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1.
Biol Lett ; 18(11): 20220319, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36349581

RESUMO

Investment in current reproduction may negatively influence subsequent fitness. Oxidative stress has been proposed as a potential mediator of this trade-off between current and future reproductive success. However, evidence of reproduction causing oxidative stress is limited, possibly owing to compensatory mechanisms that counteract oxidative insults. Here we test the idea that organisms protect against oxidative challenges through a dynamic interaction between behavioural and physiological adjustments at different stages of reproduction. To test this idea, we manipulated maternal care in the mouthbrooding cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni by allowing females to continue care (brooders) or by preventing care (non-brooders). We found that brooders depleted the pool of antioxidants as brood care progressed; however, we only observed increased oxidative DNA damage at the early stage of care relative to non-brooders, possibly owing to upregulated antioxidant protection during later stages of care. Most brooders adjusted parental investment by consuming some of their offspring during mouthbrooding. Intriguingly, the level of filial cannibalism was positively related to liver antioxidant function. These changes in antioxidant function and filial cannibalism allow parents to manage the cost of reproduction and are important for our understanding of how oxidative stress mediates life-history trade-offs.


Assuntos
Canibalismo , Ciclídeos , Feminino , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Reprodução/fisiologia , Estresse Oxidativo
2.
Cell ; 185(22): 4039-4040, 2022 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36306729

RESUMO

Type VI secretion systems are molecular syringes used by Gram-negative bacteria to kill heterospecific (non-kin) niche competitors. In this issue of Cell, Mashruwala et al. show that colonies of the pathogen Vibrio cholera can also exhibit T6SS-mediated cell killing of kin cells and that this process benefits emerging resistant mutants, thereby increasing genetic diversity.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Secreção Tipo VI , Vibrio cholerae , Vibrio cholerae/genética , Sistemas de Secreção Bacterianos/genética , Canibalismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Sistemas de Secreção Tipo VI/genética
3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 17324, 2022 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36243749

RESUMO

Differences in hatching dates can shape intraspecific interactions through size-mediated priority effects (SMPE), a phenomenon where bigger, early hatched individuals gain advantage over smaller, late hatched ones. However, it remains unclear to what extent and how SMPE are affected by key environmental factors such as warming and predation risk imposed by top predators. We studied effects of warming (low and high temperature) and predation risk (presence and absence of predator cues of perch) on SMPE in life history and physiological traits in the cannibalistic damselfly Ischnura elegans. We induced SMPE in the laboratory by manipulating hatching dates, creating following groups: early and late hatchlings reared in separate containers, and mixed phenology groups where early and late hatchlings shared the same containers. We found strong SMPE for survival and emergence success, with the highest values in early larvae of mixed phenology groups and the lowest values in late larvae of mixed phenology groups. Neither temperature nor predator cues affected SMPE for these two traits. The other life history traits (development rate and mass at emergence) did not show SMPE, but were affected by temperature and predator cues. A tendency for SMPE was found for protein content, in the high temperature treatment. The other physiological traits (phenoloxidase activity and fat content) showed fixed expressions across treatments, indicating decoupling between physiology and life history. The results underline that SMPEs are trait-dependent, and only weakly or not affected by temperature and predation risk.


Assuntos
Odonatos , Comportamento Predatório , Animais , Canibalismo , Larva/fisiologia , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase , Odonatos/fisiologia
4.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 94(3): e20210159, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35976362

RESUMO

Analysis of energy expense during development has achieved special interest through time on account of the crucial role of the consumption of resources required for offspring survival. Spider eggs have a fixed composition as well as some initial energy that is supplied by mothers. These resources are necessary to support the metabolic expense not only through the embryonic period but also during the post-embryonic period, as well as for post emerging activities before spiderlings become self-sustaining. Depletion of these resources would be critical for spiders since it could give rise to prey competition as well as filial cannibalism. Even though spiders represent a megadiverse order, information regarding the metabolic requirements during spiders development is very scarce. In this study, we analyse the changes in protein, lipid and carbohydrate content as well as the variation in lipovitellin reserves and hemocyanin content during Polybetes pythagoricus development. Our results show that lipovitellins and phospholipids represent the major energy source throughout embryonic and post-embryonic development. Lipovitellin apolipoproteins are gradually consumed but are later depleted after dispersion. Phosphatidylethanolamine is mainly consumed during the post-embryonic period, while triacylglycerides are consumed after juveniles' dispersion. Finally, hemocyanin concentration starts to increase in postembryonic stages.


