years than in patients aged 55 years and more. Homonymous hemianopia had a negative impact on patients' QoL by limiting their vision related activities compared to monocular blindness. The MD of the better eye in the HH patients reflects the binocular visual field and can affect the real visual function and QoL.


Assuntos
Hemianopsia , Qualidade de Vida , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Visão Ocular , Campos Visuais
4.
J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform ; 48(5): 481-496, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35389711

RESUMO

Words presented to the right visual field (RVF) are processed more rapidly than those in the left visual field (LVF), presumably because of more direct links to the language dominant left cerebral hemisphere. This effect is moderated by a word's orthographic neighborhood size (N), with LVF facilitation and RVF inhibition for words with a large N. Across two experiments, we sought to further examine lateralized N effects. Experiment 1 examined how hemispheric dominance for language influenced lateralized N effects, in 140 left-handers using a visual half-field task with bilateral presentation. Neither participants with a right ear advantage on a dichotic listening task nor participants with no right ear advantage showed the expected N effect, making the results ambiguous: it could be that left-handers fail to show N effects, or the effect could be abolished by some procedural aspect. Experiment 2 looked to test these options by testing 56 right-handers who responded to the same stimulus set under the original bilateral presentation condition and under unilateral presentation. N effects were found under unilateral but not bilateral presentation. We had adopted bilateral presentation because it had been recommended as better than unilateral presentation for controlling fixation and visual stimulation; our results indicate that this is not a minor methodological modification: it can dramatically affect lateralized N effects. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Lateralidade Funcional , Campos Visuais , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Humanos , Idioma , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia
5.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 63(4): 13, 2022 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35446343

RESUMO

Purpose: To identify structural abnormalities in the papillary and peripapillary area in eyes with pathologic myopia (PM) and normal IOP and to determine their relationship to visual field (VF) defects. Methods: One hundred eight eyes of 70 patients with PM were retrospectively studied. The disc-centered swept source optical coherence tomographic images and the Goldmann VF recorded within 1 year of the optical coherence tomographic examination were analyzed. Four structural abnormalities were identified: lamina cribrosa (LC) defects, ridge protrusions, intrachoroidal cavitations (ICC), and prelaminar schisis. The correspondence of the VF defects with the structural abnormalities was assessed. Results: The mean age, axial length, and optic disc area of the 108 eyes were 58.7 ± 10.0 years, 31.1 ± 2.4 mm, and 4.7 ± 2.2 mm2, respectively. Eighty-five of the 108 eyes (78.7%) had at least one abnormality and 49.4% (42/85) had two or more abnormalities. LC defects, ridge protrusions, ICC, and prelaminar schisis were detected in 47.2%, 33.3%, 21.3%, and 30.6% of the eyes, respectively. VF defects at the corresponding areas of these structural abnormalities were seen in 63% of the eyes with LC defects, 39% of the eyes with ridge protrusions, and 21% of the eyes with ICC. Conclusions: Four kinds of structural abnormalities with corresponding VF defects are commonly observed in the papillary and peripapillary region of eyes with PM. The presence of these abnormalities suggests a possibility of functional damage.


Assuntos
Miopia , Disco Óptico , Idoso , Humanos , Pressão Intraocular , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miopia/complicações , Miopia/patologia , Disco Óptico/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos , Transtornos da Visão/diagnóstico , Testes de Campo Visual , Campos Visuais
6.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 63(4): 15, 2022 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35446345

