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1.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(11): 743, 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33136233

RESUMO

Bogs are nutrient poor, acidic ecosystems that receive their water and nutrients entirely from precipitation (= ombrogenous) and as a result are sensitive to nutrient loading from atmospheric sources. Bogs occur frequently on the northern Alberta landscape, estimated to cover 6% of the Athabasca Oil Sands Area. As a result of oil sand extraction and processing, emissions of nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) to the atmosphere have led to increasing N and S deposition that have the potential to alter the structure and function of these traditionally nutrient-poor ecosystems. At present, no detailed protocol is available for monitoring potential change of these sensitive ecosystems. We propose a user-friendly protocol that will monitor potential plant and lichen responses to future environmental inputs of nutrients and provide a structured means for collecting annual data. The protocol centers on measurement of five key plant/lichen attributes, including changes in (1) plant abundances, (2) dominant shrub annual growth and primary production, (3) lichen health estimated through chlorophyll/phaeophytin concentrations, (4) Sphagnum annual growth and production, and (5) annual growth of the dominant tree species (Picea mariana). We placed five permanent plots in each of six bogs located at different distances from the center of oil sand extraction and sampled these for 2 years (2018 and 2019). We compared line intercept with point intercept plant assessments using NMDS ordination, concluding that both methods provide comparable data. These data indicated that each of our six bog sites differ in key species abundances. Structural differences were apparent for the six sites between years. These differences were mostly driven by changes in Vaccinium oxycoccos, not the dominant shrubs. We developed allometric growth equations for the dominant two shrubs (Rhododendron groenlandicum and Chamaedaphne calyculata). Equations developed for each of the six sites produced growth values that were not different from one another nor from one developed using data from all sites. Annual growth of R. groenlandicum differed between sites, but not years, whereas growth of C. calyculata differed between the 2 years with more growth in 2018 compared with 2019. In comparison, Sphagnum plant density and stem bulk density both had strong site differences, with stem mass density higher in 2019. When combined, annual production of S. fuscum was greater in 2019 at three sites and not different at three of the sites. Chlorophyll and phaeophytin concentrations from the epiphytic lichen Evernia mesomorpha also differed between sites and years. This protocol for field assessments of five key plant/lichen response variables indicated that both site and year are factors that must be accounted for in future assessments. A portion of the site variation was related to patterns of N and S deposition.


Assuntos
Nitrogênio , Áreas Alagadas , Alberta , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Nitrogênio/análise , Campos de Petróleo e Gás
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 748: 142236, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33039138

RESUMO

The rise of hydraulic fracturing and unconventional oil and gas (UOG) exploration in the United States has increased public concerns for water contamination induced from hydraulic fracturing fluids and associated wastewater spills. Herein, we collected surface and groundwater samples across Garfield County, Colorado, a drilling-dense region, and measured endocrine bioactivities, geochemical tracers of UOG wastewater, UOG-related organic contaminants in surface water, and evaluated UOG drilling production (weighted well scores, nearby well count, reported spills) surrounding sites. Elevated antagonist activities for the estrogen, androgen, progesterone, and glucocorticoid receptors were detected in surface water and associated with nearby shale gas well counts and density. The elevated endocrine activities were observed in surface water associated with medium and high UOG production (weighted UOG well score-based groups). These bioactivities were generally not associated with reported spills nearby, and often did not exhibit geochemical profiles associated with UOG wastewater from this region. Our results suggest the potential for releases of low-saline hydraulic fracturing fluids or chemicals used in other aspects of UOG production, similar to the chemistry of the local water, and dissimilar from defined spills of post-injection wastewater. Notably, water collected from certain medium and high UOG production sites exhibited bioactivities well above the levels known to impact the health of aquatic organisms, suggesting that further research to assess potential endocrine activities of UOG operations is warranted.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Fraturamento Hidráulico , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Colorado , Gás Natural , Campos de Petróleo e Gás , Estados Unidos , Águas Residuárias , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Recursos Hídricos
3.
J Environ Qual ; 49(1): 61-73, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016353

