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1.
Vestn Otorinolaringol ; 85(5): 71-73, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33140938

RESUMO

Candida lesion of Palatine tonsils was studied in 32 HIV-infected patients in the late stages of the disease using histological and cytological methods. There were used conventional methods during pathomorphological studies of palatine tonsils tissue fragments obtained by biopsy, and smears from the surface of the organ. It was found that micromycetes Candida spp. were located in association with various bacteria (mainly Streptococcus spp.), as well as Cryptococcus spp., with the formation of the biofilms, both on the surface of the Palatine tonsils and in the depth of their parenchyma. We revealed the minimal response cellular protective reaction to the deep introduction of the pathogen. Mycosis proceeded against the background of pronounced follicular lymphoid depletion of the tissue of the Palatine tonsils. The examined patients represent a risk group for invasion of Candida micromycetes into the vascular channel and their dissemination with the development of generalized candidiasis.


Assuntos
Candidíase , Infecções por HIV , Candida , Candidíase/complicações , Candidíase/diagnóstico , Humanos , Tonsila Palatina
2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 827, 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33176724

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Candida auris is a new pathogen called "superbug fungus" which caused panic worldwide. There are no large-scale epidemiology studies by now, therefore a systematic review and meta-analysis was undertaken to determine the epidemic situation, drug resistance patterns and mortality of C. auris. METHODS: We systematically searched studies on the clinical report of Candida auris in Pubmed, Embase and Cochrane databases until October 6, 2019. A standardized form was used for data collection, and then statics was performed with STATA11.0. RESULTS: It showed that more than 4733 cases of C. auris were reported in over 33 countries, with more cases in South Africa, United States of America, India, Spain, United Kingdom, South Korea, Colombia and Pakistan. C. auirs exhibited a decrease in case count after 2016. Clade I and III were the most prevalent clades with more cases reported and wider geographical distribution. Blood stream infection was observed in 32% of the cases, which varied depending on the clades. Resistance to fluconazole, amphotericin B, caspofungin, micafungin and anidulafungin in C. auris were 91, 12, 12.1, 0.8 and 1.1%. The overall mortality of C. auris infection was 39%. Furthermore, subgroup analyses showed that mortality was higher in bloodstream infections (45%), and lower in Europe (20%). CONCLUSIONS: Over 4000 cases of C. auris were reported in at least 33 countries, which showed high resistance to fluconazole, moderate resistance to amphotericin B and caspofungin, high sensitivity to micafungin and anidulafungin. The crude mortality for BSI of C. auris was 45% which was similar to some drug-resistant bacteria previously reported. In conclusion, C. auris displayed similar characteristics to some drug resistance organisms. This study depicts several issues of C. auris that are most concerned, and is of great significance for the clinical management.


Assuntos
Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Candidíase/epidemiologia , Candidíase/mortalidade , Anfotericina B/uso terapêutico , Anidulafungina/uso terapêutico , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Candida/classificação , Candida/genética , Candidíase/tratamento farmacológico , Candidíase/microbiologia , Caspofungina/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Fúngica Múltipla/efeitos dos fármacos , Fluconazol/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Micafungina/uso terapêutico , Prevalência
3.
Bioresour Technol ; 318: 124257, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33096442

RESUMO

2-Phenylethanol (2-PE) is an important high-grade aromatic alcohol, which is widely used in the cosmetics, perfumery and food industries. However, 2-PE is mainly synthesized using a chemical route, which produces environmental pollution and harmful by-products. Screening of high-yielding wild-type strains has become an important goal for the future biosynthesis of 2-PE. In this study, a wild-type Wickerhamomyces anomalus was isolated from rice wine fermented mash. By optimizing the initial glucose and l-phenylalanine concentrations, 2630.7 mg/L of 2-PE was obtained in shaking flasks. The conditions of initial glucose and l-phenylalanine concentration, pH, and inoculation amount were optimized for 2-PE production with W. anomalus. Finally, based on the optimal conditions, the 2-PE titer reached 4,727.3 mg/L by a single-dose fed-batch strategy in a 5-L bioreactor. The results showed that the ability was expanded to harness the Ehrlich pathway for the production of high-value aromatics in aroma-producing yeast species.


