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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(2)2023 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674962

RESUMO

Yeast acquisition begins at birth; however, the contribution of the mother on yeast transmission to the offspring and associated resistance is yet to be clarified. The aim of this study was to explore the vertical transmission of yeasts and their antifungal susceptibility profile in early life. Oral, fecal, and breastmilk samples were collected from 73 mother-child pairs four to twelve weeks after delivery and cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar with chloramphenicol. The isolates were identified by MALDI-TOF MS. The vertical transmission was studied by microsatellite genotyping. Antifungal susceptibility was determined for fluconazole, voriconazole, miconazole, anidulafungin, and nystatin by broth microdilution assay, following CLSI-M60 guidelines. A total of 129 isolates were identified from 53% mother-child pairs. We verified the vertical transmission of Candida albicans (n = three mother-child pairs) and Candida parapsilosis (n = one mother-child pair) strains, including an antifungal resistant strain transmitted from breastmilk to the gut of a child. Most isolates were susceptible to the tested antifungals, with the exception of four C. albicans isolates and one R. mucilaginosa isolate. The vertical transmission of yeasts happens in early life. This is the first work that demonstrated the role of the mother as a source of transmission of antifungal-resistant yeasts to the child.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Leite Humano , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Candida , Leveduras , Boca , Relações Mãe-Filho , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Farmacorresistência Fúngica
2.
Molecules ; 28(2)2023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36677663

RESUMO

Invasive fungal infections represent a global health threat. They are associated with high mortality and morbidity rates, partly due to the ineffectiveness of the available antifungal agents. The rampant increase in infections recalcitrant to the current antifungals has worsened this scenario and made the discovery of new and more effective antifungals a pressing health issue. In this study, 65 extracts from marine organisms of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, were screened for antifungal activity against Candida albicans and Candida glabrata, two of the most prevalent fungal species that cause nosocomial invasive fungal infections worldwide. A total of 51 sponges, 13 ascidians and 1 gorgonian were collected from the coral reef and mangrove forest in the Yucatan Peninsula (Mexico) and extracted with organic solvents. Nine crude extracts showed potent antifungal activity, of which four extracts from the sponge species Aiolochroia crassa, Amphimedon compressa, Monanchora arbuscula and Agelas citrina had promising activity against Candida spp. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the M. arbuscula extract revealed the remarkable fungicidal activity of some fractions. Analysis of the chemical composition of one of the most active fractions by UHPLC-HRMS and NMR indicated the presence of mirabilin B and penaresidin B, and their contribution to the observed antifungal activity is discussed. Overall, this work highlights marine organisms of the Yucatan Peninsula as important reservoirs of natural products with promising fungicidal activity, which may greatly advance the treatment of invasive fungal infections, especially those afflicting immunosuppressed patients.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas , Antifúngicos/química , Candida , México , Organismos Aquáticos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas/tratamento farmacológico
3.
Molecules ; 28(2)2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36677748

RESUMO

Invasive fungal infections represent a public health problem that worsens over the years with the increasing resistance to current antimycotic agents. Therefore, there is a compelling medical need of widening the antifungal drug repertoire, following different methods such as drug repositioning, identification and validation of new molecular targets and developing new inhibitors against these targets. In this work we developed a structure-based strategy for drug repositioning and new drug design, which can be applied to infectious fungi and other pathogens. Instead of applying the commonly accepted off-target criterion to discard fungal proteins with close homologues in humans, the core of our approach consists in identifying fungal proteins with active sites that are structurally similar, but preferably not identical to binding sites of proteins from the so-called "human pharmacolome". Using structural information from thousands of human protein target-inhibitor complexes, we identified dozens of proteins in fungal species of the genera Histoplasma, Candida, Cryptococcus, Aspergillus and Fusarium, which might be exploited for drug repositioning and, more importantly, also for the design of new fungus-specific inhibitors. As a case study, we present the in vitro experiments performed with a set of selected inhibitors of the human mitogen-activated protein kinases 1/2 (MEK1/2), several of which showed a marked cytotoxic activity in different fungal species.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Micoses , Humanos , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/metabolismo , Candida/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Domínio Catalítico , Fungos/metabolismo
4.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 29(2): 422-425, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36692459

RESUMO

Candida auris transmission is steadily increasing across the United States. We report culture-based detection of C. auris in wastewater and the epidemiologic link between isolated strains and southern Nevada, USA, hospitals within the sampled sewershed. Our results illustrate the potential of wastewater surveillance for containing C. auris.


