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1.
Water Res ; 168: 115148, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622912

RESUMO

Biological ion exchange (BIEX) has proved to remove natural organic matter (NOM) better than biological activated carbon (BAC). This raises the question if BIEX can be integrated into a full-scale drinking water treatment plant to remove NOM and ammonia. In this study, a pilot plant consisting of one BIEX filter, three GAC filters and one BAC filter was set up as second-stage filtration at the Sainte-Rose drinking water treatment plant (Laval, Canada). The pilot plant was operated for a period of nine months without regeneration of the ion exchange resins. The influent water showed low DOC (2.5 mg/L) and high sulfate concentrations (28.2 mg/L). Except of a short peak of DOC released at about 1 000 BV, the BIEX filter achieved a nearly constant removal of 29-36% over the whole study period. The DOC removals of GAC were similar to BIEX at < 8000 BV but then stabilized at 13-24% after 8 000 BV. Most DOC removal in the BIEX filter was achieved at the top 30 cm layer (81%) compared to 62-66% removal in the GAC/BAC filters in the same layer. After the rapid exhaustion of the primary ion exchange capacity (<1 000 BV), sulfate displaced the fraction of NOM with lower affinity than sulfate, corresponding to the initial DOC release in the BIEX filter. The fraction of NOM with higher affinity than sulfate can still replace sulfate, which explains the good long-term performance of the BIEX filter. BIEX released ammonia with an average of 15% in warm water condition, probably related to the small diameter of the column which limited backwash effectiveness.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Canadá , Carvão Vegetal , Filtração , Troca Iônica
2.
J Environ Qual ; 48(4): 995-1005, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589663

RESUMO

Prediction of P losses from manured agricultural fields through surface runoff and tile drainage is necessary to mitigate widespread eutrophication in water bodies. However, present water quality models are weak in predicting P losses, particularly in tile-drained and manure-applied cropland. We developed a field-scale P management model, the Root Zone Water Quality Model version 2-Phosphorus (RZWQM2-P), whose accuracy in simulating P losses from manure applied agricultural field is yet to be tested. The objectives of this study were (i) to assess the accuracy of this new model in simulating dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) and particulate phosphorus (PP) losses in surface runoff and tile drainage from a manure amended field, and (ii) to identify best management practices to mitigate manure P losses including water table control, manure application timing, and spreading methods by the use of model simulation. The model was evaluated against data collected from a liquid cattle manure applied field with maize ( L.)-soybean [ (L.) Merr.] rotation in Ontario, Canada. The results revealed that the RZWQM2-P model satisfactorily simulated DRP and PP losses through both surface runoff and tile drainage (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency > 0.50, percentage bias within ±25%, and index of agreement > 0.75). Compared with conventional management practices, manure injection reduced the P losses by 18%, whereas controlled drainage and winter manure application increased P losses by 13 and 23%, respectively. The RZWQM2-P is a promising tool for P management in manured and subsurface drained agricultural field. The injection of manure rather than controlled drainage is an effective management practice to mitigate P losses from a subsurface-drained field.


Assuntos
Esterco , Fósforo , Agricultura , Animais , Canadá , Bovinos , Chuva , Movimentos da Água , Qualidade da Água
3.
J Environ Qual ; 48(4): 1006-1015, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589671

RESUMO

There is an incentive for dairy farmers to maximize crop production while minimizing costs and environmental impacts. In cold climates, farmers have limited opportunity to balance field activities and manure storage requirements while limiting nutrient losses. A revised DeNitrification DeComposition (DNDC) model for simulating tile drainage was used to investigate fertilizer scenarios when applying dairy slurry or urea on silage corn ( L.) to examine N losses over a multidecadal horizon at locations in eastern Canada and the US Midwest. Management scenarios included timing (spring, fall, split, and sidedress) and method of application (injected [10 cm], incorporated [5 cm], and broadcast). Reactive N losses (NO from drainage and runoff, NO, and NH) were greatest from broadcast, followed by incorporated and then injected applications. Among the fertilizer timing scenarios, fall manure application resulted in the greatest N loss, primarily due to increased N leaching in non-growing-season periods, with 58% more N loss per metric ton of silage than spring application. Split and sidedress mineral fertilizer had the lowest N losses, with average reductions of 9.5 and 4.9%, respectively, relative to a single application. Split application mitigated losses more so than sidedress by reducing the soil pH shift due to urea hydrolysis and NH volatilization during the warmer June period. This assessment helps to distinguish which fertilizer practices are more effective in reducing N loss over a long-term time horizon. Reactive N loss is ranked across 18 fertilizer management practices, which could assist farmers in weighing the tradeoffs between field trafficability, manure storage capacity, and expected N loss.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes , Silagem , Agricultura , Canadá , Esterco , Nitrogênio , Zea mays
4.
J Environ Qual ; 48(4): 831-840, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589673