RESUMO

Purpose: Positional judgments in amblyopia are impaired more at the center of the visual field than in the periphery. However, the effects of visual field position frequently are confounded with stimulus separation. The purpose of this experiment was to parse the effects of stimulus separation and eccentricity on the positional deficit in amblyopia. Methods: Subjects adjusted the positions of stimuli of varying separations on isoeccentric arcs. The task was simultaneous bisection and alignment of broadband, high-contrast, uncrowded targets with reference to central fixation. Ten strabismic amblyopes and five normally sighted controls performed the task dichoptically; a subset of amblyopes performed the task monocularly with the amblyopic eye. Spread (inverse of precision) and bias were measured at multiple visual field locations comprising two to three separation \(\times\) four eccentricity conditions in each visual field quadrant. Results: In normal controls, both spread and bias increased with eccentricity, and spread (but not bias) increased linearly with separation until 7° eccentricity. Strabismic amblyopes showed a different profile: spread and bias were higher at small separations at all eccentricities, such that performance showed a quadratic trend against separation. Thus, at each eccentricity, the difference in performance between groups was largest at the smallest separation. Conclusions: These results are consistent with disruptions in Weber mechanisms of positional encoding in strabismic amblyopia, and indicate that binocular stimulation by proximal targets produces a loss of spatial precision well beyond the fovea.


Assuntos
Ambliopia , Estrabismo , Fóvea Central , Humanos , Visão Ocular , Campos Visuais
7.
J Clin Neurosci ; 100: 113-119, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35447509

RESUMO

Pituitary adenomas are known to cause optic chiasmal compression leading to visual field (VF) defects. Herein, we analysed the factors influencing early VF recovery following transsphenoidal surgery and explored the significance of retinal vessel density parameters in predicting prognoses. We collected data of 50 patients with pituitary adenoma and an abnormal VF prior to surgery. Patients were categorised into VF recovery (n = 25) and non-recovery (n = 25) groups within 1 week postoperatively. The VF, optic chiasm form, tumour volume, retinal thickness, and vessel density parameters were measured. The χ2 test was used for single-factor analyses, and odds ratios (ORs) for each factor were calculated. Logistic regression was implemented to determine interactions between radial peripapillary capillary (RPC) density and other factors. Tumour volume (≥5 cm3, OR = 5.09), duration of visual symptoms (≥6 months, OR = 6.00), preoperative VF (mean deviation [MD] < -10 dB, OR = 6.77), thin retinal nerve fibre layer (OR = 9.04), ganglion cell layer complex thickness (OR = 7.67), and RPC density (whole ≤ 48%; OR = 15.58; temporal ≤ 49.3%; OR = 14.64) were found to be risk factors for postoperative VF recovery. After adjusting for these factors, RPC density was a dependent factor affecting VF recovery in patients with pituitary adenoma. RPC density seemed to be a stronger indicator than preoperative MD, tumour volume, duration of visual symptoms, or retinal thickness for predicting early VF recovery following optic chiasm decompression, thus helping surgeons determine the optimal timing of surgery and formulate effective treatment plans.


Assuntos
Adenoma , Neoplasias Hipofisárias , Adenoma/complicações , Adenoma/cirurgia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/complicações , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/cirurgia , Prognóstico , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Transtornos da Visão/etiologia , Campos Visuais
8.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 63(4): 19, 2022 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35472216

RESUMO

Purpose: The present study aimed to investigate the spatiotemporal dynamics of covert attention by simulating different degrees of central visual field defects in healthy subjects. Methods: An electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded while 40 normal-sighted subjects performed a target discrimination task. Target stimuli simulated different defect degrees of the central visual field by artificially central scotomas (5, 10, 20, and 30 degrees of visual angle) masked on the center of black-and-white checkerboards. Event-related potentials (ERPs) and standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) based on ERPs were analyzed. Results: ERP results indicated that during early perceptual processes, compared with 5-degree and 10-degree defects, N1 amplitudes of 20-degree and 30-degree defects decreased, whereas P2 amplitudes significantly reduced in 30-degree defects. During later discrimination and decision processing, N2 amplitudes gradually increased from 5-degree to 30-degree defects, whereas P3 amplitudes gradually decreased. Source localization indicated that 5-degree and 10-degree defects had stronger activations than 20-degree and 30-degree defects from the occipital cortex to the ventral stream and dorsal streams. Especially, 30-degree defects primarily recruited additional activations in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and ventral stream and later caused the disconnection of dorsolateral prefrontal-posterior parietal cortices in the dorsal stream. Conclusions: Different degrees of central visual field defects differed in distinct spatiotemporal characteristics at multiple stages of covert attention, from top-down forward feedback and attentional allocation to executive controls through ventral and dorsal processing streams, suggesting that the combination of ERP and source localization can reveal the spatiotemporal control capacity of the cortex on central visual field defects.


