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1.
Acta Histochem ; 124(2): 151856, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35077998

RESUMO

Neuroblastoma is a metastatic brain tumor particularly common in children. The cure rate is below 50% for patients of high-risk condition. Novel therapeutic agents and approaches are needed to improve the cure rate. Tumor necrosis factor-related and apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a promising proapoptotic factor that rapidly induces apoptosis preferentially in transformed and cancerous cells. Unfortunately, the common TRAIL resistance in cancers has hampered the clinical application of the ligand. Previously we prepared a novel TRAIL-armed ER derived nanosomal agent (ERN-T) that overcomes TRAIL resistance in some cancer lines when combined with a synthetic antagonist of inhibitors of apoptosis proteins (IAPs), AZD5582. However, how AZD5582 sensitizes cancer cells to ERN-T remains not well understood. In this study we continued to test the therapeutic efficacy of the combinatory therapy of ERN-T and AZD5582 on neuroblastoma, aiming to reveal the molecular mechanism underlying the synergism between AZD5582 and ERN-T. The obtained data revealed that ERN-Ts overcame TRAIL resistance and showed significant cytotoxicity on the resistant neuroblastoma line SH-SH5Y when combined with AZD5582 whilst sparing normal cells. The combination of low doses of ERN-Ts and AZD5582 induced intensive apoptosis in SH-SY5Y but not in normal skin fibroblasts (NSFs). Importantly we discovered that TRAIL sensitization in SH-SY5Y was associated with the concomitant downregulation of antiapoptotic factors cFLIP, MCL-1 and IAPs and upregulation of proapoptotic protein BAX and the death receptor 5 (DR5) by the cotreatment of ERN-T and AZD5582. In vivo study demonstrated that the combination of ERN-T and AZD5582 constituted a highly effective and safe therapy for subcutaneous SH-SY5Y xenograft neuroblastoma in nude mice. In conclusion, we identified that the concomitant regulation of both antiapoptotic and proapoptotic factors and DR5 is an essential molecular mechanism for overcoming TRAIL resistance in SH-SY5Y and the combination of ERN-T and AZD5582 potentially constitutes a novel therapeutic strategy, which is highly effective and safe for neuroblastoma.


Assuntos
Neuroblastoma , Ligante Indutor de Apoptose Relacionado a TNF , Alcinos , Animais , Apoptose , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Neuroblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Neuroblastoma/metabolismo , Neuroblastoma/patologia , Oligopeptídeos , Ligante Indutor de Apoptose Relacionado a TNF/farmacologia , Ligante Indutor de Apoptose Relacionado a TNF/uso terapêutico
2.
Biol Pharm Bull ; 45(3): 309-315, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34937830

RESUMO

Anti-angiogenic gene therapy is a promising strategy in treating cancer. Endostatin and angiostatin are widely used in tumor anti-angiogenesis therapy. Our previous studies have shown that the BDS-hEA, a baculovirus long-term expressing the fusion protein of human endostatin and angiostatin, has a favorable effect in inhibiting the growth and angiogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma. The purpose of this study was to further investigate its synergistic antitumor efficiency in combination with low-dose chemotherapeutic gemcitabine (GEM) on the subcutaneous hepatocellular carcinoma xenograft model in nude mice. The results showed that the combined group significantly inhibited (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01 or p < 0.001) the growth of tumor weight and volume, reduced the expression of ki67 (cell proliferation marker), CD31 (angiogenic marker) and Matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9, tumor invasion and metastasis marker) and increased the apoptosis of tumor cells compared with the monotherapy and control groups, respectively. Synergistic index results showed that BDS-hEA combined with GEM had a synergistic effect in inhibiting tumor volume, proliferation, microvessel density, metastasis and promoting tumor apoptosis. Furthermore, there were no metastatic nodules and obvious pathological changes in liver tissue of the combined group, and the serum liver function indicators aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total bilirubin (T-BIL), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) were significantly reduced (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01 or p < 0.001) in the BDS-hEA or GEM groups compared with the control group. Notably, the combined therapy showed lower levels of liver function indicators than the GEM group. These data support the view that the combination of BDS-hEA and GEM has a synergistic anti-tumor properties and can reduce the damage of liver to certain extent.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Inibidores da Angiogênese/uso terapêutico , Angiostatinas/genética , Angiostatinas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Baculoviridae , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Endostatinas/genética , Endostatinas/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus
3.
BMC Mol Cell Biol ; 23(1): 37, 2022 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35933378

