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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(1): 6-9, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917780

RESUMO

Candida auris is a globally emerging yeast that causes outbreaks in health care settings and is often resistant to one or more classes of antifungal medications (1). Cases of C. auris with resistance to all three classes of commonly prescribed antifungal drugs (pan-resistance) have been reported in multiple countries (1). C. auris has been identified in the United States since 2016; the largest number (427 of 911 [47%]) of confirmed clinical cases reported as of October 31, 2019, have been reported in New York, where C. auris was first detected in July 2016 (1,2). As of June 28, 2019, a total of 801 patients with C. auris were identified in New York, based on clinical cultures or swabs of skin or nares obtained to detect asymptomatic colonization (3). Among these patients, three were found to have pan-resistant C. auris that developed after receipt of antifungal medications, including echinocandins, a class of drugs that targets the fungal cell wall. All three patients had multiple comorbidities and no known recent domestic or foreign travel. Although extensive investigations failed to document transmission of pan-resistant isolates from the three patients to other patients or the environment, the emergence of pan-resistance is concerning. The occurrence of these cases underscores the public health importance of surveillance for C. auris, the need for prudent antifungal prescribing, and the importance of conducting susceptibility testing on all clinical isolates, including serial isolates from individual patients, especially those treated with echinocandin medications. This report summarizes investigations related to the three New York patients with pan-resistant infections and the subsequent actions conducted by the New York State Department of Health and hospital and long-term care facility partners.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Fúngica , Idoso , Antifúngicos/classificação , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New York
2.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 202: 111652, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31760374

RESUMO

The Biocompatibility and stability of nanoparticles using plants have been widely investigated due to its applications in the biomedical industry. Currently, there is a growing interest in nanoparticles in bone remodelling. Artemisia annua is an herbal plant commonly used in the treatment of various ailments. This study investigated the zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) using the green synthesis technique from A. annua and the effects of A. annua ZnO-NPs on osteoblast differentiation and inhibition of osteoclast formation. The formulated ZnO-NPs from A. annua were characterized by using various spectroscopic and microscopic methods Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and UV-Visible spectroscopy. The disc diffusion method was adopted to test the antimicrobial efficacy of ZnO-NPs. The viability of MG-63 cells were assayed by MTT test and Osteogenic-related assays like Real-time PCR and Mineralization assay were adopted to determine the effects of A. annua ZnO-NPs on the multiplication and differentiation of human osteoblast-like MG-63 cells. The characterization of A. annua ZnO-NPs revealed the crystalline nature with high zinc content and the presence of bioactive compounds from A. annua extract. The synthesized A. annua ZnO-NPs indicate significant antimicrobial potential. Besides, A. annua ZnO-NPs enhanced the proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization without causing significant cytotoxic impact on MG-63 cells. These effects indicate that A. annua ZnO-NPs can both stimulate bone formation via the differentiation of MG-63 cells. Hence, it was concluded that A. annua ZnO-NPs can be a promising agent for the treatment of bone deformities and bone-related diseases, however further research also required to explore the clear mechanism of A. annua ZnO-NPs in the formation and differentiation of MG-63 cells.


Assuntos
Artemisia annua/química , Diferenciação Celular , Proliferação de Células , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Anti-Infecciosos/síntese química , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Artemisia annua/metabolismo , Cálcio/metabolismo , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Química Verde , Humanos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Osteoblastos/citologia , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Casca de Planta/química , Casca de Planta/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Óxido de Zinco/química
3.
J Prosthet Dent ; 123(1): 181.e1-181.e7, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31813582