RESUMO

Land reclamation in the Athabasca oil sands region requires construction of entire soil profiles from materials salvaged during mining. Although much attention has been paid to the limited supply of suitable topsoil materials and their impact on ecosystem recovery, suitable clean subsoil materials are also in limited supply, and their efficient and effective use is an important consideration for land managers in the region. Using data from an oil sands reclamation site in northern Alberta, Canada, we compared soil and foliar nutrients to a wildfire-impacted reference ecosystem with a similarity index. Specifically, we evaluated the similarity of forest floor-mineral mix (FFM) and peat-mineral mix (PM) as topsoil, as well as the effect of different depths of salvaged B and C horizon subsoil with PM on top. All reclamation treatments were planted with jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) and trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.), which were used to examine foliar nutrient concentrations. Individual macronutrient concentrations were different among treatments in total soil nutrients, but differences decreased in soil bioavailable nutrients and disappeared altogether in foliar nutrients. The similarity index revealed that distinct differences existed between treatments, with FFM being the most similar to the wildfire site. It also revealed a potential deficiency in foliar and soil bioavailable Mn on PM, and that increased water content of deeper subsoils had little to no effect. With use of this nutrient profile similarity index, reclamation practitioners may be able to determine if different soil prescriptions lead to higher levels of similarity to natural ecosystems more quickly.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Campos de Petróleo e Gás , Alberta , Animais , Nutrientes , Ovinos , Solo
4.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239086, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997667

RESUMO

Understanding the patterns of chemical exposure among biota across a landscape is challenging due to the spatial heterogeneity and complexity of the sources, pathways, and fate of the different chemicals. While spatially-driven relationships between contaminant sources and biota body burdens of a single chemical are commonly modelled, there has been little effort on modelling chemical mixtures across multiple wildlife species in the Canadian Oil Sands region. In this study, we used spatial principal components analysis (sPCA) to assess spatial patterns of the body burdens of 22 metals and Potentially Toxic Elements (PTEs) in 492 individual wildlife, including fur-bearing mammals, colonial waterbirds, and amphibians collected from the Canadian Oil Sands region in Canada. Spatial analysis and mapping both indicate that some of the complex exposures in the studied biota are distributed randomly across a landscape, which suggests background or non-point source exposures. In contrast, the pattern of exposure for seven metals and PTEs, including mercury, vanadium, lead, rubidium, lithium, strontium, and barium, exhibited a clustered pattern to the east of the open-pit mining area and in regions downstream of oil sands development which indicates point-source input. This analysis demonstrated useful methods for integrating monitoring datasets and identifying sources and potential drivers of exposure to chemical mixtures in biota across a landscape. These results can be used to support an adaptive monitoring program by identifying regions needing additional monitoring, health impact assessments, and possible intervention strategies.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Metais/análise , Campos de Petróleo e Gás , Anfíbios , Animais , Aves , Canadá , Monitoramento Ambiental , Mamíferos , Campos de Petróleo e Gás/química , Análise de Componente Principal
5.
J Chromatogr A ; 1629: 461508, 2020 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32858453