Assuntos
Candida , Candidíase , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Candidíase/tratamento farmacológico , Candida auris , Nevada/epidemiologia , Vigilância Epidemiológica Baseada em Águas Residuárias , Surtos de Doenças , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico
5.
J Int Med Res ; 51(1): 3000605221131122, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36659829

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The main objective was to assess the clinical characteristics, associated factors, and outcomes of patients admitted to the ICU for candidemia. The secondary objective was to examine the relationship of candidemia with the length of stay and mortality. METHODS: The analysis was a retrospective single-center cohort study addressing the effect of invasive candidemia on outcomes. This study was performed in a medical-surgical ICU located in a tertiary private hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. Data was collected through the review of the hospital database. RESULTS: In total, 18,442 patients were included in our study, including 22 patients with candidemia. The median age was similar in patients with and without candidemia [67 (56-84) vs. 67 (51-80)]. Most patients were male, and the proportion of men was higher among patients with candidemia (77% vs. 55.3%). The rates of renal replacement therapy (40.9% vs. 3.3%), mechanical ventilation (63.6% vs. 29.6%), and parenteral nutrition (40.9% vs. 4.8%) were higher in patients with candidemia than in those without candidemia. The mortality rate (77.3% vs. 11.9%) and length of hospital stay [42 days (23.0-78.8) vs. 8 days (5.0-17.0)] were significantly higher in patients with candidemia. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with candidemia are prone to longer hospital stay and mortality. In addition, we found associations of candidemia with the use of invasive mechanical ventilation, renal replacement therapy, and parenteral nutrition.


Assuntos
Candidemia , Candidíase , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Candida , Candidemia/epidemiologia , Candidemia/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudos de Coortes , Brasil/epidemiologia , Candidíase/epidemiologia , Candidíase/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores de Risco , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico
6.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 76(1)2023 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36688769

RESUMO

Pichia and Candida species include biofilm-forming yeasts able to spoil foods and beverages. Strains belonging to 10 Pichia and Candida species isolated from apples, grape musts, and wines were analysed. They were subjected to molecular typing and characterized for their ability to grow and ferment must for cider and wine production, and for their biofilm properties. All strains grew similarly in apple and grape must. Glucose-fermenting strains displayed differentiated fermentation performances. Great variation in SO2 and ethanol sensitivity was observed among the strains. Pichia manshurica strains showed high tolerance to both molecules. Eleven and five surface-spreading biofilm (MAT) phenotypes were identified in solid and liquid media, respectively. Strains produced biofilms with variable thicknesses and widths in culture tubes. Cell adherence and aqueous-hydrocarbon biphasic hydrophobicity assays were carried out. Some Pichia manshurica and P. membranifaciens strains exhibited a high capacity to form a thick biofilm and had high cell adherence and hydrophobicity values. These strains could be more likely to colonize the internal surfaces of tanks. This study evidenced that some Pichia and Candida strains can proliferate during apple and grape must fermentation and may be detrimental the beverage quality, due to their specific biofilm properties.


