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1.
Acta Odontol Latinoam ; 33(2): 104-111, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920612

RESUMO

Candida dubliniensis (Cd) and Candida albicans (Ca) are the most frequently isolated yeasts in HIV+ patients. Some of the enzymes produced by these yeasts are considered virulence factors since they contribute to pathogenicity of Candida spp. The aim of the present study was to compare production of enzymes such as phospholipase (Ph), proteinase (P), and hemolysin (H) by Cd and Ca strains isolated from periodontal HIV-positive patients receiving and not receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Subgingival biofilm samples were obtained using paper points, and a sample of oral mucosa was taken using a swab. Phenotypic and molecular methods were used to isolate 39 strains of Candida, including 25 strains of Cd and 14 strains of Ca, obtained from 33 periodontal pocket samples and 6 oral mucosa samples collected from 15 HIV+ patients (8 receiving and 7 not receiving HAART). Malt egg-yolk agar, albumin agar and blood agar were used to evaluate pH, P and H production respectively. The strains were inoculated in duplicate and incubated at 37 ºC. Colony and halo diameters were measured. A greater proportion of Ca was observed in patients not receiving HAART, and a higher proportion of Cd was observed in those under HAART, Chi2 p< 0.001. Phospholipase production was observed in 92.9% percent of isolated Ca strains but in none of the isolated Cd strains. Proteinase production was high in Ca and Cd strains isolated from patients not receiving HAART. Hemolysin production was observed in all the studied strains, though it was significantly higher (p=0.04) in Ca and Cd strains isolated from patients not receiving HAART. To sum up, the proportion of Candida dubliniensis strains was highest in the subgingival biofilm of patients receiving HAART, and Cd strains were found to express fewer virulence factors than Ca strains.


Assuntos
Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/métodos , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Candida albicans/enzimologia , Candida albicans/isolamento & purificação , Candida/enzimologia , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Candidíase Bucal/microbiologia , Gengiva/microbiologia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Candida/classificação , Candida/genética , Candida albicans/genética , Candidíase Bucal/complicações , Genótipo , Infecções por HIV/microbiologia , Humanos , Mucosa Bucal/microbiologia , Fenótipo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Fatores de Virulência/genética
2.
Mycopathologia ; 185(4): 607-611, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737746

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic emerged in Wuhan, China, in late 2109, and has rapidly spread around the world. Until May 25, 2020, there were 133,521 confirmed COVID-19 cases and 7359 deaths in Iran. The role of opportunistic fungal infections in the morbidity and mortality of COVID-19 patients remains less defined. Based on our multicenter experiences, we categorized the risks of opportunistic fungal infections in COVID-19 patients in Iran. The COVID-19 patients at high risk included those with acute respiratory distress syndrome, in intensive care units, receiving broad-spectrum antibiotics, immunosuppressants or corticosteroid, and supported by invasive or noninvasive ventilation. The patients were most likely to develop pulmonary aspergillosis, oral candidiasis, or pneumocystis pneumonia. Most diagnoses were probable as the accurate diagnosis of opportunistic fungal infections remains challenging in resource-poor settings. We summarize the clinical signs and laboratory tests needed to confirm candidiasis, aspergillosis, or pneumocystosis in our COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Micoses/complicações , Infecções Oportunistas/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Candidíase Bucal/complicações , Candidíase Bucal/diagnóstico , Candidíase Bucal/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Micoses/diagnóstico , Micoses/epidemiologia , Infecções Oportunistas/diagnóstico , Infecções Oportunistas/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Doenças Faríngeas/complicações , Doenças Faríngeas/diagnóstico , Doenças Faríngeas/epidemiologia , Doenças Faríngeas/microbiologia , Pneumocystis carinii , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/complicações , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/diagnóstico , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/epidemiologia , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/microbiologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Aspergilose Pulmonar/complicações , Aspergilose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Aspergilose Pulmonar/epidemiologia
3.
J Mycol Med ; 30(3): 101009, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620497