RESUMO

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: Candida adherence to the denture base is an important cause of denture stomatitis. In addition, infections with drug-resistant Candida have become more prevalent, especially among elderly and immunocompromised patients. Thus, alternative safe antifungal agents for oral applications are needed. PURPOSE: The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the activity of chitosan, a natural biopolymer, against common oral Candida species and its efficacy in inhibiting C albicans adherence to denture-base acrylic resin. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) of 5 types of chitosan against 6 species of Candida and 10 C albicans clinical isolates were determined by broth and agar dilution, respectively. N-succinyl chitosan (NSC), low- and high-molecular-weight water-soluble chitosan (LMWC and HMWC), and oligomer and polymer shrimp-chitosan were examined. NSC and HMWC, as pure gel and as a mixture with carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), were applied to acrylic resin disks, incubated with C albicans for 24 hours, and washed, and adherent cells were collected for colony count. The effects of HMWC on human gingival fibroblasts after 1 and 24 hours of treatment were measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The retention force of HMWC gel was measured by using a universal testing machine. The Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare the antiadherence activity (α=.05). RESULTS: HMWC had the highest antifungal activity against most Candida species tested and C albicans clinical isolates. HMWC gel completely inhibited C albicans adherence to denture base acrylic resin (P<.001). CMC denture adhesive significantly increased C albicans adherence (P<.001), but adding 2×MFC HMWC into CMC reduced the adherence, although this was not statistically significant (P=.06). HMWC at 1×MFC and 2×MFC showed no toxic effect on gingival fibroblast viability and proliferation. Moreover, the retention force provided by HMWC gel was sufficient for use as a denture adhesive (>5000 Pa). CONCLUSIONS: High-molecular-weight, water-soluble chitosan is a biocompatible biopolymer that could inhibit C albicans adherence and that showed properties suitable for development into an antifungal denture adhesive.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Estomatite sob Prótese , Resinas Acrílicas , Idoso , Antifúngicos , Candida , Candida albicans , Cimentos Dentários , Bases de Dentadura , Humanos
4.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) ; 68(1): 64-69, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31708557

RESUMO

Invasive fungal disease constitutes a growing health problem and development of novel antifungal drugs with high potency and selectivity are in an urgent need. In this study, a novel series of triazole derivatives containing different ester skeleton were designed and synthesized. Microdilution broth method was used to investigate antifungal activity. Significant inhibitory activity of compounds 5c, 5d, 5e, 5f, 5m and 5n was evaluated against the Candida albicans (I), Candida albicans clinical isolate (II), Candida glabrata clinical isolate (I), and Candida glabrata (II) with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC80) values ranging from 2 to 16 µg/mL. Notably, compounds 5e and 5n showed the best inhibition against Candida albicans (II), Candida glabrata (I), and Candida glabrata (II) at the concentrations of 2 and 8 µg/mL, respectively. Molecular docking study revealed that the target compounds interacted with CYP51 mainly through hydrophobic and van der Waals interactions. The results indicated that these novel triazole derivatives could serve as promising leads for development of antifungal agents.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/síntese química , Desenho de Drogas , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Triazóis/química , Antifúngicos/química , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Sítios de Ligação , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Domínio Catalítico , Ésteres/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Eletricidade Estática , Esterol 14-Desmetilase/química , Esterol 14-Desmetilase/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Triazóis/síntese química , Triazóis/farmacologia
5.
Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi ; 59(1): 5-17, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887830

RESUMO

In this consensus we mainly present the etiology, epidemiology, risk factors, microbiology, clinical diagnosis and general principles of treatment, as well as the detailed diagnosis and treatment of common candidiasis. Though mucocutaneous candidiasis such as oral, esophageal and vulvovaginal infections are known as non-invasive diseases, they are included in this consensus, considering their high prevalence and the potential to be the source of systematic infections.In order to be accordant with the practical situation in China, new technologies and drugs that have not been well developed or routinely applied are not recommended in this consensus. As to the differences from foreign guidelines, we address the explanations. Individualized treatment and management should be administrated based on the specific underlying conditions, organism distribution and drug resistance profile of Candida species.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Candidíase/diagnóstico , Candidíase/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Antifúngicos/administração & dosagem , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , China , Consenso , Humanos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
7.
Pol J Microbiol ; 68(3): 303-308, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31880875