Assuntos
Aranhas , Animais , Canibalismo , Carboidratos , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Hemocianinas/química , Hemocianinas/metabolismo
5.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 12910, 2022 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35902660

RESUMO

The Earth's climate is changing with a trend towards higher mean temperatures and increased temperature fluctuations. Little attention has been paid to the effects of thermal variation on competition within species. Understanding the temperature-dependence of competition is important since it might affect dynamics within and between populations. In a laboratory experiment we investigated the effects of thermal variation on growth and cannibalism in larvae of a damselfly. The temperature treatments included three amplitudes between 20 and 26 °C with an average of 23 °C, and a constant control at 23 °C. Larvae were also raised at five constant temperatures for an estimation of the thermal performance curve, which showed that the thermal optimum for growth was 26.9 °C. Cannibalism was significantly positively correlated with initial body size variance. There was neither a difference among the temperature variation treatments, nor between the constant and the variation treatments in growth and cannibalism. Hence, positive and negative effects of temperature variation within the linear range of a species thermal performance curve might cancel each other out. Since our study mimicked natural temperature conditions, we suggest that the increase in temperature variation predicted by climate models will not necessarily differ from the effects without an increase in variation.


Assuntos
Canibalismo , Clima , Animais , Temperatura Alta , Larva , Temperatura
6.
Ecology ; 103(10): e3785, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35818739

RESUMO

Cannibalism, once viewed as a rare or aberrant behavior, is now recognized to be widespread and to contribute broadly to the self-regulation of many populations. Cannibalism can produce endogenous negative feedback on population growth because it is expressed as a conditional behavior, responding to the deteriorating ecological conditions that flow, directly or indirectly, from increasing densities of conspecifics. Thus, cannibalism emerges as a strongly density-dependent source of mortality. In this synthesis, we review recent research that has revealed a rich diversity of pathways through which rising density elicits increased cannibalism, including both factors that (a) elevate the rate of dangerous encounters between conspecifics and (b) enhance the likelihood that such encounters will lead to successful cannibalistic attacks. These pathways include both features of the autecology of cannibal populations and features of interactions with other species, including food resources and pathogens. Using mathematical models, we explore the consequences of including density-dependent cannibal attack rates on population dynamics. The conditional expression of cannibalism generally enhances stability and population regulation in single-species models but also may increase opportunities for alternative states and prey population escape from control by cannibalistic predators.


Assuntos
Canibalismo , Comportamento Predatório , Animais , Cadeia Alimentar , Modelos Biológicos , Dinâmica Populacional , Comportamento Predatório/fisiologia
7.
Oecologia ; 199(2): 397-405, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35650412

RESUMO

Plant induced defenses may benefit plants by increasing cannibalism among insect herbivores. However, the general efficacy of plant defenses that promote cannibalism remains unclear. Using a generalist Lepidopteran herbivore (Helicoverpa zea), we examined whether plant induced defenses in Solanum lycopersicum increased cannibalism among H. zea and whether defense-mediated cannibalism benefits both the plant and the cannibal. In a separate experiment, we also examined whether defense-mediated cannibalism has effects on H. zea herbivory that are comparable to the effects of pathogenic virus of H. zea (HzSNPV) and whether defense-mediated cannibalism modified pathogen efficacy. We found that both plant defenses and cannibalism decreased herbivory: H. zea consumed less plant material if plants were induced, if dead conspecifics were provided, or both. Cannibalism increased cannibal growth rate: cannibals effectively overcome the costs of plant defenses by eating conspecifics. Inoculating half of H. zea with virus strongly reduced caterpillar survival. Cannibalism occurred sooner among virus-inoculated groups of H. zea, and all caterpillars in virus-inoculated treatments died before the end of the 7-day experiment. Although the rise in mortality caused by HzSNPV occurred more rapidly than the rise in mortality due to defense-mediated cannibalism, overall H. zea mortality at the end of the experiment was equal among virus-inoculated and induced-defense groups. Defense-mediated cannibalism and viral inoculation equally reduced herbivory on S. lycopersicum. Our results provide evidence that defense-mediated increases in cannibalism can be as effective as other forms of classic herbivore population regulation, and that both viral pathogens and defense-induced cannibalism can have significant benefits for plants.


