Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 15.415
Filtrar
1.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 12: 21501327211031760, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34235993

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic and associated public health preventive measures such as lockdown and home confinement have posed unique challenges to female sex workers (FSW) globally, including in Canada where the sex trade is not formally recognized. In this commentary, we discuss the unintended consequences the pandemic has had on various social determinants of health among FSW. We draw on a review of scholarly and grey literature, complemented by our experience with the Exit Doors Here program, a sex work exiting program implemented in Toronto, Canada. Due to COVID-19, many FSW suddenly lost their main source of income, work conditions became riskier, and sheltering-in-place presented challenges for women with no safe housing. The slowdown of social and health care services also meant FSW were not receiving the required attention. We make recommendations for intersectoral mitigation strategies to limit the short- and long-term impacts of COVID-19 on FSW health and livelihoods. Recommendations focus on addressing women's marginalizing circumstances and speak to a gender transformative approach to the COVID-19 recovery. Our recommendations are relevant to FSW and other marginalized groups, in the current context and in the context of future health, social, and economic crises.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Profissionais do Sexo , Canadá/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Feminino , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Nurs Leadersh (Tor Ont) ; 34(2): 1-4, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34197285

RESUMO

It is time to acknowledge what has been hidden inside Canada's healthcare system for decades but has become more visible during the COVID-19 pandemic: widespread stress, mental health problems and burnout in the nursing workforce. For the past 20+ years, repeated concerns about the mental health of nurses in Canada have been raised within many national reports, yet the rates have continued to rise.


Assuntos
Liderança , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Canadá/epidemiologia , Atenção à Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202309

RESUMO

Objective: Countermeasures introduced during the COVID-19 pandemic produced an environment that placed some children at increased risk of maltreatment at the same time as there were decreased opportunities for identifying and reporting abuse. Unfortunately, coordinated government responses to address child protection since the start of the pandemic have been limited in Canada. As an exploratory study to examine the potential academic evidence base and location of expertise that could have been used to inform COVID-19 pandemic response, we undertook a review of child maltreatment research across three prominent Canadian professional journals in social work, medicine and public health. Methods: We conducted a pre-pandemic, thirteen-year (2006-2019) archival analysis of all articles published in the Canadian Social Work Review (CSWR), the Canadian Medical Association Journal (CMAJ) and the Canadian Journal of Public Health (CJPH) and identified the research articles that related directly to child maltreatment, child protection or the child welfare system in Canada. Results: Of 11,824 articles published across the three journals, 20 research papers relating to child maltreatment, child protection or the child welfare system were identified (CJPH = 7; CMAJ = 3; CSWR = 10). There was no obvious pattern in article topics by discipline. Discussion: Taking these three prominent professional journals as a portal into research in these disciplines, we highlight the potential low volume of academic child maltreatment research despite the importance of the topic and irrespective of discipline. We believe that urgent transdisciplinary collaboration and overall awareness raising for child protection is called for at the time of the COVID-19 pandemic as well as beyond in Canada.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Maus-Tratos Infantis , Canadá/epidemiologia , Criança , Proteção da Criança , Humanos , Pandemias , Saúde Pública , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1285389

RESUMO

Objective: Countermeasures introduced during the COVID-19 pandemic produced an environment that placed some children at increased risk of maltreatment at the same time as there were decreased opportunities for identifying and reporting abuse. Unfortunately, coordinated government responses to address child protection since the start of the pandemic have been limited in Canada. As an exploratory study to examine the potential academic evidence base and location of expertise that could have been used to inform COVID-19 pandemic response, we undertook a review of child maltreatment research across three prominent Canadian professional journals in social work, medicine and public health. Methods: We conducted a pre-pandemic, thirteen-year (2006-2019) archival analysis of all articles published in the Canadian Social Work Review (CSWR), the Canadian Medical Association Journal (CMAJ) and the Canadian Journal of Public Health (CJPH) and identified the research articles that related directly to child maltreatment, child protection or the child welfare system in Canada. Results: Of 11,824 articles published across the three journals, 20 research papers relating to child maltreatment, child protection or the child welfare system were identified (CJPH = 7; CMAJ = 3; CSWR = 10). There was no obvious pattern in article topics by discipline. Discussion: Taking these three prominent professional journals as a portal into research in these disciplines, we highlight the potential low volume of academic child maltreatment research despite the importance of the topic and irrespective of discipline. We believe that urgent transdisciplinary collaboration and overall awareness raising for child protection is called for at the time of the COVID-19 pandemic as well as beyond in Canada.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Maus-Tratos Infantis , Canadá/epidemiologia , Criança , Proteção da Criança , Humanos , Pandemias , Saúde Pública , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Nurs Leadersh (Tor Ont) ; 34(2): 1-4, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1289797

