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1.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 264: 113342, 2021 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890712

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Cough variant asthma (CVA) is characterized with its long-lasting cough symptom on clinic. The mechanism of CVA is related to chronic persistent airway inflammation, airway hyperresponsiveness, etc. The traditional Chinese prescription has achieved good curative effect on CVA treatment through reducing cough counts, decreasing airway hyperresponsiveness and alleviating airway inflammation. The mechanism is associated with reducing IL4, IL-13, NGF and CGRP levels, as well as down-regulating TRPA1/TRPV1/TRPV5 channels in both lung and brain tissues. AIM OF THE STUDY: The Chinese prescription, San'ao decoction with scorpio and bombyx batryticatus (SSB), is well known in treating cough in asthmatic patients. In this study, the anti-tussive and anti-asthmatic role of SSB, as well as its mechanism on CVA mice model were explored and evaluated via alleviating airway inflammation and regulation of TRP channels. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The major chemical components in SSB were detected and analyzed by UPLC-QTOF-MS under an optimized chromatographic and MS condition. 60 BALB/c mice were randomly divided into six groups: normal group, model group, dexamethasone group (0.1178 mg/kg/d), SSB high dose group (9.74 g/kg/d), SSB middle dose group (4.87 g/kg/d) and SSB low dose group (2.435 g/kg/d). The cough variant asthma mice model was established by ovalbumin sensitization and challenge. The protective role of SSB on CVA mice model was studied through inducing cough counts by capsaicin, assessing inflammatory cells in peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), measuring airway responsiveness, detecting histopathological changes in lung tissues, analyzing cytokines and neuropeptides levels in BALF, as well as examining the mRNA and protein expressions of TRPA1, TRPV1 and TRPV5 in both lung and brain tissues. RESULTS: 17 signal peaks of the chemical components in SSB were identified by using UPLC-QTOF-MS. SSB (especially the high dose and middle dose), showed significantly effects on mice model by reducing mice cough counts (P < 0.01), decreasing eosinophil (EOS) counts in blood (P < 0.01) and inflammatory cell numbers in BALF (P < 0.01), decreasing airway hyperresponsiveness (P < 0.05), reducing the levels of IL-4 (P < 0.05), IL-13 (P < 0.01), NGF (P < 0.01) and CGRP (P < 0.01) in BALF, as well as down regulating the mRNA and protein expressions of TRPA1, TRPV1 and TRPV5 in both lung and brain tissues (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: SSB showed anti-tussive and anti-asthmatic effects on cough variant asthma mice model by reducing cough counts, improving lung function, alleviating lung injury and airway inflammation. The mechanism of SSB might be associated with the regulation of cytokines and neuropeptides in BALF, as well as the regulation of TRPA1, TRPV1, TRPV5 channels in both lung and brain tissues.


Assuntos
Antiasmáticos/administração & dosagem , Antitussígenos/administração & dosagem , Bombyx , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Canais de Receptores Transientes de Potencial/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Asma/metabolismo , Canais de Cálcio/metabolismo , Tosse/tratamento farmacológico , Tosse/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Canal de Cátion TRPA1/antagonistas & inibidores , Canal de Cátion TRPA1/metabolismo , Canais de Cátion TRPV/antagonistas & inibidores , Canais de Cátion TRPV/metabolismo , Canais de Receptores Transientes de Potencial/metabolismo , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1264: 29-45, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33332002

RESUMO

Cannabis can synthetize more than 400 compounds, including terpenes, flavonoids, and more than 100 phytocannabinoids. The main phytocannabinoids are Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). Cannabis-based products are used as medicines in several countries. In this text, we present an overview of the main neurochemical mechanisms of action of the phytocannabinoids, especially THC and CBD. We also reviewed the indications and adverse effects of the main cannabis-based medicinal products. THC acts as a partial agonist at cannabinoid 1/2 receptors (CB1/2). It is responsible for the characteristic effects of cannabis, such as euphoria, relaxation, and changes in perceptions. THC can also produce dysphoria, anxiety, and psychotic symptoms. THC is used therapeutically in nausea and vomiting due to chemotherapy, as an appetite stimulant, and in chronic pain. CBD acts as a noncompetitive negative allosteric modulator of the CB1 receptor, as an inverse agonist of the CB2 receptor, and as an inhibitor of the reuptake of the endocannabinoid anandamide. Moreover, CBD also activates 5-HT1A serotonergic receptors and vanilloid receptors. Its use in treatment-resistant epilepsy syndromes is approved in some countries. CBD does not produce the typical effects associated with THC and has anxiolytic and antipsychotic effects. Some of the most common adverse effects of CBD are diarrhea, somnolence, nausea, and transaminase elevations (with concomitant use of antiepileptics). The mechanisms of action involved in both the therapeutic and adverse effects of the phytocannabinoids are not fully understood, involving not only the endocannabinoid system. This "promiscuous" pharmacology could be responsible for their wide therapeutic spectrum.