Assuntos
Álcool Feniletílico , Vinho , Candida , Fermentação , Saccharomyces cerevisiae
4.
Adv Genet ; 106: 75-100, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33081928

RESUMO

The origins and global spread of two recent, yet quite different, pandemic diseases is discussed and reviewed in depth: Candida auris, a eukaryotic fungal disease, and COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2), a positive strand RNA viral respiratory disease. Both these diseases display highly distinctive patterns of sudden emergence and global spread, which are not easy to understand by conventional epidemiological analysis based on simple infection-driven human- to-human spread of an infectious disease (assumed to jump suddenly and thus genetically, from an animal reservoir). Both these enigmatic diseases make sense however under a Panspermia in-fall model and the evidence consistent with such a model is critically reviewed.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Candidíase/etiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/etiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/etiologia , Origem da Vida , Pneumonia Viral/etiologia , Animais , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Candida/fisiologia , Candidíase/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Coronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Planeta Terra , Exobiologia , Meio Ambiente Extraterreno , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/fisiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 739, 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032533

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Invasive infections with Candida krusei are uncommon and rarely complicated by spondylitis. Previous described cases were solely treated with antimycotic therapy, despite guidelines recommending surgical interventions. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe a case of C. krusei spondylitis in a patient treated with chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia. After induction chemotherapy, the patient developed a candidemia, which was treated with micafungin. One month after the candidemia, the patient was admitted with severe lumbar pain. Spondylitis of the L4 and L5 vertebra was diagnosed on MR-imaging, with signs suggesting an atypical infection. The patient was treated with anidulafungin combined with voriconazole. Despite maximal conservative management symptoms gradually worsened eventually requiring surgical intervention. CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to previous case reports, antimycotic treatment alone could be insufficient in treating C. krusei spondylitis.


Assuntos
Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Candidíase/imunologia , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Espondilite/tratamento farmacológico , Espondilite/imunologia , Idoso , Anidulafungina/uso terapêutico , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Candidemia/induzido quimicamente , Candidemia/tratamento farmacológico , Candidíase/tratamento farmacológico , Candidíase/microbiologia , Candidíase/cirurgia , Humanos , Quimioterapia de Indução/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Micafungina/uso terapêutico , Espondilite/microbiologia , Espondilite/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento , Voriconazol/uso terapêutico
6.
San Salvador; MINSAL; oxt. 23, 2020. 18 p. ilus.
Não convencional em Espanhol | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1129230

RESUMO

Ante el riesgo potencial de casos por este hongo en pacientes que consultan en el Sistema Nacional Integrado de Salud, se elaboran los presentes lineamientos para el control y diagnóstico de infecciones por C. auris, contándose con la colaboración técnica de expertos internacionales del Centro para el Control y Prevención de Enfermedades de los Estados Unidos de América (CDC), de la Secretaría Ejecutiva del Consejo de Ministros de Salud de Centroamérica y República Dominicana (SE-COMISCA) y de un panel de expertos nacionales


Given the potential risk of cases due to this fungus in patients who consult in the National Integrated Health System, these guidelines are prepared for the control and diagnosis of C. auris infections, with the technical collaboration of international experts from the Center for the Disease Control and Prevention of the United States of America (CDC), the Executive Secretariat of the Council of Ministers of Health of Central America and the Dominican Republic (SE-COMISCA) and a panel of national experts


Assuntos
Candida , Diagnóstico , Fungos
7.
J Med Microbiol ; 69(10): 1221-1227, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32894212

RESUMO

This study evaluated the effect of etomidate against biofilms of Candida spp. and analysed through molecular docking the interaction of this drug with ALS3, an important protein for fungal adhesion. Three fluconazole-resistant fungi were used: Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis and Candida tropicalis. Growing biofilms were exposed to etomidate at 31.25-500 µg ml-1. Then, an ALS3 adhesive protein from C. albicans was analysed through a molecular mapping technique, composed of a sequence of algorithms to perform molecular mapping simulation based on classic force field theory. Etomidate showed antifungal activity against growing biofilms of resistant C. albicans, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis at all concentrations used in the study. The etomidate coupling analysis revealed three interactions with the residues of interest compared to hepta-threonine, which remained at the ALS3 site. In addition, etomidate decreased the expression of mannoproteins on the surface of C. albicans. These results revealed that etomidate inhibited the growth of biofilms.