RESUMO

It is time to acknowledge what has been hidden inside Canada's healthcare system for decades but has become more visible during the COVID-19 pandemic: widespread stress, mental health problems and burnout in the nursing workforce. For the past 20+ years, repeated concerns about the mental health of nurses in Canada have been raised within many national reports, yet the rates have continued to rise.


Assuntos
Liderança , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Canadá/epidemiologia , Atenção à Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 12756, 2021 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34140557

RESUMO

Higher transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2 in cold and dry weather conditions has been hypothesized since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic but the level of epidemiological evidence remains low. During the first wave of the pandemic, Spain, Italy, France, Portugal, Canada and USA presented an early spread, a heavy COVID-19 burden, and low initial public health response until lockdowns. In a context when testing was limited, we calculated the basic reproduction number (R0) in 63 regions from the growth in regional death counts. After adjusting for population density, early spread of the epidemic, and age structure, temperature and humidity were negatively associated with SARS-CoV-2 transmissibility. A reduction of mean absolute humidity by 1 g/m3 was associated with a 0.15-unit increase of R0. Below 10 °C, a temperature reduction of 1 °C was associated with a 0.16-unit increase of R0. Our results confirm a dependency of SARS-CoV-2 transmissibility to weather conditions in the absence of control measures during the first wave. The transition from summer to winter, corresponding to drop in temperature associated with an overall decrease in absolute humidity, likely contributed to the intensification of the second wave in north-west hemisphere countries. Non-pharmaceutical interventions must be adjusted to account for increased transmissibility in winter conditions.


Assuntos
Número Básico de Reprodução , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/transmissão , Temperatura Baixa , Umidade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2 , Estações do Ano , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Canadá/epidemiologia , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Portugal/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública , Quarentena/métodos , Espanha/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
7.
Healthc Policy ; 16(4): 25-30, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34129476

RESUMO

Alcohol use is well established globally as one of the major risk factors for burden of disease and mortality. Although it is not yet clear how the COVID-19 pandemic has impacted the overall level of alcohol use in Canada, we do know that various levels of government have promoted its use - either by designating it essential or by increasing its availability. Such actions may have both an immediate and sustained impact on alcohol-related harm in Canada. We encourage all levels of government to support and prioritize the development and implementation of an evidence-informed framework for both alcohol policy and service delivery to reduce alcohol-related harms during the current pandemic and beyond.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Canadá/epidemiologia , Humanos , Liderança , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 5089184, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34124240

RESUMO

The new Coronavirus Disease 19, officially known as COVID-19, originated in China in 2019 and has since spread worldwide. We presented an age-structured Susceptible-Latent-Mild-Critical-Removed (SLMCR) compartmental model of COVID-19 disease transmission with nonlinear incidence during the pandemic period. We provided the model calibration to estimate parameters with day-wise COVID-19 data, i.e., reported cases by worldometer from 15th February to 30th March 2020 in six high-burden countries, including Australia, Italy, Spain, the USA, the UK, and Canada. We estimate transmission rates for each country and found that the country with the highest transmission rate is Spain, which may increase the new cases and deaths than the other countries. We found that saturation infection negatively impacted the dynamics of COVID-19 cases in all the six high-burden countries. The study used a sensitivity analysis to identify the most critical parameters through the partial rank correlation coefficient method. We found that the transmission rate of COVID-19 had the most significant influence on prevalence. The prediction of new cases in COVID-19 until 30th April 2020 using the developed model was also provided with recommendations to control strategies of COVID-19. We also found that adults are more susceptible to infection than both children and older people in all six countries. However, in Italy, Spain, the UK, and Canada, older people show more susceptibility to infection than children, opposite to the case in Australia and the USA. The information generated from this study would be helpful to the decision-makers of various organisations across the world, including the Ministry of Health in Australia, Italy, Spain, the USA, the UK, and Canada, to control COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/transmissão , Modelos Estatísticos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Austrália/epidemiologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , Canadá/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Simulação por Computador , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Espanha/epidemiologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234711

