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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4774, 2020 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963224

RESUMO

Detection of microbial nucleic acids in body fluids has become the preferred method for rapid diagnosis of many infectious diseases. However, culture-based diagnostics that are time-consuming remain the gold standard approach in certain cases, such as sepsis. New culture-free methods are urgently needed. Here, we describe Single MOLecule Tethering or SMOLT, an amplification-free and purification-free molecular assay that can detect microorganisms in body fluids with high sensitivity without the need of culturing. The signal of SMOLT is generated by the displacement of micron-size beads tethered by DNA probes that are between 1 and 7 microns long. The molecular extension of thousands of DNA probes is determined with sub-micron precision using a robust and rapid optical approach. We demonstrate that SMOLT can detect nucleic acids directly in blood, urine and sputum at sub-femtomolar concentrations, and microorganisms in blood at 1 CFU mL-1 (colony forming unit per milliliter) threefold faster, with higher multiplexing capacity and with a more straight-forward protocol than amplified methodologies. SMOLT's clinical utility is further demonstrated by developing a multiplex assay for simultaneous detection of sepsis-causing Candida species directly in whole blood.


Assuntos
Líquidos Corporais/química , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Ácidos Nucleicos/isolamento & purificação , Sepse/diagnóstico , Candida/genética , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Candidíase/diagnóstico , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Doenças Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , DNA/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Ácidos Nucleicos/sangue , Ácidos Nucleicos/urina , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , RNA/isolamento & purificação , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Sepse/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/diagnóstico , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Urina
2.
Acta Odontol Latinoam ; 33(2): 104-111, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920612

RESUMO

Candida dubliniensis (Cd) and Candida albicans (Ca) are the most frequently isolated yeasts in HIV+ patients. Some of the enzymes produced by these yeasts are considered virulence factors since they contribute to pathogenicity of Candida spp. The aim of the present study was to compare production of enzymes such as phospholipase (Ph), proteinase (P), and hemolysin (H) by Cd and Ca strains isolated from periodontal HIV-positive patients receiving and not receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Subgingival biofilm samples were obtained using paper points, and a sample of oral mucosa was taken using a swab. Phenotypic and molecular methods were used to isolate 39 strains of Candida, including 25 strains of Cd and 14 strains of Ca, obtained from 33 periodontal pocket samples and 6 oral mucosa samples collected from 15 HIV+ patients (8 receiving and 7 not receiving HAART). Malt egg-yolk agar, albumin agar and blood agar were used to evaluate pH, P and H production respectively. The strains were inoculated in duplicate and incubated at 37 ºC. Colony and halo diameters were measured. A greater proportion of Ca was observed in patients not receiving HAART, and a higher proportion of Cd was observed in those under HAART, Chi2 p< 0.001. Phospholipase production was observed in 92.9% percent of isolated Ca strains but in none of the isolated Cd strains. Proteinase production was high in Ca and Cd strains isolated from patients not receiving HAART. Hemolysin production was observed in all the studied strains, though it was significantly higher (p=0.04) in Ca and Cd strains isolated from patients not receiving HAART. To sum up, the proportion of Candida dubliniensis strains was highest in the subgingival biofilm of patients receiving HAART, and Cd strains were found to express fewer virulence factors than Ca strains.


Assuntos
Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/métodos , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Candida albicans/enzimologia , Candida albicans/isolamento & purificação , Candida/enzimologia , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Candidíase Bucal/microbiologia , Gengiva/microbiologia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Candida/classificação , Candida/genética , Candida albicans/genética , Candidíase Bucal/complicações , Genótipo , Infecções por HIV/microbiologia , Humanos , Mucosa Bucal/microbiologia , Fenótipo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Fatores de Virulência/genética
3.
Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 40(7): 1049-1055, 2020 May 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32701244