RESUMO

Chronic renal disease patients under chronic dialysis (CRDD) have a multifactorial immunological deterioration with an increased risk of Candida infections. Incidence of Candida infections is increasing. Choice of suitable antifungal agents is limited due to the resistance of some species to several antifungals. Aim of the present study was to identify the distribution and antifungal susceptibility patterns of oral isolated Candida species from infected and colonized patients, as well as to investigate the risk factors for oral infection in patients on dialysis. Cross-sectional study, approved by the institutional bioethics committees was performed in CRDD patients. Demographic, clinic data, and oral mucosa samples were obtained. Infection diagnosis was established clinically and confirmed with exfoliative cytology, each sample was plated on CHROMagar Candida and incubated at 36°C for 2 days. Yeast species were identified by carbohydrate assimilation ID 32C AUX system and the apiweb database. For the antifungal susceptibility test, the M44 A-3 method (CLSI) using fluconazole (FCZ), miconazole (MCZ), nystatin (NYS), and voriconazole (VCZ). Study included 119 participants, the main cause of CRD was nephropathy due to DM2 (58%), and three-fourths of the patients were under hemodialysis. Candida prevalence was 56.3% of 67 colonized or infected patients, 88 isolates were obtained. Principal identified species were C. albicans (51.1%), C. glabrata (25%), and C. tropicalis (14.8%). C. glabrata showed a reduced response to FCZ in 50% of isolates and C. albicans had a reduced response in 16% of the isolates. Antifungal agent with the least efficacious response or with the lowest susceptibility in the isolates of these patients was MCZ, followed by VCZ and FCZ, whereas NYS induced the best antifungal response.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Candidíase Bucal/microbiologia , Boca/microbiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/microbiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Candida/classificação , Candidíase Bucal/complicações , Candidíase Bucal/diagnóstico , Candidíase Bucal/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/microbiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/epidemiologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/microbiologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/terapia , Farmacorresistência Fúngica/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Diálise Renal/efeitos adversos , Diálise Renal/estatística & dados numéricos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Mycoses ; 63(8): 771-778, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609906

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emergence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a major healthcare threat. Apparently, the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is armed by special abilities to spread and dysregulate the immune mechanisms. The likelihood of oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) development in COVID-19 patients with a list of attributable risk factors for oral infections has not yet been investigated. OBJECTIVES: We here aim to investigate the prevalence, causative agents and antifungal susceptibility pattern of OPC in Iranian COVID-19 patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 53 hospitalised COVID-19 patients with OPC were studied. Relevant clinical data were mined. Strain identification was performed by 21-plex PCR and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2). Antifungal susceptibility testing to fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, amphotericin B, caspofungin, micafungin and anidulafungin was performed according to the CLSI broth dilution method. RESULTS: In 53 COVID-19 patients with OPC, cardiovascular diseases (52.83%) and diabetes (37.7%) were the principal underlying conditions. The most common risk factor was lymphopaenia (71%). In total, 65 Candida isolates causing OPC were recovered. C albicans (70.7%) was the most common, followed by C glabrata (10.7%), C dubliniensis (9.2%), C parapsilosis sensu stricto (4.6%), C tropicalis (3%) and Pichia kudriavzevii (=C krusei, 1.5%). Majority of the Candida isolates were susceptible to all three classes of antifungal drugs. CONCLUSION: Our data clarified some concerns regarding the occurrence of OPC in Iranian COVID-19 patients. Further studies should be conducted to design an appropriate prophylaxis programme and improve management of OPC in critically ill COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Candida/classificação , Candidíase Bucal/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida/genética , Candidíase Bucal/microbiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Fenótipo , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32491142