Assuntos
Canabidiol/farmacologia , Cannabis/química , Dronabinol/farmacologia , Canabidiol/efeitos adversos , Dronabinol/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Receptor CB1 de Canabinoide/metabolismo , Receptor 5-HT1A de Serotonina/metabolismo , Canais de Cátion TRPV/metabolismo
3.
Life Sci ; 261: 118461, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32961227

RESUMO

AIMS: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a multifactorial neurodegenerative disorder. Its molecular mechanism is still unclear. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been highlighted in PD. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) is a kind of nonselective calcium cation channel. A defined role for TRPV4 in PD has not been reported. The purpose of the present research was to investigate the molecular mechanisms by which TRPV4 regulates ER stress induced by the 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP+) in PC12 cells. MAIN METHODS: PC12 cells were pretreated with the TRPV4-specific antagonist HC067047 or transfected with TRPV4 siRNA followed by treatment with MPP+. Cell viability was measured by the CCK-8 Assay. The expression of TRPV4, sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase 2 (SERCA2), glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), glucose-regulated protein 94 (GRP94), C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), procaspase-12, and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) was detected by western blot and RT-PCR. KEY FINDINGS: The expression of TRPV4 was upregulated, while cell viability was decreased by MPP+, which was reversed by HC067047. The ER stress common molecular signature SERCA2 was depressed by MPP+. Moreover, MPP+ induced upregulation of GRP78, GRP94, CHOP, and decrease in procaspase-12 and TH. HC067047 and TRPV4 siRNA reversed MPP+-induced ER stress and restored TH production. SIGNIFICANCE: TRPV4 functions upstream of ER stress induced by MPP+ and holds promise as a prospective pharmacotherapy target for PD.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Doença de Parkinson Secundária/patologia , Canais de Cátion TRPV/metabolismo , 1-Metil-4-fenilpiridínio , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular , Células PC12 , Doença de Parkinson Secundária/genética , Doença de Parkinson Secundária/metabolismo , Ratos , Canais de Cátion TRPV/análise , Canais de Cátion TRPV/genética , Regulação para Cima
4.
Cell Prolif ; 53(10): e12912, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32964544

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Mechanical force plays an important role in modulating stem cell fate and behaviours. However, how periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) perceive mechanical stimulus and transfer it into biological signals, and thereby promote alveolar bone remodelling, is unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An animal model of force-induced tooth movement and a compressive force in vitro was used. After force application, tooth movement distance, mesenchymal stem cell and osteoclast number, and proinflammatory cytokine expression were detected in periodontal tissues. Then, rat primary PDLSCs with or without force loading were isolated, and their stem cell characteristics including clonogenicity, proliferation, multipotent differentiation and immunoregulatory properties were evaluated. Under compressive force in vitro, the effects of the ERK signalling pathway on PDLSC characteristics were evaluated by Western blotting. RESULTS: Mechanical force in vivo induced PDLSC proliferation, which was accompanied with inflammatory cytokine accumulation, osteoclast differentiation and TRPV4 activation; the force-stimulated PDLSCs showed greater clonogenicity and proliferation, reduced differentiation ability, improved induction of macrophage migration, osteoclast differentiation and proinflammatory factor expression. The biological changes induced by mechanical force could be partially suppressed by TRPV4 inhibition. Mechanistically, force-induced activation of TRPV4 in PDLSCs regulated osteoclast differentiation by affecting the RANKL/OPG system via ERK signalling. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, we show here that TRPV4 activation in PDLSCs under mechanical force contributes to changing their stem cell characteristics and modulates bone remodelling during tooth movement.


Assuntos
Remodelação Óssea , Ligamento Periodontal/citologia , Células-Tronco/citologia , Canais de Cátion TRPV/metabolismo , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Masculino , Osteoclastos/citologia , Osteoclastos/metabolismo , Ligamento Periodontal/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Estresse Mecânico
5.
Mol Pharmacol ; 98(5): 586-597, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938721