RESUMO

In the present document, we report the development of an analytical method consisting of a sequential direct-immersion/headspace solid-phase microextraction (DI-HS-SPME) followed by gas-phase chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) for simultaneous analysis of 4-chlorobenzyl alcohol, 2,6-dichlorobenzyl alcohol, 4-methoxybenzyl alcohol, 3,4-dimethoxybenzyl alcohol, pyridine, and 2,3-dimethylpyrazine in oilfield production waters. These compounds are under evaluation for use as phase-partitioning tracers in oil reservoirs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time SPME has been applied to the analysis of these compounds in production waters, or any other type of matrix where the compounds targeted are the base for a technical application. Relevant extraction parameters, such as the adsorbent phase of the fiber, direct immersion or headspace, addition of salt, temperature and time of extraction were investigated. The final optimal operation conditions consist on extracting 5 mL of sample at pH 9.0 with 1.8 g of NaCl with constant stirring during 5 minutes of DI-SPME followed by 15 minutes of HS-SPME at 70 °C using a DVB/CAR/PDMS (50/30 µm) fiber. The limits of quantification (LOQ), linearity, precision and accuracy of the method were evaluated. Analyses of the tracer compounds and recovery studies were also performed on production waters from 8 different oilfields of the Norwegian continental shelf. LOQs between 0.080 and 0.35 µg L-1 were obtained. The recovery yields of the method were consistently higher than 85% and RSDs less than 13%. None of the tracer compounds was found in the real samples processed, which is consistent with one of the requirements for an artificial tracer in an oilfield: absence or constant and low background in the traced fluid. The performance of the method developed, combined with its easiness to automate, introduce a new, accurate and cost-efficient technique to process the hundreds of samples required by an inter-well tracer test.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Campos de Petróleo e Gás/química , Álcoois/análise , Álcoois/química , Álcoois/isolamento & purificação , Limite de Detecção , Pirazinas/análise , Pirazinas/química , Pirazinas/isolamento & purificação , Microextração em Fase Sólida , Temperatura
6.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32746568

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the relationship between sleep quality and occupational stress in field gas recovery workers. Methods: In October 2018, cluster sampling method was adopted to conduct cross-sectional survey on 1726 field workers in a gas production oilfield. The individual characteristics, occupational stress factors, stress regulation factors, stress response and sleep quality, social support and coping strategies were evaluated by occupational stress measurement tools and job content questionnaire. Mann Whitney U test and Kruskal Wallis H test were used to compare sleep quality scores between the groups. Spearman rank correlation analysis was used to analyze the correlation between sleep quality and occupational stress, and logistic regression analysis was used to analyze multiple factors. Results: There were significant differences in sleep quality scores among different positions, gender, marital status, age, length of service, smoking and drinking (P<0.05) . There were no significant differences in sleep quality scores between different education levels and work shift groups (P>0.05) . Spearman rank correlation analysis showed that sleep quality score was negatively correlated with job satisfaction, reward, job stability, promotion opportunity, positive emotion, respect, self-esteem, control strategy, support strategy and self-efficacy score (r(s)=-0.361, -0.311, -0.238, -0.261, -0.248, -0.212, -0.139, -0.188, -0.152, -0.226, P<0.01) , and was positively correlated with social support, giving, daily tension, negative emotion, work monotony and depression symptom (r(s)=0.312, 0.279, 0.547, 0.493, 0.429, 0.599, P<0.01) . Compared with the high sleep quality score group, the middle and low sleep quality score groups had lower giving, work monotony, daily tension, depressive symptoms, negative emotions and social support (P<0.01) , while the scores of respect, reward, job satisfaction, positive emotion, self-efficacy, job stability, promotion opportunity, control strategy and support strategy were higher (P<0.01) . Multiple depressive symptoms, high daily tension, high negative emotion and high work monotony were the risk factors for sleep disorders (OR=3.417, 2.659, 2.913, 1.543) . Conclusion: Depressive symptoms, daily tension and negative emotion have great influence on sleep quality of field gas recovery workers.


Assuntos
Estresse Ocupacional , Sono , Estresse Psicológico , Estudos Transversais , Depressão , Humanos , Satisfação no Emprego , Ocupações , Campos de Petróleo e Gás , Indústria de Petróleo e Gás , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 747: 141333, 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32795799