Assuntos
Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Fúngica/efeitos dos fármacos , Etomidato/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/metabolismo , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Etomidato/metabolismo , Fluconazol/farmacologia , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Humanos , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular/métodos
8.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238428, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941438

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC) causes significant morbidity. Candida albicans is the main pathogen associated with both sporadic and recurrent candidiasis. Due to unsatisfactory treatment effect, the impact of chlorhexidine digluconate and fluconazole alone or in combination on C. albicans and biofilm was investigated. METHODS: Vaginal C. albicans isolates from 18 patients with recurrent candidiasis and commensals from 19 asymptomatic women were isolated by culture. Crystal violet, XTT and colony forming unit assay were used to analyze the effect of chlorhexidine digluconate and fluconazole on growth of C. albicans, formation of new and already established, mature, biofilm. RESULTS: Fluconazole reduced the growth of planktonic C. albicans. However, in established biofilm, fluconazole had no effect on the candida cells and was not able to disperse and reduce the biofilm. By contrast, chlorhexidine digluconate had a direct killing effect on C. albicans grown both planktonically and in biofilm. Chlorhexidine digluconate also dispersed mature biofilm and inhibited formation of new biofilm. No major differences were observed between commensal isolates and candida causing recurrent vulvovaginitis with respect to biofilm or growth after chlorhexidine digluconate treatment. CONCLUSION: Biofilm is a problem in patients with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis reducing the effect of antifungal treatment. Development of new treatment strategies are urgently needed to decrease the recurrences. In already established biofilm, chlorhexidine digluconate dispersed the biofilm and was more effective in eradicating candida compared to fluconazole. Future treatment strategy may thus be a combination of chlorhexidine digluconate and fluconazole and prophylactic use of chlorhexidine digluconate to prevent biofilm formation and restrict infections.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Clorexidina/análogos & derivados , Adulto , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans/isolamento & purificação , Candidíase/tratamento farmacológico , Candidíase Vulvovaginal/tratamento farmacológico , Candidíase Vulvovaginal/microbiologia , Clorexidina/metabolismo , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Feminino , Fluconazol/farmacologia , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Vagina/microbiologia
9.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200349, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997002

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Essential oils (EO) extracted from Cinnamomum verum has been used as an antimicrobial agents for centuries. The effects of C. verum leaf oil against virulence of microorganisms is not well studied yet. OBJECTIVES: This study evaluates the effect of C. verum leaf oil against three virulence factors of Candida albicans, C. tropicalis and C. dubliniensis and its in-vivo toxicity. METHODS: Chemical composition of EO was determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined using clinical and laboratory standards institute (CLSI) M27-A3 broth microdilution. Effect of EO on initial adhesion was quantified using XTT assay after allowing Candida cells to adhere to the polystyrene surface for 2 h. Biofilm formation of Candida in the presence of EO was quantified using XTT viability assay. Efficacy on reduction of germ tube formation was evaluated using standard protocol. Visualisation of biofilm formation and progression under the EO treatment were done using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Time lapses microscope respectively. In-vivo toxicity of EO was determined using Galleria mellonella larvae. Chlorhexidine digluconate: positive control. RESULTS: Eugenol was the main compound of EO. MIC was 1.0 mg/mL. 50% reduction in initial adhesion was achieved by C. albicans, C. tropicalis and C. dubliniensis with 1.0, > 2.0 and 0.34 mg/mL respectively. 0.5 and 1.0 mg/mL significantly inhibit the germ tube formation. MBIC50 for forming biofilms were ≤ 0.35 mg/mL. 1.0 mg/mL prevent biofilm progression of Candida. SEM images exhibited cell wall damages, cellular shrinkages and decreased hyphal formation. No lethal effect was noted with in-vivo experiment model at any concentration tested. CONCLUSION: C. verum leaf oil acts against virulence factors of Candida and does not show any toxicity.