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a major impact on the mental health of refugees and migrants. This study aimed to assess refugee clinician perspectives on mental health care during the COVID-19 pandemic, specifically access to and delivery of community mental health care services. We utilized a mixed methods design. We surveyed members of a national network of Canadian clinicians caring for refugees and migrants. Seventy-seven clinicians with experience caring for refugee populations, representing an 84% response rate, participated in the online survey, 11 of whom also participated in semi-structured interviews. We report three major themes: exacerbation of mental health issues and inequities in social determinants of health, and decreased access to integrated primary care and community migrant services. Clinicians reported major challenges delivering care during the first 6 months of the pandemic related to access to care and providing virtual care. Clinicians described perspectives on improving the management of refugee mental health, including increasing access to community resources and virtual care. The majority of clinicians reported that technology-assisted psychotherapy appears feasible to arrange, acceptable and may increase health equity for their refugee patients. However, major limitations of virtual care included technological barriers, communication and global mental health issues, and privacy concerns. In summary, the COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated social and health inequities within refugee and migrant populations in Canada and challenged the way mental health care is traditionally delivered. However, the pandemic has provided new avenues for the delivery of care virtually, albeit not without additional and unique barriers.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Refugiados , Canadá/epidemiologia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 5089184, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1255644

RESUMO

The new Coronavirus Disease 19, officially known as COVID-19, originated in China in 2019 and has since spread worldwide. We presented an age-structured Susceptible-Latent-Mild-Critical-Removed (SLMCR) compartmental model of COVID-19 disease transmission with nonlinear incidence during the pandemic period. We provided the model calibration to estimate parameters with day-wise COVID-19 data, i.e., reported cases by worldometer from 15th February to 30th March 2020 in six high-burden countries, including Australia, Italy, Spain, the USA, the UK, and Canada. We estimate transmission rates for each country and found that the country with the highest transmission rate is Spain, which may increase the new cases and deaths than the other countries. We found that saturation infection negatively impacted the dynamics of COVID-19 cases in all the six high-burden countries. The study used a sensitivity analysis to identify the most critical parameters through the partial rank correlation coefficient method. We found that the transmission rate of COVID-19 had the most significant influence on prevalence. The prediction of new cases in COVID-19 until 30th April 2020 using the developed model was also provided with recommendations to control strategies of COVID-19. We also found that adults are more susceptible to infection than both children and older people in all six countries. However, in Italy, Spain, the UK, and Canada, older people show more susceptibility to infection than children, opposite to the case in Australia and the USA. The information generated from this study would be helpful to the decision-makers of various organisations across the world, including the Ministry of Health in Australia, Italy, Spain, the USA, the UK, and Canada, to control COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/transmissão , Modelos Estatísticos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Austrália/epidemiologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , Canadá/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Simulação por Computador , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Espanha/epidemiologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
12.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252441, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1249578

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As a result of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), there have been widespread changes in healthcare access. We conducted a retrospective population-based study in Alberta, Canada (population 4.4 million), where there have been approximately 1550 hospital admissions for COVID-19, to determine the impact of COVID-19 on hospital admissions and emergency department (ED visits), following initiation of a public health emergency act on March 15, 2020. METHODS: We used multivariable negative binomial regression models to compare daily numbers of medical/surgical hospital admissions via the ED between March 16-September 23, 2019 (pre COVID-19) and March 16-September 23, 2020 (post COVID-19 public health measures). We compared the most frequent diagnoses for hospital admissions pre/post COVID-19 public health measures. A similar analysis was completed for numbers of daily ED visits for any reason with a particular focus on ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSC). FINDINGS: There was a significant reduction in both daily medical (incident rate ratio (IRR) 0.86, p<0.001) and surgical (IRR 0.82, p<0.001) admissions through the ED in Alberta post COVID-19 public health measures. There was a significant decline in daily ED visits (IRR 0.65, p<0.001) including ACSC (IRR 0.75, p<0.001). The most common medical/surgical diagnoses for hospital admissions did not vary substantially pre and post COVID-19 public health measures, though there was a significant reduction in admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and a significant increase in admissions for mental and behavioral disorders due to use of alcohol. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a relatively low volume of COVID-19 hospital admissions in Alberta, there was an extensive impact on our healthcare system with fewer admissions to hospital and ED visits. This work generates hypotheses around causes for reduced hospital admissions and ED visits which warrant further investigation. As most publicly funded health systems struggle with health-system capacity routinely, understanding how these reductions can be safely sustained will be critical.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Admissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , COVID-19/transmissão , Canadá/epidemiologia , Feminino , Regulamentação Governamental , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Distanciamento Físico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1028, 2021 05 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1249553