RESUMO

Little is known about the microbial characteristics in oil reservoirs under alkali-surfactant-polymer (ASP)-flooding. In the present study, we collected two ASP-flooding samples and two nearby water-flooding samples from the Daqing oil field and performed 16S rRNA gene sequencing and metagenomic sequencing to fill this knowledge gap. The results indicated that the highly elevated pH resulted in a simple Euryarchaeotal community and a Halomonas &Nitrincola-dominated bacterial community in the production water of the alkaline oil reservoir. In addition, we hypothesized that multiple copies of genes encoding monovalent cation/proton antiporters in Halomonas and Nitrincola, and their facultative anaerobic and movable traits, were the adaptive mechanisms responsible for their competitive growth in the alkaline oil reservoir. We also revealed a unique syntrophic community in the alkaline oil reservoir and identified the central role of Halomonas within it. The present study revealed the microbial characteristics in an alkaline oil reservoir environment formed by ASP-flooding and indicated the application potential of Halomonas in AMP-flooding and microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) technology to elevate the oil recovery rate from ASP-flooded oil reservoirs.


Assuntos
Halomonas , Petróleo , Halomonas/genética , Campos de Petróleo e Gás , Polímeros , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Tensoativos
8.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(16): 9872-9881, 2020 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32806916

RESUMO

The surface mining and bitumen extraction of oil sands (OS) generates over one million barrels of heavy oil each day in the Alberta Oil Sands Region of Canada. Recent observations suggest that emissions from OS development contribute to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation, but the chemical composition, mass fluxes, and sources of those emissions are poorly delineated. Here, we simulated OS extraction and used comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography to quantify and characterize direct air emissions, bitumen froth, residual wastewater, and tailings components, ultimately enabling fate modeling of over 1500 chromatographic features simultaneously. During the non-ice cover season, tailings ponds emissions contributed 15 000-72 000 metric tonnes of hydrocarbon SOA precursors, translating to 3000-13 000 tonnes of SOA, whereas direct emissions during the extraction process itself were notably smaller (960 ± 500 tonnes SOA yr-1). These results suggest that tailings pond waste management practices should be targeted to reduce environmental emissions.


Assuntos
Campos de Petróleo e Gás , Tanques , Aerossóis , Alberta , Mineração
9.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237325, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810134

RESUMO

Recent research has shown relationships between health outcomes and residence proximity to unconventional oil and natural gas development (UOGD). The challenge of connecting health outcomes to environmental stressors requires ongoing research with new methodological approaches. We investigated UOGD density and well emissions and their association with symptom reporting by residents of southwest Pennsylvania. A retrospective analysis was conducted on 104 unique, de-identified health assessments completed from 2012-2017 by residents living in proximity to UOGD. A novel approach to comparing estimates of exposure was taken. Generalized linear modeling was used to ascertain the relationship between symptom counts and estimated UOGD exposure, while Threshold Indicator Taxa Analysis (TITAN) was used to identify associations between individual symptoms and estimated UOGD exposure. We used three estimates of exposure: cumulative well density (CWD), inverse distance weighting (IDW) of wells, and annual emission concentrations (AEC) from wells within 5 km of respondents' homes. Taking well emissions reported to the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, an air dispersion and screening model was used to estimate an emissions concentration at residences. When controlling for age, sex, and smoker status, each exposure estimate predicted total number of reported symptoms (CWD, p<0.001; IDW, p<0.001; AEC, p<0.05). Akaike information criterion values revealed that CWD was the better predictor of adverse health symptoms in our sample. Two groups of symptoms (i.e., eyes, ears, nose, throat; neurological and muscular) constituted 50% of reported symptoms across exposures, suggesting these groupings of symptoms may be more likely reported by respondents when UOGD intensity increases. Our results do not confirm that UOGD was the direct cause of the reported symptoms but raise concern about the growing number of wells around residential areas. Our approach presents a novel method of quantifying exposures and relating them to reported health symptoms.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Fraturamento Hidráulico , Gás Natural/efeitos adversos , Campos de Petróleo e Gás , Adulto , Monitoramento Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pennsylvania , Estudos Retrospectivos , Níveis Máximos Permitidos
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 746: 141290, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745846