Assuntos
Malus , Vitis , Vinho , Pichia/metabolismo , Candida/metabolismo , Vitis/metabolismo , Leveduras/metabolismo , Vinho/análise , Fermentação
7.
Crit Care ; 27(1): 6, 2023 01 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36609390

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The occurrence of mediastinitis after cardiac surgery remains a rare and severe complication associated with poor outcomes. Whereas bacterial mediastinitis have been largely described, little is known about their fungal etiologies. We report incidence, characteristics and outcome of post-cardiac surgery fungal mediastinitis. METHODS: Multicenter retrospective study among 10 intensive care units (ICU) in France and Belgium of proven cases of fungal mediastinitis after cardiac surgery (2009-2019). RESULTS: Among 73,688 cardiac surgery procedures, 40 patients developed fungal mediastinitis. Five were supported with left ventricular assist device and five with veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation before initial surgery. Twelve patients received prior heart transplantation. Interval between initial surgery and mediastinitis was 38 [17-61] days. Only half of the patients showed local signs of infection. Septic shock was uncommon at diagnosis (12.5%). Forty-three fungal strains were identified: Candida spp. (34 patients), Trichosporon spp. (5 patients) and Aspergillus spp. (4 patients). Hospital mortality was 58%. Survivors were younger (59 [43-65] vs. 65 [61-73] yo; p = 0.013), had lower body mass index (24 [20-26] vs. 30 [24-32] kg/m2; p = 0.028) and lower Simplified Acute Physiology Score II score at ICU admission (37 [28-40] vs. 54 [34-61]; p = 0.012). CONCLUSION: Fungal mediastinitis is a very rare complication after cardiac surgery, associated with a high mortality rate. This entity should be suspected in patients with a smoldering infectious postoperative course, especially those supported with short- or long-term invasive cardiac support devices, or following heart transplantation.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Mediastinite , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Mediastinite/epidemiologia , Mediastinite/microbiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/métodos , Candida , Bélgica
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(2)2023 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674560

RESUMO

Oral candidiasis is an infection of the oral cavity commonly caused by Candida albicans. Endodontic treatment failure has also been found to be persistent from C. albicans in the root canal system. Despite the availability of antifungal drugs, the management of Candida oral infection is difficult as it exhibits resistance to a different class of antifungal drugs. Therefore, it is necessary to discover new antifungal compounds to cure fungal infections. This study aimed to examine the antifungal susceptibility of Capsaicin, an active compound of chili pepper. The susceptibility of Capsaicin and Fluconazole was tested against the Candida species by the CLSI (M27-A3) method. The effect of Capsaicin on the fungal cell wall was examined by the ergosterol inhibitory assay and observed by the scanning electron micrograph. The MIC range of Capsaicin against Candida isolates from oral (n = 30), endodontic (n = 8), and ATCC strains (n = 2) was 12.5-50 µg/mL. The MIC range of Fluconazole (128- 4 µg/mL) significantly decreased (2- to 4-fold) after the combination with Capsaicin (MIC/4) (p < 0.05). Capsaicin (at MIC) significantly reduced the mature biofilm of C. albicans by 70 to 89% (p < 0.01). The ergosterol content of the cell wall decreased significantly with the increase in the Capsaicin dose (p < 0.01). Capsaicin showed high sensitivity against the hyphae formation and demonstrated a more than 71% reduction in mature biofilm. A fluorescence microscopy revealed the membrane disruption of Capsaicin-treated C. albicans cells, whereas a micrograph of electron microscopy showed the distorted cells' shape, ruptured cell walls, and shrinkage of cells after the release of intracellular content. The results conclude that Capsaicin had a potential antifungal activity that inhibits the ergosterol biosynthesis in the cell wall, and therefore, the cells' structure and integrity were disrupted. More importantly, Capsaicin synergistically enhanced the Fluconazole antifungal activity, and the synergistic effect might be helpful in the prevention of Fluconazole resistance development and reduced drug-dosing.