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endometriosis is one of the most common gynecological diseases, and seriously reduces the quality of life of patients. However, the pathogenesis of this disease is unclear. Therefore, more studies are needed to elucidate its pathogenesis. Our previous publication found that the Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) signaling pathway was activated in endometriosis. This study tested whether SHH signaling in endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) was critical for the pathogenesis of endometriosis. METHODS: To examine the effect of inhibiting the SHH signaling pathway on endometriosis, we first isolated ESCs from eutopic endometrial tissues of patients with or without endometriosis and identified the extracted cells by morphological observation and immunofluorescence. Then, we treated ESCs with the GLI inhibitor GANT61 and used CCK-8, wound healing and invasion assays to detect cell activities, such as proliferation, invasion and metastasis. Furthermore, we detected the expression of key proteins and proliferation markers of the SHH signaling pathway in the lesions of nude mice using immunochemistry. RESULTS: We demonstrated that higher concentrations of GANT61 decreased the proliferation rate and migration distance of ESCs. We observed that GANT61 inhibited the invasion of ESCs. In addition, blockage of the SHH signaling pathway significantly reduced cell proliferation in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggested that inhibition of the SHH pathway is involved in cell proliferation and invasive growth in the pathogenesis of endometriosis.


Assuntos
Endometriose , Animais , Endometriose/metabolismo , Endometriose/patologia , Feminino , Proteínas Hedgehog , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Qualidade de Vida , Transdução de Sinais
4.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1221: 340126, 2022 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35934362

RESUMO

Carboxylesterase 2 (CES2) is a serine-type hydrolase that plays important roles in xenobiotic detoxification and lipid metabolism. Its abnormal expression is highly associated with diseases such as diabetes and carcinoma. To date, intense attention has been attracted to CES2 targeted drug discovery and disease diagnosis. Thus, to further explore the physiological function of CES2 is of great importance. However, until now, most medical research on CES2 function and activity assays is still dependent on conventional methods, which could hardly specify CES2 activity. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop efficient tools for selective measurement and sensing of endogenous CES2 in complicated biological system. In this study, we report the design and construction of an enzyme-activated fluorescent probe for CES2 activity sensing. The acquired probe DXMB was characterized as a highly specific and sensitive fluorescent probe for CES2 and possessed superior binding affinity, overall catalytic efficiency, and reaction velocity when compared with the reported CES2 probes. By application of DXMB into living system, it was capable of sensing endogenous CES2 in living cells, dynamic monitoring CES2 in zebrafish development, and visualizing tissue distribution of CES2 in nude mice. Most importantly, abnormally elevated CES2 activity in the intestine of diabetic model mice was first revealed, while significantly decreased CES2 activity in the liver was validated by DXMB. These results indicated that DXMB could serve as a vital tool for further CES2-related biological and medical research.


Assuntos
Corantes Fluorescentes , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus
5.
Biomater Adv ; 136: 212764, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35929292

RESUMO

We used reduced graphene oxide (rGO), which has two times higher photothermal conversion efficiency than graphene oxide (GO), as a photothermal agent for cancer photothermal therapy (PTT). By conjugating a photosensitizer IR780 to rGO, the IR780-rGO could be endowed with reactive oxygen species (ROSs) generation ability for concurrent photodynamic therapy (PDT). The IR780-rGO was coated with hyaluronic acid (HA) by electrostatic interaction to facilitate its intracellular uptake by U87 glioblastoma cells. The IR780-rGO/HA was loaded with doxorubicin (DOX) for chemotherapy (CT), to develop a pH-responsive drug delivery nano-platform for targeted multimodal cancer CT/PTT/PDT. We fully characterized the properties of all nanocomposites during the synthesis steps. The high loading efficiency of DOX on IR780-rGO-HA provides 3 mg/mg drug loading, while IR780-rGO-HA/DOX shows 3 times higher drug release at endosomal pH value (pH 5) than at pH 7.4. The mechanism for PTT/PDT was confirmed from the ability of IR780-rGO-HA to induce time-dependent temperature rise, synthesis of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and generation of intracellular ROSs, after exposure to 808 nm near infrared (NIR) laser light. The nano-vehicle IR780-rGO-HA shows high biocompatibility toward 3T3 fibroblast and U87 cancer cell lines, as well as enhanced intracellular uptake by U87 through active targeting. This translates into increased cytotoxicity of IR780-rGO-HA/DOX, by lowering the drug half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) from 0.7 to 0.46 µg/mL. This IC50 is further decreased to 0.1 µg/mL by irradiation with NIR laser for 3 min at 1.5 W/cm2. The elevated cancer cell killing mechanism was supported from flow cytometry analysis, where the highest cell apoptosis/necrosis rate was observed in combination CT/PTT/PDT. Using xenograft tumor model created by subcutaneous implantation of U87 cells in nude mice, IR780-rGO-HA/DOX delivered through intravenous (IV) injection and followed with 808 nm laser treatment for 5 min at 1.5 W/cm2 results in the lowest tumor growth rate, with negligible change of tumor volume from its original value at the end 20-day observation period. The therapeutic efficacy was supported from inhibited cell proliferation rate, increased cell apoptosis rate, and increased production of HSP70 from immunohistochemical staining of tumor tissue slices. The safety of the NIR-assisted multimodal cancer treatment could be confirmed from non-significant change of body weight and hematological parameters of blood sample. Taken together, we conclude that IV delivery of IR780-rGO-HA/DOX plus NIR laser treatment is an effective nanomedicine approach for combination cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Fotoquimioterapia , Animais , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Grafite , Humanos , Ácido Hialurônico/química , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico
6.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 13(1): 398, 2022 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35927718