RESUMO

Methanogenic hydrocarbon degradation is an important biogeochemical process in oil reservoirs; however, genomic DNA-based analysis of microorganisms and metabolite detection are not conclusive for identification of the ongoing nature of this bioprocess. In this study, a suite of analyses, involving the study of microbial community and selective gene quantification of both genomic DNA and RNA together with signature metabolites, were performed to comprehensively advance the understanding of the methanogenic biodegradation of hydrocarbons in a low-temperature oilfield. The fumarate addition products for alkanes-C4, C5, and C7-alkylsuccinates-and transcribed assA and mcrA genes were simultaneously detected in the production water sample, providing robust and convincing evidence for both the initial activation of n-alkanes and methane metabolism in this oilfield. The clone library of assA gene transcripts showed that Smithella was active and most likely responsible for the addition of fumarate to n-alkanes, whereas Methanoculleus and Methanothrix were the dominant and active methane-producers via CO2 reduction and acetoclastic pathways, respectively. Additionally, qPCR results of assA and mcrA genes and their transcribed gene copy numbers revealed a roughly similar transcriptional activity in both n-alkanes-degraders and methane producers, implying that they were the major participants in the methanogenic degradation of n-alkanes in this oilfield. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report presenting sufficient speculation, through detection of signature intermediates, corresponding gene quantification at transcriptional levels, and microbial community analysis, of methanogenic degradation of n-alkanes in production water of an oil reservoir.


Assuntos
Alcanos , Deltaproteobacteria/genética , Biodegradação Ambiental , Metano , Campos de Petróleo e Gás , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Temperatura , Água
11.
Chemosphere ; 260: 127599, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758775

RESUMO

Mercury, particularly methylmercury, can accumulate through food webs and generate high risks for species at higher trophic levels. Inorganic mercury can be methylated into the organic species methylmercury if suitable reducing conditions exist, for example, in hotspots like oilfields. We developed a conceptual model to conduct an ecological risk assessment based on the food web structure of the Shengli oilfield area, China. The model can identify species at risk and elucidate the sources of risks according to their diet. A risk rating criteria was developed based on the food web structure to categorize the different levels of risks for different species. As expected, the results indicate increasing risks for the biota higher in the food web hierarchy. Grasshoppers were mostly at no risk throughout the study area, whereas grubs at southwest were at minimal risks due to local high Hg concentration in the soil. Mantises, which are insect predators, were also at minimal risk. Herbivorous birds with similar feeding habits than grasshoppers were at no risk, but omnivorous and carnivorous birds were at moderate risk. The conceptual model is a useful tool to improve pollution remediation and establish risk control strategies based on ecological risks of the food web rather than just Hg concentrations in the environment.


Assuntos
Bioacumulação , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Mercúrio/análise , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/análise , Modelos Teóricos , Campos de Petróleo e Gás , Animais , China , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Cadeia Alimentar , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/metabolismo , Medição de Risco
12.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237806, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813694

RESUMO

Energy infrastructures can have negative impacts on the environment. In remote and / or sparsely populated as well as in conflict-prone regions, these can be difficult to assess, in particular when they are of a large scale. Analyzing land use and land cover changes can be an important initial step towards establishing the quantity and quality of impacts. Drawing from very-high-resolution-multi-temporal-satellite-imagery, this paper reports on a study which employed the Random Forest Classifier and Land Change Modeler to derive detailed information of the spatial patterns and temporal variations of land-use and land-cover changes resulting from the China-Myanmar Oil and Gas Pipelines in Ann township in Myanmar's Rakhine State of Myanmar. Deforestation and afforestation conversion processes during pre- and post-construction periods (2010 to 2012) are compared. Whilst substantial forest areas were lost along the pipelines, this is only part of the story, as afforestation has also happened in parallel. However, afforestation areas can be of a lower value, and in order to be able to take quality of forests into account, it is of crucial importance to accompany satellite-imagery based techniques with field observation. Findings have important implications for future infrastructure development projects in conflict-affected regions in Myanmar and elsewhere.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Campos de Petróleo e Gás , China , Agricultura Florestal , Geografia , Modelos Teóricos , Mianmar , Imagens de Satélites
13.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(15): 9547-9555, 2020 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32639732