Assuntos
Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Cinnamomum zeylanicum/química , Óleos Voláteis , Antifúngicos , Humanos , Fatores de Virulência
10.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4774, 2020 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963224

RESUMO

Detection of microbial nucleic acids in body fluids has become the preferred method for rapid diagnosis of many infectious diseases. However, culture-based diagnostics that are time-consuming remain the gold standard approach in certain cases, such as sepsis. New culture-free methods are urgently needed. Here, we describe Single MOLecule Tethering or SMOLT, an amplification-free and purification-free molecular assay that can detect microorganisms in body fluids with high sensitivity without the need of culturing. The signal of SMOLT is generated by the displacement of micron-size beads tethered by DNA probes that are between 1 and 7 microns long. The molecular extension of thousands of DNA probes is determined with sub-micron precision using a robust and rapid optical approach. We demonstrate that SMOLT can detect nucleic acids directly in blood, urine and sputum at sub-femtomolar concentrations, and microorganisms in blood at 1 CFU mL-1 (colony forming unit per milliliter) threefold faster, with higher multiplexing capacity and with a more straight-forward protocol than amplified methodologies. SMOLT's clinical utility is further demonstrated by developing a multiplex assay for simultaneous detection of sepsis-causing Candida species directly in whole blood.


Assuntos
Líquidos Corporais/química , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Ácidos Nucleicos/isolamento & purificação , Sepse/diagnóstico , Candida/genética , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Candidíase/diagnóstico , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Doenças Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , DNA/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Ácidos Nucleicos/sangue , Ácidos Nucleicos/urina , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , RNA/isolamento & purificação , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Sepse/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/diagnóstico , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Urina
11.
Acta Odontol Latinoam ; 33(2): 104-111, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920612

RESUMO

Candida dubliniensis (Cd) and Candida albicans (Ca) are the most frequently isolated yeasts in HIV+ patients. Some of the enzymes produced by these yeasts are considered virulence factors since they contribute to pathogenicity of Candida spp. The aim of the present study was to compare production of enzymes such as phospholipase (Ph), proteinase (P), and hemolysin (H) by Cd and Ca strains isolated from periodontal HIV-positive patients receiving and not receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Subgingival biofilm samples were obtained using paper points, and a sample of oral mucosa was taken using a swab. Phenotypic and molecular methods were used to isolate 39 strains of Candida, including 25 strains of Cd and 14 strains of Ca, obtained from 33 periodontal pocket samples and 6 oral mucosa samples collected from 15 HIV+ patients (8 receiving and 7 not receiving HAART). Malt egg-yolk agar, albumin agar and blood agar were used to evaluate pH, P and H production respectively. The strains were inoculated in duplicate and incubated at 37 ºC. Colony and halo diameters were measured. A greater proportion of Ca was observed in patients not receiving HAART, and a higher proportion of Cd was observed in those under HAART, Chi2 p< 0.001. Phospholipase production was observed in 92.9% percent of isolated Ca strains but in none of the isolated Cd strains. Proteinase production was high in Ca and Cd strains isolated from patients not receiving HAART. Hemolysin production was observed in all the studied strains, though it was significantly higher (p=0.04) in Ca and Cd strains isolated from patients not receiving HAART. To sum up, the proportion of Candida dubliniensis strains was highest in the subgingival biofilm of patients receiving HAART, and Cd strains were found to express fewer virulence factors than Ca strains.