Assuntos
Mariposas , Animais , Canibalismo , Herbivoria , Larva , Mariposas/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta
8.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 534, 2022 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35655093

RESUMO

When sexual conflict selects for reproductive strategies that only benefit one of the sexes, evolutionary arms races may ensue. Female sexual cannibalism is an extreme manifestation of sexual conflict. Here we test two male mating strategies aiming at countering sexual cannibalism in spiders. The "better charged palp" hypothesis predicts male selected use of the paired sexual organ (palp) containing more sperm for their first copulation. The "fast sperm transfer" hypothesis predicts accelerated insemination when cannibalism is high. Our comparative tests on five orbweb spider species with varying levels of female sexual cannibalism and sexual size dimorphism (SSD) reveal that males choose the palp with more sperm for the first copulation with cannibalistic females and that males transfer significantly more sperm if females are cannibalistic or when SSD is biased. By supporting the two hypotheses, these results provide credibility for male mating syndrome. They, however, open new questions, namely, how does a male differentiate sperm quantities between his palps? How does he perform palp choice after assessing his cannibalistic partner? By conducting follow-up experiments on Nephilengys malabarensis, we reveal that it is sperm volume detection, rather than left-right palp dominance, that plays prominently in male palp choice.


Assuntos
Aranhas , Animais , Canibalismo , Copulação , Feminino , Masculino , Reprodução , Comportamento Sexual Animal
9.
Proc Biol Sci ; 289(1976): 20220554, 2022 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35642365

RESUMO

Early life conditions can have a decisive influence on viability later in life. However, the influence of embryo density within a nest or body cavity on subsequent viability has received little attention within an ecological setting. This is surprising given that embryos often compete for limited resources, such as nutrients and oxygen, and this could influence their viability later in life through carry-over and compensatory effects. We show that the density of fertilized eggs within the nests of threespine stickleback males (Gasterosteus aculeatus) influences their viability after hatching. Embryos from larger broods hatch earlier and at a smaller size than those from smaller broods, which reduces their survival until the age of four weeks. This indicates a trade-off between the number and viability of offspring that males can raise to the hatching stage, which could explain the high incidence of partial egg cannibalism in nest-brooding fishes-as a strategy to improve the survival of remaining offspring. These results highlight the importance of considering conditions at the embryonic stage when evaluating the impact of early life conditions on viability and the adaptive value of reproductive decisions.


Assuntos
Smegmamorpha , Animais , Canibalismo , Peixes , Masculino , Reprodução
11.
Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc ; 97(5): 1868-1885, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35748275

RESUMO

Parents that kill and consume their offspring often appear to be acting against their own reproductive interests. Yet parent-offspring cannibalism is common and taxonomically widespread across the animal kingdom. In this review, I provide an overview of our current understanding of parent-offspring cannibalism, which has seen a proliferation in adaptive hypotheses over the past 20 years for why parents consume their own young. I review over four decades of research into this perplexing behaviour, drawing from work conducted on fishes, reptiles, insects, birds, and mammals among other taxa. Many factors have been hypothesised to explain parent-offspring cannibalism in nature, including poor parental energy reserves, small or large brood sizes, low or uncertain parentage, and high brood densities, and additional factors are still being uncovered. Parent-offspring cannibalism does not appear to have a single predominant explanation; rather, the factor, or set of factors, that govern its expression is largely taxon specific. Parents may either consume all offspring under their care (full-brood cannibalism) or consume a fraction of their offspring (partial brood cannibalism). These forms of cannibalism are thought to provide adaptive benefits to cannibals under a range of circumstances, primarily by allowing parents to allocate parental efforts more optimally - energy from eating (some of) one's current offspring can be redirected to other offspring, or to parental growth, survival, and ultimately to other future reproductive endeavours. Thus, parent-offspring cannibalism is a phenotypically plastic trait that responds to changing environmental, social, and physiological conditions. The expression of parent-offspring cannibalism in any given system is intimately linked to the reproductive value of current young relative to parents' expectations for future reproduction, and also to whether parental care is predominantly depreciable or non-depreciable. Furthermore, parent-offspring cannibalism has the potential to generate conflict between the sexes, and I briefly discuss some consequences of this conflict on patterns of mate choice. Finally, there still remain many aspects of this behaviour where our understanding is poor, and I highlight these topics to help guide future research.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Canibalismo , Animais , Aves , Peixes/fisiologia , Mamíferos , Reprodução
12.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0267958, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35584088