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Propofol is a commonly used anesthetic. However, its effects on glioma growth and recurrence remain largely unknown. METHODS: The effect of propofol on glioma growth was demonstrated by a series of in vitro and in vivo experiments (spheroidal formation assay, western blotting, and xenograft model). The acyl-biotin exchange method and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry assays identified palmitoylation proteins mediated by the domain containing the Asp-His-His-Cys family. Western blotting, co-immunoprecipitation, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, co-immunoprecipitation, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and luciferase reporter assays were used to explore the mechanisms of the γ-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABAAR)/Src/ZDHHC5/EZH2 signaling axis in the effects of propofol on glioma stem cells (GSCs). RESULTS: We found that treatment with a standard dose of propofol promoted glioma growth in nude mice compared with control or low-dose propofol. Propofol-treated GSCs also led to larger tumor growth in nude mice than did vector-treated tumors. Mechanistically, propofol enhances the stem-like properties of gliomas through GABAAR to increase Src expression, thereby enhancing the palmitoylation of ZDHHC5-mediated EZH2 and Oct4 expression. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate that propofol may promote glioma growth through the GABAAR-Src-ZDHHC5-EZH2 mechanism and are helpful in guiding the clinical use of propofol to obtain a better patient prognosis after the surgical resection of tumors.


Assuntos
Glioma , Propofol , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Proteína Potenciadora do Homólogo 2 de Zeste/metabolismo , Glioma/patologia , Humanos , Lipoilação , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Propofol/metabolismo , Propofol/farmacologia , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/metabolismo , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/farmacologia
7.
Anal Cell Pathol (Amst) ; 2022: 3584445, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35942173

RESUMO

Background: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a frequent disease with limited curative methods. This study is aimed at investigating the role and mechanism of Radix Actinidia chinensis (RAC) on RCC. Methods: The ingredients, target, and crucial pathways of RAC in RCC therapy were analyzed by network pharmacology. Then, an RCC animal model was established by subcutaneously injecting A498 cell suspension to BALB/c nude mice. After 1 week, the mice in the RAC-L/M/H groups were administered with RAC at 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg/d, respectively. The histopathology of the tumor was evaluated. The contents of tumor inflammatory cytokines and serum oxidative stress factors were detected by ELISA. The apoptosis of tumor tissues was assessed by TUNEL staining. The expressions of apoptosis-, proliferate-, autophagy-, and MAPK-related proteins were measured. Results: There were 13 active ingredients, and 20 RCC-relevant targets were selected from RAC; KEGG pathway indicated that these targets were enriched in the PI3K/AKT/mTOR and MAPK pathway. In in vivo experiments, RAC not only obviously damaged tumor cells and decreased the release of inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress factors but also enhanced the apoptosis of the tumor cell in RCC mice. Besides, the expressions of apoptosis-, proliferate-, autophagy-, PI3K/AKT/mTOR path-, and MAPK path-related proteins were all affected by RAC. Conclusion: RAC attenuated RCC by regulating inflammation response, oxidative stress, apoptosis, proliferation, and autophagy, and its effects were partly linked to the PI3K/AKT/mTOR and MAPK pathway, which indicated that RAC may be a candidate drug for RCC.


Assuntos
Actinidia , Carcinoma de Células Renais , Neoplasias Renais , Actinidia/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Citocinas , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Farmacologia em Rede , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
8.
Technol Cancer Res Treat ; 21: 15330338221114505, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35929141

RESUMO

Among all malignancies worldwide, gastric cancer is the fifth most common cancer with the third highest mortality rate. One of the main reasons for the low survival rate is the recurrence and metastasis that occurs in many patients after surgery. Numerous studies have shown that abnormal TRIM33 expression is associated with the progression of malignant tumors. TRIM33 can function either as a tumor suppressor or tumor promoter in different cancers. Our data showed that TRIM33 was highly expressed in stomach cancer, and in human gastric cancer tissues, low expression of TRIM33 was associated with poor prognosis in patients with gastric cancer. To clarify the function of TRIM33 in survival and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in gastric cancer cells, we investigated the effect of TRIM33 knockdown in several gastric cancer cell lines. Downregulation of TRIM33 in BGC-823 and SGC-7901 cells enhanced the proliferation, colony formation, and migratory ability of these gastric cancer cells. It also promoted epithelial-mesenchymal transition; transfection of cells with siRNA targeting TRIM33 led to the upregulation of vimentin and N-Cadherin expression, and downregulation of E-Cadherin expression. Meanwhile, the transforming growth factor beta pathway was activated: levels of transforming growth factor beta were elevated and the expressions of p-Smad2, Smad2, Smad3, and Smad4 were activated. To confirm the role of TRIM33 in vivo, a xenograft model was established in nude mice. Immunohistochemical analysis identified that the protein levels of TRIM33, p-Smad2, Smad2, Smad3, Smad4, vimentin, and N-Cadherin were increased, and E-Cadherin levels were decreased, in xenograft tumors from the si-TRIM33 group. Taken together, these results suggest that TRIM33 may be a potential marker for the diagnosis and prognosis of gastric cancer. Furthermore, it may also serve as a novel target for gastric cancer treatment.