RESUMO

The data on susceptibility to antifungals of new species within Candida glabrata complex are limited. Our study was to enrich a global knowledge of yeast epidemiology and drug resistance. The study was focused on the identification of species within clinical isolates of the C. glabrata complex and on the determination of their resistance to antifungals. Four hundred forty-five clinical C. glabrata sensu lato strains were isolated from different clinical samples at routine mycological exams at the Infant Jesus Teaching Hospital in Warsaw. The identification of the most of tested isolates to species complex level was performed using the ID 32 C system. The identification of C. nivariensis and C. bracarensis species within the C. glabrata complex was performed by DNA sequencing. The MICs of amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, voriconazole, caspofungin, anidulafungin, and micafungin were determined by E-test. Twenty-four isolates did not have an ITS-1 region, characteristic of C. glabrata sensu stricto and their D1/D2 regions of the 26S rRNA were 99% homologous to C. nivariensis 26S rRNA. No strains of C. bracarensis were recovered. C. nivariensis strains were very susceptible to amphotericin B, anidulafungin, micafungin, and caspofungin. Ninety-two percent of C. nivariensis were resistant to itraconazole. The halves of the strains was resistant to posaconazole. Eighty-three percent of C. nivariensis were susceptible to voriconazole. None of the tested strains were susceptible to fluconazole. In the present study, none of the C. nivariensis strains were simultaneously resistant to azoles and echinocandins. C. nivariensis should be recognized as an emerging pathogen, resistant to azoles.The data on susceptibility to antifungals of new species within Candida glabrata complex are limited. Our study was to enrich a global knowledge of yeast epidemiology and drug resistance. The study was focused on the identification of species within clinical isolates of the C. glabrata complex and on the determination of their resistance to antifungals. Four hundred forty-five clinical C. glabrata sensu lato strains were isolated from different clinical samples at routine mycological exams at the Infant Jesus Teaching Hospital in Warsaw. The identification of the most of tested isolates to species complex level was performed using the ID 32 C system. The identification of C. nivariensis and C. bracarensis species within the C. glabrata complex was performed by DNA sequencing. The MICs of amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, voriconazole, caspofungin, anidulafungin, and micafungin were determined by E-test. Twenty-four isolates did not have an ITS-1 region, characteristic of C. glabrata sensu stricto and their D1/D2 regions of the 26S rRNA were 99% homologous to C. nivariensis 26S rRNA. No strains of C. bracarensis were recovered. C. nivariensis strains were very susceptible to amphotericin B, anidulafungin, micafungin, and caspofungin. Ninety-two percent of C. nivariensis were resistant to itraconazole. The halves of the strains was resistant to posaconazole. Eighty-three percent of C. nivariensis were susceptible to voriconazole. None of the tested strains were susceptible to fluconazole. In the present study, none of the C. nivariensis strains were simultaneously resistant to azoles and echinocandins. C. nivariensis should be recognized as an emerging pathogen, resistant to azoles.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Candidíase/microbiologia , Anfotericina B/farmacologia , Candida/classificação , Candida/genética , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Candidíase/epidemiologia , Farmacorresistência Fúngica , Fluconazol/farmacologia , Hospitais de Ensino/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Polônia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Triazóis/farmacologia
8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(51): 14121-14128, 2019 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775508

RESUMO

Heliotropin, a compound with important roles in the spice and fragrance industries and broad application prospects, is mainly produced through chemical methods. Here, we established a novel process for the synthesis of heliotropin by Escherichia coli whole cells through biotransformation of isosafrole. Directed evolution and high-throughput screening based on 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine were used to improve the activity of trans-anethole oxygenase toward isosafrole, and a mutant (TAO3G2) was obtained that had a high ability to oxidize isosafrole. Formate dehydrogenase (FDH) and TAO3G2 were coexpressed in E. coli, significantly increasing the catalytic efficiency by regenerating more NADH to promote isosafrole oxidation. Furthermore, after optimizing the molar ratio of isosafrole to the auxiliary substrate, the final concentration of heliotropin was increased from 9.15 to 19.45 g/L, and the maximum yield and space-time yield reached 96.02% and 3.89 g/L/h, respectively. These results suggest that the biosynthesis of heliotropin should have excellent industrial application value.