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the characteristics of growth and metabolism and the in vivo toxicity of Candida auris under different conditions. METHODS: We observed the growth of Candida auris and Candida albicans under routine culture conditions and in different pH and salt concentrations, and compared their activities of sugar fermentation using microbiochemical reaction tubes. Four-week-old nude mice were randomized into Candida auris infection group (n=5), Candida albicans infection group (n=5) and control group (n=5) for intragastric administration of 0.3 mL suspension the two Candida species (5×109 cfu/mL) or 0.3 mL normal saline. Samples of the liver, kidney, intestine, feces and blood were taken for analysis of the in vivo distribution and toxicity of Candida albicans by fungal culture and histopathological examination. RESULTS: Candida auris exhibited logarithmic growth at 8-24 h after inoculation and showed stable growth after 24 h. Candida auris showed optimal growth within the pH value range of 5-7 with a growth pattern identical to that of Candida albicans. Candida auris grew better than Candida albicans in media containing 5% and 10% NaCl, and could ferment glucose, sucrose, trehalose and sorbitol. Candida auris could be isolated from the feces, blood, liver and kidney of infected nude mice, and the liver had the highest fungal load (5.7 log10 cfu/g). Candida auris could cause pathological changes in the liver and intestine of the mice, but with a lesser severity as compared with Candida albicans. CONCLUSIONS: Candida auris exhibits optimal growth in mildly acidic or neutral conditions with a high salt tolerance, and can potentially penetrate the intestinal barrier into blood and lead to tissue injuries in hosts with immunosuppression.


Assuntos
Candida , Candidíase , Animais , Candida/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Candida albicans/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Candidíase/microbiologia , Meios de Cultura , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Distribuição Aleatória
4.
J Mycol Med ; 30(3): 101009, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620497

RESUMO

Chronic renal disease patients under chronic dialysis (CRDD) have a multifactorial immunological deterioration with an increased risk of Candida infections. Incidence of Candida infections is increasing. Choice of suitable antifungal agents is limited due to the resistance of some species to several antifungals. Aim of the present study was to identify the distribution and antifungal susceptibility patterns of oral isolated Candida species from infected and colonized patients, as well as to investigate the risk factors for oral infection in patients on dialysis. Cross-sectional study, approved by the institutional bioethics committees was performed in CRDD patients. Demographic, clinic data, and oral mucosa samples were obtained. Infection diagnosis was established clinically and confirmed with exfoliative cytology, each sample was plated on CHROMagar Candida and incubated at 36°C for 2 days. Yeast species were identified by carbohydrate assimilation ID 32C AUX system and the apiweb database. For the antifungal susceptibility test, the M44 A-3 method (CLSI) using fluconazole (FCZ), miconazole (MCZ), nystatin (NYS), and voriconazole (VCZ). Study included 119 participants, the main cause of CRD was nephropathy due to DM2 (58%), and three-fourths of the patients were under hemodialysis. Candida prevalence was 56.3% of 67 colonized or infected patients, 88 isolates were obtained. Principal identified species were C. albicans (51.1%), C. glabrata (25%), and C. tropicalis (14.8%). C. glabrata showed a reduced response to FCZ in 50% of isolates and C. albicans had a reduced response in 16% of the isolates. Antifungal agent with the least efficacious response or with the lowest susceptibility in the isolates of these patients was MCZ, followed by VCZ and FCZ, whereas NYS induced the best antifungal response.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Candidíase Bucal/microbiologia , Boca/microbiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/microbiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Candida/classificação , Candidíase Bucal/complicações , Candidíase Bucal/diagnóstico , Candidíase Bucal/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/microbiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/epidemiologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/microbiologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/terapia , Farmacorresistência Fúngica/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Diálise Renal/efeitos adversos , Diálise Renal/estatística & dados numéricos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Mycol Med ; 30(3): 101008, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32651136