Assuntos
Candida albicans , Candidíase , Antifúngicos/metabolismo , Fluconazol/metabolismo , Capsaicina/uso terapêutico , Candida , Candidíase/tratamento farmacológico , Ergosterol/metabolismo , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(2)2023 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36675003

RESUMO

Oral lichen planus (OLP) is an inflammatory condition of unknown cause that has been associated with concurrent candidal infection. Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells express the T cell receptor TCRVα7.2 and are activated by riboflavin intermediates produced by microbes. The interaction between MAIT cells, Candida, and OLP is unknown. This study aimed to determine mucosal-associated T cell presence in OLP and whether the abundance of these cells changed due to the presence of either Candida or symptoms, using multiplex immunohistochemistry (mIHC). Ninety formalin fixed-paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples were assessed using mIHC for the cellular markers CD3, interleukin 18 receptor one (IL18R1), TCRVα7.2, CD161, CD8, and major histocompatibility complex class I-related (MR-1) protein. The samples were stratified into five groups on the basis of clinical (presence/absence of symptoms) and microbiological (presence/absence of Candida) criteria. Results demonstrated the presence of MAIT cell phenotypes in OLP inflammatory infiltrate within the connective tissue. Significant differences existed between different OLP groups with the percentage of log(CD3+ CD161+) and log(CD3+ TCRVα7.2+) positive cells (p < 0.001 and p = 0.005 respectively). Significant differences also existed with the relative abundance of triple-stained log(CD3+ CD161+ IL18R1+) cells (p = 0.004). A reduction in log(CD3+ CD161+ IL18R1+) cells was observed in lesional tissue of patients with symptomatic OLP with and without Candida when compared to controls. When present in OLP, MAIT cells were identified within the connective tissue. This study demonstrates that mIHC can be used to identify MAIT cell phenotypes in OLP. Reduced percentage of log(CD3+ CD161+ IL18R1+) cells seen in symptomatic OLP with and without Candida suggests a role for these cells in OLP pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Líquen Plano Bucal , Células T Invariantes Associadas à Mucosa , Líquen Plano Bucal/metabolismo , Candida
10.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e264875, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36651450

RESUMO

This study aimed to analyze the phytochemical profile of essential oil obtained from the leaves of Coriandrum sativum L., and its antifungal activity against Candida spp. The research consisted of an in vitro study including collecting the vegetable product, analysis of its macronutrients, extraction, and chemical analysis of the essential oil, and assaying antifungal activity through minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC), with growth inhibition kinetics, and the product's effects on multi-species Candida biofilm. Nitrogen (47.08 g Kg-1), phosphorus (5.3 g Kg-1) and potassium (50.46 g Kg-1) levels were within the normal range. The major constituents were octanal, decanal, dec-(2E)-enal, and dodecanal. The MIC and MFC of the product evaluated against 11 tested Candida strains ranged from 31.25 to 250 µg/mL. There was inhibition of fungal growth during 24 hours of exposure at the 3 concentrations tested (250, 125, and 62.5 µg/mL). The concentration of 80 mg/mL promoted the greatest reduction in multispecies biofilm (70% reduction in biofilm). Coriandrum sativum L. essential oil extract is principally constituted of alcohols and aldehydes and presents fungicidal activity against Candida spp. in its in planktonic and biofilm forms.


Assuntos
Coriandrum , Óleos Voláteis , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Candida , Plâncton , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Biofilmes , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
11.
J Infect Public Health ; 16(2): 257-263, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36608452

RESUMO

In recent years, we are facing the challenge of drug resistance emergence in fungi. The availability of limited antifungals and development of multi-drug resistance in fungal pathogens has become a serious concern in the past years in the health sector. Although several cellular, molecular, and genetic mechanisms have been proposed to explain the drug resistance mechanism in fungi, but a complete understanding of the molecular and genetic mechanisms is still lacking. Besides the genetic mechanism, epigenetic mechanisms are pivotal in the fungal lifecycle and disease biology. However, very little is understood about the role of epigenetic mechanisms in the emergence of multi-drug resistance in fungi, especially in Candida auris (C. auris). The current narrative review summaries the clinical characteristics, genomic organization, and molecular/genetic/epigenetic mechanisms underlying the emergence of drug resistance in C. auris. A very few studies have attempted to evaluate the role of epigenetic mechanisms in C. auris. Furthermore, advanced genetic tools such as the CRISP-Cas9 system can be utilized to elucidate the epigenetic mechanisms and their role in the emergence of multi-drug resistance in C. auris.