Assuntos
Benzaldeídos/metabolismo , Benzodioxóis/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Formiato Desidrogenases/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Oxigenases/genética , Candida/enzimologia , Formiato Desidrogenases/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Engenharia Metabólica , NAD/metabolismo , Oxigenases/metabolismo , Safrol/metabolismo
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 939, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699043

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Invasive candidiasis (IC) is the most common invasive fungal infection. The epidemiology of IC in hospitalized patients has been widely investigated in many metropolitan cities; however, little information from medium and small cities is known. METHODS: A 5-year retrospective study was carried out to analyze the prevalence, species distribution, antifungal susceptibility, risk factors and mortality of inpatients with invasive Candida infection in a regional tertiary teaching hospital in Southwest China. RESULTS: A total of 243 inpatients with invasive Candida infection during the five-year study period were identified, with a mean annual incidence of 0.41 cases per 1000 admissions and a 30-day mortality rate of 12.3%. The species distributions of Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis and other Candida species was 45.3, 30.0, 15.2, 4.9, 2.1 and 2.5%, respectively. The total resistance rates of fluconazole (FCA), itraconazole (ITR) and voriconazole (VRC) were 18.6, 23.1 and 18.5%, respectively. Respiratory dysfunction, pulmonary infection, cardiovascular disease, chronic/acute renal failure, mechanical ventilation, abdominal surgery, intensive care in adults, septic shock and IC due to C. albicans were associated with 30-day mortality (P < 0.05) according to the univariate analyses. Respiratory dysfunction [odds ratio (OR), 9.80; 95% confidence interval (CI), 3.24-29.63; P < 0.001] and IC due to C. albicans (OR, 3.35; 95% CI, 1.13-9.92; P = 0.029) were the independent predictors of 30-day mortality. CONCLUSIONS: This report shows that the incidence and mortality rates are lower and that the resistance rates to azoles are higher in medium and small cities than in large cities and that the species distributions and risk factors in medium and small cities are different from those in large cities in China. It is necessary to conduct epidemiological surveillance in medium and small cities to provide reference data for the surveillance of inpatients with IC infections.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Candidíase Invasiva/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Candida/fisiologia , Candidíase Invasiva/epidemiologia , Candidíase Invasiva/mortalidade , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(44): e17704, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689800

RESUMO

For early diagnosis and treatment of invasive candidiasis (IC), the well-known risk factors may not apply in the intensive care unit (ICU). This retrospective study identified the risk factors predicting IC and candidemia in cancer patients under intensive care after gastrointestinal surgery.Enrolled were 229 cancer patients admitted to our oncology surgical ICU after gastrointestinal surgery between January 1, 2010 and October 31, 2014.The most common types of solid gastrointestinal cancers were gastric (49.8%), colon (20.1%), and esophageal (18.3%). The percentage of patients with corrected Candida colonization index (CCI) ≥0.4 was 31.9%. IC was confirmed in 19 patients (8.3%), and the ICU mortality was 15.8%. Candida albicans accounted for 52.6% of the total number of pathogenic Candida isolates. Among patients with CCI ≥0.4, the cancers with the highest prevalence were cardiac (45%) and gastric (36%), with ICU mortalities of 20% and 4.9%, respectively. For the diagnosis of candidemia, (1-3)-ß-D-glucan (BDG) ≥80 pg/mL showed a sensitivity and specificity of 25% and 82.7%, respectively, positive and negative predictive values 6.7% and 95.7%, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve 0.512. CCI ≥0.4 was the only significant predictor of IC, and number of organ failures was the only predictor of candidemia (P = .000 and .026).CCI ≥0.4 was the only significant risk factor predicting IC, with greater prediction of intra-abdominal candidiasis but failure to predict candidemia. Blood culture and BDG detection are recommended to supplement diagnosis. Patients may have multifocal and high-grade Candida colonization after cardiac surgery, and; therefore, are at high risk of IC, which should be taken seriously.