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible risk factors for mortality in adult patients with candidemia by investigating the causative agents, underlying conditions and predisposing factors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The data including causative Candida species, predisposing factors, and underlying conditions of candidemia patients between the years 2015-2017 were collected and the impact of these factors on mortality was evaluated. Patients were divided into two groups as died (died patients within 30 days of the onset of candidemia) and survived and risk factors were evaluated for each group. RESULTS: We found 163 adult candidemia cases during the study period. Overall 30-day mortality was 40.5%. Candida parapsilosis was the most frequent causative agent (49.1%). C. parapsilosis candidemia was more common in the survived group compared with the died group (n: 49 (61.3%) vs. n: 31 (38.8%), P=0.888). Mortality rates were significantly higher in patients with dialysis (n: 27 (69.2%) vs. n: 12 (30.8%), P<0.00) and concurrent bacteremia (n: 20 (57.1%) vs. n: 15 (42.9%), P=0.024). Survival rates were significantly higher in patients with follow-up blood cultures (n: 75 (65.8%) vs. n: 39 (34.2%), P=0.013). The most important source of candidemia was catheter (49.7%), and C. parapsilosis was the most common causative agent (58%). The catheter was removed in 96.3% of these patients and the mortality rate was 38.5%. All of the patients received antifungal therapy and there was no significant difference between the effects of antifungals on mortality (n: 65 (39.9%) vs. 98 (60.1%), P=0.607). CONCLUSIONS: Dialysis and concurrent bacteremia are strong predictors of mortality in 30 days within patients with candidemia, whereas follow-up blood cultures have a protective role with lower mortality rates. In our study, the most important source of candidemia was catheter, and C. parapsilosis was the most common causative agent. The catheter was removed in almost all patients and the mortality rate was almost one third among these patients.


Assuntos
Candidemia/etiologia , Candidemia/mortalidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Candida/classificação , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Candida albicans/isolamento & purificação , Candida parapsilosis/isolamento & purificação , Candidemia/tratamento farmacológico , Candidemia/microbiologia , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/microbiologia , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/mortalidade , Infecção Hospitalar/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida , Turquia/epidemiologia
6.
J Mycol Med ; 30(3): 101011, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32693980

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Otomycosis, a superficial fungal infection of the external auditory canal (EAC), is a disease with exceptionally high prevalence. AIM: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of otomycosis, the distribution of causative species and to evaluate epidemiological characteristics of these infections. METHODOLOGY: The patients' data were collected from record book and database of mycological examinations conducted at Public Health Institute Nis, Serbia. In the period from 2014 to 2018 samples of 1287 patients with symptoms and signs of EAC infection were investigated. Standard mycological methods were used for isolation and determination of fungi. RESULTS: High prevalence of otomycosis was determined in examined patients (22.7%). However, the prevalence rates did not differ significantly in the studied period (p=0.931). The majority of patients were diagnosed with only unilateral EAC infection (82.9%). Considering all patients with otomycosis, mold infections caused by the genus Aspergillus (143/48.9%) were more frequent than Candida spp. ear infections (133/45.6%), with Aspergillus niger and Candida аlbicans being predominant causative agents. Mixed Aspergillus and Candida otomycosis was established in 16 (5.5%) patients. Otomycosis was more common in male subjects (26.8%, p=0.003) who also suffered from Aspergillus otomycosis more frequently (17.5%, p<0.001). The prevalence of these infections increases with age (p=0.005), while they do not show seasonal pattern (p>0.05). CONCLUSION: Noted high prevalence of otomycosis, with both yeasts and non-dermatophyte molds acting as infectious agents which require different treatment, implies the necessity for further epidemiological monitoring of this form of superficial mycoses.


Assuntos
Otomicose/epidemiologia , Otomicose/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antifúngicos/classificação , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Aspergilose/tratamento farmacológico , Aspergilose/epidemiologia , Aspergilose/microbiologia , Aspergillus niger/efeitos dos fármacos , Aspergillus niger/isolamento & purificação , Candida/classificação , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans/isolamento & purificação , Candidíase/tratamento farmacológico , Candidíase/epidemiologia , Candidíase/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Técnicas de Tipagem Micológica , Otomicose/tratamento farmacológico , Prevalência , Sérvia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Arch Microbiol ; 202(9): 2543-2550, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32656678