RESUMO

Uptake and effects of ionizable organic chemicals (IOCs) that are weak acids in aqueous solution by fish can differ as a function of pH. While the pH-dependent behavior of select IOCs is well-understood, complex mixtures of IOCs, e.g., from oil sands process-affected water (OSPW), have not yet been studied systematically. Here, we established an in vitro screening method using the rainbow trout gill cell line, RTgill-W1, to investigate pH-dependent cytotoxicity and permeation of IOCs across cultured epithelia using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography with high-resolution mass spectrometry (UPLC-HRMS). The assay was benchmarked using model chemicals and technical mixtures, and then used to characterize fractions and reconstituted extracts of field-collected OSPW. Significant pH-dependent cytotoxicity of individual IOCs, acidic fractions, and reconstituted extracts of OSPW was observed. In vitro data were in good agreement with data from a 96 h in vivo exposure experiment with juvenile rainbow trout. Permeation of some IOCs from OSPW was mediated by active transport, as revealed by studies in which inhibitors of these active transport mechanisms were applied. We conclude that the RTgill-W1 in vitro assay is useful for the screening of pH-dependent uptake of IOCs in fish, and has applications for in vitro-in vivo extrapolation, and prioritization of chemicals in nontarget screenings.


Assuntos
Campos de Petróleo e Gás , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Ácidos Carboxílicos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Compostos Orgânicos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
14.
Chemosphere ; 260: 127641, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32688322

RESUMO

The atmospheric deposition of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) is considered a major pathway to isolated lakes and bogs in the Athabasca oil sands region (AOSR), Canada. However, the suite of PACs measured has been limited. We report the detailed depositional history of nitrogen and sulphur heterocyclic PACs using a 210Pb dated sediment core (1914-2015) near major developments in the AOSR. We observed (1) an exponential growth in the deposition of heterocyclic PACs to recent times with an average doubling time of 12 years, (2) significant breakpoints in PAC fluxes in the mid to late 1980s, and (3) a synchronous increase of PACs with crude oil production (r2 = 0.82, p = 0.001). NPACs were not detected prior to the 1960s in the sediment core studied, suggesting they may hold promise in serving as indicators for atmospheric PAC deposition of industrial origin. Furthermore, a change in heterocyclic PAC distribution profiles beginning in the 1970-1980s, after the onset of mining, resembling a petcoke signature, was also observed. Significant positive correlations (p < 0.05) were observed between heterocyclic PACs, and several metal(loid)s, including priority pollutant elements, chromium and beryllium, and rare earth elements, cerium, lanthanum and yttrium (r2 > 0.75), suggesting the potential of a common source or similar transport and fate mechanisms. Significant negative or no correlations were observed between heterocyclic PACs and other metal(loid)s, including vanadium, total mercury and lead, possibly reflecting the impact of broader regulatory controls introduced in the mid-1970s on some metal(loids) but not on PACs, including the installation of electrostatic precipitators in major upgrader stacks.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Campos de Petróleo e Gás , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Alberta , Canadá , Lagos , Mineração , Nitrogênio , Compostos Orgânicos , Petróleo/análise , Compostos Policíclicos , Áreas Alagadas
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 745: 141043, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32717605

RESUMO

Oily sludge is a hazardous waste generated through petroleum producing and processing industrial units. Due to its harmful environmental impacts, it needs to be treated in sustainable manner. The present study aimed to evaluate influence of bioaugmentation on oily sludge biodegradation efficiency of a novel hydrocarbon utilizing bacterial consortium (HUBC) using microcosms. Three approaches (bioaugmentation, natural attenuation and abiotic factors) were used for microcosm studies. Bioaugmentation treatment showed best results for oily sludge degradation than natural attenuation and abiotic factors, resulting 82.13 ± 1.21% oily sludge degradation in 56 days. In bioaugmented microcosm on 56th day 0.30 ± 0.07 × 108 CFU/g hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria were noted. Results showed that HUBC could be used to remediate soil polluted with oily sludge. This study imparts a notable approach for farming application(s).