Assuntos
Candidemia/epidemiologia , Candidíase Invasiva/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/cirurgia , APACHE , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Candida/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estado Terminal , Feminino , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Técnicas Microbiológicas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escores de Disfunção Orgânica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Sepse/epidemiologia
11.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 198, 2019.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692732

RESUMO

Introduction: Epidemiology of these disorders, mainly caused by mycosis, is little known in the Ivory Coast. The aim of this study was to determine the different clinical aspects of intertrigos caused by fungal infections. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study in the Department of Clinical Dermatology at the University Hospital in Yopougon (Abidjan, Ivory Coast) from April to October 2012. The study involved the patients come to consultation with lesions in the folds suggesting a mycosis. Samples of serous fluid by swabbing or of scales by scrape cutting with the scalpel blade were performed at the level of the lesions. The fungal agents responsible for these lesions were identified after biological culture. Results: A total of 200 patients had lesions suggesting intertrigo caused by fungal infection. The average age of patients was 29.8 years (with a standard deviation of 11.1 years). Mycosis-related intertrigos accounted for 6.7% of reasons for consultation. A female predominance was observed (76.7%). Lesions mainly occurred in the groin area (40.8%) and in the intergluteal clefts (36.9%). The most observed symptoms were maceration (52.4%) followed by burning (18.4%). In 89.3% of cases, intertrigos were caused by yeasts, including Candida albicans (33%), and Candida parapsilosis(19.4%) which were predominant. Conclusion: Mycosis-related intertrigos mainly affect the young adults of female sex. Lesions mainly occur at the level of the inguinal folds and intergluteal clefts. The main etiological agents are yeasts (Candida).


Assuntos
Candidíase/epidemiologia , Intertrigo/epidemiologia , Micoses/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Candidíase/microbiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Costa do Marfim , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Lactente , Intertrigo/microbiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Micoses/microbiologia , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
12.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1197: 119-141, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31732939

RESUMO

Oral cavity harbors a complex and highly diverse microbial community. Cross-kingdom interactions between Candida and oral bacteria are critical for their co-existence, which may also affect the course and the severity of biofilm-mediated bacterial-mediated diseases. C. albicans has been found in polymicrobial biofilms associated with denture stomatitis, oral mucositis, dental caries, periodontal diseases, peri-implantitis, and root canal infection. Thus, it is of utmost importance to unravel the mechanisms of Candida-bacterial interactions and their impact on the onset and severity of cross-kingdom biofilm-related diseases. Here, we highlight the potential role of Candida-bacterial biofilm interactions in the pathogenesis of oral diseases, especially mucosal infections and dental caries. The influence of Candida-bacterial biofilms on the mucosal host immune response is also discussed. Finally, we present some of the current and prospective therapeutic strategies for controlling these cross-kingdom interactions and their virulence properties associated with oral diseases.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Biofilmes , Candida , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Doenças da Boca , Candida/fisiologia , Candida albicans/fisiologia , Humanos , Doenças da Boca/microbiologia , Estudos Prospectivos
13.
Klin Lab Diagn ; 64(11): 690-692, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747500

RESUMO

When studying the effect of the metabolic products of clinical isolates of enterococci on the viability of Candida albicans, it was found that metabolites of all tested strains of Enterococcus faecium, E. faecalis had a fungistatic effect. At the same time a reliable fungicidal effect is a strain-specific feature. It is better to use the method of delayed antagonism on double-layer agar to assess the antifungal effect of enterococcal metabolism products.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/química , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterococcus faecalis/química , Enterococcus faecium/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
15.
Chemistry ; 25(69): 15863-15870, 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596001