Assuntos
Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Neoplasias Gástricas , Animais , Caderinas/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/genética , Regulação para Baixo , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/genética , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Vimentina/genética
9.
Channels (Austin) ; 16(1): 159-166, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35942515

RESUMO

Ovarian cancer (OC) is a highly malignant cancer with great metastatic potential. Here we aimed to investigate the role of Piezo1, a gene related to the mechanical environment of the tumor, in promoting the metastasis of OC. We performed Piezo1 knockdown in A-1847 cells using small hairpin RNAs, and the cells were inoculated subcutaneously in nude mice. Piezo1 knockdown decreased the tumor growth rate of OC tumor xenografts in mice and reduced cell migration in vitro. Metastasis in the lung was also attenuated after Piezo1 knockdown as revealed by HE staining of the lung tissues, which was concomitant with downregulation of E-Cadherin and vimentin and upregulation of N-Cadherin analyzed using western blot analysis, suggesting suppressed epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Migration of Piezo1-knockdown cells was also analyzed for their migratory capabilities using the scratch assay. We also analyzed the key proteins in the Hippo/YAP signaling pathway using western blot after treating A-1847 and 3AO cells with a Piezo1 inducer, Yoda1. Piezo1 inducer Yoda1 activated Hippo/YAP signal in OC cells. In conclusion, Piezo1 is overexpressed in OC tissues and contributes to OC tumor growth and metastasis. Suppression of Piezo1 is a potential therapeutic strategy for OC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ovarianas , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Feminino , Humanos , Canais Iônicos , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia
10.
Int J Hyperthermia ; 39(1): 888-896, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35848416

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Angiogenesis occurs during tumor progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after insufficient radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Arsenic trioxide (ATO) shows promising therapeutic potential in advanced HCC. Whether ATO regulates angiogenesis and can be used to prevent tumor progression in HCC after insufficient RFA is still unknown. METHODS: Insufficient RFA was simulated using a water bath. MTT assay and tube formation assay were used to evaluate the effects of ATO on viability and proangiogenic abilities of SMMC7721 and HepG2 cells after insufficient RFA in vitro. The molecular changes with the treatment of ATO were evaluated through Western blot. An ectopic nude mice model was used to evaluate the effect of ATO on the tumor of SMMC7721 cells in vivo after insufficient RFA. RESULTS: In this study, HepG2 and SMMC7721 cells after insufficient RFA (named HepG2-H and SMMC7721-H, respectively) showed higher proliferation than the untreated cells and promoted tube formation of endothelial cells in a paracrine manner. ATO eliminated the difference in proliferation between untreated and RFA-treated cells and suppressed angiogenesis induced by HCC cells after insufficient RFA through the Ang-1 (angiopoietin-1)/Ang-2 (angiopoietin-2)/Tie2 pathway. Hif-1α overexpression abolished the inhibitory effect of ATO on angiogenesis in HCC after insufficient RFA. ATO inhibited tumor growth and angiogenesis in HCC after insufficient RFA. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that ATO blocks the paracrine signaling of Ang-1 and Ang-2 by inhibiting p-Akt/Hif-1α and further suppresses the angiogenesis of HCC after insufficient RFA.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Ablação por Radiofrequência , Angiopoietina-1/uso terapêutico , Angiopoietina-2/uso terapêutico , Animais , Trióxido de Arsênio/farmacologia , Trióxido de Arsênio/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Neovascularização Patológica/tratamento farmacológico , Neovascularização Patológica/patologia , Ablação por Radiofrequência/métodos
11.
Cell Death Dis ; 13(7): 602, 2022 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35831279