RESUMO

This study investigated the roles of transient receptor potential (TRP) ankyrin-1 (TRPA1) and TRP vanilloid-3 (TRPV3) in regulating endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) and cytotoxicity in human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) treated with pneumotoxic wood smoke particulate matter (WSPM) and chemical agonists of each channel. Functions of TRPA1 and TRPV3 in pulmonary epithelial cells remain largely undefined. This study shows that TRPA1 activity localizes to the plasma membrane and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of cells, whereas TRPV3 resides primarily in the ER. Additionally, treatment of cells using moderately cytotoxic concentrations of pine WSPM, carvacrol, and other TRPA1 agonists caused ERS as a function of both TRPA1 and TRPV3 activities. Specifically, ERS and cytotoxicity were attenuated by TRPA1 inhibition, whereas inhibiting TRPV3 exacerbated ERS and cytotoxicity. Interestingly, after treatment with pine WSPM, TRPA1 transcription was suppressed, whereas TRPV3 was increased. TRPV3 overexpression in HBECs conferred resistance to ERS and an attenuation of ERS-associated cell cycle arrest caused by WSPM and multiple prototypical ERS-inducing agents. Alternatively, short hairpin RNA-mediated knockdown of TRPV3, like the TRPV3 antagonist, exacerbated ERS. This study reveals previously undocumented roles for TRPA1 in promoting pathologic ERS and cytotoxicity elicited by pneumotoxic WSPM and TRPA1 agonists, and a unique role for TRPV3 in fettering pathologic facets of the integrated ERS response. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: These findings provide new insights into how wood smoke particulate matter and other transient receptor potential ankyrin-1 (TRPA1) and transient receptor potential vanilloid-3 (TRPV3) agonists can affect human bronchial epithelial cells and highlight novel physiological and pathophysiological roles for TRPA1 and TRPV3 in these cells.


Assuntos
Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Material Particulado/administração & dosagem , Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Canal de Cátion TRPA1/metabolismo , Canais de Cátion TRPV/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Cimenos/efeitos adversos , Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pinus/efeitos adversos , Canais de Receptores Transientes de Potencial/metabolismo , Madeira/efeitos adversos
6.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0224414, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32931488

RESUMO

PROCEDURES: To preliminary assess the relationship between Manganese Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MEMRI) and the expression of calcium receptors in human prostate and breast cancer animal models. METHODS: NOD/SCID mice were inoculated with MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and prostate PC3 cancer cells to develop orthotopic or pseudometastatic cancer animal models. Mice were studied on a clinical 3T scanner by using a prototype birdcage coil before and after intravenous injection of MnCl2. Assessment of receptor's status was carried out after the MR images acquisition by immunohistochemistry on excised tumours. RESULTS: Manganese contrast enhancement in breast or prostate cancer animal models well correlated with CaSR expression (p<0.01), whereas TRPV6 expression levels appeared not relevant to the Mn uptake. CONCLUSION: Our preliminary results suggest that MEMRI appears an efficient tool to characterize human breast and prostate cancer animal models in the presence of different expression level of calcium receptors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Cloretos/administração & dosagem , Meios de Contraste/administração & dosagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Compostos de Manganês/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Animais , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Cálcio/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cloretos/farmacocinética , Meios de Contraste/farmacocinética , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Injeções Intravenosas , Masculino , Compostos de Manganês/farmacocinética , Camundongos , Projetos Piloto , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Receptores de Detecção de Cálcio/metabolismo , Canais de Cátion TRPV/metabolismo , Distribuição Tecidual , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
7.
Chem Biol Interact ; 330: 109178, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738201

RESUMO

The capsaicin (vanilloid) receptor, TRPV1, is a heat-activated cation channel modulated by inflammatory mediators and contributes to acute and chronic pain. TRPV1 channel is one of the most researched and targeted mechanisms for the development of novel analgesics. Over the years, natural products have contributed enormously to the development of important therapeutic drugs used currently in modern medicine. A literature review was conducted using Medline, Google Scholar, and PubMed. Searching the literature resulted in listing 136 natural compounds that interacted with TRPV1 channel. These compounds were phytochemicals that belong to different chemical groups including vanilloids, flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, terpenyl phenols, fatty acids, cannabinoids, sulfur_containing compounds, etc. Other natural TRPV1 modulators were of animal, fungal or bacterial origin. Some natural products were small agonists or antagonists of TRPV1. Others were protein venoms. Most in vitro studies utilized electrophysiological or calcium imaging techniques to study calcium flow through the channel using primary cultures of rat dorsal root and trigeminal ganglia. Other studies used hTRPV1 or rTRPV1 expressed in HEK239, CHO cells or Xenopus oocytes. In vivo studies concentrated on different pain models conducted mainly in mice and rats. In conclusion, natural products are highly diverse in their modulatory action on TRPV1. Many gaps in natural product research are present in distinguishing modality-specific from polymodal antagonists. Species' differences in TRPV1 functionality must be taken into account in any future study. Proceeding into clinical trials needs more efforts to discover potent TRPV1 antagonists devoid of hyperthermia, the main side effect.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/farmacologia , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Canais de Cátion TRPV/metabolismo , Analgésicos/efeitos adversos , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Produtos Biológicos/efeitos adversos , Cálcio/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Febre/etiologia , Humanos , Dor/complicações , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Canais de Cátion TRPV/agonistas , Canais de Cátion TRPV/antagonistas & inibidores , Canais de Cátion TRPV/efeitos dos fármacos , Canais de Cátion TRPV/genética
8.
Neuron ; 107(6): 1141-1159.e7, 2020 09 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735781