RESUMO

Snowmelt runoff often comprises the majority of annual runoff in the Canadian Prairies and a significant proportion of total nutrient loss from agricultural land to surface water. Our objective was to determine the effect of agroecosystem management on snowmelt runoff and nutrient losses from a long-term field experiment at Swift Current, SK. Runoff quantity, nutrient concentrations, and loads were estimated after a change in management from conventionally tilled wheat ( L.)-fallow (Conv W-F) to no-till wheat-fallow and subsequently no-till wheat-pulse (NT W-F/LP) and to an organic system with a wheat-green manure rotation (Org W-GM). The conversion from conventional tillage practices to no-till increased snowmelt runoff likely due to snow trapping by standing stubble after summer fallow. Relatedly, runoff after no-till summer fallow had higher dissolved P losses (0.07 kg P ha). Replacing summer fallow with a pulse crop in the no-till rotation decreased snowmelt runoff losses and nutrient concentrations. The Org W-GM treatment had the lowest P loss after stubble (0.02 kg P ha) but had high dissolved P concentrations in snowmelt following the green manure (0.55 mg P L), suggesting a contribution from incorporated crop residues. In this semiarid climate with little runoff, dissolved reactive P and NO-N loads in snowmelt runoff were smaller than those reported elsewhere on the prairies (averaging <0.05 kg P ha yr, and <0.2 kg NO-N ha yr); however, the nutrient concentrations we observed, in particular for P, even without P fertilizer addition for organic production, question the practicality of agricultural management systems in this region meeting water quality guidelines.


Assuntos
Nutrientes , Movimentos da Água , Agricultura , Canadá , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fósforo
5.
J Environ Qual ; 48(4): 978-987, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589677

RESUMO

Controls on nutrient transport in cold, low-relief agricultural regions vary dramatically among seasons. The spring snowmelt is often the dominant runoff and nutrient loading event of the year. However, climate change may increase the proportion of runoff occurring with rainfall, and there is an urgent need to understand seasonal controls on nutrient transport to understand how patterns may change in the future. In this study, we assess patterns and drivers of total P (TP) dynamics in eight streams draining agriculturally dominated watersheds, located in southern Manitoba, Canada. Data from three years of monitoring revealed highly coherent patterns of TP concentrations in streams, with pronounced peaks in the spring and midsummer across the region. This coherent pattern was in spite of considerable interannual variability in the magnitude and timing of discharge; in particular, a major storm event occurred in summer 2014, which resulted in more discharge than the preceding spring melt. Concentration-discharge model fits were generally poor or not significant, suggesting that runoff generation is not the primary driver of TP dynamics in the majority of streams. Seasonal patterns of conductivity and stream temperature suggest that mechanisms controlling TP vary by season; a spring TP concentration maximum may be related to surface runoff over frozen soils, whereas the summer TP maximum may be related to temperature-driven biogeochemical processes, which are not well represented in current conceptual or predictive models. These findings suggest that controls on stream TP concentrations are dynamic through the year, and responses to increases in dormant and nondormant season temperatures may depend on seasonally variable processes.


