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1.
Chem Biol Interact ; 312: 108799, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433961

RESUMO

Black seed (Nigella sativa) oil has been used in various dermatological applications, and its major constituent, thymoquinone (TQ) has been shown to exhibit antiproliferative activity against various cancer cells. In this study, we tried to provide a mechanistic basis of apoptosis induced by TQ. Skin squamous carcinoma A431 cells were treated with TQ to monitor the apoptosis induced by TQ. Western blot analysis was performed to detect expression of apoptotic or anti-apoptotic proteins. Cell viability and apoptosis were measured by using the MTT test and FACS analysis, respectively. The induction of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) by TQ was evaluated by 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate staining. In vivo xenograft study was followed to confirm the antiproliferative effect of TQ. Treatment of A431 cells with TQ-induced apoptosis, which was associated with the induction of p53 and Bax, inhibition of Mdm2, Bcl-2, and Bcl-xl expression, and activation of caspase-9, -7, and -3. TQ inhibited the constitutive phosphorylation and DNA binding activity of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) in A431 cells by blocking the phosphorylation of the upstream kinase, Src. Moreover, the expression of STAT3 target gene products, cyclin D1 and survivin, was attenuated by TQ treatment. The generation of ROS was increased during TQ-induced apoptosis, and the pretreatment of N-acetyl cysteine, a ROS scavenger, reversed the apoptotic effect of TQ. In vivo study with NOD scid gamma (NSG) mice confirmed the inhibitory effect of TQ on the growth of A431 cells. Our results provide the first demonstration that TQ induces the apoptosis of A431 cells through generation of ROS and inhibition of STAT3 signaling.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacocinética , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Benzoquinonas/farmacologia , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Animais , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Benzoquinonas/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Transplante Heterólogo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo
2.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2901, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263101

RESUMO

Dysregulation of histone modifications promotes carcinogenesis by altering transcription. Breast cancers frequently overexpress the histone methyltransferase EZH2, the catalytic subunit of Polycomb Repressor Complex 2 (PRC2). However, the role of EZH2 in this setting is unclear due to the context-dependent functions of PRC2 and the heterogeneity of breast cancer. Moreover, the mechanisms underlying PRC2 overexpression in cancer are obscure. Here, using multiple models of breast cancer driven by the oncogene ErbB2, we show that the tyrosine kinase c-Src links energy sufficiency with PRC2 overexpression via control of mRNA translation. By stimulating mitochondrial ATP production, c-Src suppresses energy stress, permitting sustained activation of the mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), which increases the translation of mRNAs encoding the PRC2 subunits Ezh2 and Suz12. We show that Ezh2 overexpression and activity are pivotal in ErbB2-mediated mammary tumourigenesis. These results reveal the hitherto unknown c-Src/mTORC1/PRC2 axis, which is essential for ErbB2-driven carcinogenesis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Complexo Repressor Polycomb 2/genética , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Quinases da Família src/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Adulto , Animais , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Carcinogênese , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proteína Potenciadora do Homólogo 2 de Zeste/genética , Proteína Potenciadora do Homólogo 2 de Zeste/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Glândulas Mamárias Humanas/metabolismo , Glândulas Mamárias Humanas/patologia , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina/genética , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos Transgênicos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mitocôndrias/genética , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Complexo Repressor Polycomb 2/metabolismo , Biossíntese de Proteínas , Receptor ErbB-2/genética , Quinases da Família src/genética
3.
Life Sci ; 232: 116628, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278946

RESUMO

AIMS: Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) is a mature T-cell neoplasm associated with human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV-1) infection. Major limitations in Doxorubicin (Dox) chemotherapy are tumor resistance and severe drug complications. Here, we combined Thymoquinone (TQ) with low concentrations of Dox and determined anticancer effects against ATL in cell culture and animal model. MAIN METHODS: HTLV-1 positive (HuT-102) and HTLV-1 negative (Jurkat) CD4+ malignant T-cell lines were treated with TQ, Dox and combinations. Viability and cell cycle effects were determined by MTT assay and flow cytometry analysis, respectively. Combination effects on mitochondrial membrane potential and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were assessed. Expression levels of key cell death proteins were investigated by western blotting. A mouse xenograft model of ATL in NOD/SCID was used for testing drug effects and tumor tissues were stained for Ki67 and TUNEL. KEY FINDINGS: TQ and Dox caused greater inhibition of cell viability and increased sub-G1 cells in both cell lines compared to Dox or TQ alone. The combination induced apoptosis by increasing ROS and causing disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential. Pretreatment with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) or pan caspase inhibitor significantly inhibited the apoptotic response suggesting that cell death is ROS- and caspase-dependent. TQ and Dox combination reduced tumor volume in NOD/SCID mice more significantly than single treatments through enhanced apoptosis without affecting the survival of mice. SIGNIFICANCE: Our combination model offers the possibility to use up to twofold lower doses of Dox against ATL while exhibiting the same cancer inhibitory effects.