RESUMO

Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is a highly frequent and debilitating clinical complication of diabetes that lacks therapies. Cellular oxidative stress regulates post-translational modifications, including SUMOylation. Here, using unbiased screens, we identified key enzymes in metabolic pathways and ion channels as novel molecular targets of SUMOylation that critically regulated their activity. Sensory neurons of diabetic patients and diabetic mice demonstrated changes in the SUMOylation status of metabolic enzymes and ion channels. In support of this, profound metabolic dysfunction, accelerated neuropathology, and sensory loss were observed in diabetic gene-targeted mice selectively lacking the ability to SUMOylate proteins in peripheral sensory neurons. TRPV1 function was impaired by diabetes-induced de-SUMOylation as well as by metabolic imbalance elicited by de-SUMOylation of metabolic enzymes, facilitating diabetic sensory loss. Our results unexpectedly uncover an endogenous post-translational mechanism regulating diabetic neuropathy in patients and mouse models that protects against metabolic dysfunction, nerve damage, and altered sensory perception.


Assuntos
Neuropatias Diabéticas/metabolismo , Gliceraldeído-3-Fosfato Desidrogenase (Fosforiladora)/metabolismo , Nociceptividade , Células Receptoras Sensoriais/metabolismo , Sumoilação , Canais de Cátion TRPV/metabolismo , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Ciclo do Ácido Cítrico , Neuropatias Diabéticas/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Gânglios Espinais/citologia , Glicólise , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(36): 22357-22366, 2020 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32839313

RESUMO

Fever is a conserved and prominent response to infection. Yet, the issue of how CD4 T cell responses are modulated if they occur at fever temperatures remains poorly addressed. We have examined the priming of naive CD4 T cells in vitro at fever temperatures, and we report notable fever-mediated modulation of their cytokine commitment. When naive CD4 T cells were primed by plate-bound anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 monoclonal antibodies at moderate fever temperature (39 °C), they enhanced commitment to IL4/5/13 (Th2) and away from IFNg (Th1). This was accompanied by up-regulation of the Th2-relevant transcription factor GATA3 and reduction in the Th1-relevant transcription factor Tbet. Fever sensing by CD4 T cells involved transient receptor potential vanilloid cation channels (TRPVs) since TRPV1/TRPV4 antagonism blocked the febrile Th2 switch, while TRPV1 agonists mediated a Th2 switch at 37 °C. The febrile Th2 switch was IL4 independent, but a γ-secretase inhibitor abrogated it, and it was not found in Notch1-null CD4 T cells, identifying the Notch pathway as a major mediator. However, when naive CD4 T cells were primed via antigen and dendritic cells (DCs) at fever temperatures, the Th2 switch was abrogated via increased production of IL12 from DCs at fever temperatures. Thus, immune cells directly sense fever temperatures with likely complex physiological consequences.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/fisiologia , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Febre/fisiopatologia , Receptores Notch/metabolismo , Canais de Cátion TRPV/metabolismo , Animais , Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/citologia , Células Cultivadas , Temperatura Alta , Camundongos , Modelos Biológicos
10.
Chemosphere ; 258: 127408, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32782161

RESUMO

This study investigates the impacts of exposure to an environment Ca2+ challenge and the mechanism of action of dibutyl phthalate (DBP) on Ca2+ influx in the gills of Danio rerio. In vitro profile of 45Ca2+ influx in gills was verified through the basal time-course. Fish were exposed to low, normal and high Ca2+ concentrations (0.02, 0.7 and 2 mM) for 12 h. So, gills were morphologically analysed and ex vivo45Ca2+ influx at 30 and 60 min was determined. For the in vitro studies, gills were treated for 60 min with DBP (1 pM, 1 nM and 1 µM) with/without blockers/activators of ionic channels, Ca2+ chelator, inhibitors of ATPases, ionic exchangers and protein kinase C to study the mechanism of DBP-induced 45Ca2+ influx. Exposure to high environmental Ca2+ augmented 45Ca2+ influx when compared to fish exposed to normal and low Ca2+ concentrations. Additionally, histopathological changes were observed in the gills of fish maintained for 12 h in low and high Ca2+. In vitro exposure of gills to DBP (1 pM) disturbed Ca2+ homeostasis. DBP stimulated 45Ca2+ influx in gills through the transitory receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), and reverse-mode Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) activation, protein kinase C and K+ channels and sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA). These data suggest that in vivo short-term exposure of gills to low and high Ca2+ leads to 45Ca2+ influx and histopathological changes. Additionally, the DBP-induced rapid 45Ca2+ influx is mediated by TRPV1, NCX activation with the involvement of PKC, K+-channels and SERCA, thereby altering Ca2+ homeostasis.


