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1.
Cell Transplant ; 31: 9636897221113803, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35912954

RESUMO

Fibroblasts, or their homolog stromal cells, are present in most tissues and play an essential role in tissue homeostasis and regeneration. As a result, fibroblast-based strategies have been widely employed in tissue engineering. However, while considered to have immunosuppressive properties, the survival and functionality of allogeneic fibroblasts after transplantation remain controversial. Here, we evaluated innate and adaptive immune responses against allogeneic fibroblasts following intradermal injection into different immune-deficient mouse strains. While allogeneic fibroblasts were rejected 1 week after transplantation in immunocompetent mice, rejection did not occur in immunodeficient γ chain-deficient NOD-SCID (NSG) mice. T-cell- and B-cell-deficient RAG1 knockout mice showed greater loss of fibroblasts by day 5 after transplantation compared with NSG mice (P ≤ 0.05) but prolonged persistence compared with wild-type recipient (P ≤ 0.005). Loss of fibroblasts correlated with the expression of proinflammatory chemokine genes and infiltration of myeloid cells in the transplantation site. Depletion of macrophages and neutrophils delayed rejection, revealing the role of innate immune cells in an early elimination of fibroblasts that is followed by T-cell-mediated rejection in the second week. These findings indicate that the application of allogeneic fibroblasts in tissue engineering products requires further improvements to overcome cell rejection by innate and adaptive immune cells.


Assuntos
Rejeição de Enxerto , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Animais , Fibroblastos , Imunidade , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Transplante de Pele , Transplante Homólogo
2.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0270273, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35925919

RESUMO

Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is characterized by the presence of high circulating levels of non-infectious lipoprotein-like HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) particles thought to contribute to chronic immune dysfunction in patients. Lipid and metabolomic analysis of humanized livers from immunodeficient chimeric mice (uPA/SCID) revealed that HBV infection dysregulates several lipid metabolic pathways. Small molecule inhibitors of lipid biosynthetic pathway enzymes acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid synthase, and subtilisin kexin isozyme-1/site-1 protease in HBV-infected HepG2-NTCP cells demonstrated potent and selective reduction of extracellular HBsAg. However, a liver-targeted ACC inhibitor did not show antiviral activity in HBV-infected liver chimeric mice, despite evidence of on-target engagement. Our study suggests that while HBsAg production may be dependent on hepatic de novo lipogenesis in vitro, this may be overcome by extrahepatic sources (such as lipolysis or diet) in vivo. Thus, a combination of agents targeting more than one lipid metabolic pathway may be necessary to reduce HBsAg levels in patients with chronic HBV infection.


Assuntos
Hepatite B Crônica , Hepatite B , Animais , Antivirais/metabolismo , Antivirais/farmacologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , DNA Viral/metabolismo , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/metabolismo , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Lipídeos/uso terapêutico , Camundongos , Camundongos SCID
3.
Int J Med Sci ; 19(8): 1241-1253, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35928724

RESUMO

Retroperitoneal liposarcoma (RLPS) is one of the most common subtypes of retroperitoneal soft tissue sarcomas. It is characterized by poor sensitivity to radiotherapy and chemotherapy and a low success rate of complete surgical resection. However, there are few reliable preclinical RLPS models for target discovery and therapy research. In this study, we aimed to establish RLPS patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models that are useful for biological research and preclinical drug trials. A total of 56 freshly resected RLPS tissues were subcutaneously transplanted into non-obese diabetic-severe combined immune deficient (NOD-SCID) mice, with subsequent xenotransplantation into second-generation mice. The tumor engraftment rate of first generation PDXs was 44.64%, and higher success rates were obtained from implantations of dedifferentiated, myxous, pleomorphic, high-grade liposarcomas and those with retroperitoneal organ infiltration. The first- and second- generation PDX models preserved the histopathological morphology, gene mutation profiles and MDM2 amplification of the primary tissues. PDX models can also provide the benefit of retaining original tumor biology and microenvironment characteristics, such as abnormal adipose differentiation, elevated Ki67 levels, high microvessel density, cancer-associated fibroblast presence, and tumor-associated macrophage infiltration. Overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) of patients with successful first-generation PDX engraftment were significantly poorer than those with failed engraftment. Treatment with MDM2 inhibitor RG7112 significantly suppressed tumor growth of DDLPS PDX in mice. In conclusion, we successfully established RLPS PDX models that were histologically, genetically, and molecularly consistent with the original tissues. These models might provide opportunities for advancing RLPS tumor biology research, facilitating the development of novel drugs, particularly those targeting MDM2 amplification, adipose differentiation process, angiogenesis, cancer-associated fibroblasts, and so on.