RESUMO

The present study aims to examine the in vitro antifungal susceptibility patterns of Candida species isolated from hospital wastewater, and the efficacy of widely used disinfectants (sodium hypochlorite and benzalkonium chloride) against planktonic and biofilm cells were assessed. Susceptibility testing demonstrated that the two azoles were more effective against C. albicans than non-albicans isolates. When we determine the efficiency of disinfectants against the planktonic cells, benzalkonium chloride did not show any activity in all the studied strains under tested conditions except C. albicans-1. However, sodium hypochlorite showed ≥ 4 log10 killing in viable cells for different contact times. On the other hand, while 0.1% and 1% concentrations of benzalkonium chloride showed fungicidal activity against biofilm cells, sodium hypochlorite at 1% only demonstrated fungicidal activity. Those results showed that surface water is a possible transmission path for fungi in the investigated hospital region and may be a health risk, especially for the immunocompromised host.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
8.
Mikrobiyol Bul ; 54(2): 334-338, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Turco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32723288

RESUMO

In this study, a case of candidemia caused by Candida hellenica as the first report in our country was presented. Fluconazole and liposomal amphotericin B treatment was initiated in a 20-year-old male patient in October 2018 due to the diagnosis of candidemia following esophageal surgery. The patient had a history of multiple esophageal operations. The patient was discharged during the last 24 hours due to the lack of fever, improvement in general condition and lack of growth in blood cultures. Germination tube test of the Candida isolate grown in blood culture was negative and the colony morphology in corn meal tween 80 agar was not defining. It was identified as C.hellenica according to the profile obtained from the ID32C® (bioMérieux, France) method based on carbohydrate assimilation. The target ITS regions of the rRNA genes were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and sequenced using suitable primers for the confirmation of the identification on species level. The DNA sequences obtained were searched by using the "National Center for Biotechnology Information (BLAST)" (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ BLAST/) database and the isolate was identified as C.hellenica with a 99% homology with GenBank sequences. MALDI-TOF (Vitek MS, bioMerieux) could not identify the yeast isolate. The reference microdilution method was performed according to the recommendations of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute in order to test the antifungal susceptibility. The minimal inhibitory concentrations for the isolate, determined after 24-hour incubation were 0.25 µg/ml for amphotericin B, 8 µg/ml for fluconazole, 0.25 µg/ml for voriconazole, and 0.25 µg/ml for itraconazole. As our case had a previous history of gastrointestinal tract surgery it was thought that gastrointestinal tract was the endogenous source of candidemia by leading to mucosal disruption and this mucosal disruption might facilitate the translocation of Candida. The carbohydrate assimilation test ID32C®, was able identify the causative agent of candidaemia at the species level in this case. However, uncommon or previously unrecognized organisms may be misidentified by commercial systems. While the phenotypic definition is sufficient in routine laboratories, it is mandatory to confirm the microorganism species definition by DNA sequence analysis, as done in this case. We have presented a correctly identifed and successfully treated candidemia case. Although the candidemia was not mortal in our patient, the mortality rate of candidemia which is 50%, should be remembered. A total of two C.hellenica infections have been reported in the literature, including one candidaemia and one respiratory tract colonization. Our successfully treated case was presented to draw attention to this rare infectious agent.


Assuntos
Candidemia , Esôfago , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Adulto , Anfotericina B/uso terapêutico , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Candidemia/tratamento farmacológico , Candidemia/etiologia , Esôfago/cirurgia , Fluconazol/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Med Microbiol ; 69(6): 824-829, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32478655

RESUMO

Introduction. Candida auris is an emerging fungal pathogen. The organism can cause invasive infections associated with high mortality, has been implicated in outbreaks in healthcare settings and is frequently resistant to multiple antifungal agents, making it a significant challenge to infection prevention and patient treatment.Aim. To implement a real-time PCR assay for detection of C. auris in patient surveillance samples collected with the Copan Liquid Amies elution swab (ESwab) collection and transport system.Methodology. We optimized a real-time PCR testing procedure based on the sample collection device used in our institution.Results . ESwab transport medium was strongly inhibitory to the real-time PCR. Removing the medium with centrifugation, followed by suspending the pellet in PBS-BSA buffer (concentration 1 %), sufficiently eliminated the inhibition. The manual sample preparation method, freeze-thaw followed by mechanical disruption, allowed the detection of C. auris at the lowest cell concentration.Conclusion . The optimized procedure was used to test 1414 patient surveillance samples. The real-time PCR detected all culture-positive samples with 100 % sensitivity and 100 % specificity.