Assuntos
Radioisótopos de Cálcio/metabolismo , Cálcio/metabolismo , Dibutilftalato/toxicidade , Brânquias/efeitos dos fármacos , Homeostase/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Animais , Cálcio/toxicidade , Dibutilftalato/metabolismo , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Brânquias/metabolismo , Trocador de Sódio e Cálcio/metabolismo , Canais de Cátion TRPV/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
11.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4169, 2020 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32820172

RESUMO

Sensing and responding to temperature is crucial in biology. The TRPV1 ion channel is a well-studied heat-sensing receptor that is also activated by vanilloid compounds, including capsaicin. Despite significant interest, the molecular underpinnings of thermosensing have remained elusive. The TRPV1 S1-S4 membrane domain couples chemical ligand binding to the pore domain during channel gating. Here we show that the S1-S4 domain also significantly contributes to thermosensing and couples to heat-activated gating. Evaluation of the isolated human TRPV1 S1-S4 domain by solution NMR, far-UV CD, and intrinsic fluorescence shows that this domain undergoes a non-denaturing temperature-dependent transition with a high thermosensitivity. Further NMR characterization of the temperature-dependent conformational changes suggests the contribution of the S1-S4 domain to thermosensing shares features with known coupling mechanisms between this domain with ligand and pH activation. Taken together, this study shows that the TRPV1 S1-S4 domain contributes to TRPV1 temperature-dependent activation.


Assuntos
Temperatura Alta , Ativação do Canal Iônico/fisiologia , Canais de Cátion TRPV/metabolismo , Sensação Térmica/fisiologia , Sítios de Ligação/genética , Capsaicina/química , Capsaicina/metabolismo , Dicroísmo Circular , Humanos , Ativação do Canal Iônico/genética , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Modelos Moleculares , Ligação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos , Canais de Cátion TRPV/química , Canais de Cátion TRPV/genética , Sensação Térmica/genética
12.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236657, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760089

RESUMO

Crohn's disease is a pathological condition of the gastro-intestinal tract, causing severe transmural inflammation in the ileum and/or colon. Cigarette smoking is one of the best known environmental risk factors for the development of Crohn's disease. Nevertheless, very little is known about the effect of prolonged cigarette smoke exposure on inflammatory modulators in the gut. We examined the effect of cigarette smoke on cytokine profiles in the healthy and inflamed gut of human subjects and in the trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid mouse model, which mimics distal Crohn-like colitis. In addition, the effect of cigarette smoke on epithelial expression of transient receptor potential channels and their concurrent increase with cigarette smoke-augmented cytokine production was investigated. Active smoking was associated with increased IL-8 transcription in ileum of controls (p < 0,001; n = 18-20/group). In the ileum, TRPV1 mRNA levels were decreased in never smoking Crohn's disease patients compared to healthy subjects (p <0,001; n = 20/group). In the colon, TRPV1 mRNA levels were decreased (p = 0,046) in smoking healthy controls (n = 20/group). Likewise, healthy mice chronically exposed to cigarette smoke (n = 10/group) showed elevated ileal Cxcl2 (p = 0,0075) and colonic Kc mRNA levels (p = 0,0186), whereas TRPV1 mRNA and protein levels were elevated in the ileum (p = 0,0315). Although cigarette smoke exposure prior to trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid administration did not alter disease activity, increased pro-inflammatory cytokine production was observed in the distal colon (Kc: p = 0,0273; Cxcl2: p = 0,104; Il1-ß: p = 0,0796), in parallel with the increase of Trpv1 mRNA (p < 0,001). We infer that CS affects pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in healthy and inflamed gut, and that the simultaneous modulation of TRPV1 may point to a potential involvement of TRPV1 in cigarette smoke-induced production of inflammatory mediators.


Assuntos
Colo/metabolismo , Doença de Crohn/metabolismo , Íleo/metabolismo , Canais de Cátion TRPV/metabolismo , Fumar Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Células CACO-2 , Colo/patologia , Doença de Crohn/induzido quimicamente , Doença de Crohn/patologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Células HT29 , Humanos , Íleo/patologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Médica Translacional , Ácido Trinitrobenzenossulfônico
13.
Chem Biol Interact ; 329: 109220, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763245