Assuntos
Lipossarcoma , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Lipossarcoma/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Neoplasias Retroperitoneais , Microambiente Tumoral , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
4.
Anticancer Res ; 42(7): 3453-3461, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35790260

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Cytotoxic payload conjugation to antibodies efficiently suppresses tumors and contributes to the improvement of cancer survival. In our previous study, c-Kit targeting antibody-drug conjugate (2G4-DM1) with DM1, a microtubule inhibitor, efficiently suppressed tumor growth. However, slow-growing c-Kit-positive tumors, such as GIST-48, did not efficiently respond to DM1. In this study, we aimed to treat tumors using 2G4 immunotoxin with Pseudomonas exotoxin A (PE) as a payload. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Modified FcBP-PE24 containing p-benzoyl-L-phenylalanine, unnatural amino acid, was expressed in E. coli and purified. Then, photoconjugation of 2G4 antibody and FcBP-PE24 at 365 nm was carried out and 2G4 immunotoxin was purified using anion exchange chromatography. In vitro cytotoxicity of 2G4 immunotoxins was assessed in HMC-1.2, GIST-48, and MDA-MB-453 cells. Then, in vivo efficacy analysis was performed using C.B-17 SCID mice. RESULTS: 2G4 immunotoxin efficiently induced cytotoxicity in 2G4-DM1-resistant HMC-1.2 and GIST-48 cells by inhibiting protein synthesis but not in c-Kit-negative MDA-MB-453 cells. The results showed ~200-fold or more increase in cytotoxicity against c-Kit-positive cells compared to IC50 of 2G4-DM1. In addition, 2G4 immunotoxin suppressed tumor growth in the in vivo xenograft mouse model. CONCLUSION: 2G4 immunotoxins could be an alternative therapeutic strategy for microtubule inhibitor- resistant cancer cells.


Assuntos
Tumores do Estroma Gastrointestinal , Imunoconjugados , Imunotoxinas , Animais , Escherichia coli , Humanos , Imunoconjugados/farmacologia , Imunotoxinas/farmacologia , Camundongos , Camundongos SCID
5.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 13(5): 102003, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35858517

RESUMO

Borrelia miyamotoi is a relapsing fever spirochete carried by Ixodes spp. ticks throughout the northern hemisphere. The pathogen is acquired either transovarially (vertically) or horizontally through blood-feeding and passed transtadially across life stages. Despite these complementary modes of transmission, infection prevalence of ticks with B. miyamotoi is typically low (<5%) in natural settings and the relative contributions of the two transmission modes have not been studied extensively. Horizontal transmission of B. miyamotoi (strain CT13-2396 or wild type strain) was initiated using infected Ixodes scapularis larvae or nymphs to expose rodents, which included both the immunocompetent CD-1 laboratory mouse (Mus musculus) and a natural reservoir host, the white-footed mouse (Peromyscus. leucopus), to simulate natural enzootic transmission. Transovarial transmission was evaluated using I. scapularis exposed to B. miyamotoi as either larvae or nymphs feeding on immunocompromised SCID mice (M. musculus) and subsequently fed as females on New Zealand white rabbits. Larvae from infected females were qPCR-tested individually to assess transovarial transmission rates. Tissue tropism of B. miyamotoi in infected ticks was demonstrated using in situ hybridization. Between 1 and 12% of ticks were positive (post-molt) for B. miyamotoi after feeding on groups of CD-1 mice or P. leucopus with evidence of infection, indicating that horizontal transmission was inefficient, regardless of whether infected larvae or nymphs were used to challenge the mice. Transovarial transmission occurred in 7 of 10 egg clutches from infected females. Filial infection prevalence in larvae ranged from 3 to 100% (median 71%). Both larval infection prevalence and spirochete load were highly correlated with maternal spirochete load. Spirochetes were disseminated throughout the tissues of all three stages of unfed ticks, including the salivary glands and female ovarian tissue. The results indicate that while multiple transmission routes contribute to enzootic maintenance of B. miyamotoi, transovarial transmission is likely to be the primary source of infected ticks and therefore risk assessment and tick control strategies should target adult female ticks.