Assuntos
Benzoquinonas/farmacologia , Leucemia-Linfoma de Células T do Adulto/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Benzoquinonas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Vírus Linfotrópico T Tipo 1 Humano , Humanos , Leucemia-Linfoma de Células T do Adulto/metabolismo , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
4.
Cancer Invest ; 37(6): 242-252, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31296070

RESUMO

Drug resistance to TKIs and the existance of CML leukemia stem cells is an urgent problem. In this study, we demonstrate that quinacrine (QC) induces apoptosis in BCR-ABL positive CML and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells. Interestingly, QC inhibits the colony formation of primary CD34+ progenitor/stem leukemia cells from CML patients. QC targets RNA polymerase I, which produces ribosomal (r)RNA, involving in protein translation process. Also, QC treatment prolongs CML-like mice survival and inhibits K562 tumor growth in vivo. In conclusion, we demonstrate that QC depletes BCR-ABL protein and suppresses Ph-positive leukemia cells in vitro and in vivo.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/metabolismo , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico , Quinacrina/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antígenos CD34/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Células K562 , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico
5.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2913, 2019 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31266935

RESUMO

Mechanistic studies in human cancer have relied heavily on cell lines and mouse models, but are limited by in vitro adaptation and species context issues, respectively. More recent efforts have utilized patient-derived xenografts; however, these are hampered by variable genetic background, inability to study early events, and practical issues with availability/reproducibility. We report here an efficient, reproducible model of T-cell leukemia in which lentiviral transduction of normal human cord blood yields aggressive leukemia that appears indistinguishable from natural disease. We utilize this synthetic model to uncover a role for oncogene-induced HOXB activation which is operative in leukemia cells-of-origin and persists in established tumors where it defines a novel subset of patients distinct from other known genetic subtypes and with poor clinical outcome. We show further that anterior HOXB genes are specifically activated in human T-ALL by an epigenetic mechanism and confer growth advantage in both pre-leukemia cells and established clones.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Leucemia/metabolismo , Família Multigênica , Animais , Proliferação de Células , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Xenoenxertos , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Humanos , Leucemia/genética , Leucemia/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Modelos Genéticos , Proteínas Oncogênicas/genética , Proteínas Oncogênicas/metabolismo
6.
Anticancer Res ; 39(7): 3661-3667, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262892

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: To explore the possibility of a selective small-molecule ß-catenin inhibitor, CWP232228, as a potential therapeutic drug in the treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effect of CWP2228 on HCT116 cells was analysed in vitro via flow cytometry, western immunoblotting, and luciferase reporter assays. NOD-scid IL2Rgammanull mice were employed for an in vivo xenograft study to validate the in vitro studies. RESULTS: CWP232228 treatment decreased the promoter activity and nuclear expression of ß-catenin and induced a significant cytotoxic effect in HCT116 cells. CWP232228 treatment induced apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Furthermore, CWP232228 decreased the expression of aurora kinase A, c-Myc, cyclin D1 and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor. Lastly, CWP232228 also inhibited the growth of xenografted colon cancer cells in mice. CONCLUSION: Collectively, CWP232228 may be used as a potential therapeutic drug in CRC.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Compostos Azabicíclicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias do Colo/metabolismo , Organofosfatos/farmacologia , beta Catenina/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Azabicíclicos/uso terapêutico , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Células HCT116 , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Organofosfatos/uso terapêutico , Carga Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Via de Sinalização Wnt/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
Eur J Med Chem ; 178: 116-130, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177073