RESUMO

The sepsis is considered as serious clinic-pathological condition related with high rate of morbidity and mortality in critical care settings. In the proposed study, the hydrazides derivatives N-(benzylidene)-2-((2-hydroxynaphthalen-1-yl)diazenyl)benzohydrazides (1-2) (NCHDH and NTHDH) were investigated against the LPS-induced sepsis in rodents. The NCHDH and NTHDH markedly improved the physiological sign and symptoms associated with the sepsis such as mortality, temperature, and clinical scoring compared to negative control group, which received only LPS (i.p.). The NCHDH and NTHDH also inhibited the production of the NO and MPO compared to the negative control. Furthermore, the treatment control improved the histological changes markedly of all the vital organs. Additionally, the Masson's trichrome and PAS (Periodic Acid Schiff) staining also showed improvement in the NCHDH and NTHDH treated group in contrast to LPS-induced group. The antioxidants were enhanced by the intervention of the NCHDH and NTHDH and the level of the MDA and POD were attenuated marginally compared to the LPS-induced group. The hematology study showed marked improvement and the reversal of the LPS-induced changes in blood composition compared to the negative control. The synthetic function of the liver and kidney were preserved in the NCHDH and NTHDH treated group compared to the LPS-induced group. The NCHDH and NTHDH markedly enhanced the Nrf2, HO-1 (Heme oxygenase-1), while attenuated the Keap1 and TRPV1 expression level as compared to LPS treated group. Furthermore, the NCHDH and NTHDH treatment showed marked increased in the mRNA expression level of the HSP70/90 proteins compared to the negative control.


Assuntos
Hidrazinas/farmacologia , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/etiologia , Sepse/etiologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Hidrazinas/química , Hidrazinas/uso terapêutico , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/genética , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Macrófagos/citologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/mortalidade , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico , Sepse/mortalidade , Canais de Cátion TRPV/genética , Canais de Cátion TRPV/metabolismo
14.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4117, 2020 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32807785

RESUMO

Strategies for eradicating cancer stem cells (CSCs) are urgently required because CSCs are resistant to anticancer drugs and cause treatment failure, relapse and metastasis. Here, we show that photoactive functional nanocarbon complexes exhibit unique characteristics, such as homogeneous particle morphology, high water dispersibility, powerful photothermal conversion, rapid photoresponsivity and excellent photothermal stability. In addition, the present biologically permeable second near-infrared (NIR-II) light-induced nanocomplexes photo-thermally trigger calcium influx into target cells overexpressing the transient receptor potential vanilloid family type 2 (TRPV2). This combination of nanomaterial design and genetic engineering effectively eliminates cancer cells and suppresses stemness of cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Finally, in molecular analyses of mechanisms, we show that inhibition of cancer stemness involves calcium-mediated dysregulation of the Wnt/ß-catenin signalling pathway. The present technological concept may lead to innovative therapies to address the global issue of refractory cancers.


Assuntos
Raios Infravermelhos , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/efeitos da radiação , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos da radiação , Western Blotting , Cálcio/metabolismo , Canais de Cálcio/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Células MCF-7 , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/citologia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Canais de Cátion TRPV/metabolismo , Via de Sinalização Wnt
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(28): 16626-16637, 2020 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32601236

RESUMO

Neuronal activity leads to an increase in local cerebral blood flow (CBF) to allow adequate supply of oxygen and nutrients to active neurons, a process termed neurovascular coupling (NVC). We have previously shown that capillary endothelial cell (cEC) inwardly rectifying K+ (Kir) channels can sense neuronally evoked increases in interstitial K+ and induce rapid and robust dilations of upstream parenchymal arterioles, suggesting a key role of cECs in NVC. The requirements of this signal conduction remain elusive. Here, we utilize mathematical modeling to investigate how small outward currents in stimulated cECs can elicit physiologically relevant spread of vasodilatory signals within the highly interconnected brain microvascular network to increase local CBF. Our model shows that the Kir channel can act as an "on-off" switch in cECs to hyperpolarize the cell membrane as extracellular K+ increases. A local hyperpolarization can be amplified by the voltage-dependent activation of Kir in neighboring cECs. Sufficient Kir density enables robust amplification of the hyperpolarizing stimulus and produces responses that resemble action potentials in excitable cells. This Kir-mediated excitability can remain localized in the stimulated region or regeneratively propagate over significant distances in the microvascular network, thus dramatically increasing the efficacy of K+ for eliciting local hyperemia. Modeling results show how changes in cEC transmembrane current densities and gap junctional resistances can affect K+-mediated NVC and suggest a key role for Kir as a sensor of neuronal activity and an amplifier of retrograde electrical signaling in the cerebral vasculature.