RESUMO

Oral problems are common in patients diagnosed with Eating Disorders (ED) and still require better elucidation. We aimed to analyze the prevalence of oral Candida spp in individuals with ED. The sample of the study was comprised of 30 women with purgative habits and 15 without purgative habits. Samples of the oral cavity were collected by sterile cotton swab rubbed on soft tissues and teeth. Yeasts were isolated on Sabouraud dextrose agar. Yeasts were isolated from the oral cavity of 53% of the patients yielding 75 yeast isolates; of these, 43 were identified by conventional mycological methods: C. parapsilosis (n=19), C. glabrata (n=16), Rhodotorula sp (n= 6), C. famata (n=2). The remaining 32 isolates were presumptively identified as C. albicans or C. dubliniensis and required mass spectrometry for the final differentiation: 28 isolates were confirmed as C. albicans and four as C. dubliniensis. Among the control group, only four subjects (26.7%) were found to harbor C. albicans. The four C. dubliniensis isolates were from two patients, one that was only colonized and the other, with severe ED, was diagnosed with an oral candidiasis as demonstrated by the presence of pseudohyphae on the direct mycological exam from different sites. The increased rate of isolation of non-albicans species, such as C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, and C. dubliniensis in the oral cavity from ED patients with nutritional deficiency may suggest that purgative habits of these patients can lead to changes in normal flora and predispose to oral candidiasis.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa/complicações , Bulimia Nervosa/complicações , Candidíase Bucal/complicações , Boca/microbiologia , Adulto , Candida/classificação , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo
6.
Arch Oral Biol ; 115: 104741, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32417705

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To dynamically monitor oral Candida infection, CD4+ T lymphocyte counts, CD8+ T lymphocyte counts and CD4/CD8 ratios in HIV/AIDS patients during their first year of HAART and to preliminarily explore the relationships between them. DESIGN: Forty-six patients with HIV/AIDS receiving HAART at the Infection Department of Chongqing Red Cross Hospital were followed for one year. At baseline and 3, 6, and 12 months after HAART initiation, oral rinses were collected and cultured to identify Candida species. Further, blood samples were collected to detect CD4+ T lymphocyte counts, CD8+ T lymphocyte counts and CD4/CD8 ratios. RESULTS: The prevalence of OC decreased after HAART initiation (P < 0.05), and Candida albicans was the dominant species isolated from the oral cavity (66/93). At 3, 6 and 12 months after HAART initiation, CD4+ T lymphocyte counts were 327.91 ± 138.82, 329.65 ± 142.66 and 319.98 ± 97.90 cells/mm3, respectively, which were significantly higher than the level at baseline (263.39 ± 126.01 cells/mm3) (P = 0.016, P = 0.014, and P = 0.035, respectively). During the first year of HAART, CD4/CD8 ratios increased gradually, and CD8+ T lymphocyte counts decreased continually. OC was associated with low CD4+ T lymphocyte counts and a low CD4/CD8 ratio. CD4+ T lymphocyte counts <200 cells/mm3 and Candida load ≥300 CFU/mL were risk factors for OC (P < 0.05), and oral Candida load was negatively correlated with CD4+ T lymphocyte counts and the CD4/CD8 ratio. CONCLUSION: OC might be a useful marker for the evaluation of immune status in patients with HIV/AIDS.


Assuntos
Candidíase Bucal , Infecções por HIV , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Candida , Candidíase Bucal/complicações , Candidíase Bucal/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Humanos
7.
Oral Dis ; 26(1): 234-237, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621985

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate associated risk factors for oral candidiasis in elderly patients hospitalized in a community-based acute-care hospital with no dental units. METHODS: Two hundred and twenty-eight elderly patients (male: 105, female: 123), who were hospitalized with several systemic diseases in a community-based acute-care hospital from May 2014 to October 2016, were retrospectively analysed by multiple logistic regression. RESULTS: Multiple logistic regression analysis shows that bacterial pneumonia has a statistically strong relationship with oral candidiasis (p = 0.000, OR: 5.173, 95% CI: 2.368-11.298). The order followed is poor oral hygiene (p = 0.001, OR: 6.095, 95% CI: 2.003-18.545) and severe dry mouth (p = 0.043, OR: 2.507, 95% CI: 1.031-6.098). Other correlated factors including diabetes mellitus, denture wearer, dysphagia, malnutrition, requiring care and use of inhalation steroids, were not statistically significant in this study. CONCLUSIONS: Bacterial pneumonia correlates with oral candidiasis.