Assuntos
Petróleo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Bactérias , Biodegradação Ambiental , Hidrocarbonetos , Campos de Petróleo e Gás , Microbiologia do Solo
16.
Environ Pollut ; 266(Pt 2): 114988, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32679437

RESUMO

A wide variety of sampling techniques and strategies are needed to analyze polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) and interpret their distributions in various environmental media (i.e., air, water, snow, soils, sediments, peat and biological material). In this review, we provide a summary of commonly employed sampling methods and strategies, as well as a discussion of routine and innovative approaches used to quantify and characterize PACs in frequently targeted environmental samples, with specific examples and applications in Canadian investigations. The pros and cons of different analytical techniques, including gas chromatography - flame ionization detection (GC-FID), GC low-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-LRMS), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet, fluorescence or MS detection, GC high-resolution MS (GC-HRMS) and compound-specific stable (δ13C, δ2H) and radiocarbon (Δ14C) isotope analysis are considered. Using as an example research carried out in Canada's Athabasca oil sands region (AOSR), where alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and sulfur-containing dibenzothiophenes are frequently targeted, the need to move beyond the standard list of sixteen EPA priority PAHs and for adoption of an AOSR bitumen PAC reference standard are highlighted.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Compostos Policíclicos , Canadá , Monitoramento Ambiental , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Campos de Petróleo e Gás
17.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(30): 37444-37454, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681341

RESUMO

A high-efficient method for determining the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) was established by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection, coupled with an efficient 10 m short chromatographic column; the analyzing period was narrowed to 5 mins. The limits of detection of the method included 1.47, 4.02, and 0.69 mg/kg, and the corresponding limits of quantification reached 4.45, 12.2, and 2.10 mg/kg for the three fractions C10-C16, C17-C34, and C35-C40, respectively. The method was employed to real samples to achieve the routine environmental monitoring of TPH in polluted sites from Fushan oilfield, China. As revealed from the analysis of 30 soil samples in the study area, a wide range of TPH concentrations were achieved: 61.6-7300 mg/kg (average, 1055 mg/kg) for ΣC10-C16, 438-14,280 mg/kg (average, 4544 mg/kg) for ΣC17-C34, 25.4-638 mg/kg (average, 250 mg/kg) for ΣC35-C40, and 617-15,348 (average, 5848 mg/kg) for ΣC10-C40, respectively. According to the Nemerow integrated pollution index, the Fushan oilfield has been slightly polluted by TPH. As suggested from the distribution of TPH concentrations, the main sources of TPH in soil samples of Fushan oilfield included oil spills during temporary storage, transportation, and oil exploitation. Adopting the developed method to delve into oilfield soil samples further verifies the effectiveness of the method, indicating that the method can well meet the growing demand of regulatory guidelines for related risk assessment and environmental monitoring and remediation strategy formulation.


Assuntos
Poluição por Petróleo/análise , Petróleo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , China , Cromatografia Gasosa , Ionização de Chama , Hidrocarbonetos/análise , Campos de Petróleo e Gás , Solo , Solventes
18.
Waste Manag ; 114: 33-42, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32650281

RESUMO

Horizontal spacing of horizontal extraction gas wells can be designed to achieve a 90% pumping rate of the total generated landfill gas (LFG) from given waste properties (viz: gas permeability, landfill gas generation and non-homogeneity with depth), cover characteristics and vacuum pressure. However, cover characteristics and vacuum pressure are also important design parameters and different combinations of them result in different distributions of gas pressure in the waste, some of which would induce problematic air intrusion while others might pose threat to cover stability. This paper uses the maximum gas pressure directly below cover to distinguish these combinations, and provides the first study of the effects of the above parameters on potential outcomes. The ability of the overlying cover to resist LFG emission from the landfilled waste is suggested not to exceed a critical value, otherwise the maximum gas pressure below it would become at least 1 kPa larger than atmospheric pressure. A design formula for this critical value is proposed with respect to typical values of waste properties, vacuum pressure and the buried depth of horizontal wells in wide ranges. Together with consideration of recovery efficiency, the proposed method can be used to design a horizontal extraction gas collection system and a cover system in better working condition, and to evaluate the maximum gas pressure below cover. These applications are illustrated by a worked example.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Eliminação de Resíduos , Metano/análise , Campos de Petróleo e Gás , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos
19.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(8): 4748-4759, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32697184