Assuntos
Neurônios/metabolismo , Acoplamento Neurovascular , Canais de Potássio Corretores do Fluxo de Internalização/metabolismo , Potássio/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/irrigação sanguínea , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Células Endoteliais/química , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Modelos Biológicos , Neurônios/química , Potássio/química , Canais de Potássio Corretores do Fluxo de Internalização/química , Canais de Potássio Corretores do Fluxo de Internalização/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Canais de Cátion TRPV/química , Canais de Cátion TRPV/genética , Canais de Cátion TRPV/metabolismo
16.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 319(2): H507-H518, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32706268

RESUMO

The lymphatic system drains and propels lymph by extrinsic and intrinsic mechanisms. Intrinsic propulsion depends upon spontaneous rhythmic contractions of lymphatic muscles in the vessel walls and is critically affected by changes in the surrounding tissue like osmolarity and temperature. Lymphatics of the diaphragm display a steep change in contraction frequency in response to changes in temperature, and this, in turn, affects lymph flow. In the present work, we demonstrated in an ex vivo diaphragmatic tissue rat model that diaphragmatic lymphatics express transient receptor potential channels of the vanilloid 4 subfamily (TRPV4) and that their blockade by both the nonselective antagonist Ruthenium Red and the selective antagonist HC-067047 abolished the response of lymphatics to temperature changes. Moreover, the selective activation of TRPV4 channels by means of GSK1016790A mirrored the behavior of vessels exposed to increasing temperatures, pointing out the critical role played by these channels in sensing the temperature of the lymphatic vessels' environment and thus inducing a change in contraction frequency and lymph flow.NEW & NOTEWORTHY The present work addresses the putative receptor system that enables diaphragmatic lymphatics to change intrinsic contraction frequency and thus lymph flow according to the changes in temperature of the surrounding environment, showing that this role can be sustained by TRPV4 channels alone.


Assuntos
Linfa/fisiologia , Vasos Linfáticos/metabolismo , Contração Muscular , Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Canais de Cátion TRPV/metabolismo , Temperatura , Animais , Diafragma , Feminino , Técnicas In Vitro , Vasos Linfáticos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Morfolinas/farmacologia , Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos , Periodicidade , Pirróis/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Rutênio Vermelho/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais , Canais de Cátion TRPV/antagonistas & inibidores , Canais de Cátion TRPV/genética , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Life Sci ; 257: 118112, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32682914

RESUMO

AIMS: STW 5 is an herbal drug combination used for the treatment of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) with visceral hypersensitivity as the therapy-resistant hallmark. STW 5 has been clinically proven to alleviate visceral hypersensitivity-related symptoms, including abdominal pain, bloating, nausea, and early satiety. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the antinociceptive action of STW 5 remain unknown. Here, we investigate the role of STW 5 in the calcium mobilisation of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) sensory neurons. MAIN METHODS: Calcium imaging experiments were performed with freshly dissociated cultured murine DRG neurons isolated from mice by microfluorometry. TRPA1-deficient DRGs, TRPV1-deficient DRGs, TRPA1/V1 double-deficient DRGs, and wild-type DRGs have been used to investigate the role of TRPs ion channels in mediating STW 5 action. KEY FINDINGS: STW 5 (1.74 and 5.8 mg/ml) induced calcium ion influx into DRG neurons in a concentration-dependent manner. Calcium transients were desensitised during repeated exposure to STW 5, an effect that was facilitated in TRPA1-deficient DRGs and less pronounced in TRPV1-deficient DRGs compared to wild-type (WT) DRGs. SIGNIFICANCE: Repeated exposure to STW 5 induced desensitisation of sensory neurons and may ultimately contribute to its proven clinical efficacy against sensory-related symptoms in patients with FGID, including abdominal pain, bloating, nausea, and early satiety. This effect is modulated by the two prominent irritant sensors in nociceptors, TRPA1 and TRPV1.


Assuntos
Gânglios Espinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Canais de Receptores Transientes de Potencial/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Cálcio/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Canal de Cátion TRPA1/metabolismo , Canais de Cátion TRPV/metabolismo
18.
Expert Opin Pharmacother ; 21(11): 1377-1387, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32511032

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Neuropathic pain (NP) is caused by a lesion or disease of the somatosensory system, which can severely impact patients' quality of life. The current-approved treatments for NP comprise of both centrally acting agents and topical drugs, including capsaicin 8% dermal patches, which is approved for the treatment of peripheral NP. AREAS COVERED: The authors summarize literature data regarding capsaicin use in patients who suffer from NP and discuss the clinical applications of this topical approach. EXPERT OPINION: Overall, the capsaicin 8% dermal patch is as effective in reducing pain intensity as other centrally active agents (i.e. pregabalin). Some studies have also reported fewer systemic side effects, a faster onset of action and superior treatment satisfaction compared with systemic agents. In our opinion, capsaicin 8% dermal patches also present additional advantages, such as a good systemic tolerability, the scarcity of adverse events, the possibility to combine it with other agents, and a good cost-effective profile. It is important to note that, as the mechanism of action of capsaicin 8% is the 'defunctionalization' of small afferent fibers through interaction with TRPV1 receptors, the peripheral expression of this receptor on nociceptor fibers, is crucial to predict patient's response to treatment.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Capsaicina/administração & dosagem , Capsaicina/uso terapêutico , Neuralgia/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Tópica , Analgésicos/efeitos adversos , Capsaicina/efeitos adversos , Análise Custo-Benefício , Prova Pericial , Humanos , Neuralgia/metabolismo , Pregabalina/administração & dosagem , Pregabalina/efeitos adversos , Pregabalina/uso terapêutico , Qualidade de Vida , Canais de Cátion TRPV/metabolismo , Adesivo Transdérmico
19.
PLoS Biol ; 18(6): e3000723, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32511224