Assuntos
Candidíase Bucal/complicações , Pneumonia Bacteriana/complicações , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Transtornos de Deglutição , Dentaduras , Diabetes Mellitus , Feminino , Hospitalização , Hospitais Comunitários , Humanos , Masculino , Desnutrição , Higiene Bucal , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Xerostomia/complicações
8.
Ann Dermatol Venereol ; 147(1): 41-45, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677808

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) is characterized by susceptibility to chronic or recurrent infections with yeasts of the genus Candida affecting the skin, nails and mucous membranes. We describe a Moroccan patient presenting CMC with heterozygous STAT1 gain-of-function (GOF) mutation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A 5-year-old boy with no consanguinity presented recurrent episodes of oral thrush, chronic nail candidiasis and herpetic gingivostomatitis from the age of 8 months. He also had mycobacterial adenitis secondary to BCG vaccination and atypical rosacea. Genetic analysis revealed GOF mutation of the STAT1 gene. DISCUSSION: CMC was diagnosed in our patient despite poor clinical features. Sequencing of the genome revealed STAT1GOF mutation. This mutation affects production of IL-17, an important cytokine in mucocutaneous defense against Candida. The association with mycobacterial adenitis is rare and continues to be poorly understood. The presence of atypical rosacea in this setting is suggestive of this entity. Antifungal therapy and prevention of complications are necessary to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with this condition. CONCLUSION: CMC due to STAT1GOF mutation is characterized by a broad clinical spectrum and should be considered in all cases of chronic or recurrent fungal infection, whether or not associated with other infections.


Assuntos
Candidíase Mucocutânea Crônica/genética , Mutação com Ganho de Função , Fator de Transcrição STAT1/genética , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Vacina BCG/efeitos adversos , Candidíase Mucocutânea Crônica/complicações , Candidíase Bucal/complicações , Calázio/complicações , Pré-Escolar , Doença Crônica , Doenças da Gengiva/virologia , Humanos , Linfadenite/microbiologia , Masculino , Infecções por Mycobacterium/complicações , Onicomicose/complicações , Estomatite Herpética/complicações
9.
Rev Alerg Mex ; 67(4): 401-407, 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33631907

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inborn errors of immunity manifest with a greater susceptibility to infections, autoimmunity, autoinflammatory diseases, allergies, or malignancies. One of these is the mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease. The most frequent etiology is the complete autosomal recessive deficiency of the ß1 subunit of the interleukin 12 receptor. CASE REPORT: A female patient who, by the age of six months, started with a nodular lesion in the right shoulder and ipsilateral axillary adenitis after the bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine was applied. Later, she developed a cutaneous fistula in the anterior thorax, the inframammary region, and chronic recidivant suppurative lymphadenitis. A disseminated infection caused by Mycobacterium bovis was diagnosed, therefore, individualized pharmacological treatment was required due to failure with the primary treatment. The patient was diagnosed with deficiency in the ß1 subunit of the interleukin 12 receptor at age six. During her last hospitalization, she presented fever, cough, and tachypnea, and SARS-CoV-2 was detected by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The patient has had a favorable evolution. CONCLUSION: In patients with disseminated infections caused by bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccination or by environmental mycobacteria, there should be suspicion of an inborn error of immunity and the patient should be referred to a third level hospital for an early immunological assessment.


Assuntos
Vacina BCG/efeitos adversos , Subunidade p40 da Interleucina-12/deficiência , Mycobacterium bovis/patogenicidade , Tuberculose/etiologia , Candidíase Bucal/complicações , Criança , Coinfecção , Fístula Cutânea/etiologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Subunidade p40 da Interleucina-12/genética , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/etiologia , Vasculite Leucocitoclástica Cutânea/complicações
10.
Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(12): 829-834, 2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31874483