Assuntos
Borrelia , Ixodes , Doença de Lyme , Febre Recorrente , Animais , Feminino , Larva , Camundongos , Camundongos SCID , Ninfa , Peromyscus , Coelhos , Febre Recorrente/epidemiologia
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(14)2022 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35886926

RESUMO

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a congenital myopathy caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene. DMD pathology is marked by myositis, muscle fiber degeneration, and eventual muscle replacement by fibrosis and adipose tissue. Satellite cells (SC) are muscle stem cells critical for muscle regeneration. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid that promotes SC proliferation, regulates lymphocyte trafficking, and is irreversibly degraded by sphingosine phosphate lyase (SPL). Here, we show that SPL is virtually absent in normal human and murine skeletal muscle but highly expressed in inflammatory infiltrates and degenerating fibers of dystrophic DMD muscle. In mdx mice that model DMD, high SPL expression is correlated with dysregulated S1P metabolism. Perinatal delivery of the SPL inhibitor LX2931 to mdx mice augmented muscle S1P and SC numbers, reduced leukocytes in peripheral blood and skeletal muscle, and attenuated muscle inflammation and degeneration. The effect on SC was also observed in SCID/mdx mice that lack mature T and B lymphocytes. Transcriptional profiling in the skeletal muscles of LX2931-treated vs. control mdx mice demonstrated changes in innate and adaptive immune functions, plasma membrane interactions with the extracellular matrix (ECM), and axon guidance, a known function of SC. Our cumulative findings suggest that by raising muscle S1P and simultaneously disrupting the chemotactic gradient required for lymphocyte egress, SPL inhibition exerts a combination of muscle-intrinsic and systemic effects that are beneficial in the context of muscular dystrophy.


Assuntos
Aldeído Liases , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne , Aldeído Liases/genética , Aldeído Liases/metabolismo , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Distrofina/genética , Humanos , Inflamação/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos mdx , Camundongos SCID , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne/genética , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne/metabolismo , Esfingosina/metabolismo
7.
Molecules ; 27(14)2022 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35889279

RESUMO

Guatteria olivacea R. E. Fries (synonym Guatteria punctata (Aubl.) R.A. Howard) is a tree of 10-27 m tall popularly known as "envira-bobó", "envira-fofa", "envireira", "embira", "embira-branca", "embira-preta", envira-branca", and "envira-preta", which can be found in the Brazilian Amazon biome. In this study, we evaluated the cytotoxic and antitumor effects of the essential oil (EO) obtained from the leaves of G. olivacea against liver cancer using HepG2 cells as a model. EO was obtained using a hydrodistillation Clevenger-type apparatus and was qualitatively and quantitatively characterized using GC-MS and GC-FID, respectively. The alamar blue assay was used to assess the cytotoxic potential of EO in a panel of human cancer cell lines and human non-cancerous cells. In HepG2 cells treated with EO, YO-PRO-1/propidium iodide staining, cell cycle distribution, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were examined. In C.B-17 SCID mice with HepG2 cell xenografts, the efficacy of the EO (20 and 40 mg/kg) was tested in vivo. GC-MS and GC-FID analyses showed germacrene D (17.65%), 1-epi-cubenol (13.21%), caryophyllene oxide (12.03%), spathulenol (11.26%), (E)-caryophyllene (7.26%), bicyclogermacrene (5.87%), and δ-elemene (4.95%) as the major constituents of G. olivacea leaf EO. In vitro cytotoxicity of EO was observed, including anti-liver cancer action with an IC50 value of 30.82 µg/mL for HepG2 cells. In HepG2 cells, EO treatment increased apoptotic cells and DNA fragmentation, without changes in ROS levels. Furthermore, the EO inhibited tumor mass in vivo by 32.8-57.9%. These findings suggest that G. olivacea leaf EO has anti-liver cancer potential.


Assuntos
Annonaceae , Guatteria , Neoplasias , Óleos Voláteis , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos SCID , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(13)2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35806368

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: ICOS and its ligand ICOSL are immune receptors whose interaction triggers bidirectional signals that modulate the immune response and tissue repair. AIM: The aim of this study was to assess the in vivo effects of ICOSL triggering by ICOS-Fc, a recombinant soluble form of ICOS, on skin wound healing. METHODS: The effect of human ICOS-Fc on wound healing was assessed, in vitro, and, in vivo, by skin wound healing assay using ICOS-/- and ICOSL-/- knockout (KO) mice and NOD-SCID-IL2R null (NSG) mice. RESULTS: We show that, in wild type mice, treatment with ICOS-Fc improves wound healing, promotes angiogenesis, preceded by upregulation of IL-6 and VEGF expression; increases the number of fibroblasts and T cells, whereas it reduces that of neutrophils; and increases the number of M2 vs. M1 macrophages. Fittingly, ICOS-Fc enhanced M2 macrophage migration, while it hampered that of M1 macrophages. ICOS-/- and ICOSL-/- KO, and NSG mice showed delayed wound healing, and treatment with ICOS-Fc improved wound closure in ICOS-/- and NSG mice. CONCLUSION: These data show that the ICOS/ICOSL network cooperates in tissue repair, and that triggering of ICOSL by ICOS-Fc improves cutaneous wound healing by increasing angiogenesis and recruitment of reparative macrophages.