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The media play a critical role in informing the public about the COVID-19 pandemic. Throughout the pandemic, international travel has been a highly contested subject at both the international and national levels. We examined Canadian media reporting on international travel restrictions during the pandemic, how these restrictions aligned with the International Health Regulations (IHR 2005), and how the narrative around international travel evolved over time. METHODS: We analysed articles from Canada's top three national newspapers by circulation - The Globe and Mail, The National Post and The Toronto Star - published between Jan 1, 2020 - May 31, 2020. Our search yielded a total of 378 articles across the three newspapers. After removing duplicates and screening the remaining articles, we included a total of 62 articles for the analysis. We conducted a qualitative media content analysis by using an inductive coding approach. RESULTS: Three major themes were identified within the articles. These included: 1) The role of scientific and expert evidence in implementing travel restrictions; 2) Federal legislation, regulation and enforcement of international travel measures; and 3) Compliance with World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines in travel restriction policy- and decision-making. The federal government relied primarily on scientific evidence for implementing international travel restrictions and fully exercised its powers under the Quarantine Act to enforce travel regulations and comply with the IHR 2005. The government embraced a rules-based international order by following WHO recommendations on international travel, contributing to a delay in border closure and travel restrictions until mid-March. CONCLUSION: The media focussed significantly on international travel-related issues during the early phase of the pandemic. The dominant media narrative surrounded the need for earlier travel restrictions against international travel.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Canadá/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2 , Viagem , Doença Relacionada a Viagens
14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 12756, 2021 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275952

RESUMO

Higher transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2 in cold and dry weather conditions has been hypothesized since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic but the level of epidemiological evidence remains low. During the first wave of the pandemic, Spain, Italy, France, Portugal, Canada and USA presented an early spread, a heavy COVID-19 burden, and low initial public health response until lockdowns. In a context when testing was limited, we calculated the basic reproduction number (R0) in 63 regions from the growth in regional death counts. After adjusting for population density, early spread of the epidemic, and age structure, temperature and humidity were negatively associated with SARS-CoV-2 transmissibility. A reduction of mean absolute humidity by 1 g/m3 was associated with a 0.15-unit increase of R0. Below 10 °C, a temperature reduction of 1 °C was associated with a 0.16-unit increase of R0. Our results confirm a dependency of SARS-CoV-2 transmissibility to weather conditions in the absence of control measures during the first wave. The transition from summer to winter, corresponding to drop in temperature associated with an overall decrease in absolute humidity, likely contributed to the intensification of the second wave in north-west hemisphere countries. Non-pharmaceutical interventions must be adjusted to account for increased transmissibility in winter conditions.


Assuntos
Número Básico de Reprodução , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/transmissão , Temperatura Baixa , Umidade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2 , Estações do Ano , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Canadá/epidemiologia , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Portugal/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública , Quarentena/métodos , Espanha/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 12569, 2021 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270672

RESUMO

We propose a novel model based on a set of coupled delay differential equations with fourteen delays in order to accurately estimate the incubation period of COVID-19, employing publicly available data of confirmed corona cases. In this goal, we separate the total cases into fourteen groups for the corresponding fourteen incubation periods. The estimated mean incubation period we obtain is 6.74 days (95% Confidence Interval(CI): 6.35 to 7.13), and the 90th percentile is 11.64 days (95% CI: 11.22 to 12.17), corresponding to a good agreement with statistical supported studies. This model provides an almost zero-cost computational complexity to estimate the incubation period.