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the clinical characteristics of oral candidiasis (OC) in in-patients with rheumatism, in order to provide theoretical basis for the prevention and treatment of OC in rheumatism patients. Methods: One thousand eight hundred and eight in-patients were recruited in the Department of Rheumatology, the Second Hospital of Shanxi Medical University from January 2017 to December 2017. The patients included 607 males and 1 201 females. Their average age was (49.5±15.5) years old with a ranging from 14 to 81 years. According to occurrence of OC or not, the patients were divided into OC group and non-OC group. The differences of general data, primary diseases, laboratory examinations, usage of glucocorticoid and immunosuppressant therapy were compared between the two groups, and the risk factors of OC occurrence were analyzed. Results: Two hundred and sixty-nine patients had OC and 1 539 patients had no OC. Age [(54.9±14.7) years], duration of illness [(9.4±4.4) years] and hospital stay [(15.3±5.7) d] in OC group were significantly longer than those in non-OC group. OC incidence in patients with connective tissue disease (CTD) [17.40% (193/1 109)] was higher than that in non-CTD patients [10.87% (75/699)] (P<0.001). OC most likely occurred in patients with such CTD as Sjögren syndrome (SS) and Behcet syndrome. OC incidence in non-CTD patients with osteoarthritis (OA) was highest. The salivary flow rate in OC group [(0.65±0.45) ml/min] was significantly lower than that in non-OC group [(0.78± 0.39) ml/min] (t=2.394, P=0.017). There was no statistical differences in other laboratory examinations between the two groups, including white blood cells (WBC), lymphocyte, platelet count, liver function, renal function, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, immunoglobulin G, immunoglobulin M, immunoglobulin A, C(3), C(4) and so on. OC incidence in patients using prednisone≥15 mg/d [17.16% (133/775)] was higher than that in patients using prednisone<15 mg/d [12.53% (94/750)] and patients not using prednisone [14.84% (42/283)] (P<0.05). The incidence of OC in patients with immunosuppressant therapy [16.11% (226/1 403)] was statistically higher than that in non-immunosuppressant patients [10.62% (43/405)] (P<0.01). Logistic regression analysis showed that the risk factors of OC occurrence included primary diseases (P<0.001), age (P<0.001), duration of illness (P=0.001) and duration of hospitalization (P=0.002). Conclusions: OC occurred commonly in rheumatism in-patients, especially in elder patients, patients with long duration of illness and hospital stay. OC incidence in CTD patients is significantly higher than that in non-CTD patients. Glucocorticoid and immunosuppressant therapy might significantly reduce the anti-fungal immunity of the patients.


Assuntos
Candidíase Bucal/complicações , Doenças Reumáticas/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Síndrome de Behçet/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Pacientes Internados , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Síndrome de Sjogren/complicações , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Biol Regul Homeost Agents ; 33(3 Suppl. 1): 35-41, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31538448

RESUMO

Candida species are commensal yeasts of the oral cavity, which, under predisposing systemic and/or local circumstances, are responsible for a wide variety of clinical manifestations, globally known as oral candidiasis. Candida-associated denture stomatitis is an oral candidiasis particularly affecting the oral mucosa covered by a dental prosthesis, with several degree of severity. Diabetics suffer oral candidiasis more frequently than healthy individuals do and if they are denture wearers, the risk increases. Since various controversies still remain regarding the interrelationship among diabetes, oral Candida spp. strains involved in denture stomatitis and the presence of dentures, the present review aims to investigate the differences in Candida species frequencies and degree of denture stomatitis severity existing among diabetic and non- diabetic individuals, with and without dentures.


Assuntos
Candida/classificação , Candidíase Bucal/complicações , Complicações do Diabetes/microbiologia , Diabetes Mellitus , Estomatite sob Prótese/complicações , Dentaduras , Humanos , Estomatite sob Prótese/microbiologia
12.
Cir Cir ; 87(5): 572-579, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31448781

RESUMO

Esophagitis dissecans (ESD) is an uncommon disease that is associated with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), candidiasis and/or drugs. We aim to characterize the clinical, endoscopic and histological damage of the mucosal in subjects with dysphagia, its relation to concomitant entities and the treatment response. This is a retrospective observational study in patients with dysphagia and esophageal mucosal damage We included 23 patients (mean age = 55 years) who had GERD symptoms, dysphagia and/or odynophagia. There were 10, 9 and 4 cases of esophagitis dissecans, desquamative/esfacelante (ESD/ES) and fibrostenotic, respectively. ESD/SE is a rare entity with variable clinical, endoscopic and histological spectrum. The association with GERD was frequent.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Deglutição/etiologia , Esofagite/complicações , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Candidíase Bucal/complicações , Esofagite Eosinofílica/complicações , Estenose Esofágica/etiologia , Esofagite/diagnóstico , Esofagite/patologia , Esofagite/terapia , Esofagoscopia , Feminino , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/complicações , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Membrana Mucosa/patologia , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Swiss Dent J ; 129(5): 403-405, 2019 May 13.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31091860