Assuntos
Fragmentos Fc das Imunoglobulinas , Ligante Coestimulador de Linfócitos T Induzíveis , Proteína Coestimuladora de Linfócitos T Induzíveis , Cicatrização , Animais , Fragmentos Fc das Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , Fragmentos Fc das Imunoglobulinas/farmacologia , Ligante Coestimulador de Linfócitos T Induzíveis/genética , Ligante Coestimulador de Linfócitos T Induzíveis/imunologia , Ligante Coestimulador de Linfócitos T Induzíveis/metabolismo , Proteína Coestimuladora de Linfócitos T Induzíveis/genética , Proteína Coestimuladora de Linfócitos T Induzíveis/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos SCID , Proteínas Recombinantes/farmacologia , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Viruses ; 14(8)2022 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35893697

RESUMO

The artemisinin family of compounds is cytopathic in certain cancer cell lines that are positive for human papillomaviruses (HPV) and can potentially drive the regression of dysplastic lesions. We evaluated the efficacy of topical dihydroartemisinin (DHA) on cervical dysplasia and anal dysplasia in two papillomavirus mouse models: K14E6/E7 transgenic mice, which express HPV16 oncogenes; and immunodeficient NOD/SCID gamma (NSG) mice infected with Mus musculus papillomavirus (MmuPV1). Mice started treatment with DHA at 25 weeks of age (K14E6/E7) or 20 weeks post infection (MmuPV1-infected), when the majority of mice are known to have papillomavirus-induced low- to high-grade dysplasia. Mice were treated with or without topical DHA at the cervix or anus and with or without topical treatment with the chemical carcinogen 7,12 dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) at the anus of in transgenic mice to induce neoplastic progression. Mice were monitored for overt tumor growth, and tissue was harvested after 20 weeks of treatment and scored for severity of histological disease. For MmuPV1-infected mice, anogenital lavages were taken to monitor for viral clearance. Tissues were also evaluated for viral gene expression at the RNA and/or protein levels. Treatment with topical DHA did not reduce dysplasia in the anogenital tract in either papillomavirus-induced mouse model and did not prevent progression to anal cancer in the DMBA-treated K14E6/E7 mice.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Ânus , Artemisininas , Infecções por Papillomavirus , Animais , Neoplasias do Ânus/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias do Ânus/virologia , Artemisininas/farmacologia , Feminino , Hiperplasia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Camundongos Transgênicos , Papillomaviridae , Infecções por Papillomavirus/tratamento farmacológico
10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(31): e2120028119, 2022 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35878027

RESUMO

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease characterized by the destruction of pancreatic ß-cells. One of the earliest aspects of this process is the development of autoantibodies and T cells directed at an epitope in the B-chain of insulin (insB:9-23). Analysis of microbial protein sequences with homology to the insB:9-23 sequence revealed 17 peptides showing >50% identity to insB:9-23. Of these 17 peptides, the hprt4-18 peptide, found in the normal human gut commensal Parabacteroides distasonis, activated both human T cell clones from T1D patients and T cell hybridomas from nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice specific to insB:9-23. Immunization of NOD mice with P. distasonis insB:9-23 peptide mimic or insB:9-23 peptide verified immune cross-reactivity. Colonization of female NOD mice with P. distasonis accelerated the development of T1D, increasing macrophages, dendritic cells, and destructive CD8+ T cells, while decreasing FoxP3+ regulatory T cells. Western blot analysis identified P. distasonis-reacting antibodies in sera of NOD mice colonized with P. distasonis and human T1D patients. Furthermore, adoptive transfer of splenocytes from P. distasonis-treated mice to NOD/SCID mice enhanced disease phenotype in the recipients. Finally, analysis of human children gut microbiome data from a longitudinal DIABIMMUNE study revealed that seroconversion rates (i.e., the proportion of individuals developing two or more autoantibodies) were consistently higher in children whose microbiome harbored sequences capable of producing the hprt4-18 peptide compared to individuals who did not harbor it. Taken together, these data demonstrate the potential role of a gut microbiota-derived insB:9-23-mimic peptide as a molecular trigger of T1D pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Mimetismo Molecular , Peptídeos , Animais , Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Bacteroidetes , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Criança , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Insulina/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Peptídeos/química
11.
J Immunol ; 209(2): 310-325, 2022 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35777853

RESUMO

It is widely known that the immune system becomes slower to respond among elderly people, making them more susceptible to viral infection and cancer. The mechanism of aging-related immune deficiency remained mostly elusive. In this article, we report that plasmalogens (Pls), special phospholipids found to be reduced among the elderly population, critically control cytolytic activity of human NK cells, which is associated with activation of a cell surface receptor, G protein-coupled receptor 21 (GPCR21). We found the extracellular glycosylation site of GPCR21, which is conserved among the mammalian species, to be critically important for the activation of NK cells by Pls. The Pls-GPCR21 signaling cascade induces the expression of Perforin-1, a cytolytic pore-forming protein, via activation of STAT5 transcription factor. Inhibition of STAT5 abrogates GPCR21-mediated cytolytic activation of NK cells against the target cancer cells. In addition, oral ingestion of Pls inhibited cancer growth in SCID mice and inhibited the systemic spread of murine CMV in adult C57BL/6J mice. These findings advocate that Pls-GPCR21 signaling could be critical in maintaining NK cell function, and that the age-related reduction of this signaling cascade could be one of the factors behind immune deficiency in mammals, including humans.