Assuntos
COVID-19/transmissão , Período de Incubação de Doenças Infecciosas , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Canadá/epidemiologia , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos
16.
Healthc Policy ; 16(4): 17-24, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270276

RESUMO

Increased alcohol consumption among Canadians during the COVID-19 pandemic will impact our health systems in the short and longer term, through increased hospitalizations due to alcohol-related illness, addiction, violence and accidents. The increased stress due to involuntary unemployment, confinement and boredom during the pandemic has led to an escalation in alcohol use. It is imperative that policy makers recognize and address the inherently conflicting roles of provincial/territorial governments as regulators/retailers of alcohol and funders of healthcare and prioritize the development and implementation of an evidence-based framework to mitigate the increased population health risks of alcohol-related harms.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Política de Saúde , Liderança , Fatores Etários , Canadá/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Fatores Sexuais
17.
Healthc Policy ; 16(4): 25-30, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270275

RESUMO

Alcohol use is well established globally as one of the major risk factors for burden of disease and mortality. Although it is not yet clear how the COVID-19 pandemic has impacted the overall level of alcohol use in Canada, we do know that various levels of government have promoted its use - either by designating it essential or by increasing its availability. Such actions may have both an immediate and sustained impact on alcohol-related harm in Canada. We encourage all levels of government to support and prioritize the development and implementation of an evidence-informed framework for both alcohol policy and service delivery to reduce alcohol-related harms during the current pandemic and beyond.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Canadá/epidemiologia , Humanos , Liderança , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Healthc Policy ; 16(4): 84-96, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270274

RESUMO

Language barriers can reduce access to medical and virtual care. Although the topic of healthcare professionals and linguistic minorities has been studied in Canada, it has mainly been done for official languages (i.e., English and French). Non-official languages (NOLs) have not been explored previously in the healthcare system at the pan-Canadian level. The objective of this study is to determine to what extent NOLs spoken by physicians relate to those of Canadian ethnic groups and are an enabler of access to care. Using data from the Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI) and Statistics Canada, we found an imbalance in the physician-to-population NOL ratios in Montreal and, to a lesser extent, Vancouver.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Barreiras de Comunicação , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Relações Médico-Paciente , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Canadá/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , SARS-CoV-2 , População Urbana
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256530

RESUMO

This paper investigates the transformation of urban sound environments during the COVID-19 pandemic in Montreal, Canada. We report on comparisons of sound environments in three sites, before, during, and after the lockdown. The project is conducted in collaboration with the Montreal festival district (Quartier des Spectacles) as part of the Sounds in the City partnership. The analyses rely on continuous acoustic monitoring of three sites. The comparisons are presented in terms of (1) energetic acoustic indicators over different periods of time (Lden, Ld, Le, Ln), (2) statistical acoustic indicators (L10, L90), and (3) hourly, daily, and weekly profiles of sound levels throughout the day. Preliminary analyses reveal sound level reductions on the order of 6-7 dB(A) during lockdown, with differences more or less marked across sites and times of the day. After lockdown, sound levels gradually increased following an incremental relaxation of confinement. Within four weeks, sound levels measurements nearly reached the pre-COVID-19 levels despite a reduced number of pedestrian activities. Long-term measurements suggest a 'new normal' that is not quite as loud without festival activities, but that is also not characterizable as quiet. The study supports reframing debates about noise control and noise management of festival areas to also consider the sounds of such areas when festival sounds are not present.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Canadá/epidemiologia , Cidades , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
20.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0253451, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34143839

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Various public health measures have been implemented globally to counter the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The purpose of this study was to evaluate respiratory virus surveillance data to determine the effectiveness of such interventions in reducing transmission of seasonal respiratory viruses. METHOD: We retrospectively analysed data from the Respiratory Virus Detection Surveillance System in Canada, before and during the COVID-19 pandemic, by interrupted time series regression. RESULTS: The national level of infection with seasonal respiratory viruses, which generally does not necessitate quarantine or contact screening, was greatly reduced after Canada imposed physical distancing and other quarantine measures. The 2019-2020 influenza season ended earlier than it did in the previous year. The influenza virus was replaced by rhinovirus/enterovirus or parainfluenza virus in the previous year, with the overall test positivity remaining at approximately 35%. However, during the 2019-2020 post-influenza period, the overall test positivity of respiratory viruses during the COVID-19 was still low (7.2%). Moreover, the 2020-2021 influenza season had not occurred by the end of February 2021. CONCLUSION: Respiratory virus surveillance data may provide real-world evidence of the effectiveness of implemented public health interventions during the current and future pandemics.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida/métodos , Vigilância da População/métodos , Saúde Pública/métodos , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Canadá/epidemiologia , Humanos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Influenza Humana/virologia , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Estatísticos , Pandemias , Distanciamento Físico , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Quarentena , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Estações do Ano , Vírus/classificação
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...