RESUMO

Sustainability in chemistry heavily relies on heterogeneous catalysis. Enzymes, the main catalyst for biochemical reactions in nature, are an elegant choice to catalyze reactions due to their high activity and selectivity, although they usually suffer from lack of robustness. To overcome this drawback, enzyme-decorated nanoporous heterogeneous catalysts were developed. Three different approaches for Candida antarctica lipase B (CAL-B) immobilization on a covalent organic framework (PPF-2) were employed: physical adsorption on the surface, covalent attachment of the enzyme in functional groups on the surface and covalent attachment into a linker added post-synthesis. The influence of the immobilization strategy on the enzyme uptake, specific activity, thermal stability, and the possibility of its use through multiple cycles was explored. High specific activities were observed for PPF-2-supported CAL-B in the esterification of oleic acid with ethanol, ranging from 58 to 283 U mg-1 , which was 2.6 to 12.7 times greater than the observed for the commercial Novozyme 435.


Assuntos
Enzimas Imobilizadas/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Lipase/química , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Adsorção , Biocatálise , Candida/enzimologia , Esterificação , Modelos Moleculares , Nanoporos/ultraestrutura , Ácido Oleico/química
16.
Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal ; 24(6): e712-e718, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31655829

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In this study, the prevalence and distribution of dental caries and oral hygiene conditions in a group of patients with ß-TM are evaluated and the results compared to age-and gender-matched healthy patients. In addition, oral candida colonization and the density of Streptococcus mutans (S.mutans) and Lactobacilli in the total saliva are assessed. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study involved 59 ß-TM patients between 6-16 years old (mean:11.59±3.22), who applied to the Department of Pedodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Akdeniz University, with ongoing follow-up, treatment and regular blood transfusions. All enrolled patients were diagnosed with ß-TM by the Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Akdeniz University. As a control group, age-and gender-matched healthy 50 patients were included to the study. RESULTS: Plaque ( p=0.001), DMFT ( p=0.009) and DMFS ( p=0.039) indices were significantly higher in the ß-TM patients, whereas, the oral hygiene status was significantly lower ( p=0.004). Saliva buffering capacity average was insignificantly but slightly more in ß-TM patients( p=0.131). While S.mutans values were significantly higher in the ß-TM patients ( p=0.002), no significant difference was found in the Lactobacillus ( p=0.131) and Candida values ( p=0.33). CONCLUSIONS: DMFT, DMFS, Plaque and oral hygiene indices and S.mutans values were found significantly different in ß-TM patients than healthy, control group patients, in this study.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Streptococcus mutans , Adolescente , Candida , Criança , Índice CPO , Humanos , Lactobacillus , Higiene Bucal , Saliva
17.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 67(9): 42-45, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31561688

RESUMO

Introduction: The incidence of the urinary tract infections caused by Candida species, are becoming more common. Recently, an increase in the incidence of infection caused by fungi especially non albicans candida species (NAC) has been reported. Several virulence factors like biofilm formation, toxin production and presence of adhesins contribute to its pathogenesis. Objectives: This study was undertaken to determine species distribution, biofilm formation and in-vitro antifungal susceptibility of candida isolated in our tertiary care hospital. Method: Eighty seven clinical isolates obtained from urine specimens were subjected to wet mount, Gram's stain and cultured on Sabouraud's Dextrose agar (SDA) medium. Conventional method for yeast identification was done. Biofilm forming ability of each isolate was detected using microtitre plate method. Antifungal susceptibility against posaconazole, amphotericin-B, fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, 5-flucytosine, voriconazole, and caspofungin was tested using Sensititre® Yeastone® (Trek diagnostic systems). Results and Discussion: Out of 87 candida isolates, 31.03% (n=27) were C. albicans and 68.97% (n=60) were non albicans candida species (NAC). Among 60 NAC, C. kruseii 29.89% (n=26), C. glabrata 24.14% (n=21), C. tropicalis 14.94% (n=13). Among all isolates, 36.78% (n=32) were biofilm producers and biofilm positivity more among C. albicans 55.56% (n=15) as compared to NAC 28.33% (n=17) (Pvalue<0.002). The maximum positivity was observed with isolates from plastic devices (61.8%). The minimum inhibitory concentrations of all antifungal drugs against all isolates were within susceptible range except for fluconazole which was resistant to C. kruseii. Conclusion: C. albicans remains the major isolate from urine samples and also biofilm formation as a virulence factor might have a higher significance for C. albicans than for NAC and its ability to form biofilm is intricately linked with ability of organisms to adhere, colonize and subsequently cause infection.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções Urinárias/tratamento farmacológico , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Infecções Urinárias/microbiologia
18.
J Biol Regul Homeost Agents ; 33(3 Suppl. 1): 35-41, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31538448