RESUMO

Aim of this paper is to give an overview about topical and systemic therapy options for the oral candidiasis. The clinical presentation of oral candidiasis is mostly white, easily wiped off coatings or erythematous efflorescences, with several subtypes. Antifungal therapy is indicated in case of clinical symptoms or as prevention for immune-compromised patients. In addition, local or systemic factors should be revealed and improved. An appropriate oral hygiene is essential for the treatment and prevention of possible reinfection.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Candidíase Bucal , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Candidíase Bucal/complicações , Candidíase Bucal/diagnóstico , Candidíase Bucal/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos
14.
J Am Acad Dermatol ; 81(4): 1001-1007, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30965061

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Electronic cigarette use continues to rise, yet there are no reviews summarizing dermatologic manifestations associated with electronic cigarettes in the literature. OBJECTIVE: To review the literature regarding cutaneous manifestations associated with electronic cigarette use and increase awareness of side effects associated with this rapidly developing public health epidemic. METHODS: The PubMed database was searched for related literature. All studies involving the effects of electronic cigarette use on the skin or mucosa were obtained and reviewed for evidence. RESULTS: Contact dermatitis, thermal injuries, and oral mucosal lesions have been reported with the use of electronic cigarettes. LIMITATIONS: The conclusions presented in individual case reports or series are not based on randomized controlled trials. CONCLUSION: Electronic cigarettes can present with harmful dermatologic manifestations.


Assuntos
Queimaduras/etiologia , Dermatite de Contato/etiologia , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Doenças da Boca/epidemiologia , Mucosa Bucal/patologia , Candidíase Bucal/complicações , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Hiperplasia/epidemiologia , Hiperplasia/microbiologia , Líquen Plano Bucal/epidemiologia , Nicotina/efeitos adversos , Prevalência , Estomatite/epidemiologia , Estomatite/etiologia , Língua Pilosa/epidemiologia
15.
PLoS One ; 14(1): e0210527, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30629672

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this cross-sectional observational study was to compare the prevalence of different oral Candida spp. in patients with Type 2 Diabetes and chronic periodontitis in two oral sites: dorsal surface of the tongue and subgingival area. In order to determine subgingival areas as potential reservoirs of yeasts, this study aimed to find differences in the yeasts' detection between the dorsum of the tongue, as the oral site most commonly inhabited with microorganisms, and subgingival samples. Additionally, potential predictors for the yeasts prevalence were determined. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Subjects (N = 146) were divided into four groups: group A- healthy individuals without periodontitis, group B- healthy individuals with chronic periodontitis, group C- Type 2 Diabetes patients with good glycoregulation and Chronic periodontitis and group D- Type 2 Diabetes patients with poor glycoregulation and Chronic periodontitis. Samples were obtained from the tongue by swabbing. Subgingival plaque samples were taken by paper points and periodontal curette. Isolation and identification of different Candida spp. was done using ChromAgar medium. In addition, germ-tube production and carbohydrate assimilation tests were performed. RESULTS: The prevalence of Candida spp. was higher in diabetics with poor glycoregulation. The most frequently isolated species was Candida albicans followed by Candida glabrata and Candida tropicalis. In 15.6% of cases, Candida spp. was present in the subgingival area while absent on the tongue. Multivariate regression model showed that HbA1c was Candida spp. predictor for both locations. CONCLUSIONS: Our results confirmed that there are Candida spp. carriers among subjects with clinically healthy oral mucosa. Also, this study identified subgingival areas as potential reservoirs of these pathogenic species. Glycoregulation has been recognized as a positive predictor factor of Candida spp.