Assuntos
Candida auris , Candida , Humanos , Candida/genética , Genética Comportamental , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Fúngica/genética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
12.
Chem Biodivers ; 20(1): e202200915, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36524294

RESUMO

In this study phytochemical compounds and antioxidant capacity, cytotoxic, antimicrobial and anti-biofilm activities of hydroethanolic extracts of five Cistus species (C. creticus L., C. laurifolius L., C. monspeliensis L., C. parviflorus Lam. and C. salviifolius L.) distributed in Turkey were investigated. (+)-catechin, epigallocatechin gallate, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, kaempferol-3-O-glucoside, luteolin were detected in different amounts. Strongest antioxidant capacities were observed with C. creticus, and C. parvifolius (0.476 and 0.452, respectively). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the extracts were determined between 32 and 128 µg/mL against different bacteria and Candida strains. C. monspeliensis and C. laurifolius extracts were inhibited the biofilm production levels of three Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli, S. enterica, P. aeruginosa), two Gram-positive bacteria (S. aureus, B. subtilis) and three Candida strains (C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. krusei). C. creticus extract showed strongest cytotoxic activity against human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) and prostate cell lines (PC-3) (IC50 : 14.04±2.78 µg/mL and 34.04±2.74 µg/mL, respectively) among all plants tested.


Assuntos
Cistus , Extratos Vegetais , Masculino , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cistus/química , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Turquia , Escherichia coli , Staphylococcus aureus , Candida
13.
Enzyme Microb Technol ; 163: 110167, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36493680

RESUMO

Enzyme immobilization is used to improve the application of enzymes, allowing the reuse of biocatalysts and increasing their stability under reaction conditions. Immobilization of enzymes through structures, such as nanoflowers, is an innovative, simple, and low-cost method compared to other techniques. In this context, the main objective of this work is to synthesize hybrid biocatalytic nanostructures, similar to flowers, of lipases from Candida antarctica type B (CALB) and Thermomyces lanuginosus (TLL). The production of nanoflowers occurred by precipitation of lipases with CuCl2 or CuSO4 salts for 72 h. However, challenges and obstacles were faced in obtaining effective and practical nanoflowers, such as nanoflowers' low thermal stability and reusability. To overcome these challenges, two conditions were tested: nanoflowers cross-linked with glutaraldehyde and nanoflowers and nanoparticles cross-linked with glutaraldehyde. This last biocatalyst prepared by CuSO4 precipitation showed better thermal stability (half-life about 230 and 233 min for CALB and TLL, respectively, under incubation at 60 °C and pH 7). The CALB biocatalyst retained 70 % of its initial activity (2.31 U) after 10 cycles of hydrolysis. Therefore, this work shows not only the problems and barriers of nanoflowers synthesis, but also the possibility of producing more stable and efficient biocatalysts using improved protocols.


Assuntos
Candida , Proteínas Fúngicas , Glutaral , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Lipase/metabolismo , Enzimas Imobilizadas/metabolismo , Estabilidade Enzimática
14.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 227: 453-461, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36543294