Assuntos
Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/métodos , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Candida albicans/enzimologia , Candida albicans/isolamento & purificação , Candida/enzimologia , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Candidíase Bucal/microbiologia , Gengiva/microbiologia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Candida/classificação , Candida/genética , Candida albicans/genética , Candidíase Bucal/complicações , Genótipo , Infecções por HIV/microbiologia , Humanos , Mucosa Bucal/microbiologia , Fenótipo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Fatores de Virulência/genética
12.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 40(7): 1049-1055, 2020 Jul 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895165

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the characteristics of growth and metabolism and the in vivo toxicity of Candida auris under different conditions. METHODS: We observed the growth of Candida auris and Candida albicans under routine culture conditions and in different pH and salt concentrations, and compared their activities of sugar fermentation using microbiochemical reaction tubes. Four-week-old nude mice were randomized into Candida auris infection group (n=5), Candida albicans infection group (n=5) and control group (n=5) for intragastric administration of 0.3 mL suspension the two Candida species (5×109 cfu/mL) or 0.3 mL normal saline. Samples of the liver, kidney, intestine, feces and blood were taken for analysis of the in vivo distribution and toxicity of Candida albicans by fungal culture and histopathological examination. RESULTS: Candida auris exhibited logarithmic growth at 8-24 h after inoculation and showed stable growth after 24 h. Candida auris showed optimal growth within the pH value range of 5-7 with a growth pattern identical to that of Candida albicans. Candida auris grew better than Candida albicans in media containing 5% and 10% NaCl, and could ferment glucose, sucrose, trehalose and sorbitol. Candida auris could be isolated from the feces, blood, liver and kidney of infected nude mice, and the liver had the highest fungal load (5.7 log10 cfu/g). Candida auris could cause pathological changes in the liver and intestine of the mice, but with a lesser severity as compared with Candida albicans. CONCLUSIONS: Candida auris exhibits optimal growth in mildly acidic or neutral conditions with a high salt tolerance, and can potentially penetrate the intestinal barrier into blood and lead to tissue injuries in hosts with immunosuppression.


Assuntos
Candida , Candidíase , Animais , Antifúngicos , Candida albicans , Fígado , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus
14.
Epidemiol Mikrobiol Imunol ; 69(2): 57-63, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32819104

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Intra-abdominal candidiasis (IAC) is an invasive fungal infection representing the most common type of invasive Candida infection in surgical intensive care units (ICUs). Recently, decreased antifungal susceptibility and progressive shift in the aetiology of invasive candidiasis has been observed worldwide. We explored IAC epidemiology in surgical ICU. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 64 patients with IAC admitted at our surgical ICU over a 4-year period (2013-2016). IAC incidence, microbiological results, antifungal therapy, and mortality were analysed. RESULTS: The cumulative IAC incidence was 18.4 cases per 1000 admissions (2013: 12.6; 2014: 17.7; 2015: 16.8; 2016: 24.5), including hospital-acquired IAC incidence (2013: 9.8; 2014: 13.3; 2015 10.1; 2016: 13.3) and community-acquired IAC incidence (2013: 2.8; 2014: 4.4; 2015: 6.7; 2016: 11.2). Candida albicans represented the most common species (n = 35, 50.0%) followed by Candida glabrata (n = 15, 21.4%), Candida tropicalis (n = 6, 8.6%) and other yeasts (each < 5.0%). Incidence rate of C. albicans (2013: 7(78%); 2014: 10(59%); 2015: 6(35%); 2016: 12(44%)) and incidence rate of C. non-albicans (2013: 2(22%); 2014: 7(41%); 2015: 9(53%); 2016: 14(52%)) were different in trend. All fungal isolates were susceptible to echinocandins, amphotericin B and voriconazole. Regarding fluconazole susceptibility, C. krusei (n = 3) was resistant and C. glabrata (n = 9) was susceptible-dose dependent (SDD). The ratio of SDD C. glabrata isolates to all isolated C. glabrata strains was 9/15 (60%) (2013: 0/2; 2014: 0/2; 2015: 1/3; 2016: 8/8). Decreased fluconazole susceptibility for C. glabrata isolates was reported in both community-acquired IAC (n = 3) and hospital-acquired IAC (n = 6). Overall 30-day mortality rate was 25.0% (16/64). CONCLUSIONS: We have revealed slowly raising of overall IAC incidence, more increasing trend in incidence of community-acquired IAC compared to rather steady incidence of hospital-acquired IAC. During period 2013-2016 we have observed a significant shift in the aetiology of IAC towards an increased proportion of non-albicans Candida species, particularly C. glabrata. Acquired decreased fluconazole susceptibility was related to C. glabrata isolates exclusively. Emergence of decreased antifungal susceptibility has been preceded by increase of non-albicans Candida isolates.