RESUMO

Sibling rivalry or brood reduction prevailing within bird nests is effectively avoided in solitary aculeate nests because the larvae of wasps and bees usually develop in each brood cell. However, a solitary wasp species, Isodontia harmandi, allows us to study brood reduction in a communal brood cell, where up to a dozen larvae develop in a group relying on prey provisioned by a female wasp. To demonstrate brood reduction in this species, we collected nests at various developmental brood stages from fields for five years (2010-2015). There was a significant decrease in the brood size between the nests sampled at the egg or hatchling stages and those at later stages when analyzing only data excluding nests that were parasitized, attacked by predators, or containing deteriorated prey. In whole brood-rearing experiments, we also confirmed that brood reduction occurred in 30 of 39 nests during larval stages and in 23 nests after cocoon stage. Larval survival was affected positively by total prey weight and negatively by brood size, though cocoon survival was not affected. A third-quarter (76%) of larval death was identified as sibling cannibalism through observation by time-lapse recording on multi-larvae rearing experiments. Therefore, we conclude that brood reduction routinely occurs as a result of sibling cannibalism in I. harmandi. Additionally, as we could not detect any positive effects of clutch size on the amount of provision, female wasps might overproduce offspring due to the unpredictability of available prey resources. Differences in brood size and reduction among sex categories were undetected, except for parental provisions. Thus, sibling cannibalism may efficiently regulate brood size in communal brood cells under prey shortage.


Assuntos
Vespas , Animais , Abelhas , Canibalismo , Tamanho da Ninhada , Feminino , Humanos , Larva , Irmãos , Vespas/fisiologia
13.
Math Biosci Eng ; 19(6): 6040-6071, 2022 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35603390

RESUMO

We investigate a new cross-diffusive prey-predator system which considers prey refuge and fear effect, where predator cannibalism is also considered. The prey and predator that partially depends on the prey are followed by Holling type-Ⅱ terms. We first establish sufficient conditions for persistence of the system, the global stability of constant steady states are also investigated. Then, we investigate the Hopf bifurcation of ordinary differential system, and Turing instability driven by self-diffusion and cross-diffusion. We have found that the d12 can suppress the formation of Turing instability, while the d21 promotes the appearance of the pattern formation. In addition, we also discuss the existence and nonexistence of nonconstant positive steady state by Leray-Schauder degree theory. Finally, we provide the following discretization reaction-diffusion equations and present some numerical simulations to illustrate analytical results, which show that the establishment of prey refuge can effectively protect the growth of prey.


Assuntos
Canibalismo , Comportamento Predatório , Animais , Simulação por Computador , Ecossistema , Medo , Cadeia Alimentar , Modelos Biológicos , Dinâmica Populacional
14.
Curr Biol ; 32(8): R354-R355, 2022 04 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35472419

RESUMO

In the animal world, numerous mechanisms have been described that allow for extremely fast actions or reactions via the slow storage of energy, typically in elastic structures, which is then nearly instantly released1-4, similar to the operation of a catapult. Many of these mechanisms are employed for prey capture1,2 or for predator avoidance3,4; however, such superfast actions have not yet been reported as a means to dodge sexual cannibalism. Here, we unveil a novel mechanism in a communal orb-weaving spider Philoponella prominens (Uloboridae) (Figure S1), whereby males undertake a split-second catapult action immediately after mating, thereby fleeing their partner (Video S1). We demonstrate that males achieve their superfast action (up to 88.2 cm/s) by extending the tibia-metatarsus joint of their first leg pair via hydraulic pressure in a joint that is known to lack extensor muscles in spiders. This rapid expansion greatly reduces the likelihood of the male being sexually cannibalized.


Assuntos
Canibalismo , Aranhas , Animais , Masculino , Reprodução/fisiologia , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Aranhas/fisiologia
15.
Zool Res ; 43(2): 265-274, 2022 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35238184

RESUMO

Sibling cannibalism is relatively common in nature, but its evolution in birds and certain other vertebrates with extended parental care had been discarded. Here, however, we demonstrate its regular occurrence in two European populations of the Eurasian hoopoe (Upupa epops) and explore possible adaptive and non-adaptive explanations. Results showed that sibling cannibalism was more frequently detected in Spain (51.7%) than in Austria (5.9%). In these two populations, the hoopoes laid similar clutch sizes, resulting in similar fledging production, but hatching failures were more frequent in the northern population. Consequently, having more nestlings condemned to die in the southern population may explain the higher incidence of sibling cannibalism. In accordance with this interpretation, hatching span and failure, but not breeding date, explained the probability of sibling cannibalism in the Spanish hoopoes, while all three variables predicted brood reduction intensity. Furthermore, experimental food supply reduced the probability of sibling cannibalism, but not the intensity of brood reduction. Finally, females allocated fewer resources to the smallest nestlings when they were going to starve, but not necessarily when they were going to be used as food for their siblings. These results suggest that hoopoes produce extra eggs that, in the case of reduced hatching failure and food scarcity, produce nestlings that are used to feed older siblings. These findings provide the first evidence that sibling cannibalism occurs regularly in a bird species, thus expanding our evolutionary understanding of clutch size, hatching asynchrony, parent-offspring conflict, infanticide, and sibling cannibalism in the animal kingdom.