Assuntos
Escotoma , Campos Visuais , Atenção , Mapeamento Encefálico , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Fenômenos Eletromagnéticos , Potenciais Evocados , Humanos , Estimulação Luminosa , Tempo de Reação
9.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0262886, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35363793

RESUMO

Visual deficits are common after stroke and are powerful predictors for the chronic functional outcome. However, while basic visual field and recognition deficits are relatively easy to assess with standardized methods, selective deficits in visual primitives, such as shape or motion, are harder to identify, as they often require a symmetrical bilateral posterior lesion in order to provoke full field deficits. Therefore, we do not know how often they occur. Nevertheless, they can have severe repercussions for daily-life functioning. We aimed to investigate the prevalence and co-occurrence of hemifield "mid-range" visual deficits (i.e. color, shape, location, orientation, correlated motion, contrast, texture and glossiness), using a novel experimental set-up with a gaze-contingent presentation of the stimuli. To this end, a prospective cohort of 220 ischemic (sub)cortical stroke patients and a healthy control group was assessed with this set-up. When comparing performance of patients with controls, the results showed that deficits in motion-perception were most prevalent (26%), followed by color (22%), texture (22%), location (21%), orientation (18%), contrast (14%), shape (14%) and glossiness (13%). 63% of the stroke patients showed one or more mid-range visual deficits. Overlap of deficits was small; they mostly occurred in isolation or co-occurred with only one or two other deficits. To conclude, it was found that deficits in "mid-range" visual functions were very prevalent. These deficits are likely to affect the chronic post-stroke condition. Since we found no strong patterns of co-occurrences, we suggest that an assessment of deficits at this level of visual processing requires screening the full range of visual functions.


Assuntos
Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Percepção Visual , Humanos , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Campos Visuais
10.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 22(1): 166, 2022 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35418088

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To examine the potential utility of five multifocal pupillographic objective perimetry (mfPOP) protocols, in the assessment of early diabetic retinopathy (DR) and generalised diabetes-related tissue injury in subjects with type 1 diabetes (T1D). METHODS: Twenty-five T1D subjects (age 41.8 ± 12.1 (SD) years, 13 male) with either no DR (n = 13) or non-proliferative DR (n = 12), and 23 age and gender-matched control subjects (age 39.7 ± 12.9 years, 9 male) were examined by mfPOP using five different stimulus methods differing in visual field eccentricity (central 30° and 60°), and colour (blue, yellow or green test-stimuli presented on, respectively, a blue, yellow or red background), each assessing 44 test-locations per eye. In the T1D subjects, we assessed 16 metabolic status and diabetes complications variables. These were summarised as three principal component analysis (PCA) factors. DR severity was assessed using Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) scores. Area under the curve (AUC) from receiver operator characteristic analyses quantified the diagnostic power of mfPOP response sensitivity and delay deviations for differentiating: (i) T1D subjects from control subjects, (ii) T1D subjects according to three levels of the identified PCA-factors from control subjects, and (iii) TID subjects with from those without non-proliferative DR. RESULTS: The two largest PCA-factors describing the T1D subjects were associated with metabolic variables (e.g. body mass index, HbA1c), and tissue-injury variables (e.g. serum creatinine, vibration perception). Linear models showed that mfPOP per-region response delays were more strongly associated than sensitivities with the metabolic PCA-factor and ETDRS scores. Combined mfPOP amplitude and delay measures produced AUCs of 90.4 ± 8.9% (mean ± SE) for discriminating T1D subjects with DR from control subjects, and T1D subjects with DR from those without of 85.9 ± 8.8%. The yellow and green stimuli performed better than blue on most measures. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: In T1D subjects, mfPOP testing was able to identify localised visual field functional abnormalities (retinal/neural reflex) in the absence or presence of mild DR. mfPOP responses were also associated with T1D metabolic status, but less so with early stages of non-ophthalmic diabetes complications.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Retinopatia Diabética , Adulto , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Retinopatia Diabética/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pupila/fisiologia , Testes de Campo Visual/métodos , Campos Visuais
11.
Transl Vis Sci Technol ; 11(4): 14, 2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35426905