Assuntos
Axila/microbiologia , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Virilha/microbiologia , Mucosa Bucal/microbiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Candida/genética , Humanos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 396, 2020 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32503442

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Delayed antifungal therapy for candidemia leads to increased mortality. Differentiating bacterial infection from candidemia in systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) patients is complex and difficult. The Delta Neutrophil Index (DNI) has recently been considered a new factor to distinguish infections from non-infections and predict the severity of sepsis. We aimed to assess if the DNI can predict and provide a prognosis for candidemia in SIRS patients. METHODS: A matched case-control study was conducted from July 2016 to June 2017 at Kangdong Sacred Heart Hospital. Among patients with a comorbidity of SIRS, those with candidemia were classified as the case group, whereas those with negative blood culture results were classified as the control group. The matching conditions included age, blood culture date, and SIRS onset location. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to evaluate DNI as a predictive and prognostic factor for candidemia. RESULTS: The 140 included patients were assigned to each group in a 1:1 ratio. The DNI_D1 values measured on the blood culture date were higher in the case group than in the control group (p <  0.001). The results of multivariate analyses confirmed DNI_D1 (odds ratio [ORs] 2.138, 95% confidential interval [CI] 1.421-3.217, p <  0.001) and Candida colonization as predictive factors for candidemia. The cutoff value of DNI for predicting candidemia was 2.75%. The area under the curve for the DNI value was 0.804 (95% CI, 0.719-0.890, p < 0.001), with a sensitivity and specificity of 72.9 and 78.6%, respectively. Analysis of 14-day mortality in patients with candidemia showed significantly higher DNI_D1 and DNI_48 in the non-survivor group than in the survivor group. CONCLUSIONS: DNI was identified as a predictive factor for candidemia in patients with SIRS and a prognostic factor in predicting 14-day mortality in candidemia patients. DNI, along with clinical patient characteristics, was useful in determining the occurrence of candidemia in patients with SIRS.


Assuntos
Candidemia/diagnóstico , Neutrófilos/citologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Área Sob a Curva , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Candidemia/complicações , Candidemia/microbiologia , Candidemia/mortalidade , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Razão de Chances , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Curva ROC , Análise de Sobrevida , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/complicações , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/diagnóstico
12.
J Med Microbiol ; 69(7): 944-948, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32490795

RESUMO

Introduction. Polymicrobial infections including yeasts and bacteria are not rare and patients with polymicrobial bloodstream infection have higher early and overall case fatality rates. The diagnosis of invasive fungal and bacterial infections is mainly based on blood culture.Aim. The aim was to reveal the effect of concomitant bacteraemia on the detection of fungi from blood cultures in the presence of polymicrobial bloodstream infections involving Candida and non-Candida fungi and to show the superiority of blood culture bottles including selective fungal media in such situations.Methodology. Twenty-four polymicrobial bloodstream infection models - involving one fungus and one bacterium - were constituted by using clinical blood culture isolates (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Fusarium solani and Trichosporon asahii). The Plus Aerobic/F (PAF) and Mycosis IC/F (MICF) culture bottles were used with the BACTEC 9240 device. After a bottle signalled positive, direct microscopic examination and subcultures on agar plates were performed.Results. All of fungi that were inoculated alone and in combination were detected by both direct microscopic examination and subcultures on agar plates from MICF bottles, whereas direct microscopic examination only revealed the bacterial agents from PAF bottles including combinations. Furthermore, fungal growth was hidden by bacterial growth on blood agar subcultures from PAF bottles including combinations of F. solani, C. glabrata or T. asahii with bacteria.Conclusion. Blood culture bottles including selective fungal media that can allow selective growth of fungi and earlier detection of some species should be preferred in addition to non-selective blood culture bottles, especially in specific patient populations. Further, the use of selective agar plates such as inhibitory mould agar may contribute to the solution of this problem in clinical laboratories.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia/diagnóstico , Hemocultura/métodos , Bacteriemia/sangue , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Bacterianas/sangue , Infecções Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Candidemia/sangue , Candidemia/diagnóstico , Candidemia/microbiologia , Meios de Cultura , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Técnicas Microbiológicas/métodos , Micoses/sangue , Micoses/diagnóstico
13.
Epidemiol Health ; 42: e2020033, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32512666