Assuntos
Células Matadoras Naturais , Plasmalogênios , Receptores de Leucotrienos/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Citotoxicidade Imunológica , Humanos , Mamíferos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos SCID , Perforina/metabolismo , Plasmalogênios/metabolismo , Proteínas Citotóxicas Formadoras de Poros/metabolismo , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
12.
Cells ; 11(12)2022 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35741044

RESUMO

The generation of human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) represents a major goal in regenerative medicine and is believed would follow principles of early development. HSCs arise from a type of endothelial cell called a "hemogenic endothelium" (HE), and human HSCs are experimentally detected by transplantation into SCID or other immune-deficient mouse recipients, termed SCID-Repopulating Cells (SRC). Recently, SRCs were detected by forced expression of seven transcription factors (TF) (ERG, HOXA5, HOXA9, HOXA10, LCOR, RUNX1, and SPI1) in hPSC-derived HE, suggesting these factors are deficient in hPSC differentiation to HEs required to generate HSCs. Here we derived PECAM-1-, Flk-1-, and VE-cadherin-positive endothelial cells that also lack CD45 expression (PFVCD45-) which are solely responsible for hematopoietic output from iPSC lines reprogrammed from AML patients. Using HEs derived from AML patient iPSCs devoid of somatic leukemic aberrations, we sought to generate putative SRCs by the forced expression of 7TFs to model autologous HSC transplantation. The expression of 7TFs in hPSC-derived HE cells from an enhanced hematopoietic progenitor capacity was present in vitro, but failed to acquire SRC activity in vivo. Our findings emphasize the benefits of forced TF expression, along with the continued challenges in developing HSCs for autologous-based therapies from hPSC sources.


Assuntos
Hemangioblastos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Animais , Hemangioblastos/metabolismo , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos SCID , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
13.
Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 43(5): 414-419, 2022 May 14.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35680600

RESUMO

Objective: To establish three types of xenotransplantation models using human myeloma cell lines ARP1, MM.1S, and NCI-H929 and to compare the proliferation, tumor load, and biological characteristics of the three types of cells after transplantation. Methods: Suspensions of human myeloma cell lines ARP1, MM.1S, and NCI-H929 were implanted into NOD/SCID mice by subcutaneous injection or tail vein injection. The survival of the mice was observed weekly, and the tumor load was measured. Flow cytometry was used to detect the proportion of CD138(+) cells in tumor tissue or the mouse bone marrow. CD138(+) cells and light chains were detected by immunofluorescence. Light chains in bone marow and peipheral blood were measured by ELISA, and bone disease was assessed by micro-CT. Results: Mice injected with ARP1, MM.1S, and NCI-H929 cells all formed tumors subcutaneously in about 2 weeks. Immunofluorescence detection supported plasma cell tumors. Kappa light chains were detected in the peripheral blood of ARP1 mice on day 20 after tail vein transplantation (8.2±1.0 ng/ml) . After 6 weeks of tail vein transplantation, mice in the ARP1 group showed signs of weight loss, mental depression, and dragging legs, and human CD138(+)CD38(+) cells were detected in the bone marrow (BM) . Furthermore, bortezomib (BTZ) treatment given once the tumor was established significantly reduced the tumor burden[ (5.7±0.2) % vs (21.3±2.1) %, P<0.01]. Human CD138(+)CD38(+) cells were not detected in the BM of the MM.1S or NCI-H929 groups. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that the mouse models constructed by the three cell lines (ARP1, MM.1S, and NCI-H929) can be used as models for the pathogenesis and clinical research of MM.