RESUMO

Purpose: To introduce a new method (ARBON) for decreasing the test time of psychophysical procedures and examine its application to perimetry. Methods: ARBON runs in parallel with an existing psychophysical procedure injecting occasional responses of seen or unseen into that procedure. Using computer simulation to mimic human responses during perimetry, we assess the performance of ARBON relative to an underlying test procedure and a version of that procedure truncated to be faster. Simulations used 610 normal eyes (age 20 to 80 years) and 163 glaucoma eyes (median mean deviation = -1.81 dB, 5th percentile = +2.14 dB, 95th percentile = -22.55 dB). Outcome measures were number of presentations and mean absolute error in threshold estimation. We also examined the probability distribution of measured thresholds. Results: ARBON and the Truncated procedure reduced presentations by 16% and 18%, respectively. Mean error was increased by 8% to 10% for the Truncated procedure but decreased by 5% to 7% for ARBON. The probability distributions of measured thresholds using ARBON overlapped with the Underlying procedure by over 80%, whereas the Truncated procedure overlapped by 50%. Conclusions: ARBON offers a principled method for reducing test time. ARBON can be added to any existing psychophysical procedure without requiring any change to the logic or parameters controlling the procedure, resulting in distributions of measured thresholds similar to those of the underlying procedure. Translational Relevance: ARBON can be added to a perimetry test procedure to speed up the test while largely preserving the distribution of returned sensitivities, thus producing normative data similar to the data for the original, underlying perimetric test.


Assuntos
Testes de Campo Visual , Campos Visuais , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Algoritmos , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Testes de Campo Visual/métodos , Adulto Jovem
12.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 7001, 2022 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35488026

RESUMO

Swedish Interactive Threshold Algorithm (SITA) Faster is the most recent and fastest testing algorithm for the evaluation of Humphrey visual fields (VF). However, existing evidence suggests that there are some differences in global measures of VF loss in eyes transitioning from SITA Standard to the newer SITA Faster. These differences may be relevant, especially in glaucoma, where VF changes over time influence clinical decisions around treatment. Furthermore, characterization of differences in localizable VF loss patterns between algorithms, rather than global summary measures, can be important for clinician interpretation when transitioning testing strategies. In this study, we determined the effect of transitioning from SITA Standard to SITA Faster on VF loss patterns in glaucomatous eyes undergoing longitudinal VF testing in a real-world clinical setting. Archetypal analysis was used to derive composition weights of 16 clinically relevant VF patterns (i.e., archetypes (AT)) from patient VFs. We found switching from SITA Standard to SITA Faster was associated with less preservation of VF loss (i.e., abnormal AT 2-4, 6-9, 11, 13, 14) relative to successive SITA Standard exams (P value < 0.01) and was associated with relatively greater preservation of AT 1, the normal VF (P value < 0.01). Eyes that transition from SITA Standard to SITA Faster in a real-world clinical setting have an increased likelihood of preserving patterns reflecting a normal VF and lower tendency to preserve patterns reflecting abnormal VF as compared to consecutive SITA Standard exams in the same eye.