RESUMO

Objectives: Oropharyngeal candidiasis is one of the most common opportunistic fungal infections among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. The most common cause is Candida albicans, followed by non-albicans Candida. This study aimed to identify colonized Candida species in HIV-infected patients from Ahvaz, Iran. Additionally, the relationships between immunity-related factors, lifestyle, and colonization of Candida spp. were studied. Methods: Oral swabs were taken from 201 HIV-positive patients referred for consultations at the Behavioral Modification Center. Oral Candida colonization was detected using culture-based and molecular assays. Data were assessed by descriptive statistics and analyzed to investigate the correlation between Candida colonization and various factors, including the CD4+ cell count and viral load. Results: It was found that 43.8% of patients were positive for Candida. The most common species was C. albicans (48.0%), followed by non-albicans Candida isolates, including C. dubliniensis, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. guilliermondii, C. kefyr, and C. krusei. Colonization of Candida spp. in patients was associated with a CD4 count ≤200 cells/mm3 (odds ratio [OR], 4.62; p<0.05), history of shared injections (OR, 6.96; p<0.001), and sex (OR, 3.59; p<0.05). Conclusions: The results of this study showed that C. albicans was the dominant pathogen. The risk factors for colonization of Candida spp. were a CD4 count ≤ 200/mm3 , a history of shared injections, and sex. Other factors with potential relationships include viral load, age, and opportunistic infections, but further investigations are needed.


Assuntos
Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/microbiologia , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Candidíase Bucal/microbiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Candida albicans/isolamento & purificação , Candidíase Bucal/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32491142

RESUMO

Oral problems are common in patients diagnosed with Eating Disorders (ED) and still require better elucidation. We aimed to analyze the prevalence of oral Candida spp in individuals with ED. The sample of the study was comprised of 30 women with purgative habits and 15 without purgative habits. Samples of the oral cavity were collected by sterile cotton swab rubbed on soft tissues and teeth. Yeasts were isolated on Sabouraud dextrose agar. Yeasts were isolated from the oral cavity of 53% of the patients yielding 75 yeast isolates; of these, 43 were identified by conventional mycological methods: C. parapsilosis (n=19), C. glabrata (n=16), Rhodotorula sp (n= 6), C. famata (n=2). The remaining 32 isolates were presumptively identified as C. albicans or C. dubliniensis and required mass spectrometry for the final differentiation: 28 isolates were confirmed as C. albicans and four as C. dubliniensis. Among the control group, only four subjects (26.7%) were found to harbor C. albicans. The four C. dubliniensis isolates were from two patients, one that was only colonized and the other, with severe ED, was diagnosed with an oral candidiasis as demonstrated by the presence of pseudohyphae on the direct mycological exam from different sites. The increased rate of isolation of non-albicans species, such as C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, and C. dubliniensis in the oral cavity from ED patients with nutritional deficiency may suggest that purgative habits of these patients can lead to changes in normal flora and predispose to oral candidiasis.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa/complicações , Bulimia Nervosa/complicações , Candidíase Bucal/complicações , Boca/microbiologia , Adulto , Candida/classificação , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo
16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 438, 2020 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32571233

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Candida sp. osteoarticular infection is rare and most often due to hematogenous seeding during an episode of candidemia in immunocompromised patients. However, the diagnosis can be delayed in patients with subtle symptoms and signs of joint infection without a concurrent episode of candidemia. CASE PRESENTATION: A 75-year-old woman presented with a three-year history of pain and swelling of the left knee. Candida pelliculosa was detected from the intraoperative tissue when the patient had undergone left total knee arthroplasty 32 months ago, but no antifungal treatment was performed. One year after the total knee arthroplasty, C. pelliculosa was repeatedly isolated from the left knee synovial fluid and antifungal treatment comprising amphotericin B deoxycholate and fluconazole was administered. However, joint infection had extended to the adjacent bone and led to progressive joint destruction. The patient underwent surgery for prosthesis removal and received prolonged antifungal treatment with micafungin and fluconazole. CONCLUSIONS: This case shows that C. pelliculosa, an extremely rare non-Candida albicans sp., can cause fungal arthritis and lead to irreversible joint destruction owing to delayed diagnosis and treatment.