RESUMO

Sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) and sphingosine kinase (SphK2) are both important therapeutic targets of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). SKI-349 is a novel, highly efficient and small molecular SphK1/2 dual inhibitor. Here in primary human NSCLC cells and immortalized cell lines, SKI-349 potently inhibited cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, migration and viability. The dual inhibitor induced mitochondrial depolarization and apoptosis activation in NSCLC cells, but it was non-cytotoxic to human lung epithelial cells. SKI-349 inhibited SphK activity and induced ceramide accumulation in primary NSCLC cells, without affecting SphK1/2 expression. SKI-349-induced NSCLC cell death was attenuated by sphingosine-1-phosphate and by the SphK activator K6PC-5, but was potentiated by the short-chain ceramide C6. Moreover, SKI-349 induced Akt-mTOR inactivation, JNK activation, and oxidative injury in primary NSCLC cells. In addition, SKI-349 decreased bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4) expression and downregulated BRD4-dependent genes (Myc, cyclin D1 and Klf4) in primary NSCLC cells. At last, SKI-349 (10 mg/kg) administration inhibited NSCLC xenograft growth in nude mice. Akt-mTOR inhibition, JNK activation, oxidative injury and BRD4 downregulation were detected in SKI-349-treated NSCLC xenograft tissues. Taken together, targeting SphK1/2 by SKI-349 potently inhibits NSCLC cell growth in vitro and in vivo.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Fosfotransferases (Aceptor do Grupo Álcool) , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/enzimologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Ceramidas/metabolismo , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/enzimologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Fosfotransferases (Aceptor do Grupo Álcool)/antagonistas & inibidores , Fosfotransferases (Aceptor do Grupo Álcool)/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Esfingosina , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR , Fatores de Transcrição , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
12.
Eur J Histochem ; 66(3)2022 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35785916

RESUMO

Traditional Chinese medicines are gaining more attention as promising adjuvant agents for conventional chemotherapy. Recent studies have shown that lobetyolin (LBT) is one of the main bioactive compounds of traditional Chinese medicines and it exhibits anticancer activity in several types of cancer. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the mechanism by which LBT inhibits lung cancer. A549 human lung cancer cells were treated with LBT. In addition, A549 cells were injected into Balc/b nude mice to establish model of lung cancer. The mice were treated with cisplatin (DDP) or LBT alone or in combination, and tumor growth was monitored. Protein levels of E-cadherin, vimentin and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) were detected. We found that the combination of LBT and DDP showed stronger effect to inhibit the proliferation of A549 cells compared to LBT or DDP treatment alone. Wound healing assay showed that the ratio of wound healing was significantly lower in LBT group and DDP group and was the lowest in LBT+DDP group. Transwell invasion assay showed that the invasion ability of A549 cells was the weakest in LBT+DDP group. Protein levels of E-cadherin were the highest while those of vimentin and MMP9 were the lowest in A549 cells treated with LBT+DDP. Nude mouse xenograft tumor model showed that the combination of LBT with DDP had the highest efficacy to inhibit the growth of lung cancer, and tumor tissues of mice treated with LBT+DDP had the lowest expression of vimentin and MMP9 and the highest expression of E-cadherin. In conclusion, LBT significantly enhances the efficacy of chemotherapy on lung cancer, and the mechanism may be related to the inhibition of epithelial-mesenchymal transition.


Assuntos
Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Animais , Caderinas , Proliferação de Células , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Poli-Inos , Vimentina
13.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 214: 114503, 2022 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35779413

RESUMO

Human epidermal growth factor receptors HER1 and HER2, overexpressed in non-small cell lung cancer, colorectal cancer, liver cancer, are key regulators of tumor cells proliferation, invasion and survival. Many antibody- or peptide-based fluorescent probes targeted to HER1/HER2 are under active clinical evaluation. However, the effective small-molecule near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent probes are still lacking. Herein, with the strategy of drug repurposing, we developed a series of HER1/HER2-targeted probes YQ-H (01-07) composed of fluorophore (a cyanine dye, MPA), linker unit and targeted unit (lapatinib, LAP). The synthesized probes were evaluated in vitro and in vivo tumor specificity/affinity. Specially, the probe YQ-H-06 exhibited optimal pharmacokinetic property and tumor/normal tissue ratio (T/N) in tumor-bearing mice. Furthermore, we evaluated the targeting capability of YQ-H-06 in orthotopic colorectal cancer and orthotopic hepatic carcinoma mice. It was indicated that YQ-H-06 had the characteristic of great biosafety, favorable pH and chemical stability, as well as provided excellent tumor contrast in orthotopic murine tumor models. The NIR fluorescent probe YQ-H-06 will shed light on tumor detection and fluorescence-guided surgery.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Colorretais , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Humanos , Lapatinib , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus
14.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 12363, 2022 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35859006

RESUMO

The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a critical process by which cancer cells acquire malignant features. However, the molecular mechanism and functional implications of EMT and the mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET) in tumor progression remain elusive. In this study, we established two aggressive cancer cell lines from the human oral cancer cell line SAS, mesenchymal-like SAS-m4 and epithelial-like SAS-δ. SAS-δ is a revertant cell obtained by inducing MET in SAS-m4. SAS-δ, but not SAS-m4, exhibited abnormal cell growth, including piled-up overgrowth and invasive tumor formation in the tongues of nude mice, suggesting that SAS-δ represented more advanced cancer cells than the parental SAS cells. EMT-related transcriptional factor SLUG is phosphorylated at T208 and partly stabilized by the Hippo pathway kinases, LATS1 and LATS2. Depletion of SLUG promoted the invasive activity of SAS-δ by increasing the protein levels of LATS1/2 and the proportion of the phosphorylated form among total SLUG protein. Our results suggest that the LATS1/2-SLUG axis regulates the transition of SAS cells to the advanced stage via repeated switching between EMT and MET. Therefore, an anti-SLUG-pT208 antibody would be valuable not alone as a malignant tumor marker antibody but also as a prognostic tool for patients with malignant disease.