Assuntos
Glaucoma , Campos Visuais , Algoritmos , Glaucoma/diagnóstico , Humanos , Suécia , Transtornos da Visão/diagnóstico , Testes de Campo Visual
13.
Neuropsychologia ; 170: 108234, 2022 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35421439

RESUMO

The rapid detection of changes in facial expressions is an important social and survival skill. The detection of multiple facial emotions includes not only the information of emotional valence but also differences in emotional valence, that is, emotional valence consistency and inconsistency. Thus, we explored whether changes in multiple facial expressions could be automatically detected, as indexed by the visual mismatch negativity (vMMN) response. Participants were presented with a set of facial stimuli while performing a visual facial identity detection task; the stimulus was presented in the center of the visual field. The facial stimuli set consisted of five different facial identities and were presented in an oddball sequence, with four peripherally expressing the same positive or negative emotion and one in the center expressing congruent or incongruent emotions. We found vMMN responses to changes in positive congruent deviant emotions between 210 and 320 ms and in all deviant emotions between 480 and 560 ms over bilateral temporal-occipital sites. In addition, at 480-520 ms, the positive congruent stimulus versus the incongruent stimulus and the negative incongruent stimulus versus the congruent stimulus induced more negative vMMN amplitude in the left temporal-occipital electrodes. This shows that individuals can automatically identify the changes in multiple faces' emotional differences (emotional valence inconsistency), and that the emotional valence of the target face affects the automatic processing of multi-face emotional valence differences information. Furthermore, these results can be utilized in future research investigating automatic processing mechanisms.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia , Expressão Facial , Emoções/fisiologia , Humanos , Estimulação Luminosa , Campos Visuais
14.
Dev Psychobiol ; 64(4): e22274, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35452547

RESUMO

Most fundamental aspects of information processing in infancy have been primarily investigated using simplified images centrally presented on computer displays. This approach lacks ecological validity as in reality the majority of visual information is presented across the visual field, over a range of eccentricities. Limited studies are present, however, about the extent and the characteristics of infant peripheral vision after 7 months of age. The present work investigates the limits of infant (9-month-olds) and adult visual fields using a detection task. Gabor patches were presented at one of six eccentricities per hemifield, from 35° up to 60° in the left and right mid-peripheral visual fields. Detection rates at different eccentricities were measured from video recordings (infant sample) or key press responses (adult sample). Infant performance declined below chance level beyond 50°, whereas adults performed at ceiling level across all eccentricities. The performance of 9-month-olds was unequal even within 50°, suggesting regions of differential sensitivity to low-level visual information in the infant's periphery. These findings are key to understanding the limits of visual fields in the infant and, in turn, will inform the design of future infant studies.


Assuntos
Campos Visuais , Percepção Visual , Adulto , Cognição , Humanos , Lactente , Percepção Visual/fisiologia
15.
Optom Vis Sci ; 99(4): 372-382, 2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35383736

RESUMO

SIGNIFICANCE: Both the Melbourne Rapid Fields (MRF) tablet and home versions are easy-to-use, portable, and low-cost and accurate methods of evaluating visual fields. PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the clinical capabilities of the MRF perimetry test by comparing it with the Humphrey Field Analyzer (HFA), determine MRF consistency, assess the influence of refractive error, ascertain ambient illumination effects, and evaluate the consistency between the tablet and Internet Web site versions of the MRF. METHODS: Forty healthy young participants with normal visual function (33 female, 7 male; average age, 24 years) underwent two MRF office-based tablet, two HFA tests, and two MRF Web site-based tests, one in our laboratory and one at home on their own computer using the 24-2 test pattern each time. An additional six healthy participants with normal visual function performed the 24-2 test with varying amounts of blur. RESULTS: The average individual sensitivity values of MRF and HFA were within 4.02 dB (right eye) and 4.15 dB (left eye). The dynamic range of the MRF was smaller (30 dB) than that of the HFA. When sensitivity values greater than 30 dB were excluded, the sensitivity differences were within 2.2 dB (right eye) and 2.46 dB (left eye) of each other. Only a small number of cases produced reliability values (false positives, false negatives, fixation losses) that were outside of normal limits. There was a high correlation between test results obtained with the tablet version of the MRF test when compared with the Internet-based Web site version. CONCLUSIONS: Quantitative visual field testing and perimetric screening procedures can be performed effectively and can provide results that are comparable with bowl perimeter test results.