Assuntos
Fósforo , Rios , Canadá , Monitoramento Ambiental , Estações do Ano , Movimentos da Água
6.
J Environ Qual ; 48(4): 1016-1028, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589678

RESUMO

Effective management of dairy manure is important to minimize N losses from cropping systems, maximize profitability, and enhance environmental sustainability. The objectives of this study were (i) to calibrate and validate the DeNitrification-DeComposition (DNDC) model using measurements of silage corn ( L.) biomass, N uptake, soil temperature, tile drain flow, NO leaching, NO emissions, and soil mineral N in eastern Canada, and (ii) to investigate the long-term impacts of manure management under climate variability. The treatments investigated included a zero-fertilizer control, inorganic fertilizer, and dairy manure amendments (raw and digested). The DNDC model overall demonstrated statistically "good" performance when simulating silage corn yield and N uptake based on normalized RMSE (nRMSE) < 10%, index of agreement () > 0.9, and Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) > 0.5. In addition, DNDC, with its inclusion of a tile drainage mechanism, demonstrated "good" predictions for cumulative drainage (nRMSE < 20%, > 0.8, and NSE > 0.5). The model did, however, underestimate daily drainage flux during spring thaw for both organic and inorganic amendments. This was attributed to an underestimation of soil temperature and soil water under frequent soil freezing and thawing during the 2013-2014 overwinter period. Long-term simulations under climate variability indicated that spring applied manure resulted in less NO leaching and NO emissions than fall application when manure rates were managed based on crop N requirements. Overall, this study helped highlight the challenges in discerning the short-term climate interactions on fertilizer-induced N losses compared with the long-term dynamics under climate variability.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes , Zea mays , Agricultura , Canadá , Esterco , Nitrogênio , Silagem , Solo , Água
7.
J Environ Qual ; 48(4): 841-849, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589679

RESUMO

In the northern Great Plains, most runoff transport of N, and P to surface waters has historically occurred with snowmelt. In recent years, significant rainfall runoff events have become more frequent and intense in the region. Here, we examine the influence of landscape characteristics on hydrology and nutrient export in nine tributary watersheds of the Assiniboine River in Manitoba, Canada, during snowmelt runoff and with an early summer extreme rainfall runoff event (ERRE). All watersheds included in the study have land use that is primarily agricultural, but with differing proportions of land remaining as wetlands, grassland, and that has been artificially drained. Those watersheds with greater capacity for storage of water in surface depressions (noneffective contributing areas) exhibited lower rates of runoff and nutrient export with snowmelt. During the ERRE, higher export of total P (TP), but not total N, was observed from those watersheds with larger amounts of contributing area that had been added through artificial surface drainage, and this was associated primarily with higher TP concentrations. Increasing or restoring the storage of water on the landscape is likely to reduce nutrient export; however, the importance of antecedent conditions was evident during the ERRE, when small surface depressions were at or near capacity from snowmelt. Total P concentrations observed during the summer ERRE were as high as those observed with snowmelt, and N/P ratios were significantly lower. If the frequency of summer ERREs increases with climate change, this is likely to result in negative water quality outcomes.


Assuntos
Fósforo , Movimentos da Água , Canadá , Nitrogênio , Nutrientes
8.
J Environ Qual ; 48(4): 880-888, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589680

RESUMO

A vegetated filter strip (VFS) is a measure commonly implemented in agricultural landscapes for the purpose of improving water quality. However, much of the evidence to support their effectiveness comes from warm regions dominated by rainfall driven runoff. This study assessed the performance of VFS plots and compared them with annual crop strips to reduce phosphorus (P) levels in runoff in the cold climate of the Canadian Prairies. Analysis of water samples from 22 events during the study indicated no significant difference in the inflow and outflow concentrations of total dissolved P (TDP) or total P (TP) for either the VFS or the annual crop strips. Although the VFS plots had little effect on TDP or TP during the spring, they performed better during the growing season, reducing mean TP concentrations in five out of seven, or 71%, of these events. The VFS plots did not perform as well during the fall events, with the overall mean TP concentration in runoff increasing after flowing through the filters during this time period.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Fósforo , Canadá , Estações do Ano , Movimentos da Água , Qualidade da Água
9.
J Environ Qual ; 48(4): 959-965, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589685