RESUMO

Fluconazole (FLZ) is a broad-spectrum antifungal used against Candida infections. Candida auris displays resistance to FLZ. Drug nanocarriers composed of natural (chitosan, C) or synthetic polymers (polylactide co-glycolide, PLGA) show improved drug characteristics, efficacy and reduction in toxicity. Here, C-PLGA nanoparticles (110 nm) were synthesized by coacervation method and loaded with FLZ, achieving ~8-wt% drug loading. The nanoformulation displayed pH-tuned slow sustained drug release (83 %) up to 5 d, at pH 4, while 34 % release occurred at pH 7.0. Fluorescent-tagged C-PLGA-NPs were localized on the Candida cell wall/membrane as seen by confocal microscopy. This resulted in ~1.9-fold reduced efflux of R6G dye as compared to bare drug treatment in Candida albicans and resistant C. auris. The nanoformulation showed a significant 16- and 64-fold (p < 0.0001) enhanced antifungal activity (MIC 5 and 2.5 µg/ml) against C. albicans and C. auris, respectively, as compared to FLZ. The nanoformulation showed highly effective antifungal activity in-vivo against C. albicans and C. auris. Moreover, the nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity was negligible. Thus, PLGA NPs-mediated fluconazole delivery can contribute to increased drug efficacy and to reduce the problem of fungal resistance.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Fluconazol , Fluconazol/farmacologia , Candida , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Quitosana/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Candida albicans , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Farmacorresistência Fúngica
15.
ACS Infect Dis ; 9(1): 42-55, 2023 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36563312

RESUMO

Natamycin is a macrolide polyene antibiotic, characterized by a potent broad spectrum antifungal activity and low toxicity. However, it is not used for the treatment of systemic mycoses due to its low bioavailability and low solubility in aqueous solutions. In order to create new semisynthetic antifungal agents for treatment of mycoses, a series of water-soluble amides of natamycin were synthesized. Antifungal activities of natamycin derivatives were investigated against Candida spp., including a panel of Candida auris clinical isolates and filamentous fungi. Toxicity for mammalian cells was assayed by monitoring antiproliferative activity against human postnatal fibroblasts (HPF) and human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293). By comparing leakage of contents from ergosterol versus cholesterol containing vesicles, a ratio that characterizes the efficacy and safety of natamycin and its derivatives was determined (EI, efficiency index). Ability of all tested semisynthetic natamycines to prevent proliferation of the yeast Candida spp. cells was comparable or even slightly higher to those of parent antibiotic. Interestingly, amide 8 was more potent than natamycin (1) against all tested C. auris strains (MIC values 2 µg/mL vs 8 µg/mL, respectively). Among 7 derivatives, amide 10 with long lipophilic side chains showed the highest EI and strong antifungal activity in vitro but was more toxic against HPF. In vivo experiments with amide 8 showed in vivo efficacy on a mouse candidemia model with a larger LD50/ED50 ratio in comparison to amphotericin B.


Assuntos
Micoses , Natamicina , Animais , Camundongos , Humanos , Natamicina/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Células HEK293 , Polienos/farmacologia , Micoses/tratamento farmacológico , Candida , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Mamíferos
16.
Microb Pathog ; 174: 105894, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36496057

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF RESEARCH: The aim of the current study was gut profiling of culturable Candida species and their possible pathogenic potential to asses role in obesity. METHODS: This case control study includes stool samples from 75 obese individuals and 50 controls. Isolation and identification of various Candida species was carried out by standard microbiological techniques. For pathogenic profiling, extracellular enzymatic assays, biofilm forming ability and resistance to azole were analyzed. RESULTS: Culturable gut profiling identified comparative higher abundance and diversity of Candida species among obese compared to controls. The most abundant specie among both groups was C.kefyr. A comparatively higher pathogenic potential as more hydrolases expression was detected in C.kefyr, C.albicans and Teunomyces krusei from obese group. Majority isolates from obese group were strong biofilm formers (47.1%) compared to control group (35.4%) suggesting it as strong risk factor for obesity. Fluconazole resistance was highest among C.kefyr (51%) followed by Teunomyces krusei and C.albicans. All the isolates from different species were voriconazole sensitive except C.kefyr displaying a 4.2% resistance in obese group only. A significant association of dominant colonizing species with meat, fruit/vegetable consumption and residence area was present (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The presence of hydrolytic enzymes in gut Candida species showed strong association with protein's degradation and enhanced pathogenicity. C.kefyr and Teunomyces krusei has emerged as potential pathogen showing increased colonization as result of protein rich and low carb diet. Thus presenting it as a bad choice for weight loss in obese individuals.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Candida , Humanos , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Fluconazol/farmacologia , Candida albicans , Obesidade , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Farmacorresistência Fúngica
17.
Mol Plant Microbe Interact ; 35(1): 39-48, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34546764