Assuntos
Artrite Infecciosa/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Infecciosa/microbiologia , Candida/patogenicidade , Candidíase/microbiologia , Idoso , Anfotericina B/uso terapêutico , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Artroplastia do Joelho/efeitos adversos , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Candidemia/tratamento farmacológico , Candidemia/etiologia , Candidíase/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Desoxicólico/uso terapêutico , Remoção de Dispositivo , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Fluconazol/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Cuidados Intraoperatórios , Prótese Articular , Joelho/microbiologia , Joelho/cirurgia , Micafungina/uso terapêutico , Osteomielite/tratamento farmacológico , Osteomielite/microbiologia
17.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 377, 2020 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32460728

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Candida diddensiae, a yeast found in olive oil, is considered non-pathogenic to humans. Here, we describe the first case of fungemia caused by C. diddensiae in a hospitalized patient with underlying diseases. CASE PRESENTATION: A 62-year-old woman was admitted because of multiple contusions due to repeated falls and generalized weakness. She presented with chronic leukopenia due to systemic lupus erythematosus, and multiple cranial nerve neuropathies due to a recurring chordoma. She was given a lipid emulsion containing total parenteral nutrition (TPN) starting on the day of admission. Broad-spectrum antibiotics had been administered during her last hospital stay and from day 8 of this hospitalization. However, no central venous catheter was used during this hospital stay. Blood cultures obtained on hospital days 17, 23, and 24 yielded the same yeast, which was identified as C. diddensiae via sequence analyses of the internal transcribed spacer region and D1/D2 regions of the 26S ribosomal DNA of the rRNA gene. In vitro susceptibility testing showed that the minimum inhibitory concentration of fluconazole for all isolates was 8 µg/mL. On day 23, TPN was discontinued and fluconazole therapy was started. Blood cultures obtained on day 26 were negative. The fluconazole therapy was replaced with micafungin on day 26 and the patient exhibited improvements. CONCLUSION: The use of lipid TPN may potentially contribute to the occurrence of nosocomial fungemia by C. diddensiae, an unusual Candida species.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Fungemia/microbiologia , Antibacterianos , Antifúngicos/administração & dosagem , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida/genética , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Candida/fisiologia , Cateteres Venosos Centrais , Infecção Hospitalar/tratamento farmacológico , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Feminino , Fluconazol/administração & dosagem , Fungemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hospitais , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nutrição Parenteral Total
18.
J Mycol Med ; 30(3): 100974, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32417179

RESUMO

To determine fungal species distribution of interdigital intertrigo among seafarers in Dakar, Senegal, a cross-sectional study was carried out from May to August 2017 among seafarers clinically diagnosed with interdigital intertrigo. A questionnaire was filled to each patient before sampling the affected folds and transporting to Aristide Le Dantec University Hospital where mycological analyses were realized. Species identification by MALDI-TOF MS was performed in Marseille, France. In total, 169 men (21-66 years) were included. Few of them (3%) had a high level of education and the duration of the mycosis exceed 10 years for 88% of patients. Direct microscopic examination (ME) was positive in 34.3%. Among samples with positive ME, 58.6% had positive culture. An overall incidence of 30.2% was found. Patients with confirmed cases aged between 28 and 66 years. Among them, those between 36-50 years were predominant (52.9%). Those with a high level of education were less representative (2%). For 52.1% of patients, the duration of the mycosis was superior to 10 years. Furthermore, 57% of cases were significantly associated with other types of tinea pedis and/or onychomycosis (P=0.03). Culture was positive in 23.7% isolating 43 strains successfully identified at the species level by MALDI-TOF MS for 31 isolates: 20 Candida and 11 dermatophytes. The rest was identified only at the genus level belonged to Fusarium. In definitive, MALDI-TOF MS could be a useful tool for routine and fast identification of dermatophytes, yeasts and NDFF in clinical mycology laboratories.