RESUMO

This study quantified the contributions of overland and tile flow to total runoff (sum of overland and tile flow) and nutrient losses in a Vertisolic soil in the Red River valley (Manitoba, Canada), a region with a cold climate where tile drainage is rapidly expanding. Most annual runoff occurred as overland flow (72-89%), during spring snowmelt and large spring and summer storms. Tile drains did not flow in early spring due to frozen ground. Although tiles flowed in late spring and summer (33-100% of event flow), this represented a small volume of annual runoff (10-25%), which is in stark contrast with what has been observed in other tile-drained landscapes. Median daily flow-weighted mean concentrations of soluble reactive P (SRP) and total P (TP) were significantly greater in overland flow than in tile flow ( < 0.001), but the reverse pattern was observed for NO-N ( < 0.001). Overland flow was the primary export pathway for both P and NO-N, accounting for >95% of annual SRP and TP and 50 to 60% of annual NO-N losses. Data suggest that tile drains do not exacerbate P export from Vertisols in the Red River valley because they are decoupled from the surface by soil-ice during snowmelt, which is the primary time for P loss. However, NO-N loading to downstream water bodies may be exacerbated by tiles, particularly during spring and summer storms after fertilizer application.


Assuntos
Fósforo , Movimentos da Água , Agricultura , Canadá , Manitoba , Nutrientes
10.
J Environ Qual ; 48(4): 822-830, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589686

RESUMO

Prolonged flooding changes the oxidation-reduction status of soils, often enhancing P release to overlying floodwater. We studied P release from unamended, gypsum-amended, and biochar-amended soils under simulated snowmelt flooding (previously frozen, cold flooding at +4°C) and summer flooding (unfrozen, warm flooding at +22°C) using two soils, Fyala clay (FYL-Cl) and Neuenberg sandy loam (NBG-SL), from Manitoba, Canada. Amended and unamended soils were packed into vessels and flooded under cold and warm temperatures in the laboratory. Pore water and floodwater samples were taken weekly for 6 wk after flooding (WAF) and thereafter biweekly for 10 WAF and analyzed for dissolved reactive P (DRP), pH, and cation concentrations. The NBG-SL showed a significantly higher DRP concentration in pore water and floodwater despite its low Olsen P content. Redox potential (Eh) decreased slowly under cold versus warm flooding; hence, redox-induced P release was substantially lower under cold flooding. Gypsum amendment significantly decreased the floodwater DRP concentrations in NBG-SL by 38 and 35% under cold and warm flooding, respectively, but had no significant effect in FYL-Cl, which had low DRP concentrations (<1.2 mg L) throughout the flooding period. Biochar amendment significantly increased floodwater DRP concentrations by 27 to 68% in FYL-Cl under cold and warm flooding, respectively, but had no significant effect in NBG-SL. The results indicate substantially less P release under cold than under warm flooding. Gypsum was effective in reducing floodwater DRP concentrations only at high DRP concentrations; thus, the effectiveness was greater under warm than under cold flooding conditions.


Assuntos
Fósforo , Solo , Sulfato de Cálcio , Canadá , Carvão Vegetal
11.
J Environ Qual ; 48(4): 869-879, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589691

RESUMO

Reducing eutrophication in surface water is a major environmental challenge in many countries around the world. In cold Canadian prairie agricultural regions, part of the eutrophication challenge arises during spring snowmelt when a significant portion of the total annual nutrient export occurs, and plant residues can act as a nutrient source instead of a sink. Although the total mass of nutrients released from various crop residues has been studied before, little research has been conducted to capture fine-timescale temporal dynamics of nutrient leaching from plant residues, and the processes have not been represented in water quality models. In this study, we measured the dynamics of P and N release from a cold-hardy perennial plant species, alfalfa ( L.), to meltwater after freeze-thaw through a controlled snowmelt experiment. Various winter conditions were simulated by exposing alfalfa residues to different numbers of freeze-thaw cycles (FTCs) of uniform magnitude prior to snowmelt. The monitored P and N dynamics showed that most nutrients were released during the initial stages of snowmelt (first 5 h) and that the magnitude of nutrient release was affected by the number of FTCs. A threshold of five FTCs was identified for a greater nutrient release, with plant residue contributing between 0.29 (NO) and 9 (PO) times more nutrients than snow. The monitored temporal dynamics of nutrient release were used to develop the first process-based predictive model controlled by three potentially measurable parameters that can be integrated into catchment water quality models to improve nutrient transport simulations during snowmelt.