RESUMO

Albugo candida is an obligate oomycete pathogen that infects many plants in the Brassicaceae family. We resequenced the genome of isolate Ac2V using PacBio long reads and constructed an assembly augmented by Illumina reads. The Ac2VPB genome assembly is 10% larger and more contiguous compared with a previous version. Our annotation of the new assembly, aided by RNA-sequencing information, revealed a 175% expansion (40 to 110) in the CHxC effector class, which we redefined as "CCG" based on motif analysis. This class of effectors consist of arrays of phylogenetically related paralogs residing in gene sparse regions, and shows signatures of positive selection and presence/absence polymorphism. This work provides a resource that allows the dissection of the genomic components underlying A. candida adaptation and, particularly, the role of CCG effectors in virulence and avirulence on different hosts.[Formula: see text] Copyright © 2021 The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the CC BY 4.0 International license.


Assuntos
Brassicaceae , Oomicetos , Candida/genética , Genoma , Oomicetos/genética , Doenças das Plantas
19.
Molecules ; 27(23)2022 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36500650

RESUMO

Commonly found colonizing the human microbiota, Candida albicans is a microorganism known for its ability to cause infections, mainly in the vulvovaginal region known as vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). This pathology is, in fact, one of the main C. albicans clinical manifestations, changing from a colonizer to a pathogen. The increase in VVC cases and limited antifungal therapy make C. albicans an increasingly frequent risk in women's lives, especially in immunocompromised patients, pregnant women and the elderly. Therefore, it is necessary to develop new therapeutic options, especially those involving natural products associated with nanotechnology, such as lycopene and mesoporous silica nanoparticles. From this perspective, this study sought to assess whether lycopene, mesoporous silica nanoparticles and their combination would be an attractive product for the treatment of this serious disease through microbiological in vitro tests and acute toxicity tests in an alternative in vivo model of Galleria mellonella. Although they did not show desirable antifungal activity for VVC therapy, the present study strongly encourages the use of mesoporous silica nanoparticles impregnated with lycopene for the treatment of other human pathologies, since the products evaluated here did not show toxicity in the in vivo test performed, being therefore, a topic to be further explored.


Assuntos
Candidíase Vulvovaginal , Fluconazol , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Idoso , Candida , Dióxido de Silício/uso terapêutico , Licopeno/farmacologia , Licopeno/uso terapêutico , Candidíase Vulvovaginal/tratamento farmacológico , Candidíase Vulvovaginal/microbiologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Candida albicans , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
20.
Toxins (Basel) ; 14(12)2022 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36548771

RESUMO

Candida albicans produces an important virulence factor, the hypha-associated Ece1-derived secreted peptide toxin candidalysin, which is crucial for the establishment of mucosal and systemic infections. C. albicans has also long been known to be hemolytic, yet the hemolytic factor has not been clearly identified. Here, we show that candidalysin is the hemolytic factor of C. albicans. Its hemolytic activity is modulated by fragments of another Ece1 peptide, P7. Hemolysis by candidalysin can be neutralized by the purinergic receptor antagonist pyridoxal-phosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulfonic acid (PPADS). PPADS also affects candidalysin's ability to intercalate into synthetic membranes. We also describe the neutralization potential of two anti-candidalysin nanobodies, which are promising candidates for future anti-Candida therapy. This work provides evidence that the historically proposed hemolytic factor of C. albicans is in fact candidalysin and sheds more light on the complex roles of this toxin in C. albicans biology and pathogenicity.


Assuntos
Candida albicans , Hemólise , Proteínas Fúngicas , Candida , Membrana Mucosa , Fatores de Virulência/toxicidade
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