RESUMO

In this study, a series of novel HDAC inhibitors, using 1,2,4-oxadiazole-containing as the cap group, were synthesized and evaluated in vitro. Compound 14b, N-hydroxy-2-(methyl((3-(1-(4-methylbenzyl)piperidin-4-yl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl)methyl)amino)pyrimidine-5-carboxamide, displayed the most potent histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition, especially against HDAC1, 2, and 3 with IC50 values of 1.8, 3.6 and 3.0 nM, respectively. In vitro antiproliferative studies confirmed that 14b was more potent than SAHA, with IC50 values against 12 types of cancer cell lines ranging from 9.8 to 44.9 nM. The results of Western blot assays showed that compound 14b can significantly up-regulate the acetylation of the biomarker his-H3 and molecular docking analyses revealed the mode of action of compound 14b against HDAC1. The results of flow-cytometry analysis suggested that compound 14b induces cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase and has apoptotic effects. Further investigation of the activity of 14b on the primary cells of three patients, showed IC50 values of 21.3, 61.1, and 77.4 nM. More importantly, an oral bioavailability of up to 53.52% was observed for 14b. An in vivo pharmacodynamic evaluation demonstrated that compound 14b can significantly inhibit tumor growth in a Daudi Burkitt's lymphoma xenograft model, with tumor inhibition rates of 53.8 and 46.1% observed at 20 and 10 mg/kg when administered p.o. and i.v., respectively. These results indicate that compound 14b may be a suitable lead for further evaluation and development as an HDAC inhibitor and a potent anticancer agent.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Linfoma de Burkitt/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/uso terapêutico , Ácidos Hidroxâmicos/uso terapêutico , Oxidiazóis/uso terapêutico , Acetilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/farmacocinética , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Descoberta de Drogas , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Feminino , Pontos de Checagem da Fase G1 do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Histona Desacetilase 1/química , Histona Desacetilase 1/metabolismo , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/síntese química , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/farmacocinética , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Ácidos Hidroxâmicos/síntese química , Ácidos Hidroxâmicos/farmacocinética , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Oxidiazóis/síntese química , Oxidiazóis/farmacocinética , Ligação Proteica , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Tubulina (Proteína)/metabolismo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
8.
Life Sci ; 231: 116530, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170419

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential of naturally occurring isothiocyanates and doxorubicin in combined treatment of doxorubicin-resistant colon cancer. Doxorubicin is a cytostatic commonly used to treat many different types of cancer but its usage is often abrogated by severe side-effects and drug-induced resistance. MAIN METHODS: The antiproliferative potential of the combined treatment was analyzed in vitro by the SRB method (sulforhodamine B) and further evaluated for the mechanisms that determine the treatment outcome using a series of assays which included oxidative stress, apoptosis and compounds accumulation assessment. Ultimately, a combined treatment potential was assessed in vivo utilizing doxorubicin-resistant colon cancer model. KEY FINDING: The results indicate that naturally occurring isothiocyanates, represented by 3,4-dimethoxybenzyl isothiocyanate (dMBITC) increase doxorubicin the efficacy in doxorubicin-resistant human colon adenocarcinoma model by attenuated drug efflux, an increased reactive oxygen species production and an increased rate of apoptosis. In in vitro studies, over a 3-fold decrease in doxorubicin IC50 value was observed on the LoVoDX cell line when used in combination with suboptimal concentrations of dMBITC. The combined therapy exhibited a significantly higher efficacy than doxorubicin-alone treatment (c.a. 50% tumor growth inhibition in comparison to c.a. 25% for doxorubicin-alone treatment) in vivo. At the same time, the combined treatment attenuates doxorubicin toxicity as evidenced by improved animals body mass, main organs weight and biochemical markers of toxicity. SIGNIFICANCE: The adopted approach provides evidence that isothiocyanates can be successfully applied in the treatment of doxorubicin-resistant colon cancer, which warrants further studies.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Isotiocianatos/farmacologia , Adenocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Feminino , Humanos , Isotiocianatos/química , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Nature ; 571(7765): 408-412, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31243370