Assuntos
Estimulador Tireóideo de Ação Prolongada , Neoplasias Bucais , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição da Família Snail/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Neoplasias Bucais/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Fatores de Transcrição da Família Snail/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor
15.
Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi ; 57(7): 519-529, 2022 Jul 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35902786

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the inhibitory effect of combined strategy of poly adenosine diphosphate ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitor and interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) inhibitor on homologous recombination deficiency (HRD)-proficient ovarian cancer cells. Methods: (1) HRD-proficient ovarian cancer cell lines OVCAR3 and CAOV3 were treated with PARP inhibitor olaparib. Screening by RNA sequencing analysis, the expression level of IL-1ß was validated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and western blot. (2) The dose-response curves of IL-1ß inhibitor diacerein were evaluated by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assays in OVCAR3 and CAOV3 cells. CCK-8 assays were further applied to determine the viabilities of OVCAR3 and CAOV3 cells. (3) To evaluate the synergistic effects of olaparib and IL-1ß inhibitor in vivo, the transplanted ovarian cancer model was constructed. BALB/c-nude mice (n=16) were injected intraperitoneally with 1×107 OVACR3 cells labelled with luciferase (OVCAR3-Luc). Immunohistochemistry (IHC) assay was performed to determine nuclear antigen associated with cell proliferation (Ki-67) expression. (4) Blood routine tests, kidney and liver function tests were performed to analyze the toxic reaction of different drug treatments. The potential drug-induced injuries of vital organs including heart, liver, spleen, lungs and kidneys of nude mice were determined by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining. Results: (1) The RNA sequencing results showed that the mRNA level of IL-1ß was the most significantly increased among the 25 differentially expressed genes in OVCAR3 cells treated with olaparib, compared to the negative control group. Olaparib treatment significantly promoted the secretion and expression of IL-1ß protein in both OVACR3 and CAOV3 cells by ELISA [(36.2±3.5) and (49.5±3.5) pg/ml, respectively; all P<0.001] and western bolt (2.87±0.37 and 2.05±0.08, respectively; all P<0.01). (2) The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of IL-1ß inhibitor was determined as follows: 75 µmol/L for OVACR3 cells and 100 µmol/L for CAOV3 cells. The treatments were divided into four groups including control group, olaparib monotherapy group, IL-1ß inhibitor monotherapy group and the combination therapy group. The cell viabilities of each group in OVCAR3 and CAOV3 were determined by CCK-8 assay. The data in each group were showed as follows for OVCAR3 and CAOV3 cells: (100.0±0.4)% and (100.0±3.5)% in control group; (63.1±6.2)% and (63.3±3.8)% in olaparib monotherapy group; (61.6±4.7)% and (63.8±3.5)% in IL-1ß inhibitor monotherapy group; and (32.9±5.2)% and (30.0±1.3)% in the combination therapy group. The viability assay showed that the combined strategy exhibited a significant inhibition effect on OVACR3 and CAOV3 cells, compared to the monotherapy group and the control group (all P<0.01). (3) All mice with transplanted tumors of HRD-proficient ovarian cancer cells were randomly divided into four groups, and treated with four different treatments as mentioned above, respectively. After 4 weeks (on day 29), the vivo fluorescence imaging were determined. The results showed that the amount of fluorescence of transplanted tumors was mostly decreased in the combination therapy group [(0.5±0.4)×1010 p/s], compared to the control group [(4.2±1.0)×1010 p/s] or the groups treated with any single drug [(3.1±0.9)×1010, (2.2±0.9)×1010 p/s; all P<0.05]. Mice were then sacrificed under anesthesia, and all transplanted tumors detached and weighed for further investigation. The weight of transplanted tumors was significantly decreased in the combination therapy group [(0.09±0.03) g], compared to that in control group [(0.25±0.05) g] or groups treated with any single drug [(0.17±0.03), (0.19±0.04) g; all P<0.05]. The measurement of the expression of Ki-67 showed that it was significantly decreased in the combination therapy group (0.33±0.10), compared to that in the control group (1.00±0.20) or monotherapy groups (0.76±0.07, 0.77±0.12; all P<0.05). (4) There were no significant differences of body weights, blood routine test, renal and liver function tests among mice with different treatments (all P>0.05). Moreover, no significant injuries were observed in the vital organs among the four groups. Conclusions: The combination of olaparib and IL-1ß inhibitor synergistically exhibits significant cytotoxicity in HRD-proficient ovarian cancer cells. Moreover, the blood routine and blood biochemistry results confirmed the biosafety of the combination of olaparib and IL-1ß inhibitor.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ovarianas , Animais , Apoptose , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Recombinação Homóloga , Humanos , Antígeno Ki-67 , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Ftalazinas , Piperazinas , Sincalida/genética , Sincalida/uso terapêutico
16.
Mol Imaging ; 2022: 5447290, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35903245