Assuntos
Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Cuidados Críticos , Farmacorresistência Fúngica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Rev Chilena Infectol ; 37(3): 288-294, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853321

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Candidemia is a nosocomial bloodstream infection and an important cause of comorbidity and mortality. Elderly patients present the highest rates of candidemia but data about this population is scarce. AIMS: To describe characteristics of candidemia in elderly patients, to identify risk factors associated with mortality and to evaluate the usefulness of a predictive score. METHODS: A retrospective observational study of candidemia in elderly patients from a tertiary care hospital was carried out. We analyzed all Candida bloodstream infections during an eight-year period in patients older than 60 years. RESULTS: Fifty-nine episodes were included. Diabetes was the most frequent comorbidity. Most candidemia were catheter related infections (45%). Only 17% of patients had a Candida score > 2.5. Overall mortality at 48 hours was 20%, and at 15 days was 49%. Mortality-related factors were shock, assisted mechanical ventilation, thrombocytopenia, renal failure and leukocytosis (p range < 0.0001-0.006). On multivariate analysis septic shock was independently associated with mortality (HR 4.02 [CI 95% 1.18-13.72] p = 0.026). CONCLUSIONS: Nearly half of patients with candidemia died during the first fifteen days. Shock, assisted mechanical ventilation, thrombocytopenia, renal failure, and leukocytosis were factors associated with mortality. The predictive score was not useful in this population.


Assuntos
Candidemia , Infecção Hospitalar , Idoso , Antifúngicos , Candida , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
17.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 333: 108818, 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32805574

RESUMO

Several yeasts, which are eukaryotic microorganisms, have long been used in different industries due to their potential applications, both for fermentation and for the production of specific metabolites. Kluyveromyces marxianus is one of the most auspicious nonconventional yeasts, generally isolated from wide-ranging natural habitats such as fermented traditional dairy products, kefir grain, sewage from sugar industries, sisal leaves, and plants. This is a food-grade yeast with various beneficial traits, such as rapid growth rate and thermotolerance that make it appealing for different industrial food and biotechnological applications. K. marxianus is a respiro-fermentative yeast likely to produce energy by either respiration or fermentation pathways. It generates a wide-ranging specific metabolites and could contribute to a variety of different food and biotechnological industries. Although Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the most widely used dominant representative in all aspects, many applications of K. marxianus in biotechnology, food and environment have only started to emerge nowadays; some of the most promising applications are reviewed here. The general physiology of K. marxianus is outlined, and then the different applications are discussed: first, the applications of K. marxianus in biotechnology, and then the recent advances and possible applications in food, feed and environmental industries. Finally, this review provides a discussion of the main challenges and some perspectives for targeted applications of K. marxianus in the modern food technology and applied biotechnology in order to exploit the full potential of this yeast which can be used as a cell factory with great efficiency.


Assuntos
Biotecnologia/métodos , Fermentação/fisiologia , Kluyveromyces/isolamento & purificação , Kluyveromyces/metabolismo , Candida/metabolismo , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Kluyveromyces/classificação , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Fermento Seco/metabolismo
18.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237046, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817677