Assuntos
Dermatoses do Pé/microbiologia , Intertrigo/microbiologia , Militares , Técnicas de Tipagem Micológica/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz , Adulto , Idoso , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Transversais , Dermatoses do Pé/epidemiologia , Humanos , Intertrigo/epidemiologia , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Onicomicose/epidemiologia , Onicomicose/microbiologia , Senegal/epidemiologia , Tinha dos Pés/epidemiologia , Tinha dos Pés/microbiologia , Viagem , Trichophyton/classificação , Trichophyton/isolamento & purificação , Adulto Jovem
19.
Int J Infect Dis ; 96: 663-670, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32450290

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To study the prevalence of fungal species in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients over a 16 years period. To examine the impact of Candida albicans (C. albicans), Candida dubliniensis (C. dubliniensis) and Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus) on lung function. METHODS: Observational single-center cohort study (2000-2015) including 133 CF patients (ages 6-66 years). Linear mixed models with autoregressive covariance matrix were used. RESULTS: The most common fungus was C. albicans (prevalence 62%) followed by A. fumigatus (22%) and C. dubliniensis (11%). In the initial year of detection, there was no impact of C. albicans, C. dubliniensis or A. fumigatus on lung function. However, one and two years after detection of C. dubliniensis a reduction in percent predicted forced expiratory volume in the first second (ppFEV1) was observed of 3.8% (p = 0.022) and 4.1% (p = 0.017), respectively, compared with CF patients without these findings. Furthermore, patients with positive cultures for any of these fungal species for three consecutive years exhibited a decline in lung function: C. dubliniensis, 7.6% reduction in ppFEV1 (p = 0.001); A. fumigatus, 4.9% (p = 0.007); C. albicans, 2.6% (p = 0.014). The results were adjusted for age, CFTR genotype, chronic and intermittent P. aeruginosa colonization, and numbers of intravenous antibiotic treatments per year. Persistence of C. dubliniensis for three consecutive years was positively correlated to age and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) (both p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Cystic fibrosis patients who were cultured positive for C. dubliniensis, C. albicans or A. fumigatus in sputum exhibited a decline in ppFEV1 over time. The effect was most pronounced for C. dubliniensis.


Assuntos
Candida/isolamento & purificação , Fibrose Cística/microbiologia , Fibrose Cística/fisiopatologia , Pulmão/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Biodiversidade , Candida/classificação , Candida/genética , Candida/fisiologia , Criança , Fibrose Cística/complicações , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/genética , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Testes de Função Respiratória , Estudos Retrospectivos , Escarro/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 287, 2020 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393342

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accurate identification Candida is important for successful therapy and epidemiology study. The aim of research is to study API 20C yeast identification system identification rate by using molecular identification as gold standard and tested the antifungal susceptibility of Candida from patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). METHODS: In total, 3574 yeast isolates were obtained from patients with VVC. API 20C yeast identification, molecular identification and in vitro antifungal susceptibility were performed. RESULTS: C. albicans was the predominant Candida species [2748 isolates, 76.9%] in VVC. The isolates from vaginal samples represented 22 species based on molecular identification. The API 20C system identifies only 11 of the species encountered during the study period. Based on the API 20C system, 3273 (91.78%) isolates were correctly identified to the species level. The correct identification rate of the API 20C system for rare yeast was 15.29% (26/170 isolates). Antifungal susceptibility was tested in a total of 1844 isolates of Candida from patients with VVC. C. albicans was susceptible to most of the tested antifungals. The MICs of azoles for C. glabrata were higher than those for C. albicans. The MICs of echinocandins for C. parapsilosis were higher than those for C. albicans. CONCLUSIONS: The API 20C yeast identification system can be used to reliably identify the most common Candida species while molecular methods are necessary for the identification of closely related, emerging, and rare yeast species. The results from this study suggest that much of the previous studies on the epidemiology of VVC should be re-thought. C. albicans was susceptible to most of the tested antifungals.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Candida/classificação , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Candidíase Vulvovaginal/epidemiologia , Candidíase Vulvovaginal/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Fúngica Múltipla , Adulto , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Candida/genética , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Candidíase Vulvovaginal/tratamento farmacológico , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
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