RESUMO

Candida species are commensal yeasts of the oral cavity, which, under predisposing systemic and/or local circumstances, are responsible for a wide variety of clinical manifestations, globally known as oral candidiasis. Candida-associated denture stomatitis is an oral candidiasis particularly affecting the oral mucosa covered by a dental prosthesis, with several degree of severity. Diabetics suffer oral candidiasis more frequently than healthy individuals do and if they are denture wearers, the risk increases. Since various controversies still remain regarding the interrelationship among diabetes, oral Candida spp. strains involved in denture stomatitis and the presence of dentures, the present review aims to investigate the differences in Candida species frequencies and degree of denture stomatitis severity existing among diabetic and non- diabetic individuals, with and without dentures.


Assuntos
Candida/classificação , Candidíase Bucal/complicações , Complicações do Diabetes/microbiologia , Diabetes Mellitus , Estomatite sob Prótese/complicações , Dentaduras , Humanos , Estomatite sob Prótese/microbiologia
19.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 798, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31510929

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present meta-analysis examined the diagnostic accuracy of T2 Candida for candidiasis. METHODS: The literature databases, such as PubMed, Embase, DVIO, Cochrane library, Web of Science, and CNKI, were searched on T2 Candida detection. RESULTS: A total of 8 articles, comprising of 2717 research subjects, were included in the study. The pooled sensitivity and specificity were 0.91 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.88-0.94) and 0.94 95% CI: 0.93-0.95), respectively. The pooled positive likelihood ratio and negative likelihood ratio was 10.16 (95% CI: 2.75-37.50) and 0.08 (95% CI: 0.02-0.35), respectively. The combined diagnostic odds ratio is 133.65 95% CI: 17.21-1037.73), and the AUC of SROC is 0.9702 [(SE = 0.0235), Q* = 0.9201(SE = 0.0381)]. CONCLUSIONS: The current evidence supported that T2 Candida has high accuracy and sensitivity and is of major clinical significance in the diagnosis of Candida infection.


Assuntos
Candida/isolamento & purificação , Candidíase/diagnóstico , Área Sob a Curva , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Razão de Chances , Curva ROC , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
20.
Future Microbiol ; 14: 1083-1085, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512518

RESUMO

In this exclusive interview, Dimitrios P Kontoyiannis discusses current mycology hot topic, Candida auris. With a focus on the current knowns and unknowns for the pathogenesis, resistance and transmission of this emerging fungal pathogen, in addition to a look at therapeutics and future perspectives. This interview was conducted by Ellen Colvin, Commissioning Editor of Future Microbiology. Dimitrios P Kontoyiannis is the Texas 4000 distinguished endowed professor and deputy head in the Division of Internal Medicine at MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston (TX, USA). Dr Kontoyiannis has authored over 550 peer-reviewed manuscripts and has given over 330 lectures in national and international conferences and academic institutions in the USA and abroad. He is considered a leading mycology expert world-wide with an H index of 101 and over 43,000 citations. His research group is credited for many and sustained contributions to clinical, translational and experimental mycology. He is the recipient of many national and international awards and is the past president elect of Immunocompromised Host Society (2016-2018).


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Candidíase/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Farmacorresistência Fúngica Múltipla , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Candidíase/tratamento farmacológico , Candidíase/microbiologia , Candidíase/transmissão , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/microbiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/transmissão , Infecção Hospitalar/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/transmissão , Gerenciamento Clínico , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Prevalência , Texas
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