RESUMO

Candida africana is a pathogenic species within the Candida albicans species complex. Due to the limited knowledge concerning its prevalence and antifungal susceptibility profiles, a comprehensive study is overdue. Accordingly, we performed a search of the electronic databases for literature published in the English language between 1 January 2001 and 21 March 2020. Citations were screened, relevant articles were identified, and data were extracted to determine overall intra-C. albicans complex prevalence, geographical distribution, and antifungal susceptibility profiles for C. africana. From a total of 366 articles, 41 were eligible for inclusion in this study. Our results showed that C. africana has a worldwide distribution. The pooled intra-C. albicans complex prevalence of C. africana was 1.67% (95% CI 0.98-2.49). Prevalence data were available for 11 countries from 4 continents. Iran (3.02%, 95%CI 1.51-4.92) and Honduras (3.03%, 95% CI 0.83-10.39) had the highest values and Malaysia (0%) had the lowest prevalence. Vaginal specimens were the most common source of C. africana (92.81%; 155 out of 167 isolates with available data). However, this species has also been isolated from cases of balanitis, from patients with oral lesions, and from respiratory, urine, and cutaneous samples. Data concerning the susceptibility of C. africana to 16 antifungal drugs were available in the literature. Generally, the minimum inhibitory concentrations of antifungal drugs against this species were low. In conclusion, C. africana demonstrates geographical variation in prevalence and high susceptibility to antifungal drugs. However, due to the relative scarcity of existing data concerning this species, further studies will be required to establish more firm conclusions.


Assuntos
Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida/genética , Candida/metabolismo , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans/patogenicidade , Candidíase Vulvovaginal/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Fúngica/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Fúngica/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Prevalência , Vagina/microbiologia
19.
J Oleo Sci ; 69(7): 727-735, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32612022

RESUMO

Petroleum based phthalate plasticizers encounter enormous claims to prohibit their production due to their harmful health impacts when they are mixed with plastics. That is why efforts are being done to find safer natural alternatives. We have investigated the reaction kinetics of the esterification epoxidation of oleic acid and 2-ethylhexanol in the presence of hydrogen peroxide catalyzed using Candida antarctica lipase (Novozym 435, Novozymes, Kobenhavn, Denmark). The product of this reaction is epoxidized 2-ethylhexyl oleate, a non-phthalate green plasticizer. The kinetic model for this reaction follows a multi-substrate PingPong Bi-Bi mechanism with competitive inhibition by the alcohol. The reaction's kinetic parameters were found to be 0.76 M, 0.37 M, 0.08 M, and 37.20 mM/min for Michalis-Menten constant for oleic acid (Kmo), Michalis-Menten constant for alcohol (Kma), alcohol inhibition constant (Kia), and maximum reaction velocity (Vmax), respectively. Then the Gibbs function analysis of the transition state based on the Arrhenius and Eyring equations was carried out. The internal diffusional limitations were found to be negligible as the effectiveness factor took the value of almost unity. While the external mass transfer resistance had no effect on the reaction due to operating at relatively high agitation speed and high temperature. This investigation confirms that this reaction was only kinetically controlled.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Química Sintética , Lipase/química , Ácidos Ftálicos , Plastificantes/síntese química , Aldeídos/química , Candida/enzimologia , Catálise , Esterificação , Cinética , Ácido Oleico/química , Fenômenos de Química Orgânica
20.
Nat Protoc ; 15(8): 2705-2727, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681154

RESUMO

Invasive fungal infections caused by Candida species are life threatening with high mortality, posing a severe public health threat. New technologies for rapid, genome-wide identification of virulence genes and therapeutic targets are urgently needed. Our recent engineering of a piggyBac (PB) transposon-mediated mutagenesis system in haploid Candida albicans provides a powerful discovery tool, which we anticipate should be adaptable to other haploid Candida species. In this protocol, we use haploid C. albicans as an example to present an improved version of the mutagenesis system and provide a detailed description of the protocol for constructing high-quality mutant libraries. We also describe a method for quantitative PB insertion site sequencing, PBISeq. The PBISeq library preparation procedure exploits tagmentation to quickly and efficiently construct sequencing libraries. Finally, we present a pipeline to analyze PB insertion sites in a de novo assembled genome of our engineered haploid C. albicans strain. The entire protocol takes ~7 d from transposition induction to having a final library ready for sequencing. This protocol is highly efficient and less labor intensive than alternative approaches and significantly accelerates genetic studies of Candida.


Assuntos
Candida/genética , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis/genética , Genoma Fúngico/genética , Haploidia , Mutagênese Insercional/métodos
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