Assuntos
Canibalismo , Irmãos , Animais , Aves , Feminino , Humanos , Mães , Espanha
16.
Res Vet Sci ; 143: 142-147, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35032766

RESUMO

Piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus) is a species with great productive potential, and during its larval phase, it presents intense cannibal activity. The photoperiod and diet are primary feed behaviour and cannibalism modulators to fishes. This experiment aimed to verify the effect of different photoperiods and diets in Piracanjuba larviculture. Larvae were kept under different photoperiods - 12 h light: 12 h dark (12 L: 12D); 24 h light:00 h dark (24hL: 00D) - Larvae were fed with Artemia nauplii and a formulated micro-diet in a factorial scheme for 10 days, and at the end of the experimental period, the influences of the treatments on performance and quantitative expression of mLeptin and mBmall1 were evaluated. In order to quantify the expression of mLeptin and mBmall1, qPCR adopting ß-actin and Elongation Factor 1 as endogenous genes was used. The primers for all the analysed transcripts were obtained through multiple sequences alignments of different fish species. It was observed that the diet and photoperiod influence the performance of Piracanjuba (B. orbignyanus) larvae in the initial phase of larviculture. Feeding with artemia nauplii and the photoperiod of 24 L:00D reduce cannibalism rates in intensive Piracanjuba larviculture. The results on the rate of cannibalism, rate of survival and the relative expression of mLeptin are related to the survival rate of the larvae, and it is inversely proportional to the cannibalism rate. The expression levels of mBmall1 showed a correlation with the final weight of the larvae. Piracanjuba Larvae under a photoperiod of 24 light and fed Artemia nauplii showed more significant levels of mLeptin expression.


Assuntos
Canibalismo , Fotoperíodo , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Peixes , Larva
17.
Insect Sci ; 29(5): 1461-1469, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35032347

RESUMO

Cannibalism is common in spiders. Wolf spider (Lycosidae) females, which exhibit extensive maternal care, have been reported to cannibalize less when they are carrying egg sacs and juveniles. In a laboratory experiment, we demonstrated that cannibalism of early-instar spiderlings (EIS) by a wolf spider (Pardosa pseudoannulata) mother was almost completely inhibited when she was carrying spiderlings. Compared with virgin and mated-females, mother spiders tolerated more and predated fewer spiderlings, including gregarious pulli and newly dispersed spiderlings (NDS). Cannibalism of EIS by females during their reproductive period exhibited a V-shaped pattern, with a gradual decrease from the egg sac-carrying to pulli-carrying (PC) stage, and a recovery from the PC stage to post-reproductive (PR) stage. Notably, there was 0 cannibalism at the PC stage. PC females exhibited no interest in pulli, while PR females were attracted to and predated pulli and NDS as they did their natural prey, Nilaparvata lugens. Interestingly, PC females captured and released NDS in a foraging assay, although attraction was observed from olfactometer measurements. PC mothers possessed a cuticular volatile profile that was closer to that of pulli and NDS than to that of PR females. Moreover, NDS cuticular extract provoked an electrophysiological response in legs of PC females. Therefore, cuticular compound-mediated chemical communication may be involved in inhibiting cannibalism of EIS by spider mothers, and especially in eliminating cannibalism by PC mothers. Future studies will aim to characterize the specific cuticular compounds and chemoreception mechanism in females, which will facilitate our understanding of intraspecific recognition and cannibalism in spiders.