RESUMO

Mutations in the transcription factor FOXA1 define a unique subset of prostate cancers but the functional consequences of these mutations and whether they confer gain or loss of function is unknown1-9. Here, by annotating the landscape of FOXA1 mutations from 3,086 human prostate cancers, we define two hotspots in the forkhead domain: Wing2 (around 50% of all mutations) and the highly conserved DNA-contact residue R219 (around 5% of all mutations). Wing2 mutations are detected in adenocarcinomas at all stages, whereas R219 mutations are enriched in metastatic tumours with neuroendocrine histology. Interrogation of the biological properties of wild-type FOXA1 and fourteen FOXA1 mutants reveals gain of function in mouse prostate organoid proliferation assays. Twelve of these mutants, as well as wild-type FOXA1, promoted an exaggerated pro-luminal differentiation program, whereas two different R219 mutants blocked luminal differentiation and activated a mesenchymal and neuroendocrine transcriptional program. Assay for transposase-accessible chromatin using sequencing (ATAC-seq) of wild-type FOXA1 and representative Wing2 and R219 mutants revealed marked, mutant-specific changes in open chromatin at thousands of genomic loci and exposed sites of FOXA1 binding and associated increases in gene expression. Of note, ATAC-seq peaks in cells expressing R219 mutants lacked the canonical core FOXA1-binding motifs (GTAAAC/T) but were enriched for a related, non-canonical motif (GTAAAG/A), which was preferentially activated by R219-mutant FOXA1 in reporter assays. Thus, FOXA1 mutations alter its pioneering function and perturb normal luminal epithelial differentiation programs, providing further support for the role of lineage plasticity in cancer progression.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/genética , Fator 3-alfa Nuclear de Hepatócito/genética , Mutação , Fenótipo , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Sítios de Ligação , Linhagem da Célula , Cromatina/genética , Cromatina/metabolismo , Progressão da Doença , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Fator 3-alfa Nuclear de Hepatócito/química , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Motivos de Nucleotídeos , Organoides/citologia , Organoides/metabolismo
10.
PLoS Genet ; 15(6): e1008178, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31199784

RESUMO

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a chronic multi-factorial disorder characterized by the immune-mediated destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells. Variations at a large number of genes influence susceptibility to spontaneous autoimmune T1D in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, one of the most frequently studied animal models for human disease. The genetic analysis of these mice allowed the identification of many insulin-dependent diabetes (Idd) loci and candidate genes, one of them being Cd101. CD101 is a heavily glycosylated transmembrane molecule which exhibits negative-costimulatory functions and promotes regulatory T (Treg) function. It is abundantly expressed on subsets of lymphoid and myeloid cells, particularly within the gastrointestinal tract. We have recently reported that the genotype-dependent expression of CD101 correlates with a decreased susceptibility to T1D in NOD.B6 Idd10 congenic mice compared to parental NOD controls. Here we show that the knockout of CD101 within the introgressed B6-derived Idd10 region increased T1D frequency to that of the NOD strain. This loss of protection from T1D was paralleled by decreased Gr1-expressing myeloid cells and FoxP3+ Tregs and an enhanced accumulation of CD4-positive over CD8-positive T lymphocytes in pancreatic tissues. As compared to CD101+/+ NOD.B6 Idd10 donors, adoptive T cell transfers from CD101-/- NOD.B6 Idd10 mice increased T1D frequency in lymphopenic NOD scid and NOD.B6 Idd10 scid recipients. Increased T1D frequency correlated with a more rapid expansion of the transferred CD101-/- T cells and a lower proportion of recipient Gr1-expressing myeloid cells in the pancreatic lymph nodes. Fewer of the Gr1+ cells in the recipients receiving CD101-/- T cells expressed CD101 and the cells had lower levels of IL-10 and TGF-ß mRNA. Thus, our results connect the Cd101 haplotype-dependent protection from T1D to an anti-diabetogenic function of CD101-expressing Tregs and Gr1-positive myeloid cells and confirm the identity of Cd101 as Idd10.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD/genética , Antígenos Ly/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Pâncreas/metabolismo , Animais , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/patologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Haplótipos/genética , Humanos , Linfonodos/metabolismo , Linfonodos/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos Knockout , Células Mieloides/imunologia , Células Mieloides/metabolismo , Pâncreas/patologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo
11.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 48(2): 273-278, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31133107