Assuntos
Candida/isolamento & purificação , Candidíase Bucal/complicações , Periodontite Crônica/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Adulto , Candida albicans/isolamento & purificação , Candida glabrata/isolamento & purificação , Candida tropicalis/isolamento & purificação , Periodontite Crônica/epidemiologia , Periodontite Crônica/microbiologia , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/microbiologia , Feminino , Gengiva/microbiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Língua/microbiologia
16.
Gan To Kagaku Ryoho ; 46(13): 2008-2011, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32157042

RESUMO

Oral candidiasis infection is generally treated with antifungal agents. However, it often requires long-term treatment, and epithelial dysplasia may persist even after the infection has been resolved depending on the case. Malignant transformation has been reported in long-term cases involving chronic inflammation, and surgical excision should be performed as the treatment of choice when the treatment period is prolonged. This report describes a case of maxillary gingival carcinoma caused by chronic inflammation related to oral candidiasis. The patient was an 85-year-old man who was admitted to our hospital with maxillary gingival pain. Cytology and biopsy revealed oral candidiasis and squamous cell carcinoma(cT1N0M0, Stage Ⅰ). He underwent partial maxillectomy. Post-operative recovery was uneventful, and there was no sign of recurrence or metastasis at the 1-year follow-up.


Assuntos
Candidíase Bucal , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Neoplasias Gengivais , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Candidíase Bucal/complicações , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/etiologia , Doença Crônica , Neoplasias Gengivais/etiologia , Humanos , Inflamação , Masculino , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia
17.
Ann Ital Chir ; 72018 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30524118

RESUMO

We present a case of a suspect splenic hematoma in an anticoagulated patient with an ignored diabetes mellitus, come to our emergency department. Lab tests showed increased CRP and INR, with an incoming hepatorenal syndrome. During the CT-scan the patient became unstable and the hemoglobin decreased. We decided for an emergency explorative laparotomy finding instead purulent collections with no evidence of bleeding, so we drained the pus and performed a splenectomy. After we excluded all the common primary sites of infection, we found out a severe chronic parodontopathy caused by multiple colonies of Candida albicans. KEY WORDS: Candida albicans, Parontopathy, Splenectomy, Splenic hematoma.


Assuntos
Abscesso Abdominal/complicações , Candidíase Bucal/complicações , Periodontite/complicações , Choque Séptico/etiologia , Esplenopatias/complicações , Abscesso Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Abscesso Abdominal/cirurgia , Idoso , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Doença Crônica , Desbridamento , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Emergências , Feminino , Hematoma/diagnóstico , Síndrome Hepatorrenal/etiologia , Humanos , Coeficiente Internacional Normatizado , Periodontite/diagnóstico , Periodontite/microbiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Esplenectomia , Esplenopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Supuração , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Extração Dentária
18.
Tunis Med ; 96(2): 142-147, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30324980

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Acute esophageal necrosis, also known as black esophagus, is a rare digestive complication, frequently manifested by an upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage and occurs in patients with comorbidities. AIM: To report the case of a patient with a black esophagus revealed by an upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage. OBSERVATION: A 72-year-old patient with a history of diabetes mellitus, hypertension and ischemic heart disease was hospitalized in surgical intensive care unit for hemorrhagic shock induced by cholecystectomy. On the 7th postoperative day, the patient developed acute hematemesis. Gastroscopy showed circumferential necrosis, localized in the middle and lower third of the esophagus and stopped abruptly at the gastroesophageal junction. Gastric mucosa was strictly normal. The bulb and the first part of duodenum showed multiple superficial ulcers without signs of recent hemorrhage. The patient was placed on absolute diet and total parenteral nutrition associated with high-dose intravenous proton pump inhibitor. Second-look gastroscopy, performed six days later, showed a significant improvement in esophageal lesions. The evolution was marked by the occurrence of pneumonia complicated by septic shock which caused patient's death. CONCLUSION: Black esophagus is a rare pathology of multifactorial etiology. Treatment is based on proton pump inhibitors in combination with resuscitation measures to control comorbidities. Mortality remains high due to the seriousness of comorbid disease states often associated with this condition.