Assuntos
Erros de Refração , Testes de Campo Visual , Adulto , Olho , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Campos Visuais , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Vis ; 22(5): 1, 2022 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35385053

RESUMO

The Open Perimetry Initiative was formed in 2010 with the aim of reducing barriers to clinical research with visual fields and perimetry. Our two principal tools are the Open Perimetry Interface (OPI) and the visualFields package with analytical tools. Both are fully open source. The OPI package contains a growing number of drivers for commercially available perimeters, head-mounted devices, and virtual reality headsets. The visualFields package contains tools for the analysis and visualization of visual field data, including methods to compute deviation values and probability maps. We introduce a new frontend, the opiApp, that provides tools for customization for visual field testing and can be used as a frontend to run the OPI. The app can be used on the Octopus 900 (Haag-Streit), the Compass (iCare), the AP 7000 (Kowa), and the IMO (CREWT) perimeters, with permission from the device manufacturers. The app can also be used on Android phones with virtual reality headsets via a new driver interface, the PhoneHMD, implemented on the OPI. The use of the tools provided by the OPI library is showcased with a custom static automated perimetry test for the full visual field (up to 50 degrees nasally and 80 degrees temporally) developed with the OPI driver for the Octopus 900 and using visualFields for statistical analysis. With more than 60 citations in clinical and translational science journals, this initiative has contributed significantly to expand research in perimetry. The continued support of researchers, clinicians, and industry are key in transforming perimetry research into an open science.


Assuntos
Realidade Virtual , Testes de Campo Visual , Humanos , Probabilidade , Testes de Campo Visual/métodos , Campos Visuais
17.
J Vis ; 22(5): 4, 2022 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35412555

RESUMO

Redundancy masking is the reduction of the perceived number of items in repeating patterns. It shares a number of characteristics with crowding, the impairment of target identification in visual clutter. Crowding strongly depends on the location of the target in the visual field. For example, it is stronger in the upper compared to the lower visual field and is usually weakest on the horizontal meridian. This pattern of visual field asymmetries is common in spatial vision, as revealed by tasks measuring, for example, spatial resolution and contrast sensitivity. Here, to characterize redundancy masking and reveal its similarities to and differences from other spatial tasks, we investigated whether redundancy masking shows the same typical visual field asymmetries. Observers were presented with three to six radially arranged lines at 10° eccentricity at one of eight locations around fixation and were asked to report the number of lines. We found asymmetries that differed pronouncedly from those found in crowding. Redundancy masking did not differ between upper and lower visual fields. Importantly, redundancy masking was stronger on the horizontal meridian than on the vertical meridian, the opposite of what is usually found in crowding. These results show that redundancy masking diverges from crowding in regard to visual field asymmetries, suggesting different underlying mechanisms of redundancy masking and crowding. We suggest that the observed atypical visual field asymmetries in redundancy masking are due to the superior extraction of regularity and a more pronounced compression of visual space on the horizontal compared to the vertical meridian.


Assuntos
Sensibilidades de Contraste , Campos Visuais , Aglomeração , Humanos , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos , Mascaramento Perceptivo
18.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(2)2022 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35228245

RESUMO

An 83-year-old woman with a long history of glaucoma and optic disc drusen (ODD) was referred for neuro-ophthalmological second opinion. The patient had been treated for decades with bilateral intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering eye drops, laser trabeculoplasty and trabeculectomy and had severe, bilateral loss of visual fields and retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thinning on optical coherence tomography (OCT) despite IOP that never exceeded 24 mm Hg. On ophthalmoscopy, only a single ODD was visible in the left eye and no optic disc cupping was apparent in either eye. Enhanced depth imaging OCT (EDI-OCT) of the optic nerve head revealed bilateral multiple, large, deep ODD, which in itself could easily explain the visual field loss and RNFL thinning of this patient. Optic nerve head examination using EDI-OCT is highly recommended for patients with a history of glaucoma but without optic nerve head cupping to avoid a potential misdiagnosis with consequent unnecessary treatment.