Assuntos
Mieloma Múltiplo , Animais , Bortezomib/uso terapêutico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico
14.
Clin Transl Med ; 12(6): e901, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35696531

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The chimeric antigen receptor NK-92 (CAR NK-92) cell targeting the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) has shown antitumour effects in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). However, the expression changes of programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) and its mechanisms on CAR NK-92 and CRPC cells and the effect of the anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) on PD-L1 expressed on CAR NK-92 cells remain unknown. METHODS: Human dendritic cells and CD8+ T cells were acquired from blood samples of healthy donors and cocultured with C4-2 cells. Changes in PD-L1 expression were detected by flow cytometry. Differential gene expressions were investigated by RNA sequence analysis, while the regulation of PD-L1 molecular signaling was explored using western blotting. In vitro cytotoxicity was evaluated using the Cell Counting Kit-8 assay and the bioluminescent intensity (BLI) of green fluorescent protein-labelled C4-2 cells. CRPC growth in vivo was monitored using callipers and BLI in male NOD/SCID mice subcutaneously injected with C4-2 cells and treated intravenously with anti-PD-L1/PD-1 mAb, CAR NK-92 or cocultured CD8+ T cells. RESULTS: Significantly upregulated expression of PD-L1k was observed in cocultured C4-2 and CAR NK-92 cells. In addition, upregulation of PD-L1 expression was dependent on interferon-γ in C4-2 cells, while it was dependent on direct cell-to-cell interaction via the NK group 2 member D/ phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT pathway in CAR NK-92 cells. The anti-PD-L1 mAb directly acted on PD-L1 expressed on CAR NK-92 cells and augmented the cytotoxicity of CAR NK-92 cells against C4-2 and CRPC cells from one patient in vitro. Anti-PD-L1 mAb significantly enhanced the antitumour effect of CAR NK-92 cells against CRPC cells in vivo when compared to treatment with CAR NK-92 cells or combined with anti-PD-1 mAb in the absence or presence of cocultured CD8+ T cells. CONCLUSION: Combined treatment with CAR NK-92 and anti-PD-L1 mAb improved the antitumour efficacy against CRPC, which is of extraordinary translational value in the clinical treatment of CRPC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/metabolismo , Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Antígeno B7-H1/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/metabolismo , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/uso terapêutico
15.
J Transl Med ; 20(1): 296, 2022 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35773729

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Aberrant epigenetic changes, like DNA methylation, histone modifications, or ubiquitination, could trigger metabolic disorders in human cancer cells. This study planed to uncover the biological roles of epigenetic SPOP/CHAF1A axis in modulating tumor autophagy during Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) tumorigenesis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed to assess the CHAF1A expressions. The expression data of CHAF1A was derived from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), GSE32918 and GSE83632 datasets. Bioinformatic assays contain differential analysis, functional enrichment analysis and Kaplan-Meier survival curve analysis. The colony generation assay, Transwell assay and CCK-8 assays were conducted for the in vitro assays. The in vivo ubiquitination assays were used to assess regulations of SPOP on CHAF1A. The Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays were used to uncover epigenetic regulations of CHAF1A on TFEB. The relevant DLBCL cells were subcutaneously injected to SCID beige mice to establish the xenograft models. RESULTS: Bioinformatic results revealed that CHAF1A expressed highly in DLBCL that were validated in patients samples. Patients with high CHAF1A suffered from inferior prognosis with shorter survival months relative to those with low CHAF1A. High CHAF1A enhanced DLBCL aggressiveness, including cell proliferation, migration and in vivo growth. Mechanistically, E3 ubiquitin ligase SPOP binds to and induces the degradative ubiquitination of CHAF1A via recognizing a consensus SPOP-binding motif in CHAF1A. SPOP is down-regulated in DLBCL and habours two DLBCL-associated mutations. Deficient SPOP leads to accumulated CHAF1A proteins that promote malignant features of DLBCL. Subsequently, ChIP-qPCR assay revealed that CHAF1A directly binds to TFEB promoters to activate the expressions. High CHAF1A could enhance the transcriptional activity of TFEB and downstream genes. The SPOP/CHAF1A axis modulates TFEB-dependent transactivation to regulate the lysosomal biogenesis and autophagy. The in vivo models suggested that TFEB inhibition is effective to suppress growth of SPOP-deficient DLBCLs. CONCLUSIONS: CHAF1A is aberrantly elevated in SPOP-deficient DLBCL. The in-depth mechanism understanding of SPOP/CHAF1A/TFEB axis endows novel targets for DLBCL treatment.


Assuntos
Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B , Proteínas Nucleares , Proteínas Repressoras , Animais , Autofagia/fisiologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Fator 1 de Modelagem da Cromatina/metabolismo , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/metabolismo , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos SCID , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Ubiquitinação
16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(24): e2200200119, 2022 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35675429