Assuntos
Esofagite/diagnóstico , Esôfago/patologia , Idoso , Candidíase Bucal/complicações , Candidíase Bucal/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/microbiologia , Esofagite/microbiologia , Esôfago/microbiologia , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/complicações , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/diagnóstico , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Hematemese/diagnóstico , Hematemese/microbiologia , Humanos , Necrose/diagnóstico , Necrose/microbiologia , Pigmentação , Infecções por Pseudomonas/complicações , Infecções por Pseudomonas/diagnóstico , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolamento & purificação , Choque Séptico/complicações , Choque Séptico/diagnóstico
19.
Pan Afr Med J ; 30: 91, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30344875

RESUMO

Introduction: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of malnutrition among HIV infected children under five years of age followed up at the Laquintinie Hospital Douala (LHD). Methods: Medical records of children aged 13 days-59 months enrolled at initiation of antiretroviral treatment in the Day Care Unit/LHD, were reviewed for a period of 14 years (from 2002 to 2015). We used standard Z-scores, with cut-off point of <-2 SD to define low height-for-age (HAZ), low weight-for-height (WHZ) and low weight-for-age (WAZ). Factors associated with malnutrition were assessed according to World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Results: Overall, 217 medical records were included and 52.5% were records of boys. The median weight, height and age of the children was 9.5 kg (range: 2.5-20), 76 cm (range: 46- 117) and 22 months (range: 0.03-59), respectively. The overall prevalence of malnutrition among HIV-infected children was 68.7%; 63.6% were stunted (HAZ<-2), 37.8% were underweight (WAZ<-2) and 18.4 % were wasted (WHZ<-2). Severe and advanced immunological stages of HIV according to WHO were found in 42.4%, (39/92) and 17.4%, (16/92) of children respectively, and most of them (21.7%) were aged 12-36 months. The overall prevalence of anemia, oropharyngeal candidiasis and pulmonary tuberculosis were 34.6%, 12% and 8.8%, respectively. Oropharyngeal candidiasis was a risk factor independently associated with severe underweight and wasting (OR = 4.9, 95% CI: 1.8-13.5, p = 0.002) and (OR = 5.1, 95% CI: 1.5-17.1, p = 0.007). Conclusion: HIV infection negatively affects the nutritional status of children under five years of age. Early detection of malnutrition is necessary and adequate nutrition should be integrated into the management of pediatric HIV.


Assuntos
Candidíase Bucal/complicações , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Estado Nutricional , Camarões/epidemiologia , Candidíase Bucal/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Magreza/epidemiologia
20.
J Dent Res ; 97(13): 1468-1476, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30049240

RESUMO

Candida albicans is an opportunistic fungal organism frequently detected in the oral cavity of children with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC). Previous studies suggested the cariogenic potential of C. albicans, in vitro and in vivo, and further demonstrated its synergistic interactions with Streptococcus mutans. In combination, the 2 organisms are associated with higher caries severity in a rodent model. However, it remains unknown whether C. albicans influences the composition and diversity of the entire oral bacterial community to promote S-ECC onset. With 16s rRNA amplicon sequencing, this study analyzed the microbiota of saliva and supragingival plaque from 39 children (21 S-ECC and 18 caries-free [CF]) and 33 mothers (17 S-ECC and 16 CF). The results revealed that the presence of oral C. albicans is associated with a highly acidogenic and acid-tolerant bacterial community in S-ECC, with an increased abundance of plaque Streptococcus (particularly S. mutans) and certain Lactobacillus/Scardovia species and salivary/plaque Veillonella and Prevotella, as well as decreased levels of salivary/plaque Actinomyces. Concurrent with this microbial community assembly, the activity of glucosyltransferases (cariogenic virulence factors secreted by S. mutans) in plaque was significantly elevated when C. albicans was present. Moreover, the oral microbial community composition and diversity differed significantly by disease group (CF vs. S-ECC) and sample source (saliva vs. plaque). Children and mothers within the CF and S-ECC groups shared microbiota composition and diversity, suggesting a strong maternal influence on children's oral microbiota. Altogether, this study underscores the importance of C. albicans in association with the oral bacteriome in the context of S-ECC etiopathogenesis. Further longitudinal studies are warranted to examine how fungal-bacterial interactions modulate the onset and severity of S-ECC, potentially leading to novel anticaries treatments that address fungal contributions.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Candida albicans/isolamento & purificação , Cárie Dentária/microbiologia , Microbiota , Bactérias/patogenicidade , Candida albicans/patogenicidade , Candidíase Bucal/complicações , Candidíase Bucal/microbiologia , Pré-Escolar , Índice CPO , Placa Dentária/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mães , New York , Saliva/microbiologia
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