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of Bcl-2 family members on experimental autoimmune thyroiditis(EAT) and explore the pathogenesis of autoimmune thyroiditis. METHODS: Twenty-four female 4-5 week old NOD-SCID mice were randomly divided into four groups(six mice in each group): control group, high iodine group, poly(I:C) group and high iodine combined with poly(I:C) group. Control group and poly(I:C) group were fed with distilled water, while the high iodine group and high iodine combined with poly(I:C) group were supplied with 0. 05% NaI in their drinking water for 16 weeks. Poly(I:C) group and high iodine combined with poly(I:C) group received intraperitoneal injection of 100 µL poly(I:C)(1 µg/µL) at monday, wednesday and friday of the 11 th and 15 th week. Serum and thyroid were obtained at the last day of the 16 th week. The EAT model was confirmed by ELISA method and pathological HE staining, the apoptosis of thyroid cell were detected by TUNEL method and Cyt-C immunocytochemistry assay, and the mRNA levels of Bcl-2 family members in thyroid were determined by real-time qPCR method. RESULTS: EAT model was established using NOD-SCID mice through high-iodine feeding combined with poly(I:C) intraperitoneal injection. The degree of cell apoptosis and the Cyt-C expression levels were positively correlated with inflammation in thyroid follicular epithelial cells. The mRNA levels of Noxa, PUMA and Bid of high iodine group and high iodine combined with poly(I:C) group were higher than those in control and poly(I:C) groups(P<0. 05). CONCLUSION: Mitochondrial apoptosis pathway is involved in the thyroid cell apoptosis of EAT induced by high iodine, and the apoptosis may be regulated by the up-regulation of Noxa, PUMA and Bid, which belong to the pro-apoptotic members of Bcl-2 family.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Iodo/efeitos adversos , Glândula Tireoide/metabolismo , Tireoidite Autoimune/patologia , Animais , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/genética , Feminino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Proteínas/genética , RNA Mensageiro , Distribuição Aleatória , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Tireoidite Autoimune/induzido quimicamente , Tireoidite Autoimune/metabolismo , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética
12.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 145(7): 1729-1749, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31111215

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Valproic acid (VPA) is suggested to be therapeutically beneficial in combination with interferon-alpha (IFNα) in various cancers. Therefore, we examined IFNα and VPA alone and in combinations in selected AML models, examining immune regulators and intracellular signaling mechanisms involved in phospho-proteomics. METHODS: The anti-leukemic effects of IFNα and VPA were examined in vitro and in vivo. We mapped the in vitro phosphoprotein modulation by IFNα-2b and human IFNα-Le in MOLM-13 cells by IMAC/2D DIGE/MS analysis and phospho-flow cytometry, and in primary healthy and AML patient-derived PBMCs by CyTOF. In vivo, IFNα-Le and VPA efficacy were investigated in the immunodeficient NOD/Scid IL2γ-/- MOLM-13Luc+ mouse model and the syngeneic immunocompetent BNML rat model. RESULTS: IFNα-2b and IFNα-Le differed in the modulation of phospho-proteins involved in protein folding, cell stress, cell death and p-STAT6 Y641, whereas VPA and IFNα-Le shared signaling pathways involving phosphorylation of Akt (T308), ERK1/2 (T202/T204), p38 (T180/Y182), and p53 (S15). Both IFNα compounds induced apoptosis synergistically with VPA in vitro. However, in vivo, VPA monotherapy increased survival, but no benefit was observed by IFNα-Le treatment. CyTOF analysis of primary human PBMCs indicated that lack of immune-cell activation could be a reason for the absence of response to IFNα in the animal models investigated. CONCLUSIONS: IFNα-2b and IFNα-Le showed potent and synergistic anti-leukemic effects with VPA in vitro but not in leukemic mouse and rat models in vivo. The absence of IFNα immune activation in lymphocyte subsets may potentially explain the limited in vivo anti-leukemic effect of IFNα-monotherapy in AML.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/metabolismo , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Humanos , Interferon alfa-2/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Ratos , Ácido Valproico/administração & dosagem , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
13.
Cancer Sci ; 110(8): 2421-2430, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31145521

RESUMO

Although the targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib mesylate (IM) has achieved significant responses against CML in the clinical setting, a small proportion of patients fail to respond to IM treatment and their disease continues to progress, indicating resistance to IM therapy. As a secreted extracellular matrix protein, cysteine-rich protein 61 (Cyr61) plays an important role in the resistance of solid tumors to chemotherapy, but its role in CML is unclear. In the present study, we observed that Cyr61 levels were upregulated in the plasma and bone marrow (BM) of patients with CML as well as in K562 cells. This upregulation of Cyr61 significantly decreased IM-induced cellular apoptosis of K562 cells through nuclear factor kappa B/B-cell lymphoma 2 pathways. Inhibition of Cyr61 restored the chemosensitivity of K562 cells to IM both in vitro and in vivo. Thus, our results showed for the first time that Cyr61 plays an important role in regulating the chemosensitivity of CML cells to IM, suggesting that selectively targeting Cyr61 directly or its relevant effector pathways may provide potential value in improving the clinical response of patients with CML to IM treatment.