Assuntos
Glaucoma , Disco Óptico , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Glaucoma/complicações , Glaucoma/diagnóstico , Humanos , Pressão Intraocular , Disco Óptico/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos , Testes de Campo Visual , Campos Visuais
19.
J Transl Med ; 20(1): 119, 2022 03 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35272676

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To identify the global and regional distribution of peripapillary vessel density (pVD) and try to find out the relationships between pVD and the visual field mean sensitivity (VFMS) in healthy myopic eyes. DESIGN: Prospective cross-sectional study. METHODS: Two hundred and twenty-two participants (393 eyes) with myopia (myopic refractive error < - 0.5 diopters) from two clinical centers were recruited in this study and were divided into 4 groups according to the spherical equivalent (SE): Group1:- 0.5D ≥ SE > - 6.00D, Group2: - 6.00D ≥ SE > - 8.00D, Group3:- 8.00D ≥ SE > - 10.00D, Group4:SE ≤ -10.00D.The pVD assessed with optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) was quantified in 8 sectors. Peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer (pRNFL) imaging was performed with SD-OCT. Visual field (VF) tests were performed with the 30-2 SITA standard program on the Humphrey 750i Visual Field Analyzer and were grouped into 8 regions that matched the structure. RESULTS: The pRNFL had no significant difference in all groups (p = 0.422). The average pVD were significantly lower in group 4 (47.61 ± 6.58) than in group 2 and 3 (51.49 ± 3.21, 50.48 ± 3.43 respectively) (p < 0.05). While both pVD in group2 and 3 were statistically lower than group1 (52.77 ± 2.86). The average VFMS was significantly lower in group 4 (901.85 ± 386.54) than other three groups (1169.15 ± 328.94, 1081.77 ± 338.83, 1076.89 ± 358.18, for group1,2,3 respectively). The pVD and VFMS were positively correlated in group3 (r = 0.184) and group4 (r = 0.476) (p < 0.05). Linear regression analysis demonstrated that VFMS were positively associated with pVD especially in temporal and nasal quadrants in myopic eyes. CONCLUSIONS: The pVD shows a significant positive correlation with VFMS in highly myopic eyes with SE ≤ - 8.00D. We suggest that pVD measurement by OCTA could be a sensitive and useful method for monitoring myopic functional change.


Assuntos
Miopia , Campos Visuais , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Vasos Retinianos/diagnóstico por imagem
20.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 63(3): 6, 2022 03 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35262734

RESUMO

Purpose: In this study, chromatic pupil campimetry (CPC) was used to map local functional degenerative changes of cones and rods in Stargardt disease (STGD1). Methods: 19 patients (age 36 ± 8 years; 12 males) with genetically confirmed ABCA4 mutations and a clinical diagnosis of STGD1 and 12 age-matched controls (age 37 ± 11 years; 2 males) underwent scotopic (rod-favoring) and photopic (cone-favoring) CPC. CPC evaluates the local retinal function in the central 30° visual field via analysis of the pupil constriction to local stimuli in a gaze-corrected manner. Results: Scotopic CPC revealed that the rod function of patients with STGD1 inside the 30° visual field was not impaired when compared with age-matched controls. However, a statistically significant faster pupil response onset time (∼ 40 ms) was observed in the measured area. Photopic CPC showed a significant reduction of the central cone function up to 6°, with a minor, non-significant reduction beyond this eccentricity. The time dynamic of the pupillary response in photopic CPC did not reveal differences between STGD1 and controls. Conclusions: The functional analysis of the macular region in STGD1 disease indicates reduced central cone function, corresponding to photoreceptor degeneration. In contrast, the rod function in the central area was not affected. Nevertheless, some alteration of the time dynamics in the rod system was observed indicating a complex effect of cone degeneration on the functional performance of the rod system. Our results should be considered when interpreting safety and efficacy in interventional trials of STGD1.


Assuntos
Células Fotorreceptoras Retinianas Cones , Doença de Stargardt , Testes de Campo Visual , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Adulto , Eletrorretinografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Retina , Células Fotorreceptoras Retinianas Cones/fisiologia , Campos Visuais
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