RESUMO

Background: Early detection and complete resection are important prognostic factors for esophageal cancer (EC). Intraoperative molecular imaging (IMI) using tumor-targeted tracers is effective in many cancer types. However, there are no EC-specific IMI tracers. We sought to test a cathepsin activity-based tracer (VGT-309) for EC resection. Methods: Murine (AKR, HNM007) and human (OE19) EC cell lines were screened for cathepsin expression by western blotting. In vitro binding affinity of VGT-309 was evaluated by fluorescence microscopy. Flank tumor models were developed by injecting EC cells into the flanks of BALB/c or athymic nude mice. Mice pretreated with a cathepsin inhibitor (JPM-OEt) were used to confirm on target binding. Animals were injected with 2 mg/kg VGT-309, underwent IMI, and were sacrificed 24 hours after injection. Results: Cathepsins B, L, S, and X were expressed by EC cell lines, and all cell lines were labeled in vitro with VGT-309. Fluorescent signal was eliminated when cells were pretreated with JPM-OEt. On biodistribution analysis, VGT-309 accumulated in the liver, kidneys, and spleen without other organ involvement. VGT-309 selectively accumulated in flank allografts and xenografts, with mean signal-to-background ratio of 5.21 (IQR: 4.18-6.73) for flank allografts and 4.34 (IQR: 3.75-5.02) for flank xenografts. Fluorescence microscopy and histopathological analysis confirmed the selective accumulation of the tracer in tumors compared to background normal tissues. Conclusions: VGT-309 is an effective tracer for IMI of esophageal cancer. There is potential for clinical translation both as an adjunct to endoscopic detection and for complete removal of disease during esophagectomy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Esofágicas , Animais , Catepsinas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Neoplasias Esofágicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Esofágicas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Esofágicas/cirurgia , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Imagem Molecular , Distribuição Tecidual
17.
Mol Imaging ; 2022: 3748315, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35903247

RESUMO

Purpose: This study is aimed at investigating the feasibility of cetuximab (Cet) F(ab')2 fragment- (Cet-F(ab')2-) based single photon emission tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) for assessing the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression in digestive tumor mouse models. Methods: Cet-F(ab')2 was synthesized using immunoglobulin G-degrading enzyme of Streptococcus pyogenes (IdeS) protease and purified with protein A beads. The product and its in vitro stability in normal saline and 1% bovine serum albumin were analyzed with sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The EGFR expression in the human colon tumor cell line HT29 and the human stomach tumor cell line MGC803 were verified using western blotting and immunocytochemistry. Cet-F(ab')2 was conjugated with 5(6)-carboxytetramethylrhodamine succinimidyl ester to demonstrate its binding ability to the MGC803 and HT29 cells. Cet-F(ab')2 was conjugated with NHS-MAG3 for 99mTc radiolabeling. The best imaging time was determined using a biodistribution assay at 1, 4, 16, and 24 h after injection of the 99mTc-MAG3-Cet-F(ab')2 tracer. Furthermore, 99mTc-MAG3-Cet-F(ab')2 SPECT/CT was performed on MGC803 and HT29 tumor-bearing nude mice. Results: HT29 cells had low EGFR expression while MGC803 cell exhibited the high EGFR expression. Cet-F(ab')2 and intact cetuximab showed similar high binding ability to MGC803 cells but not to HT29 cells. Cet-F(ab')2 and 99mTc-MAG3-Cet-F(ab')2 showed excellent in vitro stability. The biodistribution assay showed that the target to nontarget ratio was the highest at 16 h (17.29 ± 5.72, n = 4) after tracer injection. The 99mTc-MAG3-Cet-F(ab')2-based SPECT/CT imaging revealed rapid and sustained tracer uptake in MGC803 tumors rather than in HT29 tumors with high image contrast, which was consistent with the results in vitro. Conclusion: SPECT/CT imaging using 99mTc-MAG3-Cet-F(ab')2 enables the evaluation of the EGFR expression in murine EGFR-positive tumors, indicating the potential utility for noninvasive evaluation of the EGFR expression in tumors.