RESUMO

The human transferrin receptor (TFR) is overexpressed in most breast cancers, including preneoplastic ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). HB21(Fv)-PE40 is a single-chain immunotoxin (IT) engineered by fusing the variable region of a monoclonal antibody (HB21) against a TFR with a 40 kDa fragment of Pseudomonas exotoxin (PE). In humans, the administration of other TFR-targeted immunotoxins intrathecally led to inflammation and vascular leakage. We proposed that for treatment of DCIS, intraductal (i.duc) injection of HB21(Fv)-PE40 could avoid systemic toxicity while retaining its potent antitumor effects on visible and occult tumors in the entire ductal tree. Pharmacokinetic studies in mice showed that, in contrast to intravenous injection, IT was undetectable by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in blood following i.duc injection of up to 3.0 µg HB21(Fv)-PE40. We demonstrated the antitumor efficacy of HB21(Fv)-PE40 in two mammary-in-duct (MIND) models, MCF7 and SUM225, grown in NOD/SCID/gamma mice. Tumors were undetectable by In Vivo Imaging System (IVIS) imaging in intraductally treated mice within 1 wk of initiation of the regimen (IT once weekly/3 wk, 1.5 µg/teat). MCF7 tumor-bearing mice remained tumor free for up to 60 d of observation with i.duc IT, whereas the HB21 antibody alone or intraperitoneal IT treatment had minimal/no antitumor effects. These and similar findings in the SUM225 MIND model were substantiated by analysis of mammary gland whole mounts, histology, and immunohistochemistry for the proteins Ki67, CD31, CD71 (TFR), and Ku80. This study provides a strong preclinical foundation for conducting feasibility and safety trials in patients with stage 0 breast cancer.


Assuntos
ADP Ribose Transferases , Toxinas Bacterianas , Neoplasias da Mama , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante , Exotoxinas , Imunotoxinas , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Receptores da Transferrina , Fatores de Virulência , ADP Ribose Transferases/administração & dosagem , ADP Ribose Transferases/metabolismo , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Toxinas Bacterianas/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante/terapia , Exotoxinas/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Imunotoxinas/administração & dosagem , Células MCF-7 , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Receptores da Transferrina/metabolismo , Fatores de Virulência/administração & dosagem
17.
Infect Immun ; 90(7): e0019622, 2022 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35647663

RESUMO

Cryptosporidium is a leading cause of moderate-to-severe diarrhea in children, which is one of the major causes of death in children under 5 years old. Nitazoxanide is the only FDA-approved treatment for cryptosporidiosis. However, it has limited efficacy in immunosuppressed patients and malnourished children. Therefore, it is urgent to develop novel therapies against this parasite. RNA interference-mediated therapies are emerging as novel approaches for the treatment of infectious diseases. We have developed a novel method to silence essential genes in Cryptosporidium using single-stranded RNA (ssRNA)/Argonaute (Ago) complexes. In this work we conducted proof-of-concept studies to test the anticryptosporidial activity of these complexes by silencing Cryptosporidium parvum nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDK) using in vitro and in vivo models. We demonstrated that a 3-day treatment with anti-sense NDK ssRNA/Ago decreased parasite burden by ~98% on infected cells. In vivo studies showed that ssRNA/Ago complexes encapsulated in lipid nanoparticles can be delivered onto intestinal epithelial cells of mice treated orally. In addition a cryptosporidiosis-mouse model showed that treatment with NDK ssRNA/Ago complexes reduced oocyst shedding in 4/5 SCID/beige mice during the acute phase of the infection. Our findings highlight the potential use of antisense RNA-based therapy as an alternative approach to cryptosporidiosis treatment.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium parvum , Cryptosporidium , Animais , Criptosporidiose/tratamento farmacológico , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Cryptosporidium parvum/genética , Lipossomos , Camundongos , Camundongos SCID , Nanopartículas , RNA
18.
J Immunol ; 209(3): 465-475, 2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35725270

RESUMO

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease characterized by T and B cell responses to proteins expressed by insulin-producing pancreatic ß cells, inflammatory lesions within islets (insulitis), and ß cell loss. We previously showed that Ag-specific tolerance targeting single ß cell protein epitopes is effective in preventing T1D induced by transfer of monospecific diabetogenic CD4 and CD8 transgenic T cells to NOD.scid mice. However, tolerance induction to individual diabetogenic proteins, for example, GAD65 (glutamic acid decarboxylase 65) or insulin, has failed to ameliorate T1D both in wild-type NOD mice and in the clinic. Initiation and progression of T1D is likely due to activation of T cells specific for multiple diabetogenic epitopes. To test this hypothesis, recombinant insulin, GAD65, and chromogranin A proteins were encapsulated within poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (COUR CNPs) to assess regulatory T cell induction, inhibition of Ag-specific T cell responses, and blockade of T1D induction/progression in NOD mice. Whereas treatment of NOD mice with CNPs containing a single protein inhibited the corresponding Ag-specific T cell response, inhibition of overt T1D development only occurred when all three diabetogenic proteins were included within the CNPs (CNP-T1D). Blockade of T1D following CNP-T1D tolerization was characterized by regulatory T cell induction and a significant decrease in both peri-insulitis and immune cell infiltration into pancreatic islets. As we have recently published that CNP treatment is both safe and induced Ag-specific tolerance in a phase 1/2a celiac disease clinical trial, Ag-specific tolerance induced by nanoparticles encapsulating multiple diabetogenic proteins is a promising approach to T1D treatment.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Células Secretoras de Insulina , Nanopartículas , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Epitopos , Insulina , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Proteínas
19.
In Vivo ; 36(4): 1615-1627, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35738590