Assuntos
Nutrientes , Neve , Canadá , Modelos Teóricos , Movimentos da Água
12.
J Environ Qual ; 48(4): 907-914, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589693

RESUMO

Cover crops (CC) have both agronomic and environmental benefits but also have the potential to increase losses of dissolved reactive P after freeze-thaw cycles (FTC). This field study, conducted over one nongrowing season (NGS) in Ontario, Canada, characterized water-extractable P (WEP) content in different CC species and compared observed changes in plant WEP content with changes in P content in soil, surface runoff, and shallow groundwater (5-25 cm). Five plots (0.4 ha) of cereal rye ( L.), oilseed radish ( L. var. Metzg Stokes), oat ( L.), and hairy vetch ( Roth) were established after winter wheat ( L.) harvest. Throughout the NGS (October-April), CC shoot tissues and surface soil were routinely sampled for WEP analyses, and groundwater and runoff water samples were collected after rain and snowmelt. Responses to FTC varied among CC species, with P released from frost-intolerant species but not frost-tolerant species. Although CC released P, the top 5 cm of soil contained greater WEP than plants at all times, and the changing WEP content in CC over the NGS was not reflected in soil or water P concentrations. These results suggest that the degree of frost exposure should be considered in the selection of CC species in cold regions; however, in temperate regions with snow cover that insulates the soil surface from heavy frost, P release from vegetation may not lead to increased P loss in runoff.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas , Fósforo , Agricultura , Canadá , Chuva , Estações do Ano , Solo , Movimentos da Água
13.
J Environ Qual ; 48(4): 803-812, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589694

RESUMO

Managing P export from agricultural land is critical to address freshwater eutrophication. However, soil P management, and options to draw down soil P have received little attention in snowmelt-dominated regions because of limited interaction between soil and snowmelt. Here, we assessed the impacts of soil P drawdown (reducing fertilizer P inputs combined with harvest removal) on soil Olsen P dynamics, runoff P concentrations, and crop yields from 1997 to 2014 in paired fields in Manitoba, Canada. We observed that Olsen P concentrations in the 0- to 5-cm soil layer were negatively correlated with the cumulative P depletion and declined rapidly at the onset of the drawdown practice (3.1 to 5.4 mg kg yr during 2007-2010). In both snowmelt runoff and rainfall runoff, concentrations of total dissolved P (TDP) were positively correlated with the concentrations of soil Olsen P. Soil P drawdown to low to moderate fertility levels significantly decreased mean annual flow-weighted TDP concentrations in snowmelt runoff from 0.60 to 0.30 mg L in the field with high initial soil P and from 1.17 to 0.42 mg L in the field with very high initial soil P. Declines in TDP concentration in rainfall runoff were greater. Critically, yields of wheat ( spp.) and canola ( L.) were not affected by soil P depletion. In conclusion, we demonstrate that relatively rapid reductions in P loads are achievable at the field scale via managing P inputs and soil P pools, highlighting a management opportunity that can maintain food security while improving water security in cold regions.


Assuntos
Fósforo , Solo , Canadá , Chuva , Movimentos da Água , Qualidade da Água
14.
J Environ Qual ; 48(4): 915-921, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589696

RESUMO

Measurement of the retention of dissolved nutrients in riparian areas with snowmelt runoff are much less common than for rainfall runoff, but low rates of uptake or the release of nutrients with snowmelt have been attributed to frozen soils, lower biotic uptake, and release of nutrients from senesced vegetation. In the research presented here, we evaluate whether the potential for uptake of dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) and NO differ significantly between snowmelt and summer seasons with flow through 13 riparian buffers downstream of cropland in Manitoba, Canada. Flow-through buffers in small channels are typical in this landscape, and pulsed releases of a conservative tracer and dissolved nutrients were used to measure uptake rates. Although mean uptake rates of NO were higher in summer than for snowmelt, responses varied widely. Aerial uptake rate of DRP showed a significant negative relationships with soil Olsen-P ( = 0.54, < 0.001) and a P saturation index ( = 0.48, < 0.001) across both seasons. Biological processes may be of greater importance for NO retention, but DRP retention appears to be driven by adsorption-desorption regardless of season. Olsen-P is identified as a good indicator of potential for release or retention of DRP in riparian buffers with fine-textured calcareous soils, for both snowmelt and summer seasons. Soil testing may be a good tool to aid in the siting of new buffers and to track the effectiveness of management interventions to remove P from riparian areas, such as harvest of vegetation.