RESUMO

Anaerobic, fermentative, halotolerant bacteria, strains 4-11T and 585, were isolated from production water of two low-temperature petroleum reservoirs (Russia) and were characterized by using a polyphasic approach. Cells of the strains were spherical, non-motile and 0.30-2.5 µm in diameter. Strain 4-11T grew optimally at 35 °C, pH 6.0 and 1.0-2.0% (w/v) NaCl. Both strains grew chemoorganotrophically with mono-, di- and trisaccharides. The major cellular fatty acids of both strains were C14:0, C16:0, C16:1 ω9 and C18:0 3-OH. Major polar lipids were glycolipids and phospholipids. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of the strains 4-11T and 585 had 99.9% similarity and were most closely related to the sequence of Sphaerochaeta associata GLS2T (96.9, and 97.0% similarity, respectively). The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strains 4-11T and 585 were 46.8 and 46.9%, respectively. The average nucleotide identity and digital DNA-DNA hybridization values between the genomes of strain 4-11T and S. associata GLS2T were 73.0 and 16.9%, respectively. Results of phylogenomic metrics analysis of the genomes and 120 core proteins of strains 4-11T and 585 and their physiological and biochemical characteristics confirmed that the strains represented a novel species of the genus Sphaerochaeta, for which the name Sphaerochaeta halotolerans sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain 4-11T (=VKM B-3269T=KCTC 15833T). Based on the results of phylogenetic analysis, Sphaerochaeta coccoides was reclassified as member of a new genus Parasphaerochaeta gen. nov., Parasphaerochaeta coccoides comb. nov. The genera Sphaerochaeta and Parasphaerochaeta form a separate clade, for which a novel family, Sphaerochaetaceae fam. nov., is proposed.


Assuntos
Campos de Petróleo e Gás/microbiologia , Filogenia , Spirochaetaceae/classificação , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Glicolipídeos/química , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Fosfolipídeos/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Federação Russa , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Spirochaetaceae/isolamento & purificação
20.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(14): 8632-8639, 2020 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603095

RESUMO

Chemical spills in streams can impact ecosystem or human health. Typically, the public learns of spills from reports from industry, media, or government rather than monitoring data. For example, ∼1300 spills (76 ≥ 400 gallons or ∼1500 L) were reported from 2007 to 2014 by the regulator for natural gas wellpads in the Marcellus shale region of Pennsylvania (U.S.), a region of extensive drilling and hydraulic fracturing. Only one such incident of stream contamination in Pennsylvania has been documented with water quality data in peer-reviewed literature. This could indicate that spills (1) were small or contained on wellpads, (2) were diluted, biodegraded, or obscured by other contaminants, (3) were not detected because of sparse monitoring, or (4) were not detected because of the difficulties of inspecting data for complex stream networks. As a first step in addressing the last problem, we developed a geospatial-analysis tool, GeoNet, that analyzes stream networks to detect statistically significant changes between background and potentially impacted sites. GeoNet was used on data in the Water Quality Portal for the Pennsylvania Marcellus region. With the most stringent statistical tests, GeoNet detected 0.2% to 2% of the known contamination incidents (Na ± Cl) in streams. With denser sensor networks, tools like GeoNet could allow real-time detection of polluting events.


Assuntos
Gás Natural , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Campos de Petróleo e Gás , Pennsylvania , Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
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