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: The therapeutic potential of bromodomain and extra-terminal motif (BET) inhibitors in hematological cancers has been well established in preclinical and early-stage clinical trials, although as of yet, no BETtargeting agent has achieved approval. To add insight into potential response to mivebresib (ABBV-075), a broadspectrum BET inhibitor, co-clinical modeling of individual patient biopsies was conducted in the context of a Phase I trial in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Co-clinical modeling involves taking the patient's biopsy and implanting it in mice with limited passage so that it closely retains the original characteristics of the malignancy and allows comparisons of response between animal model and clinical data. Procedures were developed, initially with neonate NOD/Shi-scid-IL2rγnull (NOG) mice and then optimized with juvenile NOG-EXL as host mice, eventually resulting in a robust rate of engraftment (16 out of 26, 62%). RESULTS: Results from the co-clinical AML patient-derived xenograft (PDX) modeling (6 with >60% inhibition of bone marrow blasts) were consistent with the equivalent clinical data from patients receiving mivebresib in monotherapy, and in combination with venetoclax. The modeling system also demonstrated the activity of a novel BD2-selective BET inhibitor (ABBV-744) in the preclinical AML setting. Both agents were also highly effective in inhibiting blast counts in the spleen (10/10 and 5/6 models, respectively). CONCLUSION: These findings confirm the validity of the model system in the co-clinical setting, establish highly relevant in vivo models for the discovery of cancer therapy, and indicate the therapeutic value of BET inhibitors for AML and, potentially, myelofibrosis treatment.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Piridonas , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Piridonas/farmacologia , Piridonas/uso terapêutico , Sulfonamidas
20.
J Transl Med ; 20(1): 290, 2022 06 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35761360

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive disease characterized by high risk of relapse and development of resistance to different chemotherapy agents. Several targeted therapies have been investigated in TNBC with modest results in clinical trials. Among these, PI3K/AKT inhibitors have been evaluated in addition to standard therapies, yielding conflicting results and making attempts on elucidating inherent mechanisms of resistance of great interest. Increasing evidences suggest that PI3K/AKT inhibitors can induce autophagy in different cancers. Autophagy represents a supposed mechanism of drug-resistance in aggressive tumors, like TNBC. We, therefore, investigated if two PI3K/AKT inhibitors, ipatasertib and taselisib, could induce autophagy in breast cancer models, and whether chloroquine (CQ), a well known autophagy inhibitor, could potentiate ipatasertib and taselisib anti-cancer effect in combination with conventional chemotherapy. METHODS: The induction of autophagy after ipatasertib and taselisib treatment was evaluated in MDAMB231, MDAM468, MCF7, SKBR3 and MDAB361 breast cancer cell lines by assaying LC3-I conversion to LC3-II through immunoblotting and immunofluorescence. Other autophagy-markers as p62/SQSTM1 and ATG5 were evaluated by immunoblotting. Synergistic antiproliferative effect of double and triple combinations of ipatasertib/taselisib plus CQ and/or paclitaxel were evaluated by SRB assay and clonogenic assay. Anti-apoptotic effect of double combination of ipatasertib/taselisib plus CQ was evaluated by increased cleaved-PARP by immunoblot and by Annexin V- flow cytometric analysis. In vivo experiments were performed on xenograft model of MDAMB231 in NOD/SCID mice. RESULTS: Our results suggested that ipatasertib and taselisib induce increased autophagy signaling in different breast cancer models. This effect was particularly evident in PI3K/AKT resistant TNBC cells, where the inhibition of autophagy by CQ potentiates the therapeutic effect of PI3K/AKT inhibitors in vitro and in vivo TNBC models, synergizing with taxane-based chemotherapy. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that inhibition of authophagy with CQ could overcome mechanism of drug resistance to PI3K/AKT inhibitors plus paclitaxel in TNBC making the evaluation of such combinations in clinical trials warranted.


Assuntos
Cloroquina , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Inibidores de Fosfoinositídeo-3 Quinase , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas , Animais , Autofagia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Cloroquina/farmacologia , Cloroquina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Paclitaxel/farmacologia , Paclitaxel/uso terapêutico , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Inibidores de Fosfoinositídeo-3 Quinase/farmacologia , Inibidores de Fosfoinositídeo-3 Quinase/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico
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