Assuntos
Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cetuximab/metabolismo , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Distribuição Tecidual , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
18.
STAR Protoc ; 3(3): 101585, 2022 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35880129

RESUMO

This protocol details the steps for preparation of a recently developed bioink, named YM-MA, which is based on methacrylate anhydride-modified yeast mannan. A light-assisted 3D bioprinting is performed to analyze the printability of YM-MA bioink. We describe how cell experiments, animal models of subcutaneous implantation in a Sprague Dawley rat model, and nude mice are used to evaluate the cytocompatibility, histocompatibility, and chondrogenesis of YM-MA bioink. This protocol provides a versatile strategy to develop bioinks of polysaccharides with chemical modification sites such as hydroxyl group. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Huang et al. (2021).


Assuntos
Bioimpressão , Animais , Bioimpressão/métodos , Mananas , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Impressão Tridimensional , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos , Tecidos Suporte
19.
Eur J Med Res ; 27(1): 135, 2022 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35897048

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Circular RNAs (circRNA) are important in mediating tumor progression, but their roles in endometrial carcinoma (EC) are not fully understood yet. Many circRNAs are dysregulated and may contribute to EC progression. The functions of circWDR26 in EC remain unknown. METHODS: The expression of circWDR26 in EC and adjacent normal tissues, and cell lines was determined by qPCR. The proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and invasion of EC cells was examined by CCK-8 assay, flow cytometry, wound healing assay and Transwell assay. The interaction between circWDR26, MSH2 and miR-212-3p was determined by luciferase assay. EC cells were inoculated into nude mice and tumor burden was determined by measuring tumor dimensions, size, and weight. The proliferative marker Ki67 in EC tissue was determined by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: The expression of circWDR26 in EC tissues or cell lines was higher than in the normal tissue or endometrial epithelial cells. Downregulation of circWDR26 resulted in attenuated proliferation, increased apoptosis, reduced migration and invasion of EC cells. Mechanistically, circWDR26 targeted and suppressed the expression of miR-212-3p. We further found that MSH2 was the novel target of miR-212-3p and was upregulated by circWDR26 via inhibiting miR-212-3p. In vivo experiment demonstrated that circWDR26 was essential for EC tumor growth. CONCLUSION: circWDR26 promoted EC progression by regulating miR-212-3p/MSH2 axis and provided novel insights into anti-cancer treatment.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Endométrio , MicroRNAs , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS , RNA Circular , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/genética , Neoplasias do Endométrio/genética , Neoplasias do Endométrio/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , MicroRNAs/genética , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS/genética , RNA Circular/genética
20.
World J Surg Oncol ; 20(1): 241, 2022 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35897096

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypoxia is the hallmark of the tumor microenvironment (TME) and plays a critical role during the progress of tumor development. A variety of microRNAs (miRNAs) transmitted by tumor-derived exosomes were involved in intercellular communication. We aimed to elucidate the precise mechanism by which tumor cell-derived exosomes promote lung cancer development by affecting macrophage polarization under hypoxic conditions. METHODS: CD163 signal in tumor tissue from lung cancer patients was detected by immunohistochemical (IHC). The M2 polarization-related markers were assessed by flow cytometry and western blot. Exosomes were isolated from normoxic and hypoxic lung cancer cell culture and characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and western blot. RNA sequencing was performed to show the abnormally expressed miRNAs in exosomes from normoxic and hypoxic lung cancer cell culture. In addition, CCK-8 and clone formation assays were used to assess cell proliferation. Dual luciferase reporter assay was used to evaluate the relationship between miR-21 and IRF1. For in vivo experiment, the male nude mice were injected with H1299 cells with exosomes and miR-21 mimic treatment. RESULTS: Firstly, we found a strong CD163 signal in tumor tissue from lung cancer patients by IHC. Subsequently, we co-cultured lung cancer cell line H1299 with M0 macrophage THP-1 and found that H1299 in a hypoxic environment promoted THP-1 M2 polarization. PKH67 fluorescence staining experiments confirmed that exosomes of H1299 origin were able to enter THP-1 and induced M2 polarization. RNA sequencing of exosomes showed that miR-21 level was significantly higher in the hypoxic culture group compared to the normoxic group. Subsequent cellular assays showed that miR-21 inhibited the expression of IRF1 by targeting it. In addition, the overexpression of IRF1 reversed the role of miR-21 on macrophage M2 polarization. Finally, we have confirmed through animal experiments that either hypoxic environment or high miR-21 level promoted tumor progression. CONCLUSIONS: High miR-21 level in hypoxic environments promoted macrophage M2 polarization and induced lung cancer progression through targeting IRF1.


Assuntos
Exossomos , Fator Regulador 1 de Interferon , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Ativação de Macrófagos , MicroRNAs , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Exossomos/genética , Hipóxia , Fator Regulador 1 de Interferon/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , MicroRNAs/genética , Microambiente Tumoral
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