RESUMO

Lymphatic filariasis (LF) afflicts over 60 million people worldwide and leads to severe pathological outcomes in chronic cases. The nematode parasites (Nematoda: Filarioidea) that cause LF require both arthropod (mosquito) intermediate hosts and mammalian definitive hosts for their propagation. The invasion and migration of filarial worms through host tissues are complex and critical to survival, yet little is known about the receptors and signaling pathways that mediate directed migration in these medically important species. In order to better understand the role of chemosensory signaling in filarial worm taxis, we employ comparative genomics, transcriptomics, reverse genetics, and chemical approaches to identify putative chemosensory receptor proteins and perturb chemotaxis phenotypes in filarial worms. We find that chemoreceptor family size is correlated with the presence of environmental (extrahost) stages in nematode life cycles, and that filarial worms contain compact and highly diverged chemoreceptor complements and lineage-specific ion channels that are predicted to operate downstream of chemoreceptor activation. In Brugia malayi, an etiological agent of LF, chemoreceptor expression patterns correspond to distinct parasite migration events across the life cycle. To interrogate the role of chemosensation in the migration of larval worms, arthropod and mammalian infectious stage Brugia parasites were incubated in nicotinamide, an agonist of the nematode transient receptor potential (TRP) channel OSM-9. Exposure of microfilariae to nicotinamide alters intramosquito migration, and exposure of L3s reduces chemotaxis toward host-associated cues in vitro. Nicotinamide also potently modulates thermosensory responses in L3s, suggesting a polymodal sensory role for Brugia osm-9. Reverse genetic studies implicate both Brugia osm-9 and the cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channel subunit tax-4 in larval chemotaxis toward host serum, and these ion channel subunits partially rescue sensory defects in Caenorhabditis elegans osm-9 and tax-4 knock-out strains. Together, these data reveal genetic and functional diversification of chemosensory signaling proteins in filarial worms and encourage a more thorough investigation of clade- and parasite-specific facets of nematode sensory receptor biology.


Assuntos
Brugia Malayi/genética , Células Quimiorreceptoras/metabolismo , Culicidae/parasitologia , Filariose Linfática/parasitologia , Variação Genética , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/fisiologia , Quimiotaxia , Genoma , Proteínas de Helminto/metabolismo , Larva , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Interferência de RNA , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/metabolismo , Canais de Cátion TRPV/agonistas , Canais de Cátion TRPV/metabolismo , Temperatura
20.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(8): 7315-7321, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32505399

RESUMO

Bovine digital dermatitis is a contagious and chronic disease affecting the digits of dairy cattle worldwide. Tissue degradation may alter ionic channels and further activate vanilloid channels, more specifically the vanilloid receptor type 1 (TRPV1) that can generate and modulate hyperalgesia in cows affected with bovine digital dermatitis. The aim of this pilot study was to identify and quantify TRPV1 channels in dairy cows presenting with different stages of bovine digital dermatitis and compare these data according to the disease evolution and degree of hyperalgesia described in previous studies. Biopsies were taken from 15 lactating Holstein cows (23 lesions), and immunochemistry was performed to identify the number of TRPV1 fibers in the 4 M-stages of digital dermatitis and the control group. This pilot study had 5 experimental groups, M1 (5 samples), M2 (5 samples), M3 (4 samples), M4 (4 samples), and the control group (5 samples), with inclusion criteria was the presence of a bovine digital dermatitis lesion in at least one digit. The pilot results demonstrate an increase in expression of TRPV1 receptors in group M4 in comparison with the other groups. Bovine digital dermatitis may cause an increase in expression of TRPV1 receptors in the chronic stages of the disease, possibly contributing to the hyperalgesia described in affected animals; nevertheless, further research is needed to define this relation.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/patologia , Dermatite Digital/patologia , Hiperalgesia/veterinária , Canais de Cátion TRPV/metabolismo , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/metabolismo , Estudos Transversais , Dermatite Digital/metabolismo , Feminino , Casco e Garras/metabolismo , Casco e Garras/patologia , Hiperalgesia/metabolismo , Hiperalgesia/patologia , Imuno-Histoquímica , Lactação , Projetos Piloto , Pele/metabolismo , Pele/patologia
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