Assuntos
Proteína Rica em Cisteína 61/metabolismo , Mesilato de Imatinib/farmacologia , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Medula Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Células K562 , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Gastroenterology ; 157(3): 823-837, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31078621

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Most pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs) express an activated form of KRAS, become hypoxic and dysplastic, and are refractory to chemo and radiation therapies. To survive in the hypoxic environment, PDAC cells upregulate enzymes and transporters involved in pH regulation, including the extracellular facing carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA9). We evaluated the effect of blocking CA9, in combination with administration of gemcitabine, in mouse models of pancreatic cancer. METHODS: We knocked down expression of KRAS in human (PK-8 and PK-1) PDAC cells with small hairpin RNAs. Human and mouse (KrasG12D/Pdx1-Cre/Tp53/RosaYFP) PDAC cells were incubated with inhibitors of MEK (trametinib) or extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and some cells were cultured under hypoxic conditions. We measured levels and stability of the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 subunit alpha (HIF1A), endothelial PAS domain 1 protein (EPAS1, also called HIF2A), CA9, solute carrier family 16 member 4 (SLC16A4, also called MCT4), and SLC2A1 (also called GLUT1) by immunoblot analyses. We analyzed intracellular pH (pHi) and extracellular metabolic flux. We knocked down expression of CA9 in PDAC cells, or inhibited CA9 with SLC-0111, incubated them with gemcitabine, and assessed pHi, metabolic flux, and cytotoxicity under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Cells were also injected into either immune-compromised or immune-competent mice and growth of xenograft tumors was assessed. Tumor fragments derived from patients with PDAC were surgically ligated to the pancreas of mice and the growth of tumors was assessed. We performed tissue microarray analyses of 205 human PDAC samples to measure levels of CA9 and associated expression of genes that regulate hypoxia with outcomes of patients using the Cancer Genome Atlas database. RESULTS: Under hypoxic conditions, PDAC cells had increased levels of HIF1A and HIF2A, upregulated expression of CA9, and activated glycolysis. Knockdown of KRAS in PDAC cells, or incubation with trametinib, reduced the posttranscriptional stabilization of HIF1A and HIF2A, upregulation of CA9, pHi, and glycolysis in response to hypoxia. CA9 was expressed by 66% of PDAC samples analyzed; high expression of genes associated with metabolic adaptation to hypoxia, including CA9, correlated with significantly reduced survival times of patients. Knockdown or pharmacologic inhibition of CA9 in PDAC cells significantly reduced pHi in cells under hypoxic conditions, decreased gemcitabine-induced glycolysis, and increased their sensitivity to gemcitabine. PDAC cells with knockdown of CA9 formed smaller xenograft tumors in mice, and injection of gemcitabine inhibited tumor growth and significantly increased survival times of mice. In mice with xenograft tumors grown from human PDAC cells, oral administration of SLC-0111 and injection of gemcitabine increased intratumor acidosis and increased cell death. These tumors, and tumors grown from PDAC patient-derived tumor fragments, grew more slowly than xenograft tumors in mice given control agents, resulting in longer survival times. In KrasG12D/Pdx1-Cre/Tp53/RosaYFP genetically modified mice, oral administration of SLC-0111 and injection of gemcitabine reduced numbers of B cells in tumors. CONCLUSIONS: In response to hypoxia, PDAC cells that express activated KRAS increase expression of CA9, via stabilization of HIF1A and HIF2A, to regulate pH and glycolysis. Disruption of this pathway slows growth of PDAC xenograft tumors in mice and might be developed for treatment of pancreatic cancer.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Anidrase Carbônica IX/metabolismo , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/enzimologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/enzimologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Microambiente Tumoral , Animais , Antígenos de Neoplasias/genética , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Anidrase Carbônica IX/antagonistas & inibidores , Anidrase Carbônica IX/genética , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/farmacologia , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/genética , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Hipóxia Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Desoxicitidina/farmacologia , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Glicólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Fenótipo , Compostos de Fenilureia/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Carga Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
15.
Eur J Med Chem ; 176: 393-409, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31125894