Assuntos
Canibalismo , Aranhas , Animais , Feminino , Naftalenossulfonatos , Extratos Vegetais , Reprodução/fisiologia
18.
J Fish Biol ; 100(2): 378-389, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34786717

RESUMO

The young-of-the-year (YOY) Argentina hake Merluccius hubbsi remained at particular distances off the seabed at pelagic habitat, in a nursery area located in the San Jorge Gulf off south-western Atlantic. Older specimens were daylight distributed near the bottom in the demersal habitat. In this paper the authors show that the pelagic habitat is favourable for YOY hake compared to the surrounding demersal habitat by decreasing the probability of encounter with larger hake protecting the YOY against conspecific predation, and providing a better food supply. From 303 stomachs of pelagic YOY Argentine hake analysed (60-250 mm), 274 (90.43%) contained prey. Pelagic Argentine YOY hake fed almost exclusively on zooplanktonic crustaceans (Euphausia spp. and Themisto gaudichaudii). From 980 demersal specimens (14-82 cm), 572 (58.36%) contained prey, mainly the lobster krill Munida gregaria, followed by other hakes by cannibalism. The intensity of feeding was higher on pelagic layers. The allometric weight-length relationship revealed that the YOY Argentine hake find sufficient food in the pelagic habitat to live and develop, by increasing their relative body thickness. The cannibalism increases from close to zero when the YOY hake are c. 20 m off the seabed, to between 15% (cold season) and 20% (warm season) when they are 10 m off the seabed. These results suggest that the pelagic habitat is a feeding ground for YOY hake, and it is a favourable one compared to the surrounding demersal habitat by protecting the YOY from cannibalism. Pelagic YOY hakes were less abundant and more distant from the bottom during the cold season (14.3 m) than during warm one (11.4 m), probably because of natural mortality and progressive recruitment to demersal habits.


Assuntos
Gadiformes , Perciformes , Animais , Canibalismo , Ecossistema , Comportamento Predatório
19.
Environ Entomol ; 51(1): 44-51, 2022 02 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34788398

RESUMO

Predator diversity in a system can have different results on the biological control of pests. Positive results can arise if natural enemies have niche complementarity, whereas negative effects can occur when one enemy interferes with heterospecifics-e.g., via intraguild predation-resulting in weaker pest suppression. Nevertheless, a coexistence is possible if enemies use the resource differentially leading to resource partitioning, and/or if the intraguild prey has some competitive advantage over the intraguild predator-i.e., is better at exploiting the shared resource or exhibits avoidance behavior. In this study, we conducted a series of field-sampling and semifield experiments to elucidate the spatiotemporal association patterns of the coccinellids Eriopis connexa (Germar) and Cycloneda sanguinea L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and determine how the trophic interactions between them could affect the biological control of aphids. We found that both coccinellid species coexist in sweet-pepper crops over time, and this coexistence could be explained by a temporal niche complementarity. Despite cooccurring spatially, they were segregated at the leaf level, which segregation can be explained by an avoidance behavior to prevent negative trophic interactions, such as cannibalism and intraguild predation. Under semifield conditions, the possible negative trophic interactions did not affect the control of aphids when both species were present, but the density of C. sanguinea was reduced at the end of the experiment. These results suggest that biological control strategies that include both species would be positive for the control of aphids on the basis of these considerations.


Assuntos
Afídeos , Besouros , Animais , Canibalismo , Produtos Agrícolas , Comportamento Predatório
20.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261031, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34941899

RESUMO

Our knowledge of the recolonization of north-west Europe at the end of the Last Glacial Maximum depends to a large extent on finds from Gough's Cave (Somerset, UK). Ultra-high resolution radiocarbon determinations suggest that the cave was occupied seasonally by Magdalenian hunters for perhaps no more than two or three human generations, centred on 12,600 BP (~14,950-14,750 cal BP). They left behind a rich and diverse assemblage of Magdalenian lithic and osseous artefacts, butchered animal bones, and cannibalised human remains. The faunal assemblage from Gough's Cave is one of the most comprehensively studied from any Magdalenian site, yet new and unexpected discoveries continue to be made. Here, we record previously unrecognized flint-knapping tools that were identified during a survey of the Gough's Cave faunal collection at the Natural History Museum (London). We identified bones used as hammers and teeth manipulated as pressure-flakers to manufacture flint tools. Most of the pieces appear to be ad hoc (single-use?) tools, but a horse molar was almost certainly a curated object that was used over an extended period to work many stone tools. This paper explores how these knapping tools were used to support a more nuanced understanding of Magdalenian stone-tool manufacturing processes. Moreover, we provide a standard for identifying minimally-used knapping tools that will help to establish whether retouchers and other organic stone-working tools are as rare in the Magdalenian archaeological record as current studies suggest.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/química , Cavernas , Fósseis , Dente/química , Animais , Arqueologia , Canibalismo , Desenho de Equipamento , Cavalos , Humanos , Reino Unido
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