Assuntos
Fósforo , Solo , Tampões (Química) , Canadá , Nitratos
15.
J Environ Qual ; 48(4): 921-930, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589699

RESUMO

In northern regions, a high proportion of annual runoff and phosphorus (P) export from cropland occurs with snowmelt. In this study, we analyze 57 site-years of field-scale snowmelt runoff data from 16 small watersheds draining fine-textured soils (clay or clay loam) in Manitoba, Canada. These fields were selected across gradients of soil P (2.4 to 26.7 mg kg, 0- to 15-cm Olsen P), tillage intensity (high frequency to long-term no-till), and fertilizer input. The strongest predictor of flow-weighted mean concentrations of total dissolved P (TDP) in snowmelt runoff was Olsen P in the top 5 cm of soil ( = 0.45, < 0.01). Residual variation in this relationship related positively to volumetric soil moisture and negatively to water yield. Although Olsen P levels were relatively consistent from year to year, suggesting control by long-term fertilization and tillage history, Olsen P stratification (ratio of 0-5/0-15 cm) increased with rates of fertilizer application. Particulate P (PP) comprised <34% of total P on average, and concentrations were not well predicted by soil or management characteristics. Loads of PP and TDP exported during snowmelt were primarily a function of water yield and size of accumulated snowpack; however, residual variation in the TDP relationship correlated positively with both soil moisture and Olsen P. Retention of runoff water on the landscape could reduce loads, but careful management of near-surface soil P is required to prevent snowmelt runoff losses of P at the source and to reduce the potential for the eutrophication of downstream aquatic ecosystems.


Assuntos
Fósforo , Solo , Agricultura , Canadá , Produtos Agrícolas , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Movimentos da Água
16.
J Environ Qual ; 48(5): 1176-1190, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589709

RESUMO

Phosphorus (P) plays a crucial role in agriculture as a primary fertilizer nutrient-and as a cause of the eutrophication of surface waters. Despite decades of efforts to keep P on agricultural fields and reduce losses to waterways, frequent algal blooms persist, triggering not only ecological disruption but also economic, social, and political consequences. We investigate historical and persistent factors affecting agricultural P mitigation in a transect of major watersheds across North America: Lake Winnipeg, Lake Erie, the Chesapeake Bay, and Lake Okeechobee/Everglades. These water bodies span 26 degrees of latitude, from the cold climate of central Canada to the subtropics of the southeastern United States. These water bodies and their associated watersheds have tracked trajectories of P mitigation that manifest remarkable similarities, and all have faced challenges in the application of science to agricultural management that continue to this day. An evolution of knowledge and experience in watershed P mitigation calls into question uniform solutions as well as efforts to transfer strategies from other arenas. As a result, there is a need to admit to shortcomings of past approaches, plotting a future for watershed P mitigation that accepts the sometimes two-sided nature of Hennig Brandt's "Devil's Element."


Assuntos
Eutrofização , Fósforo , Agricultura , Atitude , Canadá , América do Norte , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos
17.
J Environ Qual ; 48(5): 1156-1166, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589738

RESUMO

Adequate phosphorus (P) is needed for crop production, but excessive P poses a potential risk to water quality. Results from the cumulative P balance calculations within the indicator of risk of water contamination by phosphorus (IROWC-P) developed in Canada were assessed to determine the spatial and temporal trends in P accumulation at a regional scale and to consider the implications of these trends. Regional cumulative P balances were calculated from census data as a proxy for soil test P (STP) values, including the contribution of fertilizer or manure P to these balances. Ideally, over time we would see a convergence of soil test values at the low end of the critical response range for crop growth, where agronomic and environmental considerations are balanced, but this does not appear to be the case for many regions in Canada. Nationally, about 61% of agricultural land was predicted to be low in STP, and over half of this land is failing to replace the P that is removed each year. While only about 10% of the agricultural land has accumulated significantly more P than is needed for crop growth, almost all of this land is continuing to accumulate P rather than drawing it down. Manure is the dominant P source for continuing accumulation in regions with high or very high estimated STP; reducing this input will be difficult because of the nature of manure and the investment in buildings and infrastructure tied to specific locations, but it is clear that current Canadian policies need strengthened.


Assuntos
Fósforo , Solo , Agricultura , Canadá , Fertilizantes , Esterco
19.
Lancet ; 394(10206): 1307-1308, 2019 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587874
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