RESUMO

Novel substituted purine isosters, were designed and synthesized as potential inhibitors of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR). The compounds were rationally designed through bioisosteric replacement of the central quinazoline core of lapatinib, an approved drug that inhibits both EGFR and HER2, another important member of this family of receptors. The new target molecules were evaluated as inhibitors of receptor phosphorylation at the cellular level, for their direct inhibitory action on the intracellular receptor kinase domain and for their cytotoxicity against the non-small cell lung cancer cell line A549 and breast cancer HCC1954, cell lines which are associated with overexpression of EGFR and HER2, respectively. The most potent derivatives were further studied for their cellular uptake levels and in vivo pharmacokinetic properties. One compound (23) displayed a noteworthy pharmacokinetic profile, and higher intracellular accumulation in comparison to lapatinib in the A549 cells, possibly due to its higher lipophilicity. This lead compound (23) was assessed for its efficacy in an EGFR positive xenograft model, where it successfully inhibited tumor growth, with a similar efficacy with that of lapatinib and with minimal phenotypic toxicity.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Lapatinib/análogos & derivados , Lapatinib/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Purinas/uso terapêutico , Receptor ErbB-2/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacocinética , Domínio Catalítico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Humanos , Lapatinib/síntese química , Lapatinib/farmacocinética , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/síntese química , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/química , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacocinética , Purinas/síntese química , Purinas/química , Purinas/farmacocinética , Receptor ErbB-2/química
16.
Nat Med ; 25(6): 988-1000, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31086348

RESUMO

An aged circulatory environment can activate microglia, reduce neural precursor cell activity and impair cognition in mice. We hypothesized that brain endothelial cells (BECs) mediate at least some of these effects. We observe that BECs in the aged mouse hippocampus express an inflammatory transcriptional profile with focal upregulation of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM1), a protein that facilitates vascular-immune cell interactions. Concomitantly, levels of the shed, soluble form of VCAM1 are prominently increased in the plasma of aged humans and mice, and their plasma is sufficient to increase VCAM1 expression in cultured BECs and the hippocampi of young mice. Systemic administration of anti-VCAM1 antibody or genetic ablation of Vcam1 in BECs counteracts the detrimental effects of plasma from aged individuals on young brains and reverses aging aspects, including microglial reactivity and cognitive deficits, in the brains of aged mice. Together, these findings establish brain endothelial VCAM1 at the blood-brain barrier as a possible target to treat age-related neurodegeneration.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/sangue , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neurais/metabolismo , Molécula 1 de Adesão de Célula Vascular/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Envelhecimento/imunologia , Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Animais , Barreira Hematoencefálica/imunologia , Barreira Hematoencefálica/metabolismo , Encéfalo/citologia , Células Cultivadas , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Feminino , Deleção de Genes , Hipocampo/citologia , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos SCID , Microglia/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neurais/citologia , Molécula 1 de Adesão de Célula Vascular/sangue , Molécula 1 de Adesão de Célula Vascular/genética , Adulto Jovem
17.
Cancer Sci ; 110(8): 2529-2539, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31119819

RESUMO

Patients with advanced colorectal cancer often are treated with systemic cytotoxic therapy using fluorouracil (5-FU), oxaliplatin, irinotecan, and FOLFOX or FOLFIRI combination protocols. Additionally, signaling pathways that are active in colorectal cancer can be therapeutically targeted. Herein, we examined whether chemotherapy impacts on WNT, MAPK and NOTCH signaling pathways in xenograft models of colon cancer. Furthermore, we tested whether combining chemotherapy with MAPK and NOTCH inhibition has superior therapeutic effects. We show that colon cancer cells with high WNT, MAPK and NOTCH activity are variably affected but generally persist in xenograft tumors under different chemotherapeutic regimens, indicating limited effects of cytotoxic therapy on oncogenic signaling pathways. Although these results provided a rationale to additionally target pathway activity, we found no significant increase in therapy response when combining MAPK and NOTCH inhibition with fluorouracil chemotherapy. We attribute this finding to a decrease in tumor cell proliferation upon MAPK and NOTCH inhibition, resulting in reduced effectiveness of cytotoxic treatment. Therapeutic benefits of combining chemotherapy with targeting of oncogenic signaling pathways must therefore be critically evaluated for patients with colorectal cancer.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Carcinogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Oncogenes/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Fluoruracila/farmacologia , Xenoenxertos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Leucovorina/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Compostos Organoplatínicos/farmacologia
18.
PLoS Pathog ; 15(5): e1007748, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31145756

RESUMO

Epstein Barr virus (EBV) is one of the most ubiquitous human pathogens in the world, persistently infecting more than 90% of the adult human population. It drives some of the strongest human CD8+ T cell responses, which can be observed during symptomatic primary infection known as infectious mononucleosis (IM). Despite high viral loads and prolonged CD8+ T cell stimulation during IM, EBV enters latency and is under lifelong immune control in most individuals that experience this disease. We investigated whether changes in T cell function, as frequently characterized by PD-1 up-regulation, occur during IM due to the prolonged exposure to high antigen levels. We readily detected the expansion of PD-1 positive CD8+ T cells together with high frequencies of Tim-3, 2B4, and KLRG1 expression during IM and in mice with reconstituted human immune system components (huNSG mice) that had been infected with a high dose of EBV. These PD-1 positive CD8+ T cells, however, retained proliferation, cytokine production, and cytotoxic abilities. Multiple subsets of CD8+ T cells expanded during EBV infection, including PD-1+Tim-3+KLRG1+ cells that express CXCR5 and TCF-1 germinal center homing and memory markers, and may also contain BATF3. Moreover, blocking the PD-1 axis compromised EBV specific immune control and resulted in virus-associated lymphomagenesis. Finally, PD-1+, Tim-3+, and KLRG1+ CD8+ T cell expansion coincided with declining viral loads during low dose EBV infection. These findings suggest that EBV infection primes PD-1 positive CD8+ T cell populations that rely on this receptor axis for the efficient immune control of this ubiquitous human tumor virus.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/imunologia , Herpesvirus Humano 4/imunologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Carga Viral/imunologia , Adulto , Animais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/virologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Citocinas/metabolismo , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/metabolismo , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/virologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID
19.
Mol Carcinog ; 58(8): 1502-1511, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31045274

RESUMO

Glioblastoma (GBM) is one of the major causes of brain cancer-related mortality worldwide. Temozolomide (TMZ) is an important agent against GBM. Acquired TMZ-resistance severely limits the chemotherapeutic effect and leads to poor GBM patient survival. To study the underlying mechanism of drug resistance, two TMZ resistant GBM cell lines, A172 and U87, were generated. In this study, the TMZ resistant cells have less apoptosis and cell-cycle change in response to the TMZ treatment. Western blot results revealed that cyclin E1 was upregulation in TMZ resistant cells. Inhibition or depletion of cyclin E1 re-sensitized the resistant cells to the TMZ treatment, which indicated the induction of cyclin E1 is the cause of TMZ resistance in GBM cells. Furthermore, we also found the expression of cyclin E1 stabilized the expression of Mcl-1, which contributes to the TMZ resistance in GBM cells. Finally, our in vivo xenograft data showed that the combination of flavopiridol, a cyclin E1/CDK2 inhibitor, overcomes the TMZ resistant by inducing higher apoptosis. Overall, our data provided a rationale to overcome the TMZ resistant in GBM treatment by inhibiting the cyclin E1 activity.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/farmacologia , Ciclina E/antagonistas & inibidores , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Glioblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Proteína de Sequência 1 de Leucemia de Células Mieloides/metabolismo , Proteínas Oncogênicas/antagonistas & inibidores , Temozolomida/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Ciclina E/metabolismo , Feminino , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Glioblastoma/genética , Glioblastoma/patologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Transplante de Neoplasias , Proteínas Oncogênicas/metabolismo , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Transplante Heterólogo
20.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2197, 2019 05 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31097693

RESUMO

In colorectal cancer (CRC), aberrant Wnt signalling is essential for tumorigenesis and maintenance of cancer stem cells. However, how other oncogenic pathways converge on Wnt signalling to modulate stem cell homeostasis in CRC currently remains poorly understood. Using large-scale compound screens in CRC, we identify MEK1/2 inhibitors as potent activators of Wnt/ß-catenin signalling. Targeting MEK increases Wnt activity in different CRC cell lines and murine intestine in vivo. Truncating mutations of APC generated by CRISPR/Cas9 strongly synergize with MEK inhibitors in enhancing Wnt responses in isogenic CRC models. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that MEK inhibition induces a rapid downregulation of AXIN1. Using patient-derived CRC organoids, we show that MEK inhibition leads to increased Wnt activity, elevated LGR5 levels and enrichment of gene signatures associated with stemness and cancer relapse. Our study demonstrates that clinically used MEK inhibitors inadvertently induce stem cell plasticity, revealing an unknown side effect of RAS pathway inhibition.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Via de Sinalização Wnt/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína da Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/genética , Proteína da Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/metabolismo , Animais , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Biópsia , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Carcinogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Plasticidade Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Regulação para Baixo , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Intestinos/citologia , Intestinos/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Proteômica , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto , Proteínas ras/metabolismo
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